Science topics: Article Writing
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Article Writing - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Article Writing, and find Article Writing experts.
Questions related to Article Writing
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For me, plagiarism may be of two types--intentional and unintentional. But, any way Plagiarism is a very serious problem to the academia. The eradication of it from the entire academia is an important issue and a big challenge before the experts.
              Pushing forward for scholarly debates on this issue...
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Dear Sindiswe, fortunately there are software programmes available that assist lecturers in assessing submissions for plagiarism. Even search engines such as Google assist us in picking up plagiarized sections. These tools are most valuable especially when teaching our students how to use information without committing plagiarism.
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I would like a platform for writing an academic paper where, as the sole author or a collaborator, produce a web version that people can read and comment on, but that will also produce good print copy. My favorite system is LaTeX, for many reasons. I ask for comments and give people PDF copies to comment on. However, none of them use LaTeX or understand how it works, often they want to use something like Track Changes. I think a wiki where everybody could either edit or comment would be great, but I would also want a LaTeX export option, especially for arXiv purposes. I would also like the LaTeX indexing features (e.g. references to equations, etc). I'd also like it to make me breakfast.
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Your last request is the easy one...
ResearchGate will let you post drafts for comment.
I recommend Apache Open Office Writer. It outputs in HTML, DOC and PDF (but not TeX) formats. It updates indexes at the click of a mouse. It has a spelling checker. It lets you make a reviewer's document which is compared with the original, and you can accept or reject the changes. I have successfully used it to write a textbook, making good use of its paragraph styles, e.g. one for Exercises. It is free.
When writing an article, are there any guidelines for the number of citations?
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We usually see a good amount of references in the introduction and discussion. Sometimes, I see limited references in the introduction and the discussion lacks any references. What do you think about this issue?
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The main determinant of number of references is the policy of the journal and editor. One principle which rarely gets stated is that only references personally read by the author should be cited.
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I write my manuscripts in LaTeX but some of my collaborators want to stick to Word. This is why I need to convert from LaTeX to Word occasionally. Do you have experience with latex2rtf, pandoc, mk4ht? What is your favorite tool and what features are you missing?
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I've never had much success with this, and I've tried just about every tool out there. The closest that I ever got was using pandoc, but there were enough issues (of course i can't remember the details now) that I eventually gave up. I recall that text conversion usually worked OK, but floats and equations gave trouble.
Lately, when I have to do this, I've been outputting a pdf and converting it to Word format using Adobe Acrobat Pro. This inserts hard returns in strange places, so it's not the best for collaborating, but it's enough that others can insert comments, use track changes, etc.
If you have to do this a lot and don't care too much about formatting, you might also consider writing your manuscripts in pandoc markup, which is almost legible as plain text and does convert (via pandoc) to both Word and Latex format.
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Results are results may be +/- it has to be published. Then why negative results were not published in journals?
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Negative results are quite often published. Sometimes authors try to mask this (for example, by changing the aims and goals from 'preparation, increasing, improving' to just 'investigation'. However, in a few cases I have faced very honest conclusion 'our approach did not work, but we gained some knowledge to continue trials more efficiently".
If the goal was initially formulated as "answer, yes or no?" - then "No" can be published without problem. Look at the very famous paper with the shortest abstract ever ;) for example.
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If so, can he become a fourth author?
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Faysal, correcting grammar mistakes is not a joint research activity. It definetely should be paid and you and your co-authors may express gratitude in a footnote for this work, but it does not deserve co-authorship.
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Authors whose native language is not English are advised to seek an advice of a native English speaker, before submitting their manuscripts. There are many associations, which do it for money. Do you have any experience? Do you know any web site with an individual offer?
I personally was working only with the American Manuscript Editors. It is quite good association. They take $0.03 per word (a number of word from MS Word). The price isn't so high, but if the salary is $800 - $900, it is quite a lot of money (average bill is $100 - $150).
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Have a look at REF-N-WRITE scientific paper writing tool. This tool allows you to import text from previous papers relevant to the subject area in MS word. While you are writing your paper, you can just search for similar statements from other authors and inherit their vocabulary and language to improve your paper. It also comes with a library of academic phrases that you can readily use to polish your paper. Here is the link for the site.
They have some nice tutorials here.
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Writing a systemic review is not just a collection of various articles on a particular topic. It requires good skills to collect random points, communicate through the lines, connect the dots and emphasize the same in a simple yet powerful way and transform it into a single 'review article'.
Is that all?
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A reference:
Webster, J., & Watson, R. T. (2002). Analyzing the Past to Prepare for the Future: Writing a Literature Review. MIS Quarterly, 26(2), xiii–xxiii.
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Autoplagiarism is the act or process of plagiarizing one’s own work. Sometimes, we must quote or describe our own previous works, then what? Most of the definition say that we must only quote our works, because must be shown clearly what we do in the new article. What ro do when our works are under review? Most journals don't permit quoting article under review.
For example:
The article (A1) on the new method is sent to journal A. Afterwards, the article (A2) on application of this method is sent to journal B.
If A2 will be sent after publicized article A1. This takes a lot of time, but we avoid autoplagiarism. Is it possible to sent them simultaneously and avoid autoplagiarism?
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Usually referees' demands and your own sense of perfection ensure you get to rewrite everything at least three times, so don't worry _too_ much about it.
Essentially the work forks from some common origin. When the fork happens doesn't make too much difference in the end, and editors and chairs will know that. Provided you make sure to keep evolving each potential article independently (don't fold changes in one branch back into the other branch too), the two submissions end up way different. That's good - you end up covering twice as much ground, overall. A co-author revising independently also helps.
Sure a good intro may get shared at least through the first iteration or two, but it too will eventually get changed as you update. You can also plan to emphasize different aspects in the different submissions.
There are minimal percentage-different quotients for each different venue, and a chat with the chair or editor will let you know what that is. I seem to recall that 40% the same as elsewhere is what journals I have submitted to allow. Obviously, that varies by subject area and journal, and you want to ask.
Sometimes timing is also relevant and may work for you or against you. You may submit a journal article that is an elongated version of a workshop article with no trouble and no mention most places, but an earlier conference article requires careful handling and complete disclosure. But what happens if that workshop article is later selected for further elaboration and publication in an extended proceedings or another journal's special issue, through no decision of yours? One can't turn the opportunity down and it's too late to tell the other editor. Just be sure to keep developing the writing in a direction that steers one clear of the other, as and when you get the opportunity for revisions.
For a recent submission to a (good) workshop that I discovered I could submit to with 6h to go to the deadline, I took an old 20p version of the paper I had been working on for a month for a completely different workshop, stripped it down to 11p, rewrote the first three page section completely (well, I had to, as it described stuff no longer there), rewrote another four page section, then bulked up the paper to 15 pages with 4 pages that had been in a non-refereed appendix on the other paper. I suppose the conclusion got rewritten too. I told the chair what I'd done and submitted. I'd have liked to make more changes still, but it was as much as I could manage in a few hours, and they could always have refused it if they felt like.
Again "it varies" (greatly), and you really need to ask and tell if in doubt.
Writing an article, how do you perceive that?
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I have been asked this question, how to write an excellent article, excellent language, techniques (methodology), integrated parts, achieving objectives, satisfying hypothesis,etc. Any suggestions?
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This is a very significant question which we do not talk often about and for many it is taken for granted. I am still amazed that a lot of people still only think about writing an article after they have generated experimental results. They try to match the experimental data or results to a story rather than planning to write a story from beginning. Many people think it is the same thing, but it is vastly different with vastly different outcome. Writing an excellent article really starts with the choice of a topic. Deciding on the topic deserves a far greater attention than most people realize or care about. It is extremely important that the chosen topic is one that will add significantly new knowledge or even entirely new concepts/principles. This may required detailed literature review to ensure novelty or newness of the topic. I doubt if anybody can write an excellent article without properly going through this process. Also from this comes the opportunity to develop an effective hypothesis for what you aim to achieve in the study. Once a topic is decided upon, a careful prosecution of research plan and experimental work is still needed to ensure that you can obtain the results to support or even disprove your hypothesis. This, in some instances, may provide a case for refining the hypothesis and research plan to further prove the point you set out to investigate. The quality of your results and findings will in many respects dictate the quality of the journal you decided to publish your article in. The general observation is that novel and high quality results tended to be published in high IF/high quality journals while those of lower quality results or less novelty tended to published in lower IF/lower quality journals. Whatever the case, this is where you decide how you write your article, The cardinal rule here is you must read the full journal guidelines for authors. Better still, read at least 3 similar published articles from the journal to give you a good knowledge of the journal style before you start writing your article. From there on you can start writing ensuring logical reasoning and clarity with the aim(s) clearly defined and justified in the introduction. The experimental section must logically demonstrate how you set out to prove your hypothesis/aim, while the results, discussion and conclusions must demonstrate how you have accomplished your aim(s). This is a general overview of what you must do if you aim to publish an excellent article, but there are other considerations which you can obtain from reading a good book on scientific writing for journals. Two key considerations among this is english/grammar and writing skill. If you know you are deficient in these two area, you must seek assistance to ensure that you adequately communicate your research findings. Even if your findings are excellent, but it is poorly written, the article may not pass through the revision process.
