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Classroom teaching or field extended studies are useful for the resent generation.
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I believe that environmental technology tools can be used in science and technology, as obtaining sustainable development technology is an option to preserve the planet
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Currently, microplastics (MPs) occurence researches in coastal and marine animals are performed in huge amounts, but their results concerning MPs abundances are not always given with the same unity.
  • From what I can tell from studies I read, most provide data using MPs/individual. There are some studies that sample in pools, and then, after ending samplings, calculate the MPs/individual data. It would be an issue if we compare MPs/individual data of two different studies: one that sampled in each individual and another that sampled in pools?
  • Should a specific study provide just the MPs/individual data? I think this study it would be sort of incomplete, considering that this data would not totally reflect the abundance of animals with different sizes, weights, and possibly ages, etc.
  • What is the best approach between other unities, such as MPs/g of the whole sample, MPs/g of their dry or wet weight? That are some formulas to convert samples weight for dry and/or wet. This is applicable for MPs?
I know much of that depends on the study's biological samples, and objectives, but I would enjoy reading researchers opinion about it.
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Dear Victor
Mostly expressed as items/m3, but you use another unites according to your specified work too!
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> Animals are kept in accordance with ABNT standards.
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Algae
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In many conservatories around the world, as well as in many organic-farms, insecticidal soaps (potassium salts of fatty acids) are widely used to combat aphids, mealybugs, mites etc. They are considered safe to mammalians and are prioritized instead of chemicals.
Very little to no information can actually be found whether the soaps may be toxic to amphibians. Can anyone help us on this matter? An eductaed guess would tell me that the thin film created by the sopa on aquatic enviroment as well as, presumably, on the skin of the amphibians would cause significan damage.
Many thanks!
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I looked up the technical fact sheet and although there was no specific mention about amphibians apparently it is toxic for fish and aquatic invertebrates and the EPA requires it not to be applied to water or to contaminate water sources with it. I think this supports your hunch.
"Scientists concluded that potassium salts of fatty acids are slightly toxic to cold-water and warm-water fish (1)."
"Potassium salts of fatty acids are highly toxic to aquatic invertebrates."
"The EPA requires all product labels containing this active ingredient to state that the product is not to be applied directly to water and the user is not to contaminate water by cleaning equipment or disposing of wash water that contains potassium salts of fatty acids (1, 11)."
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Hi everybody. I am facing an issue about reproduction data analysis in chronic toxicity test with C.dubia. US EPA Method 1002.0 ( https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-08/documents/short-term-chronic-freshwater-wet-manual_2002.pdf) instructions tell:
" The response used in the statistical analysis is the number of young produced per adult female, which is determined by taking the total number of young produced until either the time of death of the adult or the end of the experiment, whichever comes first. An animal that dies before producing young, if it has not been identified as a male, would be included in the analysis with zero entered as the number of young produced "
Including dead animals in the count gives me back too high standard deviation values which don't fit well in my analysis. I would like to know if alternatives are available: feel free to link me to other papers, works, methods etc.. which could help. Thanks a lot to anyone will spend time to help me.
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At what point (concentration) is sulphate lethal to phytoplankton?
Any relationship between sulphate concentration and algal growth and development?
How can one contruct an experiment to determine the effect of sulphate concentration on phytoplankton?
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Dear researchers,
I would much appreciate if you could explain or suggest good research papers regarding the effects of ocean acidification on the chemical composition of the valves of mainly Mytilidae and Pectinidae species and damage, growth, development or biomarker assessment.
Thanks in advance
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You can also get help searching engine of the below doctoral thesis by Alexander Ventura :
Bivalves in the face of ocean acidification
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Suaeda maritima.
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Yes. Please see the following RG link.
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The purpose of this question is to bring researchers together to discuss and network the issue of plastic waste in the sea. Both large waste items and plastic particle waste the likes ingested by fish and subsequently transferred through the food chain.
What research are you working or on or what suggestions do you have for scientifically removing the plastic both large and particle from our Oceans. Please share your thoughts.
Obviously, there is a large political movement on this subject at the moment and suggestions like, could we all own 1 bottle and have drinks dispensed rather than distributed in bottles. But what are peoples scientific thoughts / projects around the removal of plastic from the sea, rather than root cause.
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Cebolenkosi Philani Ntuli that’s a great solution. Nagalakshmi Radhakrishnan thanks for your contribution.
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Different groups favor different methods; I would greatly appreciate more input on the debate. Assume all bottle types are cleaned thoroughly and samples are being analyzed in the lab for Methylmercuy (MeHg), Total mercury (THg), both filtered and/or unfiltered. Other considerations: remote work, trace-level contamination, freezing vs. acidification.
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Teflon
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I am a Masters Student of Ecotoxicology at University of Koblenz-Landau Germany. I am entirely new in this field and gradually developing interest in aquatic ecotoxicology. I will remain grateful to receive materials that will help me develop in this area of interest. Thanks.
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Environment and Toxicology Studies Journal is a peer - reviewed, open access publication that used by readers in the following fields: Eco-toxicology, Sources of environmental toxicity , Aquatic toxicology. Refer to. https://www.imedpub.com -- focus - scope. Also Fundamentals of Aquatic toxicology effects, Environmental Fate, and Risk Assessment, 2nd. edition Refer to https://www.contamsites.landcaresearch.co and Development and Application of Aquatic Toxicology Studies for the assessment of impacts due to chemical stressosrs refer https://digitalcommons.flu.edu.cgi.vie
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The pufferfish also referred to as fugufish, blowfish or globefish is said to be the second most poisonous vertebrae on earth next to the tiny golden poison frog from Colombia. The toxin responsible for the pufferfish's deadly character is tetrodotoxin.
Two members of a family have died in Ghana today because of consuming this fish. What do you know about this fish and it's toxic element? How do we intensify public health education? Kindly share your valuable views. Thanks in advance.
