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I'm currently studying the length-weight relationship of freshwater fishes in Taiwan, which is an all new topic for me to work on. However, I've came across problems in calculating the 95% confidence interval and confidence limit for my parameters a and b in the LWR formula W=aL^b that I do not understand how. Publications I've viewed gives little info and couldn't actually help me out, so is anyone here able to help me to understand and calculate these parameters?
The problem for me is that I do not understand how I can gain the CI and CL from a single data since all publications mentioned "95% CI of b".
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To calculate the confidence limits for a measurement variable, multiply the standard error of the mean times the appropriate t-value. The t-value is determined by the probability (0.05 for a 95% confidence interval) and the degrees of freedom (n−1) :)
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Hello colleagues,
I was wondering if any of you have recently (2021/2022) submitted a manuscript to Environmental Microbiology or Functional Ecology and what are your thoughts?
I recently submitted my manuscript to a journal that provided only one reviewer (unprofessional for such an established journal!), and I am considering withdrawing the manuscript and submitting to one of the Wiley journals.
Have you had any experience, what is the quality of peer review in these two journals and how long it took for the paper to be rejected or accepted? Thank you in advance!
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Yes, I would not accept just one reviewer. Some journals have up to four! But two is perfect :)
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Hello everyone.
Does anyone have comprehensive references (review articles, books, data set/bank) on Vitamin B12 (cobalamin) levels or concentrations in aquatic ecosystems (lakes, ocean, coastal and marine, sea, etc.)? I collected papers and articles for a complete study, however, they only published data from their lab investigations.
Thank you in advance.
Regards,
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J. C. Tarafdar Thank you, but this publication contains no reports on B12 levels in aquatic ecosystems.
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Please give an example of a scientific hypothesis about Antarctica that has not yet been confirmed. I am also interested in the gaps in scientific knowledge about Antarctica. As a member of Russian Antarctic program I am familiar with general enigmas (ice sheet stability, life in subglacial lakes, paleoclimatic records, influence of subglacial heat flows etc.). So here I would like you to share with me not so common things about Antarctica
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The role of volcanic activity as a significant factor contributing to ice melt still awaits a confirmation. For some further details please kindly consult the following site:
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I thought there would be more work done on the topic; there doesn't seem to be very many papers.
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You can consult this forest Report under the green India Mission
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My experiment requires to extract Tissue DNA from zebrafish intestine , this is my first time to learn Tissue DNA extraction. Recently I have learned about extracting DNA using magnetic beads, but i need more recommendations and and what is your experience about magnetic DNA extraction technique and how many samples can be extracted from single kit. Beside this , please can you suggest me any other methods that follow more simple steps.
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Check out Qiagen
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I have separate algal and zooplankton samples that I want to have stable isotope analysis of C and N performed on.
The samples were filtered onto 0.4 µm glass fibre filters (GF/F) that were then freeze-dried and stored at - 80 degrees. In error, the glass fibre filters were not pre-combusted or pre-weighed prior to having the zooplankton and algal samples filtered onto them.
Is there a way to still use these samples for stable isotope analysis of C and N? I have read that you can scape the material of the filter paper and then place in a tin foil boat for analysis but don't feel confident in the reliability of this approach.
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Hi !
If you get satisfactory results after checking the blank filters, you can use the scraping method for d15N. Just scrape off the layer of filter paper from behind without disturbing the top layer (avoid any contamination while doing so). For d13C, use a part of filter paper if the content is too high after acid fumigation.
Hope this helps !
Prachi
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This hydrophyte was collected from a fresh water reservoir near Visakhapatam, India.
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Thank you Dr Aref Wazwaz for your kind input
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I am trying to predict/discriminate macrophyte groups in rivers (https://snwikaij.shinyapps.io/RF_macrophyte_models). I have run out of viable options to predict groups with an "acceptable" model performance. Does anyone has some suggestions/experience on groups of macrophytes that can be clearly predicted/discriminated?
These groups do not have to be linked to the dataset I use, but it has to be linked to literature and logic(?). I have provided the included species in the added Excel file, in which suggestion can be added. The the predictors in the models are substrate type (fine and coarse, categorical), depth, flow velocity, alkalinity, total phosphorus and conductivity. Based on trial-and-error and literature, I find an accuracy of >50% and Cohen's kappa of > 0.3 acceptable. This amounts to maximum 3-5 groups. Currently the models predict each species individually, growth forms, river types, bryophyte and vascular plants, and HCO3 and CO2-only-users.