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I personally think that every scientific publication should be accompanied by the author's playlist. I usually use a nice mix of classics and soft electro, with Chopin and DJ Shadow as my absolute favorites. Recently I found the WritheM playlist on grooveshark and it just hits the spot. Instant productivity! What are your favorite artists/broadcasts and what gets you in the best writing mood? Nothing serious, just interested.
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If you must listen to music (I prefer not to) then you should consider how passively distracting narrative can be. Certain music types are more inclined to story- telling (folk, country and even The Smiths). Classical music, even though it might not have words, also tells stories through motifs. As humans we are attuned to story- telling and are easily distracted by it. Therefore, if you choose to listen to music, go for something that is simple and regular - like R & B or electro pop. Finally, remember that attention is limited and multitasking usually means doing two jobs badly. If you really like music then you should give it it's deserved attention (oh and do the same for your research)
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When publishing a research paper, ideally, how many authors should there be in a paper? Does having too many authors impact the credibility of the first author?
Does having few authors (like two or three) increase the first author's contribution to the work?
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I have two criteria for including authors on a paper - neither are affected by any consideration of having a specified number of authors.
1) Each author must have contributed significantly to the paper - to the extent that publication of the paper would not have been possible without their contribution. Be it in field work, paper writing, editing or lab work.
2) Each author must if asked be able to answer any question concerning the paper and be able to 'defend' the findings.
These are the criteria I apply and after that the actual number of authors determines itself.
Cheers
Paul Jones
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I'd say that giving talks and publishing the results in journals are by far the most important for dissemination of research. After that, the two things you can do to help are to try and make people aware of the existence of the results (talks, blog posts, informal discussions with colleagues and visitors, etc... - all of this tends to be strongly field dependent), and making the paper accessible to everyone (on your web pages, through sites mentioned above, etc...)
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I want to write a review article on some topic of my field but I am confused where to start with. What are the requirements to write a review article?
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First know importance of topic which would you write and write the important point that topic and take one point and explain it with reference. and give your opinion about your topic- Dr. Vedashreee Thigale, Nasik
Need help with plagiarism checking tools
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Hi everyone, I am writing a thesis and manuscript, and need to check for plagiarism. Can anybody kindly suggest me good tools to check this.
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Here are some others to try: PlagTracker, Academic Plagiarism Tracker, Viper (at scanmyessay.com), and PlagiarismSoftware.net.
Is there any difference in using the following words to describe data: show, reveal or indicate?
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In reading articles or writing articles, these words are used, can they be used to denote the same thing? Or have they got specific meanings?
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'Show' means you are just presenting the data. 'Reveal' means you are presenting the same data in such a way that it unravels some interesting or novel facts or breaks some orthodox beliefs. 'Indicate' means you are presenting the same data in such a way that it professes about something which will happen in the future due to the impact of the data, and can be helpful in taking some corrective measures.
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Two equally 'successful' studies are published - one by two authors and another by eight authors. Presently, the metrics allow for the eight authors each to get an equal 'unit of recognition' but the two authors only receive two total 'units of recognition'. Others have proposed weighting the impact of a scientific contribution by the number of authors. What do you say?
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In general, the likelihood of a scientific paper being easily accepted ("being successful") increases with the number of authors, because it is written from many more different viewpoints. However after about seven authors, the number of viewpoints is no longer statistically independent (in-breeding or saturation sets in), or to look at it differently, the incremental addition of an author to the author line becomes a progressively smaller contribution. This means that the last mentioned (non-leader; non-alphabetically ordered) author 'unfairly' now gets more due than deserved. In practice it is difficult to proportion contributions. Somewhat easier is to say who contributed more than who and order the author line correspondingly.
In the general absence of any statement of authorship proportions, I would suggest that a mechanistic weighted scheme could be based on a Zip's law (1/2, 1/3, 1/4, 1/5, 1/6, 1/7, 1/8th) that is normalised. You saw it here first!
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Self-citation is seen as a form of self-promotion, and thus looked down on it in academia, so why do we still do it? Are we obliged to do it due to the fierce competition in academia?
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If it makes sense to cite your own work if you paper is based on some previously published paper (e.g. you use the same survey evidence but some other parts of the survey, then you do not have to explain again in detail how you collected the data), if your work is in some sense original/unique/very significant in this field (e.g. if your previous paper was among the first on this topic) and, to some extent, it is also ok to advertise your work. It would be strange to cite your own 10 papers if they do not fit with your new paper (then the reviewers will also most probably guess who you are), but it is ok to cite a couple of your papers if one of the above explanations applies.
What, according to your experience, is the optimal way to write the discussion section within an article?
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I have observed various patterns of discussion writing; some authors compared his findings with other studies, while others are satisfied by mentioning their findings; others try to find self explanation for their findings. So, writing discussion varies, but what are the determinants?
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The discussion is about your results so I think the discussion starts with mentioning what you've done (a brief description of study in one or two sentences). Then you discuss the main findings in a rational order, the possible reasons for getting those results, comparing them to similar studies not only mentioning the difference or similarity in results of the studies but also discussing the reasons for similarities and differences, mentioning similarities and differences in objectives, study design, study setting, study time maybe and so on. Inside such discussion, you indirectly show the novelty of your results comparing the similarities and differences. It is not all, it is much better if you could present weakness and power points of your study and suggest solutions within your discussions. Whole discussion section should be integrated with rationale order of sentences and paragraphs. In my opinion, the discussion is the the most difficult section in writing a paper and some people are really good at it. Also this part shows the strength of literature review and critical thinking skills of the author. There is no default structure for writing but to get the pattern you should study many papers. Although your study might be a quantitative study, however, some people believe that no study is quantitative because when you write a discussion, you are writing the qualitative section of you study which makes it a mixed method study. I often enjoy discussion more than other parts of the paper. So, think to the readers while writing the discussion. ;-)
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I am about to write my first scientific paper. The results are ready. My work consists of several parts of other works and I am allowed to write my paper in 8 pages. Therefore, there are too many things to discuss about in introduction and too many results and graphs to place in the body of manuscript. So what is your advice about how to begin and then go on?
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Dear Arman,
I think if you try to put main part of your data in one paper and submit the other data at supplementary file but referring inside the main paper, it might be nice because of following reasons:
1. You'll be able to publish you paper in a well-known and high-impact journal which increase its visibility for related audiences. But it may happen by publishing several papers in less-known journals. I've seen papers in journals such as PNAS or Nature journals with tons of data in more than 30 pages as supplement. This is what prestigious researchers do.
2. It shows the respect to readers who can find the results of your study in one place and will not bother themselves to look for other pieces of the puzzle.
3. You'll not be worried about ethical issues including Salami publication or copied parts (i.e. introduction or methods).
4. Readers have not to study repeated parts in several papers and you don't have to be worry how to start or finish 8 papers.
5. One paper means gathering more citations which will be distributed and decreased in several papers and there is no quarantine the readers find all your papers.
Just in case you've decided to write more than one paper, take care not to copy any part of the papers and paraphrase any thing you want to repeat. If you use the same method, describe it well in your first paper and cite it in your other papers instead of repeating it.
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In writing an article I am refereeing to the materials of another article of mine. Would it be fine if I just include the whole article in my appendix?
I have seen this as a norm in thesis writing.
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Dear Amir, I am afraid, your publisher will reject such a manuscript containing another paper as an appendix. Sometimes It is useful to duplicate in appendix some big figures and tables from your previous papers. But you must be careful with terms of your 'author agreements' in that case.
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1. Some journals do mention their Impact factor, where most of journals do not include the details of Impact factor..
2. Is there any source to find the Impact factor ?
3. How does this Impact factor influence over the CV ?
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Please read criticisms of the Impact factor from its article on Wikipedia, and go through its reference article also. We need to get over this illusion of the Impact Factor as soon as possible. Dont worry too much about its impact on your CV!
