Science topic

Astronauts - Science topic

Members of spacecraft crew including those who travel in space, and those in training for space flight. (From Webster, 10th ed; Jane's Aerospace Dictionary, 3d ed)
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Publications related to Astronauts (10,000)
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NASA and commercial spaceflight companies will soon be retuning humans to the Moon and then eventually sending them on to Mars. These distant planetary destinations will pose new risks—in particular for the health of the astronaut crews. The bulk of the evidence characterizing human health and performance in spaceflight has come from missions in Lo...
Article
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Spaceflight associated neuro-ocular syndrome (SANS) alters the vision of astronauts during long-duration spaceflights. There is controversy regarding SANS being similar to patients with idiopathic intracranial hypertension (IIH). IIH has been shown to be due to an elevation in venous sinus pressure. The literature suggests an increase in jugular ve...
Article
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Long-term space missions have shown an increased incidence of oral disease in astronauts’ and as a result, are one of the top conditions predicted to impact future missions. Here we set out to evaluate the adaptive response of Streptococcus mutans (etiological agent of dental caries) to simulated microgravity. This organism has been well studied on...
Article
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Antarctic krill (Euphausia superba) are the key species of the ecological system in the Cosmonaut Sea. Long-term habitat alterations in krill due to climate change have been considered in recent decades. However, there is still a lack understanding about krill distribution. The MaxEnt model was used to forecast the suitable distribution area of kri...
Article
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3D bioprinters present techniques that have various applications in the food industry. For this reason, this work aims to compile and review various research works focused on the utilities and advantages of this type of machinery. Where we first mention the basis of these bioprinting techniques and then proceed to highlight the bioethical issues th...
Article
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A team of experts on the effects of the spaceflight environment on the brain and eye (SANS: Spaceflight-Associated Neuro-ocular Syndrome) was convened by NASA and ESA to (1) review spaceflight-associated structural and functional changes of the human brain and eye, and any interactions between the two; and (2) identify critical future research dire...
Article
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Capillaries in human brain and plants are often neither straight nor smooth, but exhibit conical tubes with numerous wall undulations. Under hypergravity, the dynamics of blood/water flow in such roughened conical capillaries remains elusive, which may affect the performance and health of pilots/astronauts and the growth of plants. This study aims...
Article
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Future long-duration human spaceflight will require developments to limit biocontamination of surface habitats. The MATISS (Microbial Aerosol Tethering on Innovative Surfaces in the international Space Station) experiments allowed for exposing surface treatments in the ISS (International Space Station) using a sample-holder developed to this end. T...
Article
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Purpose The paraspinal muscles (PSM) are a key feature potentially related to low back pain (LBP), and their structure and composition can be quantified using MRI. Most commonly, quantifying PSM measures across individual muscles and individual spinal levels renders numerous separate metrics that are analyzed in isolation. However, comprehensive mu...
Article
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Throughout the history of Earth observations from space, there have been several different types of cameras that astronauts have used to take photographs of the Earth. Color-infrared cameras were also used on board the International Space Station (ISS in further text). Preceding the digital era of photography, cameras on board the ISS used camera f...
Article
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Widespread generation and analysis of omics data have revolutionized molecular medicine on Earth, yet its power to yield new mechanistic insights and improve occupational health during spaceflight is still to be fully realized in humans. Nevertheless, rapid technological advancements and ever-regular spaceflight programs mean that longitudinal, sta...
Article
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The brain is essential to human adaptation to any environment including space. We examined astronauts’ brain function through their electrical EEG brain potential responses related to their decision of executing a docking task in the same virtual scenario in Weightlessness and on Earth before and after the space stay of 6 months duration. Astronaut...
Conference Paper
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Cumulative risk assessment approaches used in environmental and occupational health may improve health assessments for astronaut crews on long-term missions.
Article
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Plain Language Summary Since the discovery of pits on the Moon by JAXA's SELENE spacecraft in 2009, there has been interest in whether they provide access to caves that could be explored by rovers and astronauts. These features are likely created by the ceiling of a lava tube (or more generally, cave) collapsing. Using data from the Diviner instrum...
Article
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Astronauts who spend prolonged time in microgravity on the International Space Station can experience a significant reduction in physical fitness. Jumping exercises represent a potential solution to this problem as the European Space Agency has demonstrated that the deconditioning effect of long-term bed-rest can be countered with around four minut...
