Science topic

Ascomycota - Science topic

A phylum of fungi which have cross-walls or septa in the mycelium. The perfect state is characterized by the formation of a saclike cell (ascus) containing ascospores. Most pathogenic fungi with a known perfect state belong to this phylum.
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Article
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Background The genus Tetracladium De Wild. (Ascomycota) has been traditionally regarded as a group of Ingoldian fungi or aquatic hyphomycetes—a polyphyletic group of phylogenetically diverse fungi which grow on decaying leaves and plant litter in streams. Recent sequencing evidence has shown that Tetracladium spp. may also exist as root endophytes...
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Here, a novel mycovirus, tentatively designated as “Botryosphaeria dothidea fusarivirus 2” (BdFV2), was discovered in Botryosphaeria dothidea strain JZ-3. The complete genome sequence is 6,271 nucleotides (nt) in length, excluding the poly(A) tail, and contains two putative open reading frames (ORFs). The larger ORF1 encodes a polypeptide of 1,552...
Article
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A novel positive-sense single-stranded RNA mycovirus, designated as "Magnaporthe oryzae botourmiavirus 10" (MoBV10), was identified in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae isolate HF04. MoBV10 has a single genomic RNA segment consisting of 2,448 nucleotides, which contains a single open reading frame encoding an RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. Ge...
Article
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Purpose: Monitoring of phytopathology condition of plane trees (Platanus L.) in the cities of Kyiv and Zhytomyr. Methods: The samples for the investigation have been selected in the course of route investigation of plants in parks, public gardens, and street plantations of plane trees in Kyiv and Zhytomyr. Phytopathology analysis and morphometry of...
Article
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Chickpea (Cicer arietinum L.) is an important grain legume at the global level. Among different biotic stresses, diseases are the most important factor limiting its production, causing yield losses up to 100% in severe condition. The major dis- eases that adversely affect yield of chickpea include Fusarium wilt, Ascochyta blight and Botrytis gr...
Article
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a new species in Megasporaceae, Aspiciliella pakistanica is described and illustrated from Pakistan. a comparative morpho-anatomical study and ITS-based molecular analysis confirmed its position within the recently resurrected genus Aspiciliella. The taxon is characterized by whitish-grey thalli having large and thick areoles without pale lines on...
Article
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This paper summarises research on interactions between beetles and fleshy macromycetes in the Pieniny National Park (PNP), S Poland. The field studies were carried out in 2016-2018. Altogether, 197 samples from 103 species of fungi (98 species of Basidiomycota and 5 of Ascomycota) were collected. Data are reported on fungi from various systematic a...
Article
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The present study aimed to determine the effect of the entomopathogenic fungus Beauveria bassiana on some histological changes in the mid gut (mesenteron) of Nezara viridula adults after 24, 48, and 72 hours of treatment. Also, its effect on some physiological parameters as α-amylase, lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) activities. The contents of some min...
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Abstract Background and aims: Vegetable production under the plastic tunnel is a steadily growing sector worldwide, but this type of cultivation threatens environmental sustainability by degrading soil through continuous cropping conditions (CMC). This study aimed to assess the role of crop rotation (CR) with different winter leafy vegetables in am...
Article
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We used molecular data to address species delimitation in a species complex of the parmelioid genus Canoparmelia and compare the pharmacological properties of the two clades identified. We used HPLC_DAD_MS chromatography to identify and quantify the secondary substances and used a concatenated data set of three ribosomal markers to infer phylogenet...
Article
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The cultivation of soilless tomato in greenhouses has increased considerably, but little is known about the assembly of the root microbiome compared to plants grown in soil. To obtain such information, we constructed an assay in which we traced the bacterial and fungal communities by amplicon-based metagenomics during the cultivation chain from nur...
Article
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An incubation study was carried out in laboratories of Department of Plant Pathology, S.K.N. College of Agriculture, Jobner (Rajasthan) to study the effect of physical parameters on the growth and sclerotia formation of S. sclerotiorum causing stem rot of coriander during rabi season 2015-16. Results revealed that the potato dextrose agar medium wa...