As suggested by Michael, you can get the IF from Journal Citation Reports (JCR) published by Thomson Reuters, which is the only valid Impact factor. Currently, there are many fraud journals which claim their own Impact Factor, which is an unethical practice. Though I agree that Impact Factor is a formula which anyone can use, the correct number of citations received by the journals are calculated only by ISI Web of Knowledge, which ultimately decides the Impact Factor.
But, few institutes would buy JCR (very expensive). So, how would you know whether a journal claiming the Impact Factor actually has it or not? There is one source: ResearchGate itself. Just pretend to add a publication in your profile and type name of the journal. If it has Thomson Reuters Impact Factor, it will be immediately mentioned beside, as RG has subscription of JCR.
As far as Scimago is concerned, it ranks journals on basis of h-index, which is different from Impact Factor.
Why the impact factor of journals are different on ResearchGate than Thomson Reuters (ISI web of knowledge) impact factor released 2012?
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i want to know why this difference in score of impact factors like Archives of Microbiology is 1.905 by Thomson Reuters (ISI web of knowledge) 2012 but here on ResearchGate is about 1.43 of it and impact factors of most journals are not updated on research-gate. so any one tell how to correct it and why this difference?. Be happy
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To update the journal impact factor of your interest...Fill this form and send..!! https://feedback.researchgate.net/responses/please-update-2012-impact-factor-of-journals
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1- Can we cite any article without caution regardless the journal in which it was published?
2- How reliable are the results published in low impact factor journals (LIFJ) in comparison to those in high impact factor journals (HIFJ)?
3- If the results published in LIFJ are doubtful, why do we publish or cite articles published therein?
4- If all articles are at the same level scientifically since all are peer-reviewed, why do some journals have a low impact factor due to low number of citations?
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Consider impact factor as a "branding" standard for journals. Just like you will find in the automobile (Mercedes, Honda, and others), computer (HP, Dell, Acer and others), and the fashion industries, any one of the competitors within an industry could come up with a product that is good by all standards, even though some brand names stand out as "leaders" in their industry, with superior technology, many years of experience and so on. Of course the leading brand name could once in a while make products that later turn out to be run-of-the-mill but that doesn't take away the fact that they have come a long way to establish themselves in that industry. In the end, many factors play into determining what one cites or considers good.
You may find these interesting:
Good luck.
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I have to write a research paper and have no idea what are the main differences between the two.
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thesis contains articles
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I would like to write a review and add figures including pictures of different publications. I was wondering how scientists usually react if one asks them whether they can send one of these pictures. Are they usually willing to send it? How should I cite it in the review?
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According to my knowledge, when an author uses a picture in an article, and the article is published in a scientific journal, this picture is not for author anymore, it is for that journal and publisher! So you should ask publisher and editor to allow you to use that picture during a letter. You should write the source of the picture under it in your article, also the number of that letter!
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Is there problem in the article writing, style and compiling or there is the need of the term Doctor, Dr.
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Nice question. I think that makes part from the part of preparing the papers for publishing. So, first of all, it`s about the fact that the articles for publish must be written taking into account the rules of publishing well-defined previously.
The theme chosen must treat the subject as well, with a clearer and more accurate methodology.
You have to choose some interesting topics. Not every description that you do can not become , overnight,  subject for the articles to be published.
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When I was in high school, I heard several times that we should use impersonal terms and/or statements when we are writing a technical/scientific report. On the other hand, I have read countless articles, from high impact journals, which use repeatedly personal terms and/or statements. Why the contradiction?
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There's this idea that scientific writing is usually presented in an impersonal, objective manner, using the passive voice, the third person rather than the first person....The reason you're supposed to avoid the first-person is to make science look more objective, and to place less emphasis on the people doing science. But times are changing, and in some disciplines of Science it is now quite acceptable to use the active voice and personal pronouns such as I and we. So write in a personal manner is right or wrong? I do not know about this, but in my opinion a uniform writing style makes for clearer communication. Scientists basically deal with information, so clear communication is essential !!!
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At least you shall read the rules of writing each article per journal (TIME) then you have to write the article or to change its format for every journal. All these are time-wasting especially for scientists in the developed countries that have access to libraries and facilities for better use of their time. To me the reference format should be informative on the subject and citation of the article. I am not against the names of scientists, I am against the format that forgets subject of the articles referred. The subject indicates if an article is useful for your particular work, and sometimes informs you on a new interesting finding by itself and currently each journal has its own referencing format that is time-consuming.
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How important would that be for a paper submitted for the first time (not as a second revision for which proofreading could be asked) to a journal?
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As a specialist academic editor (& peer reviewer), I often get sent manuscripts that have been returned with reviewers comments about the language and structure. Quite often, the problem lies in the fact that ESOL authors either write as they speak (which is fine for oral communication, but looks very different as a written construction), or they use the same structures that they use in their native language (which don't necessarily transpose into written English).
If the research is sound, a competent academic editor will have no problems with any disciplinary-specific terms. They can therefore 'shape' your meaning into phrasing & structure that is familiar in such texts. Unfortunately, first impressions count. For example, Finnish does not have articles (the, a, an etc.). If any of these are left out in the English language, the result looks 'amateurish', despite the science & structure being otherwise sound (& the same goes vice-versa for translating English to other languages). All of our written languages are very unforgiving & understandable minor errors can completely misrepresent the abilities of the author. Also, there are authors that have impeccable English vocabulary and expression, whose work is simply not sound from an academic aspect. Fortunately, reviewers often tend to see through good or bad language & their judgements reflect the quality of the underlying work.
My advice is to a) be honest about your abilities (language and academic) & b) if you need assistance, use a proper academic editor for this type of work ( & not rely on straight forward translation or a purely language-based service). If your work is academically unsound however, using a routine language editor is simply a waste of money (especially for more highly rated journals). Get all the details in order, consult with colleagues, refine a 'final' draft & then send it to a specialist academic editor. They should make it sound in terms of language & clarity, check your academic structure, formatting and transitions, & give feedback/commentary on areas that may need further clarification, references etc., as well as an overall summary of how the work reads - as said above however, the rest is up to you ... it's your work :-)
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Publication in mainstream journals
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You mean ISI WOS, I assume? Foremost, you should cite articles that truly are a base and reference for your own article. Citing ISI WOB articles is not necessary, but ISI WOS journals are of selected quality (not without biases though), so they usually are a good reference.
Why study hypothesis and research questions that are not well identified in many scientific papers?
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In many articles, I have observed the absence of well identification of study hypothesis and research questions, while the concentration is mainly on objectives and methodology and findings. What is your opinion on this phenomenon?
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@Viswanath Devan: most of the engineering Ph.D. theses nowadays do not have a well-laid out hypothesis. The emphasis is more on the state-of-the-art on the research being carried out and future research plan in that area. ...How can such research be categorised? In response to your question, a typical Ph.D. thesis in engineering usually has a number of strong components: 1. Problem definition. What problem has been solved and presented in the thesis? Problem definition requires a good grounding in what has been done, both classically and more recently. This means that other approaches to solving the same problem must be set forth in defining the problem, usually some aspect of a problem not yet solved or only partially solved by others. In engineering, this usually means summarizing the mathematics used by others in solving a problem. And usually summarizing algorithms used by others to solve a problem is not enough to tie things down (the mathematics lends strength to a particular problem definition). This part of a thesis has strong analysis component. Having a good grasp of a problem means demonstrating an analytical approach to a problem. For example, the problem might be to define a topology of digital images in thesis on pattern analysis of vector graphics images, e.g., satellite images. 2. Basis Approach to Solving a Problem. To be cogent, it is again necessary to have a good grasp of the mathematics used to explain an approach to solving a problem. This usually entails derivation of one or more formulas from basic assumptions needed to solve a problem. Setting forth the basic approach to solving an engineering problem has a substantial amount of analysis, i.e., mathematics such as vector analysis or differential geometry in the case where one investigates patterns in vector graphics images. 3. Feasibility of the Basic Approach. Here, in a typical engineering thesis, there is a strong experimental component. Implicit in performing experiments, there is an implicit set if assumptions (hypotheses) that validated with experiments. In summary, a Ph.D. thesis in engineering can be classified as a) analytical (analysis is needed to understand a problem and set forth its solution). b) experimental (experiments are need to validate assumptions made in the proposed solution).
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Sometimes we have a lot of data but we do not know how to publish them, or sometimes we have very good ideas but we need data to support them.
