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# Argumentation - Science topic

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Publications related to Argumentation (10,000)

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Investment decisions in competitive power markets are based upon thorough profitability assessments. Thereby, investors typically show a high degree of risk aversion, which is the main argument for capacity mechanisms being implemented around the world. In order to investigate the interdependencies between investors' risk aversion and market design...

In this paper, we present more effective criteria for oscillation of second-order half-linear neutral dynamic equations with delayed arguments. Our results essentially improve, complement, and simplify several related ones in the literature. Some examples are given to illustrate our main results.

Objective
After learning of the rape allegation against the Attorney-General, Australians were divided in their support for an inquiry. We hypothesised that motivated reasoning on this issue would be associated with ideological preferences. We therefore examined whether perceptions of arguments about the inquiry could be explained by participants’...

Les récits oniriques et les oeuvres cinématographiques peuvent être considérés comme des oeuvres d’art suscitant des questions qui interpellent l’amateur de culture et qui ont le potentiel de le faire passer de la position de simple spectateur à celle de témoin de son époque. En prenant cette affirmation en tant que point de départ, l’objectif de l...

With the widespread adoption of social networking sites among college students, discerning the relationship between social networking sites use and college students’ academic performance has become a major research endeavor. However, much of the available research in this area rely on student self-reports and findings are notably inconsistent. Furt...

Small world networks have recently attracted much attention because of their unique properties. Mounting evidence suggests that communication is optimized in networks with a small world topology. However, despite the relevance of the argument, little is known about the effective enhancement of information in similar graphs. Here, we provide a quant...

In the present paper we consider a class of generalized saddle-point problems described by means of the following variational system: $$\begin{aligned} &a(u,v-u)+b(v-u,\lambda )+j(v)-j(u)+J(u,v)-J(u,u)\geq (f,v-u)_{X}, \\ &b(u,\mu -\lambda )-\psi (\mu )+\psi (\lambda )\leq 0, \end{aligned}$$ a ( u , v − u ) + b ( v − u , λ ) + j ( v ) − j ( u ) + J...

In an international context, teaching quality is often assessed via student surveys. Yet, there is little empirical evidence for the validity of students' perceptions of teaching quality across education systems. Following an argumentative validation approach, we evaluate the reliability, stability, and international comparability of students' perc...

We investigate the magnetism of a previously unexplored distorted spin-1/2 kagome model consisting of three symmetry-inequivalent nearest-neighbor antiferromagnetic Heisenberg couplings J ⬡ , J , and $$J^{\prime}$$ J ′ , and uncover a rich ground state phase diagram even at the classical level. Using analytical arguments and numerical techniques we...

Educator preparation programs experienced extreme challenges during the COVID-19 pandemic, as many universities and K-12 schools moved to fully online or hybrid instructional models. These abrupt changes significantly limited preservice teachers’ opportunities to engage in classroom-based practice teaching experiences, which are a bedrock of educat...

This short communication paper aimed to compile the main determinants of inequality in dental services by distinguishing between access, utilisation, and provision of dental services. Recent findings integrated, and a dedicated conceptual framework entitled “Triangle of inequality in dental services” has been suggested. These can contribute a rich...

Negative word-of-mouth is a strong consumer and user response to dissatisfaction. Moral outrages can create an excessive collective aggressiveness against one single argument, one single word, or one action of a person resulting in hateful speech. In this work, we examine the change of vocabulary to explore the outbreak of online firestorms on Twit...

At least 10% of the BRCA1/2 tests identify variants of uncertain significance (VUS) while the distinction between pathogenic variants (PV) and benign variants (BV) remains particularly challenging. As a typical tumor suppressor gene, the inactivation of the second wild-type (WT) BRCA1 allele is expected to trigger cancer initiation. Loss of heteroz...

In the present chapter, we seek to better understand how laypeople reason about the “true self" of a person with advancing dementia. We are also interested in how such reasoning bears on laypeople’s views about the validity or invalidity of an advance directive (AD) regarding that person’s treatment. Toward that end, we will report the results of t...