Article
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Type IA topoisomerases have highly conserved catalytic N-terminal domains for the cleaving and rejoining of a single DNA/RNA strand that have been extensively characterized. In contrast, the C-terminal region has been less covered. Two major types of small tandem C-terminal domains, Topo_C_ZnRpt (containing C4 zinc finger) and Topo_C_Rpt (without c...
Article
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Background Huperzine A (Hup A) has attracted considerable attention as an effective therapeutic candidate drug used to treat Alzheimer’s disease. Whereas, the production of Hup A from wild plants faced a major challenge, which is the wild Huperzia Serrata harbor a low Hup A content, has a long-life cycle, and has a small yield. At present, several...
Article
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Increased nitrogen deposition (N factor) and changes in precipitation patterns (W factor) can greatly impact soil microbial communities in tropical/subtropical forests. Although knowledge about the effects of a single factor on soil microbial communities is growing rapidly, little is understood about the interactive effects of these two environment...
Preprint
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Data on a new for Ukraine coprophilous fungus-Selinia pulchra (G. Winter) Sacc. (Bionectriaceae) are reported. It was collected in the northeast of the country (Sumy Region). Based on the collected specimen, distinctive morphological characters of the species are provided in detail. The description is illustrated by micrographs obtained using light...
Article
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Forest vegetation is key for buffering microclimatic factors and regulating atmospheric deposition. Epiphytic lichens are sensitive to these factors and can indicate the overall health status of the ecosystem. Specifically, the analysis of morpho-anatomical variations allows us to understand the degree of tolerance or sensitivity of these organisms...
Article
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A total of 14 Festuca sinensis seed lots were collected from different geographical locations on the Qinghai-Tibet Plateau to study the seed microbiota and determine the abiotic (temperature, precipitation, and elevation) and biotic ( Epichloë sinensis infection rate) factors likely to shape the seed microbiome. The 14 seed lots had different bacte...
Article
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Because studies on all fecal organisms (bacteria, fungi, and viruses) in sepsis are rare and bacteriophages during sepsis might have adapted against gut bacteria with possible pathogenicity, cecal ligation and puncture (CLP; a sepsis mouse model) was evaluated. In fecal bacteriome, sepsis increased Bacteroides and Proteobacteria but decreased Firmi...
Article
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Microorganisms associated with mosquitoes have fundamental roles, not only in their nutrition, but also in physiological and immunological processes, and in their adaptation to the environment as well. Studies on mosquito hologenomes have increased significantly during the last years, achieving important advances in the characterization of the “cor...
Article
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The triazole pesticide is an organic nitrogen-containing heterocyclic compound with a 1,2,3-Triazole ring. In order to develop a potential glucosamine-6-phosphate synthase (GlmS) inhibitor bactericide, 18 triazole-derivative compounds were synthesized efficiently. In addition, these compounds have not been reported in the literature. The structure...
Article
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Soil microorganisms play a vital role in biogeochemical processes and nutrient turnover in agricultural ecosystems. However, the information on how the structure and co-occurrence patterns of microbial communities response to the change of planting methods is still limited. In this study, a total of 34 soil samples were collected from 17 different...
Article
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Successive planting and monoculture, as common forest management methods, are widely used globally, especially in Chinese fir plantations in the subtropical areas of southern China. Although soil fertility depletion and productivity decline caused by successive planting have been widely reported, the underlying mechanism is still ambiguous. In this...
Article
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The plant-specific SHORT INTERNODES/STYLISH (SHI/STY) proteins belong to a family of transcription factors that are involved in the formation and development of early lateral roots. However, the molecular evolution of this family is rarely reported. Here, a total of 195 SHI/STY genes were identified in 21 terrestrial plants, and the Brassica specie...
Article
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Bursaphelenchus xylophilus , a pathogenic pine wood nematode (PWN), is responsible for pine wilt disease (PWD), which has caused significant economic and ecological damage worldwide, particularly in East Asia. Multiple biological factors, such as the beetle vector Monochamus , symbiotic bacteria and associated fungi, are involved in the disease inf...