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I follow
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There is a directive in Ghana by the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture Department to ban all imports on ornamental fishes and Tilapia species including gametes-eggs and milts from now to the close of the year as an immediate response to halt the spread of the virus which is said to be prevalent in Africa, South America and Asia, especially in farmed Tilapia. This is a blow against the global Tilapia industry.
Kindly share your views on the new virus, ways of preventing it and other references. Thanks in advance. Best regards
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Following
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I've got concentration of Cu2+, H+, and CuOH in water solution (in Visual MInteQ). Is complex BL-CuOH created from free ions like [Cu] and [OH], or does CuOH+ react with BL?
If I know concentration of free ions of Cu nad CuOH+ ions - which of them should I use to calculate concentration of BL-CuOH.
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Hi there
Have a look at our paper
And also check our website, all explained and links to tools provided:
Leonardo
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I am working on some cyanobacteria from fresh water in Zimbabwe's upper Mhanyame catchment. I am requesting for assistance in identifying the attached species. Could it be Tolyprhrix?
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Dear Stephen,
Please request the following ResearchGate member for identification.
Good luck
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Metal nanoparticles are showing promise in tackling different problems in different domains of environment. How they can be used in aquatic ecosystems? What are different likely interactions? What may the possible toxic effects on different ecosystem components (planktons, bacteria, macrophytes and fish)? How can we track the ecotoxicological linkages? How could we manage metal nanoparticles for positive (beneficial) uses and avert the adverse/untoward consequences?
RG friends and researchers you all are welcome to participate and help to promote a sustained brainstorming on pros and cons of apllyting metal nanoparticles in aquatic systems like, ponds, lakes, rivers, etc.  
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The best review article on "Nanoparticles in aquatic systems". I hope this review addresses most of your questions. Here is the link to access the paper.
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Toxicity values for Ni on Coastal and marine organisms especially diatoms and copepods from coastal waters of India through toxicological bioassays
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Yes, the LC50 values derived based on the dose-response of toxicity bioassays by exposing organisms to gradually increasing concentrations. We have conducted such toxicity bioassays on eight species of marine organisms from coastal waters of Tamil Nadu, India and derived toxicity values. In order to compare and derive safe limits for Nickel the toxicity values for nickel on marine organisms of Indian coasts is required.
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There always have been disturbances occurring naturally in these types of ecosystems, but it would be good to know which is being more affected by human interference. 
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The amount of freshwater and groundwater is small in comparison to the oceans.  
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I m looking for some literature that describes the method to measure the trophic level transfer efficiency in marine ecosystems directly on the field in-situ. 
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Hello. Have you had the opportunity to read the chapter   "Bevelhimer, M.S. and Breck, J.E. (2009) Centrarchid Energetics, in Centrarchid Fishes: Diversity, Biology, and Conservation (eds S. J. Cooke and D.P. Philipp), Wiley-Blackwell, Oxford, UK, doi: 10.1002 / 9781444316032.ch7"?
In my opinion, it can help you with your need.
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Bioturbation is the soil/sediment reworking by animals. It has a definite role in ecosystem engineering too by modifying and modulating different physicochemibal transformations and biological/microbiological interactions. Toxicants' transfers may be affected and ecotoxic effects may be modified. Can bioturbation be manipulated in reducing toxic effects of some toxicants and how?
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Dear Prof. Beauchamp & friends,
You have talked about bioremediation for cleaning up toxicants by different methods like biofiltration, biosparging, biostimulation, bioventing, composting, etc and dif methods of phytoremediation. Can you provide concrete information and research papers reflecting bioturbation induced enhanced microbial remediation.   But the focus of  my query has been bioturbation of soil and sediment. definitely different bioturbative mechanism like, burrowing, resuspension, bioirrigation/respiratory irrigation, filter feeding, benthic/bottom grazing, secretions, etc  exert considerable influence in altering the physical, chemical and microbiological characteristics of soil or sediment habitat. Such bioturbation mechanisms had been dealt in my paper "Bioturbation potential of chironomid larvae for sediment-water ................"  published in Ecological Engineering (Elsevier) 35(2008):1444-1453. These mechansims might have significant impact on bioremediatin of toxicants mediated by microorganisms or by some other means and mechanisms. I am looking forward to some insightful intellectual and scientific exchange of ideas and relevant papers.
Regards
Jayanta
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I have found ucc value for Fe (from Rudnick & Gao 2004) is 4.09 wt%. but how can I convert it into mg/kg unit?
advance thanks for response and precious time.
kind regards.
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Saif ultimate lelan
4.o9% = 4.09 Gm  Fe  in  100 Gm  crust
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Mn is important  to aquatic organisms 
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In traces it doesn't produce any toxic effects infact it is required for various enzymes. however the elevated concentration may produce oxidative stress due to generation of free radicals and lipid peroxidation of membrane of vital organelles 
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I am currently working on the bioaccumulation of nickel in Sargassum polycystum, but I can't seem to find the level limit of nickel in said species. Anyone who knows the level limit in accordance to WHO and NAOCC? 
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Good luck to you
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Identification, please what is it? I can't identify. it is from freshwater (stream)
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Hi,
Daniel is right, it is Tabellaria flocculosa. The "zig-zag" bands are the result of divisions - one pole is still attached to the next cell via extracellular poysaccharides, the other not. This is the so.called side- or girdleband-view.