Through a theoretical and substantive review, the author argues that curation is a central thread that weaves together and underlies multiple and diverse elements of personal and public life. This argument is built on a theoretical scaffold which delineates curation as a situated matrix of production and consumption, networks, and code. Defined bro...

This research sought to identify self-perceived critical thinking skills by teachers at a public higher education institution in Mexico. A structured questionnaire, prepared and standardized by Santiuste-Bermejo et al (2001), was applied. This instrument reveals the self-perception of critical thinking when performing reading, writing, listening, a...

This book makes a relevant contribution to a Marxist critical explanation of social conflicts, social movements and protests. There is abundant literature on social conflict and social movements from Marxist perspectives. However, rigorous criticism, both theoretical and methodological, is scarce. The objective of this volume is the collection of w...

We are concerned with the time-harmonic elastic scattering due to an inhomogeneous elastic material inclusion located inside a uniformly homogeneous isotropic medium. We establish a sharp stability estimate of logarithmic type in determining the support of the elastic scatterer, independent of its material content, by a single far-field measurement...

This article examines five arguments on the use of non-hallucinogenic psychedelics in psychiatry. The authors argue that researchers and physicians should continue to use hallucinogenic psychedelics because current data support their therapeutic effect. If equally safe and efficacious non-hallucinogenic psychedelics were developed, these should als...

We consider a system of finite horizon, sequentially interconnected, obliquely reflected backward stochastic differential equations (RBSDEs) with stochastic Lipschitz coefficients. We show existence of solutions to our system of RBSDEs by applying a Picard iteration approach. Uniqueness then follows by relating the limit to an auxiliary impulse con...

The aim of this paper is twofold. On one hand, we strive to give a simpler proof of the optimality of greedy controls when the cost of interventions is control-affine and the dynamics follow a state-constrained controlled SIR model. This is achieved using the Hamilton–Jacobi characterization of the value function, via the verification argument and...

We present a general blow-up technique to obtain local regularity estimates for solutions, and their derivatives, of second order elliptic equations in divergence form in Hölder spaces with variable exponent. The procedure allows to extend the estimates up to a portion of the boundary where Dirichlet or Neumann boundary conditions are prescribed an...

The current study examined the extent to which sixth grade students used their pre-existing topic beliefs to guide comprehension of semantic ideas within multiple conflicting texts, and the sources providing them. Adolescents completed an inventory assessing their pre-reading topic beliefs one week prior to the study. During the study, students rea...

We prove that if M is a closed n-dimensional Riemannian manifold, n≥3, with Ric≥n-1 and for which the optimal constant in the critical Sobolev inequality equals the one of the n-dimensional sphere Sn, then M is isometric to Sn. An almost-rigidity result is also established, saying that if equality is almost achieved, then M is close in the measure...

Geschke proved in [2] that there is a clopen graph on 2ω\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$2^\omega $$\end{document} which is 3-saturated, but the clopen g...

There recently has been some interest in the space of functions on an interval satisfying the heat equation for positive time in the interior of this interval. Such functions were characterised as being analytic on a square with the original interval as its diagonal. In this short note we provide a direct argument that the analogue of this result h...

As a part of the series of studies that have investigated different aspects of the Exo project and its arguments for the format and technical solution of the computed architecture-instrument, this paper focuses on main attributes and criteria that qualify this kind of architectural design for the categories of dynamic and kinetic responsive archite...

We give examples of data-generating models under which Breiman’s random forest may be extremely slow to converge to the optimal predictor or even fail to be consistent. The evidence provided for these properties is based on mostly intuitive arguments, similar to those used earlier with simpler examples, and on numerical experiments. Although one ca...

We derive local asymptotics of solutions to second order elliptic equations at the edge of a (N−1)-dimensional crack, with homogeneous Neumann boundary conditions prescribed on both sides of the crack. A combination of blow-up analysis and monotonicity arguments provides a classification of all possible asymptotic homogeneities of solutions at the...