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I think you need both. What is the value of ideas without data (e.g. ideas that can never be tested)? What is the value of data without ideas guiding data sampling or exploitation.
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The process of publishing a research paper in an academic journal is stretched a little more if you are a non-native English speaker, because you have to translate or revise the wording of the article a bit, though it will never be the same as if it has been thought and written from scratch by a native English scientist.
But I found in some professors a tendency to criticize the writing of non-native academics, which I think is somewhat unfair, because an academic paper is a research work, not a literature essay.
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Agreed Hemanta - it's both an art and a discipline. Grammatical structure and construction are not always easy to master and, attempted badly, can seriously affect how a manuscript reads. Some authors 'over-complicate' these rules or mis-interpret them - thinking that the more of it there is - the more it will impress. The best rule, instead, is 'keep it simple and summarised'. Don't try to over-complicate or be too technical. Of course, on the other side of things, don't make it too simple or summarised that it cannot be understood. It's a bit of a balancing act really.
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Is there any technical difference?
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I would argue that there is a distinction between different types of research papers and a classification as follows does make sense in most cases (this list is not exhaustive!):
Empirical paper:
An empirical paper is based on data (in most cases primary data) used to run one's own analysis to answer a specific research question/hypotheses.
Conceptual paper (not be confused with concept paper though):
A conceptual paper is primarily based on theoretical considerations, theories, frameworks, models, etc.. Such papers tend to use no empirical data (sometimes to support certain thoughts and conclusions). The conceptual paper has normally no intentions to run specific analytical procedures, due to the lack of empirical data.
Literature reviews:
Literature Reviews, similar to conceptual papers, normally tend to use no empirical data (unless it is taken from existing publications to make a case for a specific argument). The aim of the literature review lies in summarising, synthesising, discussing, criticising and, hopefully, showing research gaps. The letter normally yields in recommendations for future research.
Meta-analytical reviews of literature:
If authors of a publication use data published in other sources for analytical purposes, then this is called a "meta-analysis". This type of publication is similar to an empirical paper. The only difference lies in the source of data used. In a way it can sometimes be considered a hybrid of an empirical paper and a literature review.
@ Concept paper: In my research context, a concept paper often refers to a proposal for research (e.g. PhD thesis, etc.) were students create a "concept" for their empirical study. Also when applying for funding, you might require to write a proposal (a concept) on what kind of research you like to carry out.
@ Research paper: Tends to be the output of academic research (published or unpublished) and falls in one of the categories above (the majority).
Technical differences: Yes, with respect to the results sections of such papers. The concept paper (preceeding the research) normally has no results section, since there are no results to report.
The provided definitions might vary slightly from discipline to discipline and I certainly did not capture all features and variations, but it might be a good reference.
I hope this is of help.
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It could take several weeks for the status to change from "Submitted to Journal" to "Under Review".
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I want to apologize in advance; this will be a somewhat long post with some
personal thoughts wrapped in questions.
I'm not (so) far from completing my PhD and I started to think about building up my reputation as a (social) scientist. Unfortunately my dissertation theme as well as my scientific curiosity does not tend toward "popular & sexy" themes, so I have difficulties with finding senior co-authors for future research projects. I do not really need a co-author and I'm perfectly comfortable with writing solo-authored papers (I went well beyond my program's requirements in that) but i must admit that this practice have a lot of drawbacks.
First, I was not able to get adequate professional opinion about my thoughts and writing before peer review (I must note that in my country there are senior social scientists with very few or no experience with the system of peer review of international journals, not to mention academic ELF competency, knowing about current scientific literature & new results etc.).
Second, I was not able to start networking. Co-authors and common interests
would have provided a good opportunity, which I missed completely.
So I was thinking about the legit modes of finding co-authors for my unsubmitted manuscripts, or for completely new projects (which, I fear to state so, but must fall within my fields of interests). For beancounting and prestige reasons it would be ideal if I could find senior researchers from Western-European or American institutions. How to start contacting senior researchers? Should I simply email them about my plans, or ask someone who they know to recommend me? I can not afford to go on international conferences too often (~1 per year) so I can not see other option than cold-emailing everyone, but this could quickly turn to a spam campaign in the eyes of some, including myself.
I also thinked about posting a message on freelancer sites like Elance or Odesk, looking after co-authors with a degree. Their job would be to write an additional chapter to my existing manuscript, or revising it critically for important intellectual content and to agree with submitting the manuscript as a co-author for publication. Would that bring up ethical problems? I'm not sure about that; after all, they will be credited as co-authors.
So basically, I'm just curious about how to start contacting others, keeping in mind that I need them as co-authors in order to build connections and look good in the eyes of my (national) institution's administration. Is that a wicked way of thinking about co-authorship as a currency and should I abandon it, waiting for the opportunities to come up naturally? I can do that. In fact I would be much happier if such connections came up naturally, and would become a source of mutual intellectual enrichment. But if there are rules and criterias for academic advancement, and higher education institutions or grant committees evaluate one higher if (ceteris paribus) they look at one's CV/pub.list and see proof for international co-operation and connections, than why should I not seek for these
"assets" strategically?
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Adding to my first response, please note that you can certainly approach colleagues to critically read your manuscript(s) for comments and advise. You can ask for such help from your peers without offering coauthorship. Acknowledging such support at the end of the paper is a nice and reasonable gesture.
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Writing with a foreign co-author can sometimes increase the chance of getting your work published (e.g. if you wish to get data from abroad). Do you find your co-authors at conferences, through colleagues' recommendations, Researchgate, Linkedin, Facebook and other websites, or have they found you?
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Tiia, sometimes it is more difficult to collaborate with somebody IN THE SAME BUILDING :) compared to somebody THAT IS IN A DIFFERENT CONTINENT !!!
I would say that, as long as the two co-authors have the same mindset, the LOCATION makes approximately ZERO difference !!!
Currently, I am writing a research proposal with a collaborating faculty who is on vacation in India, and he Skype's in. Aside from the 12 hour difference, there is about a zero difficulty. We use Dropbox to share documents. I make a change, and he sees the changes in about 10 seconds. We have scheduled Skype meetings at 10AM, which works good for both US and India ...
Last year, I wrote a similar research proposal with a faculty member who was at a conference in Romania. We used Facetime on IPhone for the meetings. It was like he was here :)
Last month, I submitted a conference paper with a Ph.D. student that I just accepted from Iran. He is the primary author, and I am the secondary author . There was zero difficulty in co-authoring. Again, we used Skype for regular meetings, and Dropbox for sharing documents ...
Technology has advanced to the point, where the entire planet is a single click away !!! I love this :) If two people have the mindset and can co-author, location is no longer relevant parameter.
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What are the most important roles during writing an article?
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Dear Farhad
I think Dr Srinivas provided you with a wonderful collection of web pages taking about this issue. However, you must write and learn all your life. I have written about 150 papers and still to date learning. This is the research field makes you a learner and everyday you will learn more.
Regards
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All of us go through this experience. We love our research, we work very hard at it. We want to share it with the scientific community and the lay people. But, sometimes our paper is not accepted. Two of 3 reviewers came back with some comments that may not be called for.
When does a rejection work out for your good? What were the circumstances? Please share for the mutual benefit/s of our RG community.
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Miranda, I appreciate your question. I have authored or coauthored many papers over the past 25 years, and have had many rejections. The key here is to persist to put your ideas out there in spite of rejections. If one journal closes the door, revise with whatever feedback you obtained that you consider valid, and go to another journal. Your ideas may simply be ahead of their time or out in a direction that others may not understand. It is also possible that you simply need to reframe your ideas in terms others can better identify with them. I have also served as editor to some journals and have perspective with regard to rejection or more correctly major revisions. Papers from non-native English speakers sometimes require major editing to improve the writing. In some journals editors will return these with rejections leaving an option for resubmission when authors improve the manuscript. Right or wrong the expectation is that authors will be persistent with their papers. The worst situation is where the paper is returned without review as is done in journals where a board of editors prescreen papers. Here we are left guessing how to improve a paper. But the key is to submit elsewhere and push the ideas forward. Some of the papers that were rejected at first, I now consider some of my best work. But I must admit rejection is not painless. We simply must find the stubbornness to move the paper forward regardless of the opposition. Sorry for writing so much, you posted a great question, and I couldn't resist.
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There are so many science magazines, which  accept reviews as well as research articles. Does these magazines have impact factor?