Regards
Michael
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Two-way ANOVA on a dataset (codes and results given below) showed no interaction. However, the post hoc output from lsmean package showed a compact letter display which sounds like there is an interaction. The compact letter display for "treatment 2" at "week1" is "c" whereas it is "ab"  at week2 and week3, respectively. Does this show an interaction (the effect of treatment changes with change in week)or am I misinterpreting the result? The codes given below.
library(lsmeans)
read.table(textConnection("time treatment effect
week1 1 664
week1 1 617
week1 1 647
week1 2 732
week1 2 819
week1 2 843
week1 3 850
week1 3 670
week1 3 722
week2 1 561
week2 1 581
week2 1 586
week2 2 597
week2 2 669
week2 2 654
week2 3 747
week2 3 708
week2 3 705
week3 1 630
week3 1 630
week3 1 664
week3 2 576
week3 2 666
week3 2 716
week3 3 776
week3 3 773
week3 3 726
"),header=T)->dat1
dat1$treatment<-as.factor(dat1$treatment)
aov(effect~time*treatment,data=dat1)->m1
summary(m1)
tk <- lsmeans(m1, pairwise ~ treatment*time,adjust="tukey",sort=F)
cld(tk,Letters=letters, sort=F)
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Without knowing more about your data, it is possible to have a nonsignificant overall test but show significance in main effects or simple main effects.
Check power and effect sizes.
Marcie Zinn
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I find a lot of answers about aquatic toxicity on plants, but none on aquatic toxicity of plants (except one or two articles about plants used for fish poisoning, in fishing). My keywords are not very useful to distinguish these two subjects! So, I am looking for some general or review documents on the subject, in particular, if possible, about toxicity of plant extracts.
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thank you Hatice and Ted, I will have a look at all this!
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There are many research papers published on Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) bleaching which state that it is sustainable process to do bleaching with potassium permanganate.
e.g.
I agree with conducted research regarding effectiveness and results obtained through use of potassium permanganate, but I have come to know recent news that KMnO4 is restricted in many countries and it is non-biodegradable at all.
CHT Bezema has introduced alternative of KMnO4 which is 99% biodegradable, you may visit following link to know about their product.
As per CHT report, Why KMnO4 is restricted?
Manganese is a heavy metal and not biodegradable. Potassium permanganate (KMnO4) belongs to the substances which are particularly dangerous to the environment with high fish toxicity. In many countries there are strict regulations or even an obligation to provide evidence to avoid any misuse of KMnO4.
Please share your valuable information and thoughts.
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As Dr hassan mentioned Hydrogen peroxid is recommended for textile fabrics.
Regards
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I need to know this term Centile in CTD.
From 1st and 5th centile how can we get screening point values?
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Hi Ishaq,
The following papers may help you with this:
Williams, E. S., Berninger, J. P., and Brooks, B. W. (2011). Application of chemical toxicity distributions to ecotoxicology data requirements under REACH. Environmental Toxicology and Chemistry 30, 1943-1954 http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.583
Brain, R. A., Sanderson, H., Sibley, P. K., and Solomon, K. R. (2006). Probabilistic ecological hazard assessment: Evaluating pharmaceutical effects on aquatic higher plants as an example. Ecotoxicology and Environmental Safety 64, 128-135.
Centile is just a shortened version of percentile, and means the same thing.
The screening point value is some measure of toxicity that you choose to decide whether there is a toxic hazard. In the Williams et al. paper, they have chosen the first and fifth centiles as their screening point values.
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For fish species (e.g. Anabas testudineus) that can survive in stagnant water and certain levels of heavy metal contamination (of nickel and copper), could they have certain specializations that allow them to continue to live in these waters? Also, would the contaminants remain in their flesh (and prevent them from being viable from human consumption)?
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To some extent depends upon their Acquired Systematic Resistance (Adaptation capabilities, which in fact restricted to duration of exposure. There is deviance recently emerged revealing the migration of many species of fish seas to the discharge of fresh water rivers owing to pollution and others could not  stand and passed away 
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i want find out  the relationship between the ones that was found in oily polluted areas with the one of thee protozoan that i have in our lab that i used for bio-remediation studies. 
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Dear Andrey
I would like to contact you directly regarding the above question please email me on this email address Leokachienga@gmail.com.
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Anyone tell me more about the chemical pathways of bioaccumulation of METALS in aquatic life? Interested in chemistry than toxic effects.
I am interested in how certain plankton or bivalves accumulate metals in their body, I am trying to understand the organometallic chemistry as well as the kinetics.
E.g.Wang et al 2008
or Emmanuel et al 2011 (on bacterial accumulation). 
doi: 10.1007/s12088-011-0111-8
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PS - Some of these processes are discussed in: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0045653513006942
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Heavy metals contaminate the marine environment.
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It depends on the region from where the sample is obtained
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i want to use plant with animal or microorganism as indictorsa
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Dear Rushdi,
You can select any plant and microorganism indicated in the following text:
Plants:
There are several types of plant biomonitors, including mosses, lichens, tree bark, bark pockets, tree rings, leaves, and fungi.
Lichens are organisms comprising both fungi and algae. They are found on rocks and tree trunks, and they respond to environmental changes in forests, including changes in forest structure – conservation biology, air quality, and climate. The disappearance of lichens in a forest may indicate environmental stresses, such as high levels of sulfur dioxide, sulfur-based pollutants, and nitrogen oxides. In addition, there are genetically engineered organisms, that that can respond to toxicity levels in the environment; e.g., a type of genetically engineered grass that grows a different colour if there are toxins in the soil.
Microorganism
Microorganisms can be used as indicators of aquatic or terrestrial ecosystem health. Found in large quantities, microorganisms are easier to sample than other organisms. Some microorganisms will produce new proteins, called stress proteins, when exposed to contaminants such as cadmium and benzene. These stress proteins can be used as an early warning system to detect changes in levels of pollution. 
Microalgae have gained attention in the recent years due to several reasons because of their greater sensitivity to pollutants than many other organisms. In addition they occur abundantly in nature, they are an essential component in very many food webs, they are easy to culture and to use in assays and there are few if any ethical issues involved in their use.