We establish existence of nonnegative martingale solutions to stochastic thin-film equations with quadratic mobility for compactly supported initial data under Stratonovich noise. Based on so-called $$\alpha $$ α -entropy estimates, we show that almost surely these solutions are classically differentiable in space almost everywhere in time and that...

A recent article by Herzog provides a much-needed integration of ethical and epistemological arguments in favor of explicable AI (XAI) in medicine. In this short piece, I suggest a way in which its epistemological intuition of XAI as “explanatory interface” can be further developed to delineate the relation between AI tools and scientific research.

We derive stationary measures for certain zero-temperature random polymer models, which we believe are new in the case of the zero-temperature limit of the beta random polymer (that has been called the river delta model). To do this, we apply techniques developed for understanding the stationary measures of the corresponding positive-temperature ra...

The background of the article is an interest in theories of learning and the metaphors of learning they build on and propagate. The basic argument is that the discursive construction of learning plays a central role in theoretical perspectives in research but also in discussions of societal issues in a wider sense. An initial observation is that cu...

Climate emergency is fast becoming the overriding problem of our times and rapid reductions in carbon emissions a primary policy focus that is liable to affect all aspects of society and economy. A key component in climate science is the “climate sensitivity” measure and there has been a recent attempt using Bayesian updating to narrow this measure...

The advent of intelligent artificial systems has sparked a dispute about the question of who is responsible when such a system causes a harmful outcome. This paper champions the idea that this dispute should be approached as a conceptual engineering problem. Towards this claim, the paper first argues that the dispute about the responsibility gap pr...

In the present article, we consider a new class of one-pad ciphers. We define its encryption algorithm as a partial function with two arguments. The first argument is a key, which is a random and equiprobable sequence of natural language letters. The length of the key is N. The second argument is a coherent (readable) text of length L, where L < N....

In this paper, we introduce a new class of optimization problems whose objective functions are weakly homogeneous relative to the constraint sets. By using the normalization argument in asymptotic analysis, we prove two criteria for the nonemptiness and boundedness of the solution set of a weakly homogeneous optimization problem. Moreover, we discu...

How should policymakers respond to the risk of technological unemployment that automation brings? First, I develop a procedure for answering this question that consults, rather than usurps, individuals’ own attitudes and ambitions towards that risk. I call this the insurance argument. A distinctive virtue of this view is that it dispenses with the...

In a recent paper, Cassinadri (2022) raised substantial criticism about the possibility of using moral reasons to endorse the hypothesis of extended cognition (EXT) over its most popular alternative, the embedded view (EMB). In particular, Cassinadri criticized 4 of the arguments we formulated to defend EXT and argued that our claim that EXT might...

In this paper, we study the existence of sign-changing solutions for the Chern-Simons-Schrödinger equation with concave-convex nonlinearities 0.1-Δu+ωu+h2(|x|)|x|2+∫|x|∞h(s)su2(s)dsu=λK(|x|)|u|p-2u+|u|q-2uinR2,u∈Hr1(R2),\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{ams...

An n-queens configuration is a placement of n mutually non-attacking queens on an n×n\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$n\times n$$\end{document} chessboar...

Jessica Flanigan argues that individuals have the right to self-medicate. Flanigan presents two arguments in defense of this right. The first she calls the epistemic argument and the second she calls the rights-based argument. I argue that the right to self-medicate hangs and falls on the rights-based argument. This is because for the epistemic arg...

Secular dynamics inside mean motion resonances (MMRs) plays an essential role in governing the dynamical structure of the trans-Neptunian region and sculpting the orbital distribution of trans-Neptunian objects (TNOs). In this study, semianalytical developments are made to explore the von Zeipel–Lidov–Kozai resonance inside MMRs. To this end, a sem...

Equations governing the transient- and steady-state regimes of the fractional series RLC circuits containing dissipative and/or generative capacitor and inductor are posed by considering the electric current as a response to electromotive force. Further, fractional RLC circuits are analyzed in the steady-state regime and their energy consumption/pr...