Article
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Brazil is one of the world leaders in the agribusiness sector tending to directly influence a growing dependence on imported inputs, specifically synthetic agrochemicals. At the state level, in 2013, Tocantins stood out in first place in the ranking of agrochemical consumers, however, these products can cause several problems, such as poisoning to...
Article
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Purpose The present work aimed to fill some knowledge gaps on the effects on non-target natural soil microbial communities of the sulfamethoxazole (SMX) antibiotic potentially found in cattle manure digestate. Both soil prokaryotic and fungal community under different conditions were analyzed using molecular ecology methods. Methods A previous mic...
Article
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As a result of an ongoing survey of microfungi associated with garden and ornamental plants in Qijing, Yunnan, China, several saprobic fungal taxa were isolated from Magnolia grandiflora. Both morphological and combined SSU, LSU, ITS, tef1, and rpb2 locus phylogenetic analyses (maximum-likelihood and Bayesian analyses) were carried out to identify...
Article
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We studied the fungal DNA present in a lake sediment core obtained from Trinity Peninsula, Hope Bay, north-eastern Antarctic Peninsula, using metabarcoding through high-throughput sequencing (HTS). Sequences obtained were assigned to 146 amplicon sequence variants (ASVs) primarily representing unknown fungi, followed by the phyla Ascomycota, Rozell...
Article
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The study tested the water purification mechanism of the combination of microorganisms and purification materials via characteristic, enzymatic, and metagenomics methods. At 48 h, the removal rates of total nitrogen, total phosphorous, and Mn chemical oxygen demand in the combination group were 46.91, 50.93, and 65.08%, respectively. The alkaline p...
Article
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The ability to catalyze diverse reactions with relevance for chemical and pharmaceutical research and industry has led to an increasing interest in fungal enzymes. There is still an enormous potential considering the sheer amount of new enzymes from the huge diversity of fungi. Most of these fungal enzymes have not been characterized yet due to the...
Article
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Cupin_1 domain-containing proteins (CDPs) are ubiquitously present in higher plants, which are known to play essential roles in various biological processes. In this study, we carried out genome-wide characterization and systematic investigation of the CDP genes in Brassica napus. A total of 96 BnCDPs, including 71 germin-like proteins (GLPs; prote...
Article
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Wheat (Triticum aestivum L.) and its products constitute a major part of the daily human and animal diet. However, Fusarium head blight caused by Fusarium graminearum is one of the most devastating fungal diseases in wheat. In this study, a fungal endophyte strain 38L1 was newly isolated from leaf of maize (Zea mays L.) and identified as Epicoccum...
Article
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Soil fungi play an integral and essential role in maintaining soil ecosystem functions. The understanding of altitude variations and their drivers of soil fungal community composition and diversity remains relatively unclear. Mountains provide an open, natural platform for studying how the soil fungal community responds to climatic variability at a...
Article
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Sclerotinia stem rot (SSR) caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum (S. sclerotiorum) is the main disease threat of oilseed rape (Brassica napus), resulting in huge economic losses every year. SSR resistance manifests as quantitative disease resistance (QDR), and no gene with complete SSR resistance has been cloned or reported so far. Transcriptome analy...
Article
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The diversity of orchid mycorrhizal fungi (OMF) and other beneficial root-associated fungi in temperate forests has scarcely been examined. This study aimed to analyze the diversity of mycorrhizal and rhizosphere-associated fungal communities in the terrestrial orchids Gavilea lutea and Chloraea collicensis growing in high-orchid-population-density...
Article
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Peppers (Capsicum sp.) which belong to the Solanaceae family constitute an important segment in the vegetable sector, both in agriculture and in the food industry. This paper aims to investigate in vitro antifungal activity of hexane extracts from Capsicum chinense fruit (unripe bode pepper – ‘HE-UB’ – and ripe little beak pepper – ‘HE-RB’) against...
Article
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Fungi are often overlooked in microbiome research and, as a result, little is known about the mammalian mycobiome. Although frequently detected in vertebrate guts and known to contribute to digestion in some herbivores, whether these eukaryotes are a persistent part of the mammalian gut microbiome remains contentious. To address this question, we s...