Euglena gracilis is a motile freshwater photosynthetic flagellate. Although Euglena is rather tolerant to acidity, it responds rapidly and sensitively to environmental stresses such as heavy metals or inorganic and organic compounds. Typical responses are the inhibition of movement and the change of orientation parameters. Moreover, this organism is very easy to handle and grows, making it a very useful tool for eco-toxicological assessments. One very useful particularity of this organism is the gravitactic orientation, which is very sensitive to pollutants.
References:
Karr, James R. (1981). "Assessment of biotic integrity using fish communities". Fisheries 6: 21–27. doi:10.1577/1548-8446(1981)006<0021:AOBIUF>2.0.CO;2. ISSN 1548-8446.
Biomonitoring - North Carolina State University
Tingey, David T. (1989). "Bio indicators in Air Pollution Research -- Applications and Constraints". Biologic Markers of Air-Pollution Stress and Damage in Forests. (Washington, DC: National Academies Press): 73–80. ISBN 978-0-309-07833-7.
Government of Canada. "Biobasics: bio-indicatorrs". Archived from the original on October 3, 2011.
 Chessman, Bruce (2003). SIGNAL 2 – A Scoring System for Macro-invertebrate (‘Water Bugs’) in Australian Rivers (PDF). Monitoring River Heath Initiative Technical Report no. 31. Canberra: Commonwealth of Australia, Department of the Environment and Heritage. ISBN 0642548978.
Grabarkiewicz, Jeffrey D.; Davis, Wayne S. (November 2008). "An Introduction to Freshwater Fishes As Biological Indicators" (Report). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Environmental Protection Agency. p. 1. Document No. EPA-260-R-08-016.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
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Hello,
You will find here the answer to your question
-Rastogi, R. P., Madamwar, D., & Incharoensakdi, A. (2015). Bloom dynamics of cyanobacteria and their toxins: environmental health impacts and mitigation strategies. Frontiers in microbiology, 6.
Cordially 
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We are going to establish the oyster depuration plant in small scale. What are the protocol for the oyster depuration plant. Can you suggest me the what are the main steps we need to follows from received place to dispatch place?
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National Shellfish Sanitation Program guidance:  See Chapter XV. Depuration beginning on page 127 and Guidance Document beginning on page 275
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I am having trouble locating a general but detailed description of the anatomy of Lumbriculus variegatus, in particular information concerning anatomy and conditions in digestive organs. 
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Hello Richard
Although I have numerous papers on aquatic oligochaetes I cannot locate a paper dealing with the digestive tract of this species. Most deal with the reproductive organs, the bloodvessels or the regeneration processes (e.g. Mrazek 1906, Timm 1979). I think it is best to contact Steven Fend in North America, the world leading specialist on Lumbriculidae. mailto:svfend@usgs.gov
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Considering farms without documented information.
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My idea is that you can use the Likert scale to quantify the information gain from the respondent. I guess that you need to quantify the past situations and therefores, this can be used to quantify the information/ data distilled from the respondents (fish farmers or other people who knows the history).
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I just want to estimate the contribution of algal dry weight to particulate organic carbon dry weight. I have calculated the ash free dry weight and Chl a of an eutrophic lake. Can you please suggest me a relatively better ratio, so that I can determine/estimate algal dry weight?
Thank you
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If you have only the numbers you mention in your question and no options for additional measurements, you can do the following:
-        The carbon to chlorophyll ratio in phytoplankton usually ranges between 20 and 50. So if you multiply your chlorophyll concentration data with 20 and with 50, you get a range for the phytoplankton carbon concentration in your lake.
-        Carbon makes up roughly 50% (40% - 50%) of the ash free dry mass of particulate organic matter. Divide the ash free dry mass of organic matter by two and you receive the total carbon concentration in your lake.
-        Then divide the numbers obtained for phytoplankton carbon by the total carbon concentration, and you receive the proportion of phytoplankton carbon in total carbon.
The biggest unknown is usually the carbon to chlorophyll ratio in the phytoplankton cells, which can be highly variable. So if data exist that are more exact than the range of 20 – 50 mentioned above, you should use them. It also would help if you have numbers for phytoplankton biovolume along with the chlorophyll data.
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The model is provided in the attached papers.
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Got it!-age distribution would be great enough to adequately allow the bioaccumulation model to be evaluated; will contact the authors, many thanks for your advice, cheers, Ross
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I would like to know the relatively better ratio (algal:dry weight ratio)
Thank you
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Hi Tade,
It is not completely clear, if you want to conclude to algal dry mass (some algae like diatoms also contain a significant amount of inorganic material) or algal organic content. However, Marc already gave you the hint: You need to analyse Chl-a from a subsample of your material. From algae culture experiments (no other particulate matter in the cultures), ratios of Chl-a to ash-free dry mass (=organic contant) and dry mass can be obtained; there exist papers which will give you estimates. With those values you finally can calculate a rough estimate of the algae part of your sample. The ratio of ash-free dry mass to chlorophyll-a is somtimes called autotrophic index; you may find some ratios there. As chlorophyll-a per unit biomass is dependent on various aspets such as age, nutrient supply, light availability,..the ratios are a rough estimate only - depending on the growth conditions, they may vary ba a factor of 10 and larger! 
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Unable to find papers on automated video tracking of aquatic invertebrates in multiwell plates, I was hoping to find individuals here that have experience in the laboratory doing this or related automated video tracking research.  If so, can you give me a brief synopsis of your research questions/topic and what software you are using.  Thank you, Lou
Louis Macovsky, DVM, MS
Dynamic BioSystems
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Dr. Kos,
Thank you.  Excellent papers for my purpose and with useful citations as well.  Is your "image analysis software" available for use outside your institution?