We consider a class of Mean Field Games in which the agents may interact through the statistical distribution of their states and controls. It is supposed that the Hamiltonian behaves like a power of its arguments as they tend to infinity, with an exponent larger than one. A monotonicity assumption is also made. Existence and uniqueness are proved...

In Pharmaceutical Freedom Professor Flanigan argues we ought to grant people self-medication rights for the same reasons we respect people’s right to give (or refuse to give) informed consent to treatment. Despite being the most comprehensive argument in favour of self-medication written to date, Flanigan’s Pharmaceutical Freedom leaves a number of...

We show that in the family of degree d⩾2\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \usepackage{amsmath} \usepackage{wasysym} \usepackage{amsfonts} \usepackage{amssymb} \usepackage{amsbsy} \usepackage{mathrsfs} \usepackage{upgreek} \setlength{\oddsidemargin}{-69pt} \begin{document}$$d\geqslant 2$$\end{document} rational maps of the Riemann sphere, the closure of...

We analyze clients’ contract choices in auctions where Dutch law firms compete for standard cases such as labor disputes for individuals and collecting debts for businesses. In the auctions, lawyers can submit bids with any fee arrangement they prefer, including an hourly rate, a fixed fee, and a ‘mixed fee’: a time-capped fixed fee plus an hourly...

We propose and analyze a new asynchronous rumor spreading protocol to deliver a rumor to all the nodes of a large-scale distributed network. This spreading protocol relies on what we call a k-pull operation, with \(k \ge 2\). Specifically a k-pull operation consists, for an uninformed node s, in contacting \(k-1\) other nodes at random in the netwo...

We investigate the null controllability property of systems that
mathematically describe the dynamics of some non-Newtonian incompressible
viscous flows. The principal model we study was proposed by O. A. Ladyzhenskaya, although the techniques we develop here apply to other fluids having a
shear-dependent viscosity. Taking advantage of the Pontryag...

The geological evolution of orogens is the sum of events related to both their cycle of generation as well as features inherited from their basement units. The Himalayan Orogen provides a well‐constrained Cenozoic history of active plate convergence and orogenic processes overprinting an early Paleozoic orogen. A total of 1,627 Himalayan leucograni...

In this paper we explore the person restrictions that the impersonal construction presents: the person condition of the external argument and the person restriction on the internal argument. We propose that the external argument of the impersonal is a silent pronoun of DP category (pro) that must be interpreted as [+human]. This argument is located...

First-order convergence in time and space is proved for a fully discrete semi-implicit finite element method for the two-dimensional Navier-Stokes equations with L^2 initial data in convex polygonal domains, without extra regularity assumptions or grid-ratio conditions. The proof utilises the smoothing properties of the Navier-Stokes equations in t...

Jurors are people who are exposed to legal proceedings and consequently exercise their judgment. A broad literature on law and film discusses the analogy between formal jurors, who are assigned to jury duty by the legal system, and "informal jurors"– "viewers-as-jurors" who encounter the legal system indirectly, through the media. In this paper, we...

The importance of faith in Christianity cannot be denied, nor the arguments surrounding it. The crisis of faith that now grips the western church necessitates a fresh look at its essential teachings. This study traces the trajectory of St. Paul’s concept of faith in the rest of the New Testament in order to answer the question of how far and in wha...

Staying with the metaphors of the art of war and the analogy with Clausewitz : Kant is thus moving in this battle on an extremely long frontline. Practically this means that he shows the entire mediation chain of production of the legitimate positive statements. However, this line ("frontline" or "mediation chain" of the cognitive work) avoids with...

In this paper, it is considered the existence of a solution for a nonlocal equation involving the p-Laplacian operator which is related to several applications such as vibration problems, flow of fluids through a homogeneous isotropic rigid porous medium, nuclear reactor's dynamics and in population dynamics. The approach is based on sub-supersolut...