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I'm writing this question not because I wouldn't known the main suggestions for citing references (that are discussed in few other sections of Q&A in RG and for example in Publication Manual of the APA), but rather because I am wondering of your opinion.
While normally all publication manuals suggest citing original research papers, and only in case if research paper is not accessible, one should cite the review paper, with reference to research paper, in my opinion it is not completely fair. My claim is that for example meta-analysis studies which are basically review papers give more and more reliable data on topic comparing to for example case studies, moreover review papers especially in respected journals provide you with some insights which were not considered in research papers cited.
Moreover review papers are able to collect, extract and compact data and knowledge, so in my opinion their contribution to further researches in the field sometimes is greater, comparing to that of original research.
So what are your suggestions of best way to cite reviews and meta-analysis papers? Should one just ignore contribution of review paper, to knowledge and insights, or base citations on the respectability of review, or do you have any other thoughts/suggestions?
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In general, one should NOT ignore the review papers. One possibility to proceed is roughly as follows: for the MAIN results of other people that your paper builds on you should cite BOTH the original papers and the reviews (the latter usually contain further details etc.), while for things you use only marginally you perhaps could get away with citing only the appropriate reviews. However, citation patterns and customs are very much field-dependent, so perhaps the colleagues from your specialty could provide more specific advice for your specific situation.
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Vancouver? Harvard?
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Vancouver style is recommended by The Tamil Nadu Dr. MGR.Medical University. Otherwise you have to follow the standard style recommended by the journals in which you want to publish your articles.
Why does the reviewing process take a long time?
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I really do not understand the reasons beyond delaying response by reviewers. if you are a reviewer, how would you describe your experience? And for authors, what are your experiences with reviewing process? Regards,
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The review process depends on how quickly the editor assigns reviewers to a manuscript. Many-a-times editor also takes time to search for appropriate reviewers for the manuscript. Once the manuscript reaches reviewers, whether they are willing to review it or not. If they agree, then they are having time to review the manuscript in the assigned time period. If not, they may ask for an extension of review time, which the editor will permit in most cases.Next if the reviewer returns the manuscript to the editor in, let's say, 15 days, then it is not necessary that the other reviewers (if any) also have returned the manuscript to the editor. Once the response is received from the reviewers then editor would conclude with a decision on the basis of comments. This all process will definitely take time because everybody is having their own personal obligations too. The reviewer will find time for the manuscript only when he/she is free for the same. Normally I try to revert back within 7-15 days. Sometimes if I don't get time to review, I ask for extensions too. If the manuscript is very interesting and it is acceptable in terms of scientific content, methodologies and novelty, it will be reviewed early as compared to others. Depends a lot. If I feel that the manuscript is not of my area or expertise, often I regret to review such papers. In that case, it becomes difficult for the editor as he has to assign a new reviewer and the same process starts again. That's why sometimes, review process takes 6 months too. I believe it is a part and parcel of the publishing process and authors should keep patience after submission of the manuscript. They should remind only after 1 or 1.5 months to the editor about their manuscript. Regards
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Selecting the right journal for your academic paper is like meeting friends. You have to know what kind of scientific article and research you have, write the article with the necessary ingredients that are expected of it, be where editors and journals are, find an academic journal that publishes articles on the subject you have chosen, and when love arises, if necessary, insist a little.
However, there are still people who believe in the theory of probabilities when publishing in journals: sending the paper to a list of journals, one after the other until it is accepted. This is a fairly poor approach, because selecting an appropriate journal is as important as writing a good article.
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The theory of probablities is not right in publication process: e.g. if you find out that the probablitiy of getting accepted to a particular journal is 5% (the rejection rate is 95%) it does not automatically mean that it will be 5% for your paper: if your paper is good and suits the journal very well, it can be much higher, while if it is not good and/or does not suit the journal well, it can be near 0%. I select journals for my papers depending on the nature of papers (literature, data, methodology etc.) and their potential fit with the journal. I prefer journals that have a good reputation in my field.
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We know why review articles and research articles are written and published and the associated process. However, the aim and the core structure of a Letter to Editor is unclear to me. Any insights?
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I am the editor of Computers in Biology and Medicine (Elsevier). I may accept letters that point out problems and beneficial points of recent papers published in the journal. However these need to be reviewed for content and quality, and I will also send to the authors being addressed by the letter to seek their comment. If it seems like this letter can add to the quality of the research and advance science, I will publish it. I will not publish a grandstanding letter which seeks to show any perceived superiority of the letter writer's own methods. Letters to the Editor can also be used to publish short research works which do merit a full length paper.
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Getting citations is becoming increasingly important to the academic career of a researcher or professor, so worrying about them is logical.
SEO is a marketing methodology that improves network positioning on search engines like Google, and if applied to your papers makes them more easily found, and thus most frequently cited.
If you get published in indexed journals, you're doing almost everything right with your article, when writing and rounding it. You just have to review the SEO recommendations to display your articles in search engines in a more relevant way.
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Hi Rafael, Another good question! I liked the idea of being your own SEO, for those who don't know it is Search Engine Optimisation or I suppose to be correct, Optimiser. The article's advice is a good of course, publish in a good journal which is well indexed and it will probably promote itself. I just think that a few actions that might have been missed here.
The first is to create, or a better word, curate your online profile. It's not quite SEO territory, but you do need to be found. You could imagine a reader asking the question who is Rafael or Matt? I will look them up on Google, see if they have written anything else, where they work and so on.
Second is to play the odds on social media. Blog about your article and tweet about it. It will get picked up quicker than the prehistoric process of Indexing in major databases and place a copy - accepting copyright restrictions - on your Institutional repository or personal webpage.
Third is to be prepared to engage in discussion with others on social media, create an audience, it might not shake the world but these discussions I find can be interesting and useful at the time of publication. BW Matt.
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The literature review is an issue that is always left to the end or given no importance from the beginning. Although in some ways it is always done, because you have to be documented first, writing a good review is not easy, it takes time, your need imagination and telling a credible story to justify your research and conclusions.
But who taught you to do a good literature review? How did you wish to be taught? What is the best way to teach to do it?
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That is a good question.
Writing a Review Paper is in art in itself which is difficult to be learnt. You must know perfectly what about you want writing. In other words, you must have published several Research Articles about your subject so you may share your proper experience.
Best wishes,
Djamel
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Please look at the file.
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Could my article be publish in International Journal of Knowledge Management(IJKM)?
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I was wondering if there are any fixed rules of using tenses in a paper, or does it depend on the journal and style? I have looked this topic up on the internet, but it would be great to hear your advice... Thank you in advance.
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When it comes to tenses, I teach along the line of Moore/Tsuda: A Pratical Guide to the Use of Scientific English. They have laid down the following guidelines relating the outline of a typical paper.
Abstract: generally, use the simple past (or for a concise introductory phrase the present perfect); for general statements and facts use the present tense.
Introduction: use a mixture of present and past tense; the present tense is applied when you are talking about something that is always true; the past tense is used for earlier research efforts, either by your own or by another group. If the time of demonstration is unknown or not important, use the present perfect. For the concluding statements of your introduction use the simple past; you may use the past perfect, when you talk about something that was true in the past but is no longer so.
Methods: here you generally use the passive voice in the simple past.
Results: simple past and present tense should be employed here, but when you refer to figures and tables you use the present tense, since they continue to exist in your paper ;); you can mix active and passive voice.
Discussion: use the simple past for your own findings and the perfect tense for cited information; the present tense is also acceptable, if you prefer that one (in such statements as ‘We can conclude that …’.
Moore/Tsuda do not talk about a section that I often use as a last paragraph before acknowledgements:
Conclusions and Further work: use present perfect to make clear that your statements still hold at the time of reading; for further work the future tense (or the present) is acceptable.
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We do the research, we write the papers, we do the peer review, we do the editing. As far as I can tell, all that journals add is layout. We can argue that they add credibility but it's us, the academics, who give them that credibility i.e. it's not inherent in anything they do. If we move our attention away from traditional journals and choose to publish somewhere else, what would we lose?
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You're all missing the point. Big publishing houses, such as Elsevier, Springer, etc have the networks to provide the exposure needed world-wide. They PAY Google et al. to be most visible.
I am the Editor-in-Chief of WETLANDS, now published by Springer. Since joining Springer, our journal has sky-rocketed in terms of submissions and readership. As a result, the Society of Wetland Scientists, the owner of the journal, now has significant earnings from the journal. When they published it themselves, only a few years ago, the Society had to supplement the publication with $50K each year!