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Dear friends, Hello, I have enjoyed the conversations very much and first of all I want to thank you for sharing. I am a PhD student in marine biology and decided to work in the subject of Microplastic ingestion by fishes in Southern Caspian Sea. At first part of my work, we are going to examine fish intestines to find any anthropocentric object and in second part, feed juvenile fish with mixtures of food and 0.5 to 5 micron Microplastic (MP) to find their possible cellular movements and effects on cell mechanisms of entrocytes. To find out, I want to use Transmission Electron Microscopy Technique to see weather MP is found in entrocytes of intestine or not and is there any effect on ultrastructure of entrocytes. I have written a proposal and presented it but some experts had doubt about efficiency and practical possibility of this method. I have used the Technique for normal tissues of different fish species but some people think in the EM images, MP will show up as empty spaces and they may be confused with other objects or artifacts. Therefore, I appreciate if you help me in this case. I need to know what you think about it. Happy 2016 and hope you have a nice holiday. Cheers, Zahra
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sounds like a very cool project. I have only done work with SEM. Is there any reason you can't use SEM? Erik Zettler took some great pictures while mapping out the microbial community on plastics found in a variety of marine environments. I assume that you will supplement the images with spectroscopy. This article discusses methods for that as well. Hope this helps even a little bit! 
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We have tried to identify the influence of riparian vegetation on water quality and macroinvertebrates diversity. We have tried to correlate the vegetation type with the different variables however this doesn't answer the question. We made CCA using the vegetation species, water and environmental variables along with the sampling sites. We have observed different water quality characteristics along with the vegetation type.
What better statistical analyses do you recommend?
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Could you try  to applied NMDS for statistic analysis ?
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I' d like to calculate lethal concentration (LC50) or effect concentration (EC50) in our study with daphnids. The US EPA suggest to derive values using both the probit method and the trimmed Spearman-Karber method. Do you know if there is a (free) software or an R code to perform these analyses?
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The best software is POLO-PC from Leora software co.
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Can someone please recommend a software analysis tool that use water quality parameters (EC, SAR, pH, salt concentrations, etc) to evaluate quality of irrigation water and potential effect on soil health?
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Dear Gerhard,
Several models exist for water and solute transport in the soil, such as SWAP, DRAINMOD-S, UnSatChem, and Hydrus. They are based on Richard differential equation in combination with the differential equation of convection-diffusion Fick for advection and dispersion of the salts. There are also simple models as SALTMOD. It is useful for the long-term salinity forecasts relative to irrigation and drainage practices. 
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
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When I prepared a serial dilution for measuring lethal concentration of aluminum in fish, the water pH in higher concentrations will be reduced dramatically (i.e. from 7.2-7.4 in control reaches 5.4 for example).
NOTE: Aluminum chloride was used for preparing the stock solution.
Is there anyway to put water pH in a stable range during acute toxicity test of fish? 
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 You should be careful with choice of buffer. Phosphate will precipate the Al3+ and several other buffers will create complexes with Al(III).
Since you are adding known amounts of AlCl3 and you know the amount of acidity it creates, I recommend that you add the matching amount of alkalinity (base) of the AlCl3 at each dosing level: AlCl3 +3 H2O -> Al(OH)3 + 3H+
Considering the speciation of Al(II) at pH 7 (see link) and the solubility of Al(OH)3 I think the best guess is that each mole of AlCl3 added produces 3 mole of acid. Thus add 3x the molar concentration of NaHCO3 to the molar concentration of AlCl3 at each testing level.
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I have used utensil sponges as the filter in wastewater treatment. But now I wonder how to extract effectively antibiotic resistance gene from these sponge. Could you suggest me some ideas? 
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Nope! the sponges I used is kind of very good quality so it is not easy to be broken.
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Does anyone known some record of these taxa in karstic water bodies?
There are some report of these taxa in freshwater or hyposaline water?
Thanks and greetings.
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Estimado Leonardo, son las mismas especies que he encontrado en cuerpos de agua hiposalinos y de agua dulce en México. Tienes alguna publicación relacionada, propia o de alguien más que se pueda consultar. Serpia bueno que nos escribiéramos por otro medio para platicar con mayor profundidad.
Saludos y gracias
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And what types of chemicals are used in the production process of silicon carbide?
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effluents contain:acids,alkalis,metals and otganic solvents,and where electroplanting is included,metals,flourids,cyanids,and sulfats.
For special applications, silicon carbide is produced by a number of advanced processes. Reaction-bonded silicon carbide is produced by mixing SiC powder with powdered carbon and a plasticizer, forming the mixture into the desired shape, burning off the plasticizer, and then infusing the fired object with gaseous or molten silicon, which reacts with the carbon to form additional SiC. Wear-resistant layers of SiC can be formed by chemical vapour deposition, a process in which volatile compounds containing carbon and silicon are reacted at high temperatures in the presence of hydrogen.
For advanced electronic applications, large single crystals of SiC can be grown from vapour; the boule can then be sliced into wafers much like silicon for fabrication into solid-state devices. For reinforcing metals or other ceramics, SiC fibres can be formed in a number of ways, including chemical vapour deposition and the firing of silicon-containing polymer fibres.
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Toxicity in aquatic organisms
How can calcalute the LC50 and ED50 of toxic metals exposed to aquatic organisms ?
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Dear Friend, the topic is quite complex especially for someone doing it for the first time. Please have a look at my article from 2011 "Determination of EC50 toxicity data of selected heavy metals toward Heterocypris incongruens... " and recent on "Environmentally oriented models...". I trust You mean EC50 not ED50 (although the latter can also be calculated). Very very very briefly: You need to set up Your experiment depending on the organism used as a model (exposure time, concentration, form of anion, static/semi-static etc.) and expose the organisms (at least in three replicate groups for each concentration level) to series of dilutions of Your toxic metal. Certainly You will run at first blind tests - so called range finding tests, to see approximate concentration levels causing LC50 or change of observed parameter. Then You set up an experiment with increasing concentrations of Your toxicant but in pre-defined concentrations levels and pointing the response (mortality) of observed groups to varying content of toxicants (in mol/dm3 for solutions). The response rarely is linear so either You make logaritmic transformations on the data or make it second order curve. For log of 50% You recalculate the concentration of toxicant that is causing death (change of observed parameter) by 50% (LC50 and EC50 respectively). This is the very very very basics. If I can be of assisstance please let me know. In YouTube You can find channel with mathematical explanations on that but it's very basic.