Extensive research has shown various family factors such as low family cohesion, and limited parental supervision to be associated with adolescent Internet addiction (IA). There has been little discussion about the relationship between parental IA and adolescent IA. The purpose of this study was to determine whether parental IA and parental monitor...

There is a common distinction in the socio-philosophical literature between two kinds of power: normative and causal. According to a widespread and still dominant conception-normativistic legal positivism-law has to do with normative powers, not causal ones. I will try to argue that this rigid distinction between domains seriously undermines the po...

Malayan Chinese muted response to the Malayan Union proposal in 1946 which promised common citizenship rights and equal opportunity to non-Malays have not been sufficiently explained by existing literature. This article suggests that such muted response is due to the presence of Chinese transnationalism that diluted and diverted the community's att...

La conferencia "Das Ge-Stell", "Lo dis-puesto", ha sido recogida en el volumen 79 de la Edición integral (Martin Heidegger, Gesamtausgabe (GA), Bd. 79: Bremer und Freiburger Vorträge, Vittorio Klostermann, Frankfurt a. M., 1994. Vorträge 1949 und 1957 herausgegeben von Petra Jaeger). Es una de las conferencias pronunciadas en Bremen el año 1949 (Ei...

Between 2016 and 2021, in response to calls for a second Scottish independence referendum, two British Prime Ministers—Theresa May and Boris Johnson—adopted a holding position, at the core of which was the “now-is-not-the-time” argumentative scheme. As a particular expression of strategic ambiguity, this delay discourse was intended to fulfil a spe...

Street harassment is a form of gendered violence that is a common experience for women around the world. This review article chronicles the early research on street harassment exploring terminology and definitions. It overviews research from North America that shows that street harassment exacts a heavy toll on women. When women share their experie...

In this paper, we study the oscillatory behavior of the solutions of a first-order difference equation with non-monotone retarded argument and nonnegative coefficients, based on an iterative procedure. We establish some oscillation criteria, involving lim sup, which achieve a marked improvement on several known conditions in the literature. Two exa...

In this paper, we study the $L^p$-asymptotic stability with $p\in (1,\infty)$ of the one-dimensional nonlinear damped wave equation with a localized damping and Dirichlet boundary conditions in a bounded domain $(0,1)$. We start by addressing the well-posedness problem. We prove the existence and the uniqueness of weak solutions for $p\in [2,\infty...

In a widely acclaimed contribution to Management International Review, Hennart (2007) challenged one of the mainstream theories of International Business, the S-curve relationship between multinationality and performance, by arguing that there is no positive impact on performance aside from the scale enhancing effect resulting from increasing multi...

This study examines, first, the syntactic asymmetries between reflexive and reciprocal constructions in Jordanian Arabic (JA), paying special attention to those with morphological marking. In particular, it will be argued that morphologically marked reflexives are one-place predicates, but their reciprocal counterparts are two-place predicates, wit...

Abstract
Interior spaces are a springboard for memory integrating the past with the present. This
painting project investigates objects in relation to memory within home environments. As
mnemonic devices, objects can evoke memories and associations, important to the dweller.
The properties of objects will be investigated using charcoal and collage...

In a recent paper, Justin D’Ambrosio (2020) has offered an empirical argument in support of a negative solution to the puzzle of Macbeth’s dagger—namely, the question of whether, in the famous scene from Shakespeare’s play, Macbeth sees a dagger in front of him. D’Ambrosio’s strategy consists in showing that “seeing” is not an existence-neutral ver...

Proponents of the extended mind have suggested that phenomenal transparency may be important to the way we evaluate putative cases of cognitive extension. In particular, it has been suggested that in order for a bio-external resource to count as part of the machinery of the mind, it must qualify as a form of transparent equipment or transparent tec...

Sometimes one can prevent harm only by contravening rights. If the harm one can prevent is great enough, compared to the stringency of the opposing rights, then one has a lesser-evil justification to contravene the rights. Non-consequentialist orthodoxy holds that, most of the time, lesser-evil justifications add to agents’ permissible options with...