Publishing costs money, and either the authors pay (Open Access) or the readers pay (as for any other product). And you pay for what you get. What you get from publishing with established journals and publishers is the exposure your work deserves. If you feel you can do without that, and without proper systems for quality assurance, as well as a guarantee that your work will remain available online for a very long time, then by all means be my guest.
Marinus Otte
Editor-in-Chief, WETLANDS
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I'm writing a lit review article and none of the idea is my own. What I'm doing is reading a whole article and close it, then summarize into one paragraph in my own words. Do I have to give citation after every sentence or it is okay to give citation at the end of the paragraph?
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Here is a useful tip: If your whole paragraph is summarised or paraphrased from one source, you put the reference after the closing full stop. (In the unusual situation of only the last sentence of your paragraph being summarised or paraphrased, then you put the reference before the closing full stop)
You have to go beyond one paragraph per paper, although that is the first step.
As Wafa has pointed out: your chosen literature must be "comprehensively surveyed, organized, integrated, interpreted and critically reviewed." This means shortening and even deleting some reviews, expanding others, sorting, and above all showing the linkages, accord, contradictions and gaps in the chosen field. Your introduction and conclusion should be aligned according to your findings, written last and contain no citations.
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If experimental work was done at institute 1 and then the first author moved to institute 2 (where he exploited data and wrote the article), what should be the affiliation of this author in the article? Institute 1 or 2?
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"The affiliation should reflect the author's current and primary employment."
As I am unaware of this practice (or possible convention), I would be incline to think differently and to first ask the following questions:
1/ Does the journal where you intend to publish have any policy on the subject?
2/ (more important) Does your institution(s) have any policy on the subject? (which is highly possible.)
If not, then the choice "The affiliation should reflect the author's current and primary employment" seems to be arbitrary (or conventional).
If not conventional, in the situation described by Azaad Khan, the choice that the affiliation should reflect the author's current and primary employment seems to be unfair for the institution who mostly contributed to the result (through salaries and/or equipments and/or etc.).
Therefore, for fairness (and considering that the question cannot be solved by looking at the policies of institutions/journals; nor by conventions), why the affiliation should not reflect the average of time spent on a given paper in every institutions where the research has been conducted? (as a whole: experiments/preparations/calculations/getting data/meetings/conferences/writing the paper.)
Example: I spent three years in institution A to work on this project and 1 year in institution B. Then my primary institution in the paper is A and my secondary institution is B.
Otherwise, it is also important to notice that conventions may change from one field of research to the other. Therefore, you might want to search for conventions in your area of research by asking your peers.
How to keep concentration?
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It's an open question. I mean in a big task like doing a PhD or a smaller task like writing a paper. I feel nowadays that I waste a lot of time. Therefore I really want to know more ways and tools that can help me during my work. I also think there are so many people facing this problem.
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I am assuming that a journal standard would take precedence in such a situation, but what about when it's not explicitly stated? Also, would the omission of full stops for 'eg' in British English apply to 'i.e.' as well? So that it would be 'ie' and not 'i.e.'?
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Etc. should never be used. If you can't think of another word that is relevant, your reader won't either. I'd avoid it entirely. Regarding "e.g."--it is a Latin abbreviation, used instead of "for example." Unless "for example" comes at the end of a sentence, it is followed by a comma. It always has a period after each letter, unlike "et al." for which the et part is a complete word meaning "and." Abbreviations are generally used in notes, not in the main text. Hope that's helpful.
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When a scientific protocol is written, is it ever appropriate to not use proper punctuation? When a portion of text appears after a bullet point, is it ever appropriate to omit a period? What about if such a line item constitutes a complete sentence?
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Ian - thanks, excellent additional information.
I have requested a full text of an article, how or when will I get that?
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Comparative Analysis of Gene Expression for Convergen Eye Between Octopus and Human, Atsushi Ogura
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I am aware that some scientists or researchers will try to avoid using brand names in their writing. When one must, should these words be capitalized? I was also wondering about using the phrase "Band aid" in scientific writing – should this be capitalized or even used?
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In honour of Julius Petri, we continue to describe the dish with a respectful uppercase "P".
Very few companies insist on initial lowercase letters. So the norm is to use uppercase, again with respect, but this time to respect the commercial rights.
"Band Aid" as a verb is slang and its use is to be deprecated in research writing. It also makes translation difficult.
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There are many papers styles or objective, while I want to know what is the best procedure for each of them to be focused during writing and to get the best quality to represent and collect ideas.
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I'm not sure that there is any single best answer. Probably the best advice I can give is to establish protected time every week for your writing and to guard it jealously. Within this structure you'll surely find what works best for you.
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I know that figures, tables and equation would be kind of a problem for this formats, but reading pdf files in these readers is tough. Maybe it could be possible to give only the link (for figures, tables and equations) in the main text and provide a separated windows for them, just like the dictionary definitions windows.
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Figure, tables and equations can always be displayed as digital images and there is no requirement that an ebook be a off file, rather pdf is a rather simplistic file format 
How can I finish my papers quickly?
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I usually concentrate too much when I am doing any practical work specially programming, design, coding, etc. while I lose my concentration completely when I start writing papers and I feel I am in the wrong way of my life. I have read few books about writing papers, but no progress. I am still the same. I am working in Memristors and mem-elements. Sometimes, I feel that I choose the wrong topic because of the my problem of writing. I wish I can find a way to develop my ideas quickly in writing.
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I recommed to take this online course. It is really useful - Writing in the Sciences (https://lagunita.stanford.edu)
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Many studies published in high grade journals have a number of contributors, sometimes even so many that it is necessary to list them in a footnote. However, if a study is published in a paper with an IF of 3.00 and there are three authors (1.0 per author) and another study is published in a paper with an IF of 30 and there are 10 authors (1.0 per author), does that mean that the scientific value of the two is equal (1.0 IF per author)? Or not (3.0 vs 30.0)?
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I too agree with your thoughtful response Apurva Kumar. The quality of the article is the important point, and the impact which the article has on the field. As long as authorship criteria are met, then having multiple authors is fine. The need for a unidimensional metric to judge worker value is a worrying trend.
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Many of the journal reviewers desire a robust discussion and conclusion in research articles. What exactly should be included/excluded to make them robust?
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Usually, the author of the review article is known in a certain area, with good publications history, in order to cover the topic. I think the review article should provide a new hypothesis or should concentrate and summarize a certain point that is needed to be reviewed. Thus, any one can write a review or should be invited by the editorial board.
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Sir,
With due respect, I beg to differ. A review article is the one in which the author analyses the current trend in a particular field field and draws his/her own conclusions which may be helpful in further studies. Although senior researchers due to their experience may be able to analyse the things better yet this reason does not sound sufficient enough to keep young players out.
Freshers do have their advantage as they:
1. are open to new ideas
2. view the problem from a new perspective
3. are quite enthusiastic
4. are ready to learn new things
Encouraging young scientists to prepare reviews is also a nice way to let them imbibe what their seniors have achieved and provide them a proper footing to base their future work upon it.
Isn't this the reason why we are to write a review of literature for our doctoral work?
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I am currently in the process of additional experimentation to try and convince the reviewers (sound familiar?) to add into supplementary material. However, some of the methods I am using to produce this data are not used to produce any of the figures in the main manuscript. So I'm not completely sure where to mention these methods. Would it be in the main materials and methods section of the manuscript making reference to the supplementary figure? Or would I briefly describe the method in the supplementary figure legend? Any help would be greatly appreciated as this is my first time going through the publication process firsthand. The journal is Infection and Immunity if thismakes a difference.
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If the journal has not mentioned a number-of-words-limitation for the type of the paper you have submitted, then you can add the extra methods inside the paper. Otherwise, you may add in appendix and reply to the reviewers that because of the journal's requirements and limitations in number of words, we added the related methods to Appendix or Supplementary file.
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Should I indicate that the data set was used before? Or else it would be fine to describe the sampling method all over again without mentioning that another article was published using the same data set.
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Greetings all,
Long time reader, first time responder. I trust you have already thought about meta studies. Meta studies address issues that have already been studied through the peer reviewed process. Typically they do not add any new primary data, but rather compare and contrast the extant literature. Let me know if you would like me to send you examples of meta studies. Good luck, keep up the effort...
Bruce Clemens
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I presented papers at two conferences and co-authored another. None of these were ever published outside of the conferences. I have the proceeds of at least the first two. How should one approach this?
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Easy. Just upload them to your ResearchGate profile for others to read, and cite.
What are the criteria of low priority in the scientific evaluation of an original article?