BK
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the images is from gill and liver tissue in fish that expose to benzo(a)pyrene(oil contaminant).
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Dear Milad,
Thanks for your nice Histopathology Images. It seems informative and usefull for all pathologist. As you know benzo(a)pyrene could be a hazard carcinogen and could be occur a kind of Spontaneous liver tumors in mice in experimental trial.
Globing and Clubbing in second Gill lamellae, Atelectasis and some inflammation effects that lead to spread necrosis in liver could be more important lesions in your Images,
Also, defects in the basement membrane, enlarged nuclei with cytoplasmic invaginations, and pleomorphic nucleoli were restricted to squamous metaplasia induced by benzo[a]pyrene-ferric oxide. 
Finally if you are interesting for more share information about above subjects please correspond with me through my email as follows:
I can prepare more information for your article in this regard.
Yours truly
Jalil
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Do you have any "obvious" specific characteristics for recognizing it? It has no operculum...
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Hi Christos,
now, having received all the inormation from you I can fully understand your big questionmark. I consulted some friends and they also could not decide if this snail is a "Bithyniidae" or "Hydrobiidae". One of my friends (Alexander Reischütz) made a suggestion. He and his father (Peter L. Reischütz), a famous malakologist in Austria make a sampling trip to Greece and will also cross River Gallikos (in about 10 to 14 days). He suggested that if you like please feel free to contact Alex, he is also RG member and willing to sample at the river to have some living specimens.
with my best regards, Otto
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There is a lot of literature on embryo and larval toxicity but there seems to be almost nothing on adults except for:
Bielmyer GK, Brix KV, Capo TR, Grosell M (2005) The effects of metals on embryo-larval and adult life stages of the sea urchin, Diadema antillarum. Aquatic Toxicology 74:254–263
I am especially looking for studies providing LC or EC50s
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Effects of metal contaminants on the development of the common Antarctic sea urchin Sterechinus neumayeri and comparisons of sensitivity with tropical and temperate echinoids
Marine ecology. Progress series ISSN 0171-8630
2001, vol. 215, pp. 143-154 (1 p.3/4)
In this paper, Copper was the metal most toxic to developing embryos and larvae of S. neumayeri with EC50s of 11.4 μg l-1 and 1.4 pg l-1 following 6 to 8 d and 20 to 23 d exposure respectively. In my opinon, adult sea urchin may be more tolerance than the embryos and larvae and have a higher LC50. However, threshold concentration of copper to aqiatic organisms will not change too much.
Inaddition, we have just finished some research of Probabilistic ecological risk assessment of copper in Chinese offshore area from 2005-2012, Which including a part of EFFECT ASSESSMENT for Copper, and you can find the LC50 for many aquatic organisms in our support information. at http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.marpolbul.2015.
03.005.
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I am searching for an organism that is also easy to breed in the aquarium and reproduces relatively quickly (say up to 2 or 3 months is ok). I am open to both salt- and freshwater organisms!
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I agree with Ana and Kantha. I would also suggest larval stages (pelagic stages) of species such as lobsters, carbs and bivalves which are really sensitive to acidification (decalcification etc..) Cheers,
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I'm looking for articles with the top result of kindly Bivalve for bioindicators, biomarkers in pollution biomonitoring from your country. Any suggestions, please?
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many scientist using Mussel to indicated pollution of heavy mental in surface water. e.g. Prof. Wenxiong Wang, in Hong Kong,  You may find more paper in his personal website http://ihome.ust.hk/~wwang/
in addition, attach pleased find a Manual of  "A Training Manual for Assessing Pollution (trace/heavy metals) in Rivers, Estuaries and Coastal waters-Using Innovative “Artificial Mussel (AM) Technology” - Bangladesh Model."    
Hope its useful.
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I already tried universal primers (Folmer et al., 1994) and others like COI-E and AnnCOIF used in published papers, with different temperature programs but without results. Does anyone has a PCR protocol that already used and worked sucessfully for these annelids?
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Thank you for your answers... I will try both Svante and Jonathan protocols and see the results :-)
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I'm currently working on an assignment on the degradation of microplastics in the marine environment, I have found a good breadth of background knowledge and literature on the degradation of plastic debris to microplastics but i'm having trouble finding literature on the further degradation microplastics to nanoplastics and thir impacts etc. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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Recently, GESAMP published a report about Micro-plastics in the ocean. You can download the report with an assessment here:
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If we know the wavelenght absorption of the compounds that we would identify, it is possible to work with other types of detectors i.e., absorbance detectors?
Moreover, it is possible to work on metabolism with fluorescence detectors? It is possible to use labelled fluorescent precursors?
Thank you.
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Hi Tim,
thanks for your interest. I am not working at the University. I am writing a research project to apply for a scholarship. I don not know if in the laboratory where I would spend a period of research they have an HPLC coupled with radiometric detector. Thus, I am looking for different ways to study metabolism as I worked just with this kind of instrument.
I would like to study CYP17 and CYP11b activities by measuring respectively, androstenedione (AD) and 11β-hydroxyandrostenedione in gonads of D. labrax.
Regards,
Andrea
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Prefer recent journal articles, and textbooks as well as current methods in their assays. All materials are welcomed.