Chapter
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The Soviet Union (Russia) was the first country to launch humans into space with the launch of Yuri Gagarin on April 12, 1961. This chapter reviews of human spaceflight associated mishaps and incidents launched by Russia (former Soviet Union) and their human health threats involved with spaceflight. The mainstay Russian launch system is the Soyuz s...
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The hygiene area is one of the most important facilities in a space station. If its environmental lighting is appropriately designed, it can significantly reduce the psychological pressure on astronauts. This study investigates the effect of correlated colour temperature (CCT) on heart rate, galvanic skin response, emotion and satisfaction in the h...
Poster
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A fresh food attachment concept for the International Space Station as the orbital facility prepares to welcome private astronaut activity
Article
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The article presents research on ergonomics, biophysical comfort and safety of protective clothing. The resistance of the structural, thermal and mechanical properties of five fabrics (CBXS400, GG200T, Twaron CT736, Dyneema HB26 and T1790C), differing in geometry and raw material composition used in space suits, to dangerous ionizing radiation (β an...
Article
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Extended exposure to radiation, microgravity, and isolation during space exploration has significant physiological, structural, and psychosocial effects on astronauts, and particularly their central nervous system. To date, the use of brain monitoring techniques adopted on Earth in pre/post-spaceflight experimental protocols has proven to be valuab...
Article
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The intrinsic cardiovascular regulatory system (β, 0.00013–0.02 Hz) did not adapt to microgravity after a 6-month spaceflight. The infraslow oscillation (ISO, 0.01–0.10 Hz) coordinating brain dynamics via thalamic astrocytes plays a key role in the adaptation to novel environments. We investigate the adaptive process of a healthy astronaut during a...
Conference Paper
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The return to the Moon through the Artemis missions will bring the return of planetary extravehicular activity (EVA). Planetary EVAs will be more complex than the current microgravity EVAs on the International Space Station because of the required ambulation to and from the mission locations. Spacesuits are known to be cumbersome because of poor fi...
Article
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Objective: Body mass (BM) loss and body composition (BC) changes threaten astronauts’ health and mission success. However, the energetic contribution of the exercise countermeasure to these changes has never been investigated during long-term missions. We studied energy balance and BC in astronauts during 6-month missions onboard the International...
Article
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Background: Sensorimotor training using visual perturbations has been widely applied to astronauts for rapidly handling and adapting to unpredictable environments. However, these visual perturbations might not be strong enough to trigger long-term effects. Therefore, this study aimed to develop a novel sensorimotor training paradigm using pseudo-ra...
Article
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Since the financial crisis of 2008, a “new democratic socialism” (DSA, Podemos, Syriza, Jacobin) has been gaining influence, advancing the idea of a gradual socialist transition away from the existing State structures. The purpose of this article is to submit to criticism (starting from Marx’s Capital) the theoretical and political assumptions of t...
Conference Paper
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Real-time measurement of particles suspended in the spacecraft cabin is of great importance to verify that maximum allowable dust concentrations are not exceeded. This is primarily to protect astronaut health, but also has implications for dust-sensitive equipment. Recently, there is growing interest in low-cost commercial off-the-shelf (COTS) part...
Article
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Astronauts experience dramatic loss of muscle mass, decreased strength and insulin resistance, despite performing daily intense physical exercise that would lead to muscle growth on Earth. Partially mimicking spaceflight, prolonged bed rest causes muscle atrophy, loss of force and glucose intolerance. To unravel the underlying mechanisms, we employ...
Conference Paper
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To create a safer operational environment during EVAs, we propose OCTaVIA (Operations Control, Translation, and Visual Interface Assistance), a modular and robust system that incorporates industry-standard technologies used in cloud architectures. The main features include distributed data storage, processing and redundancy, a communications infras...
Chapter
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In a prehistoric veldt, a tribe of hominins is driven away from its water hole by a rival tribe. The next day, they find an alien monolith has appeared in their midst; it helps them discover how to use a bone as a weapon and, after their first hunt, return to drive their rivals away with the newly discovered tool. Millions of years later, Dr. Heywo...
Chapter
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In a prehistoric veldt, a tribe of hominins is driven away from its water hole by a rival tribe. The next day, they find an alien monolith has appeared in their midst; it helps them discover how to use a bone as a weapon and, after their first hunt, return to drive their rivals away with the newly discovered tool. Millions of years later, Dr. Heywo...