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Sometimes the low priority halts a scientific revolution.
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Thank You for you. please read this paper: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/271589634_How_Can_We_Identify_Hijacked_Journals?ev=prf_pub it is interested. it is about emergent topic for all researcher. kindly i request to share it to your students and friends.
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It appears to me, that the the peer-review process in natural sciences is typically not double blind. This means the reviewers are anonymous but know the identity of the authors. This, I think, invariably leads to biased decisions. Shouldn´t it be possible to create a double blind review process? For this, of course, it would be necessary that authors stop to phrase all the time ... in our lab we recently showed... instead writing ... it was recently shown....
I heard many times by editors saying that double-blind peer review is not possible in academic publishing, but I never heard a valid reason, in my opinion.
Acutally, more importantly, peer-review of research proposals should be double blind, granted, this would be a bit more complicated to implement.
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I would suggest a triple-blind version.....y should even the editor know who the authors are? Double blind process is not totally bias free.......
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I am going to write an article now based on my previous work. My work is based in silico drug designing for infectious disease. I don't have any experience with writing research articles? Can anyone help me?
Are there basic outlines / points which should be keep in mind while writing any research article?
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I will add some things here which once my supervisor told me to remember while writing the original research article.
1. Title and abstract are very important for every article which attracts the attenstion and interest of the reader, and specially if reviewer likes the title and abstract, then he/she develops positive attitude towards your paper.
2. Your introduction should be relevant and precise giving enough background about the work you are going to show in your paper. Avoid too descriptive and unnecessary text.
3. Last paragraph of your introduction section should talk about important results of your work
4. Pay very much attention to your 'DISCUSSION' section and try to avoid repeating the sentenses from 'RESULTS' section here. Discussion is the place where you compare your data with already published work and draw your correlation or so..
5. Conclusion from your study and hint for future work is also desirable.
I hope these points could be of help in addition to what basic info Om has provided here.
What is the best approach for citing references to be included in a scientific work?
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Citing references in scientific works such as thesis writing, or article is an important issue. what is the best way from your experience in citing references, depending on primary references only, or in addition secondary references derived from primary references?
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Dr. Ahad, Hi when citing publications we usually choose the ones that clarify or strengthen our ideas/hypothesis etc. Therefore, I'd rather choose the cited references in that direction regardless of being secondary or primary.
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I want to share with you a discussion about how young researchers choose the suitable journal for publishing. What is the most important to see first: impact factor, duration of publishing, open access or not …etc
Thanks in advance for your time
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Dear Mohamed:
1)Duration of publishing process
2)Open access availability
3)Fair peer-review sytem
and finally not high percenatges of desk-rejection.
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What are the main guidelines for reusing material from our own workshop papers in writing a new journal or conference articles? Is it generally accepted to republish own workshop papers again as a conference/journal article?
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I agree with Heather. It seems to me that you can present your preliminary results on a poster, then extend it to a conference paper. The review process will give you nice hints to improve your research or writing in order to proceed to a journal article. It is not exactly the same content your are publishing, but as Heather put it, it must have significant new or revised content. And by the way, I would change the title as well.
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Is there a definitive or formal guide anyone might know about?
I found the attached image snippet from a Tumblr blog on "Scientific Illustration":
Aren't there any freely available, more formal guides and sources of information for creating efficient and aesthetically pleasing figures/graphics for scientific protocols?
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Peruse Edward Tufte's web site: https://www.edwardtufte.com/tufte/ . His four books are not free, but they are worth every penny. On the web site, seek out titles of interest in the "ET Notebooks".
Which methodology do you use to you write yourpublication discussion?
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I was looking on researchgate any topic on discussion writing in publication, but I did not figure out that much of interesting topic. So I would like to open an avenue: How do you approach the discussion part of your paper? Do you follow a structure that you reuse in every paper? Do you follow the flow of experiment describe in the results? Thank you so much for your answers!
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It is advantageous to state objective of the research. Probably, Introduction is the best place, where this can be done. The objective dictates the plan, according to which the results are presented. Then you switch to discussion, where you highlight impact of your work and its relation to previous communications. Thus, all parts in the work become logically connected. Thus, writing becomes simpler, when you start from objective (goal) of the work. Good luck!
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I am new in writing papers for publication. I am now in the process of searching for a journal which is appropriate for my study. Can anyone suggest what I may do/use? perhaps links, websites?
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Springer has a interesting tool to help authors to find a suitable journal for their research among more than 2,600 publications. Perhaps, it might help you. See - http://www.springer.com/authors/journal+authors/journal+authors+academy?SGWID=0-1726414-12-837833-0
What do you think about not mentioning all authors in citing references?
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I was excited about reviewing some articles that during citation, not all authors were mentioned. There may be a debate to do such a thing when there is a long list of authors. I think it is the right of an author to have his name cited in literature. As you know, at least the last author may be the owner of idea, or the supervisor of the project. What do you think about that? Would you be satisfied if your name was not mentioned?
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While I can understand why some people may prefer brevity as an answer to the lack of due recognition for some authors, the reality is that references with DOIs only will be contrary what they are meant to be - source of information about the cited work. To be relevant, references must include names of all authors if up to 8 authors, and only key authors (up to 8) if more than 8. When more than 8 authors, the important criteria is to ensure that the main supervisor, the owner of the idea and the student(s) or researcher(s) who carried out the experimental work and generate the results are included in the 8 listed authors. It is highly desirable and important that those who do the lion share of the work in a publication are duly recognised. In many disciplines, you can recognise quality citations by just looking at the authors list, but with DOIs you have to dig deeper to find this out. No need to create extra work for readers if not absolutely necessary.
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If an experiment measured different things which are hard to connect to each other (for example, if an experiment tests memory and measured proteins in hippocampus and some are neuronal specific, some are adhesive molecule, some has role in apoptosis, some are vesicular proteins, some receptors etc...) should the paper include only those proteins which has some connection to each other, can go some in supplementary data, or what you would be suggest?
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Is there any interests or needs from ResearchGate Users to use a ResearchGate document writing function to facilitate collaborative research writing ?
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ResearchGate will enhance their system with such a function. it would be great if ResearchGate team includes an open source module for this function.
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I have found some references without DOI. Can anyone help me ?
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hello,
You don't have to add the DOI in your references but it's the article's adress and it's a very valuable information.
regards
I'm submitting an article. I should "Provide a detailed legend to figures" . What is a Figure legend exactly?
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What is the meaning of this phrase exactly: "Provide a detailed legend (without abbreviations) to each figure"? Can everybody give me an example? Thanks in advanced
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\caption{blabla} in a fig I suppose!!
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Because paid journals are very fast in publishing the work..
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Avoid 'vanity publishing' journals (that publish anything as long as you pay). Some high quality journals nowadays also offer a choice to pay and in this case, your article will become freely downloadable to everybody; publishing in such journals can advance your career but paying for this will not increase your chance to get published; maybe it will increase a bit your chance to get cited.
How do I write and submit a good and effective letter to editor?
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It seems that it is not so hard to write a letter to editor, but all the letters are not published. I don't know completely which factors are important and necessary to write an effective letter, which surley published.
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Share your experience in producing high quality figures and illustrations by listing drawing software, techniques and conversion programs to produce different formats (i.e. from XLS to EPS etc.)
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An interesting book for displaying data is "The Visual Display of Quantitative Information" by Edward Tufte. Tufte presents several examples of how to present statistical data, charts, and tables in an inspiring manner.
Most of the software and tools I use are Linux based. For images of molecules I use PyMol, which is able to ray trace and export a png formatted file. For creating graphs and charts I prefer the R Statistical Language, which allows significant control over the data and has pdf and png export options. There are even ways to create animation using R, such as the rotation of a 3D plot about an axis. If I need to convert between formats I will use Gimp or the line command "convert." I will also use Gimp if I need to add images together, for example inserting an image of a molecule into a data plot.
I agree with Dr. Flippo that having a graphical artist to tap into (when possible) is a big plus and can take your images to a new level.
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It would be interesting to know what is the driver that incites people to write books or even articles in academic journals. I don't exclude the possibility of several co-existing reasons, but one of them must be the actual driver, the main ingredient defining the character of the writer and ultimately his/her market profile. I am curious to find out more about it. Why do you write? Is passion a forbidden word for this matter? Is this word just another shell emptied of content?
While ago there was a saying that a man should build a house, plant a tree and father a son before he is allowed to die. Why not adding the duty of writing a book or painting or making a sculpture or other artistic work to the list of 'should do' tasks?