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You could try “Genotoxicity Assessment Methods and Protocols” by Alok Dhawan and Mahima Bajpayee, published by Springer Ptotocols. Its freely accessible in the net (about 8.2 Mb). It helped me . Another book is "Invitro toxicity testing protocols" edited by Sheila O'Here and Chris K. Atterwill, vol 43, under "Methods on Molecular Biology" also freely downloadable,  but I haven't really read that one (actually i have only read the headings of that one). Good luck staying awake, hurting your eyes, and loading your brain with loads of toxicity :-)
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i.e. Instead of using the big and mature fish, small and immature fish such as juvenile and fingerling used
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1) Small sized fish require very small amounts of toxic substances to effect them,as compared to bigger ones which require higher amounts. 
2) They are easy to observe & handle them during the studies. If large sized are used, it is possible that they may jump out of the container & may die otherwise.
3) using smaller sized ones would require smaller tanks for experiments,as compared to larger sized ones,which require larger tanks,& all may not be of the same size & weight. The normal protocol is to use a maximum of 2 gms size @ of 1/L.
4) More of time,energy,money need to be spent on rearing to bigger sized ones.
5) It would be easier to collect small ones from nature,as compared to larger ones, for those laboratories which doesn't have the facility of a fish hatchery.
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DDT and its metabolites are well known and while there is data available on the effects on frogs and other amphibians, I am struggling to find a paper describing the metabolic pathways followed when amphibians are exposed to DDT or other persistent pesticides.
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Hi, Nico!
I work in the field of ecotoxicology and I am also interested in the effects of pesticides, including DDT. However, I work with fish. Check the following papers, they might help -
Best of luck!
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I am want to using  a population level endpoint to assessment the toxocity effect of EDs (e.g. EE2, NP ) to fish, daphina and algae. How can I use population level endpoint to deriving PNEC for these chemical when the toxicity data less than 5 or less?
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 You may use Aquatox model to derive 20% of mass reduction or increase of makered species.
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Rope mussel aquaculture has reached its maximum potential of the west coast of Ireland but as a consequence does the reduction in phytoplankton species have an impact on wild fish (particularly salmonids) species down the food chain?
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Another thing to consider is that mussel aquaculture provides a significant amount of structure to the water column which tends to increase fish biomass.  The fouling and juvenile mussels can also feed certain species of fish.  When I was working on a farm in New Zealand, the best fishing was always around the farm.
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I am exploring technology that can result in a low cost, onsite assessment of aquatic invertebrate behavior (movement) as an endpoint for ecological risk assessment.  If statistical analysis can confirm a difference between movements of individual aquatic invertebrates upstream, in, and below stream of point discharge, could this be of use for phase 1 or other studies of risk assessment?  Thanks, Lou
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Movement is definitely a possible endpoint with ecological relevance. It is often used in ecological assessment and mode of action studies using fish, fish embryo or invertebrates (e.g. nematodes). For practical reasons it is mostly done in laboratory settings using tracking camera's and software, either 2D or 3D. Using it in the field, seems to me, a difficult task. Maybe it is possible to transplant invertebrates from a pollution gradient to a lab situation and register differences, but that remains to be tried.
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How I can investigate 17beta estradiol in crayfish? Do you know the method of investigation 17beta estradio in auatic animal samples or crayfish?
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Using either gamma counter of Elisa technique.You are able to perform with either of them.Ask more question if you need.
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Microbial communities can be affected by Cadmium, Mercury and others heavy metal. How selective pressure occur in this kind of habitat?
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The impact will depend on the microbes, the specific metals and their concentrations.  Some metals will cause a change in the cells osmotic pressure which can facilitate cell lysis.  Other metals will pose a different toxicity mechanism.  The exact mechanism will depend on the microbe-metal combination.  Some metals, at low concentrations may be a micronutrient.  
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there are several conversation on restoration of a natural habitat; i wish to know what are the various ways to restore an flowing aquatic polluted system in to its natural state
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The approach taken will have non-scientific and scientific components.
First step is to identify and deal with pollutant sources. The sources could be non-point (farm runoff or urban storm water) or point (e.g. municipal sewage or industrial).
The next step is to identify all stakeholders (which will include polluters, funders of the project, interested parties) and form a group to deal with the issue. If there is no interest from the stakeholders there may be regulation introduced by the government, which could trigger sufficient interest.
Apart from devising ways to minimise pollutant inputs (it may not be possible to totally avoid pollutant inputs) there may be mitigation methods to deal with the remaining pollutants in the waterway. As an example, tree/shrub shades can be provided to reduce water temperature which should minimise algal blooms even if the nutrient levels are high in water.
Such restoration projects are already active in New Zealand (e.g. Lakes Taupo and Rotorua, Waikato River). As a first step all point source of pollution have been either dealt with (please refer my publication on consent process to deal with wastewater discharges in the Otago Region) or are being deal with. Recently, central government has introduced a national policy to deal with freshwater quality. The government has also stepped in to providing restoration funding (e.g. NZ$80 for Lake Taupo) which is being used in part to retire agricultural land into native bush land to reduce nutrient input to the lake. Local government in the lake catchment has been regulating nutrient input to the lake.
In short, while there is sufficient scientific information exist on waterway restoration there should be a community will to achieve the desire environmental outcome.
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I'm reviewing information on the issue of low-cost methods in ecotoxicology, and I have some studies on it, such us Mills CL et al. 2006 Development of a new low cost high sensitivity system for behavioural ecotoxicity testing Aquatic Toxicology 77: 197-201 I would like to know other studies on it.
many thanks
Álvaro
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Many thanks for all the useful information. When I ask about low-cost ecotoxicological methods I'm looking for methods that use cheap or even free software, videorecording, automatic monitoring, etc.  which is not incompatible with the analysis of actual concentrations in the bioassays (that it is usually not very expensive if they are conducted in external laboratories). A low-cost method can use a free software imagen analysis instead of a commercial one with the same (or even better) results, which means a big savings for a research project. The same can be said for video recording methods, etc. These aspects are very important in project with low budgets.