Article
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Outer space is an extremely hostile environment for human life, with ionizing radiation from galactic cosmic rays and microgravity posing the most significant hazards to the health of astronauts. Spaceflight has also been shown to have an impact on established cancer hallmarks, possibly increasing carcinogenic risk. Terrestrially, women have a high...
Article
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As humanity prepares for deep space exploration, understanding the impact of spaceflight on bodily physiology is critical. While the effects of non-terrestrial gravity on the body are well established, little is known about its impact on human behaviour and cognition. Astronauts often describe dramatic alterations in sensorimotor functioning, inclu...
Article
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In an attempt to counteract microgravity-induced deconditioning during spaceflight, exercise has been performed in various forms on the International Space Station (ISS). Despite significant consumption of time and resources by daily exercise, including around one third of astronauts’ energy expenditure, deconditioning—to variable extents—are obser...
Article
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The aims of our study were to evaluate the associations between calving difficulty and lameness and their effects on milk yield and quality traits. A total of 4723 calving cases were evaluated for calving difficulty using a 4-point scoring system. Lameness was diagnosed with a visual locomotion score system from 1 to 30 days after calving in 333 fr...
Preprint
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Given Hawking's result that a black hole radiates with a black body spectrum, a falling astronaut, modeled as a point particle, will observe that the black hole evaporates before she reaches the event horizon. As this occurs on a compact set that excludes the event horizon and coordinate singularity, a coordinate transformation will not change the...
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Space agencies are planning to send humans back to the Lunar surface, in preparation for crewed exploration of Mars. However, the effect of hypogravity on human skeletal muscle is largely unknown. A recently established rodent partial weight-bearing model has been employed to mimic various levels of hypogravity loading and may provide valuable insi...
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The significance of the human-microbe relationship is amplified in long duration space exploration (LDSE), where isolated and confined microbial environments degenerate space habitat integrity, compromise planetary protection goals, and have largely unknown and potentially deleterious effects on astronaut health. While environmental surveillance is...
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The effect of cardiovascular dysfunction including orthostatic intolerance and disability on physical exercise is one of the health problems induced by long-term spaceflight astronauts face. As an important part of vascular structure, the vascular endothelium, uniquely sensitive to mechanical force, plays a pivotal role in coordinating vascular fun...
Article
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Solar energetic particles (SEPs) can cause severe damage to astronauts and their equipment, and can disrupt communications on Earth. A lack of thorough understanding the eruption processes of solar activities and the subsequent acceleration and transport processes of energetic particles makes it difficult to forecast the occurrence of an SEP event...
Article
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In Space, cosmic radiation is a strong, ubiquitous form of energy with constant flux, and the ability to harness it could greatly enhance the energy-autonomy of expeditions across the solar system. At the same time, radiation is the greatest permanent health risk for humans venturing into deep space. To protect astronauts beyond Earth's magnetosphe...
Article
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Exposure to ionizing radiation is considered by NASA to be a major health hazard for deep space exploration missions. Ionizing radiation sensitivity is modulated by both genomic and environmental factors. Understanding their contributions is crucial for designing experiments in model organisms, evaluating the risk of deep space (i.e. high-linear en...
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Spaceflight presents a series of physiological and pathological challenges to astronauts resulting from ionizing radiation, microgravity, isolation, and other spaceflight hazards. These risks cause a series of aging-related diseases associated with increased oxidative stress and mitochondria dysfunction. The skin contains many autofluorescent subst...
Article
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Motor adaptations to the microgravity environment during spaceflight allow astronauts to perform adequately in this unique environment. Upon return to Earth, this adaptation is no longer appropriate and can be disruptive for mission critical tasks. Here, we measured if metrics derived from MRI scans collected from astronauts can predict motor perfo...
Article
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Human expansion into the solar system is currently at the forefront of space research. For our astronauts to survive, they will need to be fed a healthy and nutritious diet on a consistent basis. Right now, our current method of feeding astronauts consists of resupplied prepackaged food from Earth, which is unsustainable for long-term missions. Usi...
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Bone loss induced by microgravity exposure seriously endangers the astronauts’ health, but its countermeasures still have certain limitations. The study aims to find potential protective drugs for the prevention of the microgravity-induced bone loss. Here, we utilized the network pharmacology approach to discover a natural compound calycosin by con...