In our more and more systematic societies of today, we can't any more talk about the ghost in the machine. The ghost has become a sort of collective memory, a network of common thoughts to which we gladly adhere. The machines appear to exist as terminals connected to a collective ghost. Is there anything more to discover beyond the collective entity, something pulsing within the machine, something crying for more mindfulness, more uniqueness, for more 'ghost in the machine'?
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The process of writing allows me to understand problems that without writing it would be totally beyound my capacity to understand. The power of my mind is at least amplify ten fold by getting involved in writing for at least one hour a day.
Primary reference v.s secondary reference: what is the optimal way to extract the information?
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I think there is an interesting issue during reading an article; it is how to read, how to extract the proper information? let us say, an article has been published in 2013, after being reviewed for methods and findings, in introduction, there will be a related literature varying in publication date. these are the secondary references. when we refer to such an article, what is the better way to be cited? in other words, should secondary references be involved within the context of primary reference, or cited as if they are primary references? what do you suggest? thanks in advance
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I am all for keeping it simple. So my guidance would be that we should always try to get as close to the source information as possible. When I read an article (article A) and feel that a citation is relevant to my work - I track down that source (article B) and read it. That way you can also check that the author of the article A has the same interpretation as you of article B and you can also check that they have not cherry-picked quotations and citations.
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Publication of an article.
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Please try this good site:
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I'm writing an ISI article. I've finished it but its almost 15 pages! I should make it more concise.
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The length is not a big factor unless it is clearly specified in the journal. The keys are (according to my experience): clearly define the contribution; highlight the advantages of your work; follow the accepted format of intro, lit review, metho, results, discussion, conclusion. Make sure your results are verified somehow (Survey, statistics etc,) . Highlight the strengths and especially weaknesses of your work. Detail future work. Make sure the references are sate-of-the-art.
These are just suggestions for good writing but they will get you into ISI.
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Any International biological science journals with average impact factor where article publication fee is nil or fairly low and also accepts articles from world wide not for members/ subscribers only .
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PLoS ONE has a waiver policy for researchers not being able to pay the requested fee.
The journal also has three fee levels, according to the country you are from. Countries in list 1 are exempt from any fee, those on list 2 are asked to contribute with a 500USD fee. Others are requested to contribute 1350USD per publication.
How to withdraw a smart conclusion in writing the abstract for an article or thesis?
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I think students have a difficulty in writing a smart conclusion. Should they repeat some of the important findings or should briefly write general sentences? Are there certain guidelines to help in this issue? thanks in advance.
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Yes, I think the students or beginner should repeat again and again!! Don't forget that, conclusion is different from a discussion. we can write a discussion based on our findings, Whether right or wrong! But a good conclusion will be drawn a new route for solving problems in futures, so it is belong to professors or young geniuses.
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I believe anything short of 800-900 words is too brief but is there such a thing as excessive discussion-length? I don't want to bore the reader by being too lengthy.
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Its depends on the volume of work you have done. You should put all the relevant points related to your work in discussion but you should not write irrelevant points not directly related to your work just to make the discussion part look bigger. That does not improve the quality of your work in any way.
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Each time I write an article, I have to struggle with the problem of the illustrations. I can often see pretty nice figures in articles, more especially in reviews, which makes me think that my method and tools for illustrations are probably outdated or even archaic. I used to illustrate with Appleworks when I had a Macintosh, which was fine for vector drawing. Yet, I dropped it when I had to switch to PC –I know that Appleworks exists for PC too, but I figured that there might be even better solutions. Right now, I draw my figures with Powerpoint, then I capture highly zoomed screenshots of my figures and copy them in Adobe Photoshop, in order to get figures with a high resolution. This is fairly time-consuming, though, since I sometimes have to combine numerous screenshots per figure (due to zooming) and to put together the pieces of the puzzle.
I would be very curious to know the way you handle illustration, which is not a negligible part of an article.
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This is an interesting question. I hear a lot of researchers that are struggling with their figures for articles and presentations.
Some time ago I started a project to make a library of science and medical illustrations that function as building blocks for larger figures and schemes. The initial collection was for personal use, but recently I decided to open it for everyone. Now, everybody that uses the library can also make suggestions for new illustrations, so that it is kind of a semi-custom service.
The rational is that every user pays a small fee, so that I can keep the platform running. It is a joint effort between many users, everybody benefits :)
Here is the link if you are interested: http://www.somersault1824.com/science-illustrations/
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We all know that there are some major weaknesses of research reports that make editors reject a paper, such as clear problem statement and conclusions that are not justified on the study. IS sampling also a problem in research planning (e.g., random and non-random).
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In any case the submission is risky. You do have to justify the conditions driven you to non-random sampling. Talking to a statistician maybe a good idea before submission to find out if the sampling procedure can be justified in some ways. One way out of it is to say that these are preliminary results of an ongoing research but the answer will be probably to try when research is finalized. Another good way is, as suggested by Stefan Edwards, to try to increase the power by using bootstrapping or other methods.
Kind regards
What is literature review?
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In writing a scientifc work as either paper, thesis...etc, we usually write literature. Why do we use the term "literature" to describe previous scientific works. What is the clue? Does it really include both works like novels, stories, poetry and science?
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First of all, relevant literature should be reviewed as per your objectives of the study.Secondly,it should be written in chronological order.After reviewing, one researcher must provide his/her own interpretations.Also,one researcher must know the art of scientific writing.
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I would like to differentiate better quality scientific research.
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Dear Yanick Simon,
Standards for Quality Research:  most commonly refers to the scientific process encompassing all aspects of study design; in particular, it pertains to the judgment regarding the match between the methods and questions, selection of subjects, measurement of outcomes, and protection against systematic bias, nonsystematic bias, and inferential error.
Best regards,
Musab
What's your favourite LaTeX editor ?
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Do you like LaTeX? Which editor are you working with? I've tried gedit, medit, TeXworks, Kile, TeXStudio, and even Geany, among which I think medit and TeXworks may be the best choices. What's your favourite LaTeX editor?
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While I don't often use LaTeX anymore, I find LyX to be useful. Some of it's templates are not quite what I expected, but as a wysiwyg (what you see is what you get) editor, I find it top notch. the ability to generate .dvi, .pdf, and others is helpful.
what is the difference between ISSN and ISBN no
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It is related to research articls publications
Who is an author and who is acknowledgable?
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In listing the authors, we find some names without any input, while other names are acknowledged for their input in certain techniques. What is the dilemma of research ethics?
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At PLoS Medicine they say: "Authorship credit should be based on 1) substantial contribution to conception and design, or acquisition of data, or analysis and interpretation of data; 2) drafting the article or revising it critically for important intellectual content; and 3) final approval of the version to be published. Authors should meet conditions 1, 2, and 3. (http://www.plosmedicine.org/static/guidelines.action#status)
Suggests me some good journals that does not charges any publication fees or other types of fees like APC/Subscribsion fees etc.
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Advice some Biological Sciences journals or specially on the field of Botany/Environmental Sciences/Ecology/Soil Science/Biofertilizers etc.with no publication fees.Totally free from any kind of publication charges for good articles.
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Http://www.conservationevidence.com/
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Publications are very important elements of the scientific work. How do they evaluate in your country?
In Poland, we have a ministerial list of scientific journals, which is divided in three parts:
part A - contains a number of points for publications in scientific journals with an impact factor (IF), located in the Journal Citation Reports (JCR). There are about 10 000 journals (from 15 to 50 points). The number of points is strictly related with IF.
part B - contains a number of points for publications in scientific journals without impact factor Impact Factor (IF). There are about 2 000 journals (from one to 10 points). The number of points is strictly related with questionnaire, which must be filled by journal editor.
part C - contains a number of points for publications in scientific journals in the database European Reference Index for the Humanities (ERIH). (10 points)
How you can see, it is strongly connected with IF. How it is in your country?
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In Canada, evaluation of scientific work is based on
1. Content, scope and venue of published journal articles. Journal articles are very important in the evaluation process, since the reviewing of submitted papers tends to be quite rigorous (and very helpful).
2. Some indication of scientific exchange stems from conference participation.
3. Production of Postdocs, Ph.D.s and M.Scs. A definite indicator of the intensity of research activity can be seen in terms of the success rate of one's graduate students and postdoctoral fellows.
4. Reviews of published papers by distinguished organisations such as zbMath (European Mathematical Society)
and MathSciNet (Mathematical Reviews, American Mathematical Society)