Again many thanks for your help and time
Álvaro
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there are several advancements in the analysis and monitoring of freshwater bodies in all over world; but i need to know the current advancements in the same. like modelling, analysis, prediction, statistical applications etc., can anyone help in this regard
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Hi.
Some other current tools for assessing pollution status of aquatic ecosystems includes the use of cell lines (in situ biomonitoring), use of biometric ratios and sediment toxicity screening guidelines by US NOAA.
Trends are also moving towards the use of fish early life stages/embryos for monitoring sediment toxicity. 
An example of a published paper in this regards is:
Matteo Minghetti, Sabine Schnell, Michael A. Chadwick,Christer Hogstrand and Nic R. Bury (2014). A primary FIsh Gill Cell System (FIGCS) for environmental monitoring of river waters. Aquatic Toxicology 154:184–192
Hope this helps. Regards.
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We are in the process of building a mesocosm facility (freshwater). There is a lot of input from literature on dimensions of ponds etc. Yet recently we heard about the existence of a guidance document (or in development?). Does anyone know more?
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Thank you, Peter. I will have an interested look.
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I'm looking for a glasware (or similar) set up that allows cultivating 2 different cultures, whose growth medium is interconnected (eg membrane filter) which allows permeability of dissolved compunds from one flask to the other, but maintains both cultures separated. Any idea if this kind of set up is available and where?
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Not sure this is what you are looking for but look at SpectumLabs products. Good Luck!
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We find that each pipette drop of brine shrimp in water deposits a highly variable amount. Does anyone use a tool or technique in their work that could potentially be co-opted to dispense a small predetermined number or weight of tiny brine shrimp?
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Hi, if you place the nauplii in a bucket with 10 liters (for example) of aerated saltwater (do not use air stone) then your counts may homogenize. (Take two aliquots of 0.5 ml each and then make a count, there should be no major difference to 10 nauplii between). The central idea is to keep the nauplii in a homogeneous suspension throughout the water column.
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Trying to make culturing more easier and wondering about advantages and disadvantages of dry algae as a food for Daphnia magna
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Its okay to use dry Chlorella to feed your Daphnia provided you control your feeding. Unconsumed feed can easily pollute your water. Consider the amount of feed you introduced in relation to the volume of your tank.  For efficient feeding  lower the volume of the water during feeding and introduce the maximum amount for the final volume. Allow the Daphnia to feed for about 30min before raising the water to its final volume. This way you can ensure that your Daphnia is fed to the maximum and has foraged most of the feeds. 
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I'm looking for a link between ETC activity measurement and DEB model parameters...
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Some years ago our laboratory was conducting research on the effects of heavy metals on enzyme function including dehydrogenases. Perhaps some of these references would be helpful.
Calabrese, A., F. P. Thurberg, and E. Gould. 1977. Effects of cadmium, mercury and silver on marine animals. Mar. Fish. Rev. 39:5-11.
Dawson, M. A., E. Gould, F. P. Thurberg, and A. Calabrese. 1977. Physiological response of juvenile striped bass, Morone saxatilis, to low levels of cadmium and mercury. Chesapeake Sci., 18(4), 353-359, (1977).
Gould, E. 1969. Alpha-glycerophosphate dehydrogenase as an index of iced-storage age of fresh, gutted haddock (Melanogrammus aeglefinus). Journal of the Fisheries Research Board of Canada 26:3175-3181.
Gould, E. 1977. Alteration of enzymes in winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus, exposed to sublethal amounts of cadmium chloride. Publ.by: Academic Press, New York (USA).
Gould, E. 1980. Low-salinity stress in the American lobster, Homarus americanus , after chronic sublethal exposure to cadmium: Biochemical effects.
Gould, E. 1981. Monitoring sea scallops in the offshore waters of New England and the Mid-Atlantic states: Enzyme activity in phasic adductor muscle.
Gould, E., and J. R. MacInnes. 1977. Short-term effects of two silver salts on tissue respiration and enzyme activity in the cunner (Tautogolabrus adspersus). Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol., 18(4), 401-407, (1977).
Gould, E., and M. Nitkowski. 1979. Changing enzyme activities in maturing gonads of the winter flounder, Pseudopleuronectes americanus.
MacInnes, J. R., F. P. Thurberg, R. A. Greig, and E. Gould. 1977. Long-term cadmium stress in the cunner, Tautogolabrus adspersus. Fish. Bull. NMFS/NOAA 75:199-203.
Phelps, D. K., W. Galloway, F. P. Thurberg, E. Gould, and M. A. Dawson. 1981. Comparison of several physiological monitoring techniques as applied to the blue mussel, Mytilus edulis along a gradient of pollutant stress in Narrangarsett Bay, Rhode Island.
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I tried to puncture blood of R. temporaria tadpoles unsuccessfully. The syringe was bigger than the heart of tadpole.Is it impossible on 26 stage tadpole?
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We extracted blood from tadpoles (with success) by cutting the initial portion of the tail, using tweezers and a sharp scalpel and then, placing the blood samples in glass blades.
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In the last decades, ecotoxicological studies have highlighted the toxicity of many different substances as well as the negative effects that variations in environmental parameter might have, as predicted by climate change scenarios, for example. Up till now, the majority part of works conduced in this field have used different kind of indicator organisms (mainly invertebrates), organisms exposed for a short (hours), medium (days/weeks) and long (weeks/months) time period. The 'problem' is that we have focused our attention, in most of the cases, in determining 'the effects' on a precise stage of the life cycle of a specific organism, driving on the conclusion that 'conditions will negatively affect this or that species'. But we all know that selection can occur. The study of some traits such as gonad maturation, quality of gametes and their interaction as well as embryos/larvae survival, growth and their performance at different experimental conditions might help us understand if a negative effect at the level of species can occur or if they have the potential to survive and adapt to a new and stressful condition across generations.
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