Article
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Although the risk of trauma in space is low, unpredictable events can occur that may require surgical treatment. Hemorrhage can be a life-threatening condition while traveling to another planet and after landing on it. These exploration missions call for a different approach than rapid return to Earth, which is the policy currently adopted on the I...
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In this brief report, we present preliminary findings from a study of the use of electromyostimulation (EMS) in neurological patients. Assuming the approach to be sufficiently effective, we decided to investigate the motor system of elderly neurological patients before and after a course of Russian currents EMS, which were developed for Soviet athl...
Article
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Astronauts have flown to space for decades, but the effects of spaceflight on human health have not been fully clarified yet. Several pathologies have only been detected after it has become customary for astronauts to spend months rather than days in space and with the advance of inflight monitoring. Examples include the neuro-ocular spaceflight as...
Article
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Otoliths are the primary gravity sensors of the vestibular system and are responsible for the ocular counter-roll (OCR). This compensatory eye torsion ensures gaze stabilization and is sensitive to a head roll with respect to gravity and the Gravito-Inertial Acceleration vector during, e.g., centrifugation. To measure the effect of prolonged spacef...
Article
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Determining the extent of bone recovery after prolonged spaceflight is important for understanding risks to astronaut long-term skeletal health. We examined bone strength, density, and microarchitecture in seventeen astronauts (14 males; mean 47 years) using high-resolution peripheral quantitative computed tomography (HR-pQCT; 61 μm). We imaged the...
Article
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During spaceflight, astronauts face a unique set of stressors, including microgravity, isolation, and confinement, as well as environmental and operational hazards. These factors can negatively impact sleep, alertness, and neurobehavioral performance, all of which are critical to mission success. In this paper, we predict neurobehavioral performanc...
Article
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Background The International Space Station (ISS) is a unique and complex built environment with the ISS surface microbiome originating from crew and cargo or from life support recirculation in an almost entirely closed system. The Microbial Tracking 1 (MT-1) project was the first ISS environmental surface study to report on the metagenome profiles...
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Geopolymer is a synthetic amorphous aluminosilicate material that can be used as an inorganic binder to replace ordinary Portland cement. Geopolymer is produced by mixing aluminosilicate source materials with alkali activators and curing the mixture either at ambient or low temperatures. Geopolymer research for lunar-based construction is actively...
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Quantum theory of the universe and its evolution with light. The particle is localized in space. The wave propagates in space. Now let's see: The wave is generalized in space. If wave means shrinking of the object, we deduce that the wave property of light indicates quantum. At the same time, if a particle is formed by the overlapping of the wave,...
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During spaceflight, astronauts are exposed to various physiological and psychological stressors that have been associated with adverse health effects. Therefore, there is an unmet need to develop novel diagnostic tools to predict early alterations in astronauts’ health. Small nucleolar RNA (snoRNA) is a type of short non-coding RNA (60–300 nucleoti...
Conference Paper
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The paper covers the design / analysis, test and assessment of Flight Assisted Controls developed in the ESA funded activity "Human-In-the-Loop Flight Vehicle Engineering for Exploration Missions" (in short HITL) under industrial coordination of Thales Alenia Space Italia (TAS-I), that started in 2020 and concluded with testing ([1]) at German Aero...
Article
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There exists a celestial object that lies right beside our planet, and yet it remains a mystery as to this day of its origins and its ability to support life. The object is called the moon, we can see it every night coming out, and yet it remains a mystery of whether one day humanity may be able to colonize the celestial object. The moon is a celes...
Article
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Psychological stress affects health. Radiation workers in the medical field or astronauts living in space have possible risks of exposure to radiation, and psychological stress is considered to be easily induced in them due to activities performed in small areas or stress conditions. The impact of psychological stress on the effects of radiation wa...
Preprint
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In some situations, no professional human contact can be available. Accordingly, one remains alone with one's problems and fears. A manned Mars flight is certainly such a situation. A voice assistant that shows empathy and assists the astronauts could be a solution. In the SPACE THEA project, a prototype with such capabilities was developed using G...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to explore the effect an individual's exercise training type will have on muscle fatigability during repetitive contractions induced by Neuromuscular Electrical Stimulation (NMES). Thirty-four subjects comprising of competitive athletes and controls were recruited into three cohorts: Endurance (runners/cyclists) n = 13...