Visual perception is widely taken to present properties such as redness, round-ness, and so on. This in turn might be thought to give rise to accuracy conditions for experience, and so content, regardless of which metaphysical view of perception one endorses. An influential version of this argument-Susanna Siegel's 'Argument from Appearing'-aims to...

The role of coalgebras as well as algebraic groups in non-commutative probability has long been advocated by the school of von Waldenfels and Sch\"urmann. Another algebraic approach was introduced more recently, based on shuffle and pre-Lie calculus, and resulting in another construction of groups of characters encoding the behaviour of states. Com...

This summarises my forthcoming journal article titled a “A Critique of Critical Psychiatry”. The full article is almost ten thousand words and gets a bit technical so this is a more accessible summary. I don’t fully justify the arguments in this summary, so please check the main article for all the nuances, arguments, examples, and full citations.

The goal of this article is to discuss theoretical arguments concerning the idea that emotional mimicry is an intrinsic part of our social being and thus can be considered a social act. For this, we will first present the theoretical assumptions underlying the Emotional Mimicry as Social Regulator view. We then provide a brief overview of recent de...

In this paper we discuss estimation and inference in econometric models for financial durations. By focusing on the well-known autoregressive conditional duration (ACD) models of Engle and Russell (1998), we show the unexpected result that the large sample behavior of likelihood-based estimators strongly depends on the tail behavior of the duration...

The exact solution of the Lindblad equation with a quadratic Hamiltonian and linear coupling operators was derived within the chord representation, that is, for the Fourier transform of the Wigner function. It is here generalized for multiple components, so as to provide an explicit expression for the reduced density operator of any component, as w...

The contemporary form of critical psychiatry and psychology focused on here follows Thomas Szasz in arguing that many of the concepts and practices of psychiatry are unscientific, value-laden, and epistemically violent. These claims are based on what I call the 'comparativist' critique, referred to as such since the argument relies on comparing psy...

A'-extraction of possessors in West Circassian is constrained in a puzzling way: the possessor of an ergative or applied argument DP may not undergo clausebound wh-movement, but long-distance possessor extraction across a clausal boundary is grammatical. Based on the variable islandhood of these DPs, this paper argues for an agree-based approach to...

Experimental research on argument structure has reported mixed results regarding the processing of unaccusative and unergative predicates. Using eye tracking in the visual world paradigm, this study seeks to fill a gap in the literature by presenting new evidence of the processing distinction between agent and theme subjects. We considered two hypo...

This review paper on John Dewey, the revolutionary educationist of the 20th century, discuss his didactic opinion, and writings, which give an innovative trend to education at the revolve of the century. Dewey's donations are enormous and irresistible in the field of teaching and learning, political affairs, humanism, common sense, and aesthetics....

Let $U$ be a smooth affine curve over a number field $K$ with a compactification $X$ and let $\mathbb L$ be a rank $2$, geometrically irreducible $\bar{\mathbb Q}_\ell$-local system on $U$ with cyclotomic determinant that extends to an integral model, has Frobenius traces all in some fixed number field $E\subset \bar{\mathbb Q}_\ell$, and has bad,...

In the first part of the paper, I discuss Benatar’s asymmetry argument for the claim that it would have been better for each of us to have never lived at all. In contrast to other commentators, I will argue that there is a way of interpreting the premises of his argument which makes all of them come out true. (This will require one departure from B...

Paul (2014, 2015a) argues that one cannot rationally decide whether to have a transformative experience by trying to form judgments, in advance, about (i) what it would feel like to have that experience, and (ii) the subjective value of having such an experience. The problem is if you haven’t had the experience then you cannot know what it is like,...

Interest in policy feedback processes in energy transitions has grown rapidly in recent years. However, while it has provided interesting accounts of the mechanisms of stability or change, the policy feedback framework begs the question of why policy feedback dynamics vary so widely across cases. Existing accounts have tended to focus on the influe...