Article
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Rotational strip intercropping (RSI) of cereals and legumes has been developed and widely carried out to alleviate continuous cropping obstacles, to control erosion and to improve field use efficiency. In this study, a four-year fixed-field experiment was carried out in northeast China with three treatments: continuous cropping of maize, continuous...
Article
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Non-specific lipid transfer proteins (nsLTPs) are small cysteine-rich basic proteins which play essential roles in plant growth, development and abiotic/biotic stress response. However, there is limited information about the nsLTP gene (BnLTP) family in rapeseed (Brassica napus). In this study, 283 BnLTP genes were identified in rapeseed, which wer...
Article
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Microorganisms are widely used to obtain biostimulants that can facilitate the assimilation of nutrients, ensuring high crop yield and quality. A particular category of biostimulants are protein hydrolyzates (PH), obtained from microbial cultures grown on a nutrient medium. In the present study, Paecilomyces lilacinus 112, an endophytic fungus isol...
Article
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Fungi are an important component of microbial communities that serve a variety of important roles in nutrient cycling and are essential for plant nutrient uptake in forest soils. Distance decay of similarity (DDS) is one of the few ubiquitous phenomena in community ecology. However, the contribution of specialist and generalist fungal species in sh...
Article
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The unintentional movement of agronomic pests and pathogens is steadily increasing due to the intensification of global trade. Being able to identify accurately and rapidly early stages of an invasion is critical for developing successful eradication or management strategies. For most invasive organisms, molecular diagnostics is today the method of...
Article
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Plastic has become established over the world as an essential basic need for our daily life. Current global plastic production exceeds 300 million tons annually. Plastics have many characteristics such as low production costs, inertness, relatively low weight, and durability. The primary disadvantage of plastics is their extremely slow natural degr...
Article
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Tomatoes are an essential part of the human diet worldwide, and their production has been restricted by fungal disease. One of the most common fungal diseases of Lycopersicon esculentum L. is Sclerotinia stem rot, caused by Sclerotinia sclerotiorum. In this work, overexpression of the chimeric chit42 gene from Trichoderma atroviride with Serratia m...
Article
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The pine forest of Kragilan village, Magelang, is a forested area on the west slopes of Mount Merbabu with a humid environmental condition. The conditions make this region suitable for the growth of a macrofungal community. The macrofungal inventory in Merbabu Mountain is very limited and this is inversely proportional to the increasing deforestati...
Article
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Background Long-term cultivation of ginseng can cause severe crop disorders and soil sickness. Crop rotation is an effective agricultural management measure to improve soil sustainability and decrease pathogens. However, the suitable ginseng rotation system and the changes in soil microbial community and soil characteristics under the rotation syst...
Article
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Phyllospheric microbial composition of tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) is contingent upon certain factors, such as the growth stage of the plant, leaf position, and cultivar and its geographical location, which influence, either directly or indirectly, the growth, overall health, and production of the tobacco plant. To better understand the spatiote...
Article
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The Philippines is known for its ecological diversity due to its climatic condition and geographical location. However, despite having a wide range of organisms, the macrofungal species in the country remain poorly documented. Recent mycological research in the tropics states that more species have yet to be discovered in the Philippines. Despite t...
Article
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The present systematic research on cultural, morphological, and pathogenic variability was carried out on eighty isolates of Sclerotinia sclerotiorum collected from major common bean production belts of North Kashmir. The isolates were found to vary in both cultural and morphological characteristics such as colony color and type, colony diameter, n...
Article
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Urban wetlands are undergoing intensive conversion from natural wetlands to farmlands, woodlands, and even alkaline land. This study aimed to determine the effects of land conversion on soil microbial communities of urban wetlands in the hinterland of Songnen Plain, Northeastern China. Soil samples were collected from various sites of Longfeng wetl...
Article
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The separation of chemical components from wild plants to develop new pesticides is a hot topic in current research. To evaluate the antimicrobial effects of metabolites of Ligusticum chuanxiong (CX), we systematically studied the antimicrobial activity of extracts of CX, and the active compounds were isolated, purified and structurally identified....