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Laura Dzelzkaleja Thank you for responding. I have tried so many grouping methods, from spin-glass and random-walk algorithms, to clustering co-occurrence matrix and clustering presence-absence matrix. The most simplest solution presence-absence matrix seems to work "best". I have also seen people clustering positions of species within multivariate species (e.g. CCA). This often results in large number of groups, but these cannot be clearly discriminate/predicted. Additionally, the later one this circle reasoning since you first group species in the dataset based on the predictors and then try the predict them based on the same predictors. Also, everything is correlated with everything, which is not necessarily a big issue for the models, but more for the interpretation. For the last point I have not yet found a meaningful solution.
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Hello everyone, I am interested to know what is your "go-to" microscope for live plankton organisms (Zooplankton, Phyto, bacteria,...) observation, identification, and pictures. What microscope would you recommend buying if money wasn't a problem... I am looking at all possibilities here. But I am surely interested to know what is needed in research. Thank you
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Of all the ones I've used before (Leica, Zeiss, and Olympus), the Olympus CX31 has never failed me in terms of getting good quality images of marine invertebrate larvae, copepods and even ciliates. As far as I know the CX31 has been discontinued and they've rolled out a new model: CX43/CX33 - which is of course more expensive than the last. For pictures the CX31 is modular which allows for a camera attachment. Leica is the go too if you have the funds, they have amazing imaging software that allows you to create composite images from different views of the specimen.
Hope that helps!
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I have a large dataset of fish abundance as well as some environmental variables covering around 795 sampling sites. I have tried to find the relationship of my environmental variables with the biological data with the RELATE function in PRIMER-E. The results indicate that using Spearman rank correlation, the sample statistic (Rho) is 0.11. Now the significance level of sample statistic is 0.1% (much less than 5%), so according to the manual, this is significant result! I used 999 permutations to get this result. I am unable to interpret this result as I would usually expect that if the p value is significant, the corresponding degree of association should be high also. So, I would expect the sample statistic to be much higher than 0.11! (above 0.7 or so). Smilar situation with the distLM procedure, here the p value suggests that each of the variable has significant effect on the model but again the overall R^2 of fit is only 0.13! How is this possible that with such a poor R^2, individual variables are all significant.
I have used the square root transformation and Bray-Curtis similarity on the biological data and have normalized the environmental variable and Euclidean measure. I haven't transformed the environmental variables.
I would really appreciate it if someone can help me to interpret these results.
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Yes, the null hypothesis in RELATE is that the correlation is zero. As you have a lot of samples you have a lot of statistical power to detect departure from the null. The significance tells you how likely it is that you would observe a value as high (or higher) than the value you have observed if the true correlation was actually zero.
There are many other tools in Primer you could also try (RELATE for 2-way designs, BIO-ENV, etc.), depending on your survey design. It might be that you get more meaningful results if you combine samples, maybe pooling nearby samples for example. It is likely, given that you have so many samples, that the signal (from the environment) is being lost in the noise (many samples each dominated by one or two species of fish).
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I will be working on stream amphibians in Sichuan in 2020, and part of the work will focus on the diet of some aquatic species and prey availability. I thought I'd identify macroinvertebrates with a key to North American or European aquatic macroinvertebrates, but I would like to use the closest key possible to avoid possible mistakes.
I don't know precisely to which taxonomic level I can identify available preys and prey items, certainly to Order, and hopefully to Family with intact invertebrates from the streams. I trained with North American Plecoptera and Odonata from France under a microscope, and it seems reasonnable that I could go as far as Family level with an adequate key.
Another way of putting the question can be : do you think I can identify these prey items and intact insects to order or family level with a key to macroinvertebrates from North America or Europe ?
Thanks in advance !
Benjamin
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Yang Liangfeng (Naning Agricultural University) and John Morse (Clemson University) published a book with keys on the aquatic macroinvertebrates of China for water quality. This publication already mentioned is in both Chinese and English editions. Author: John C.More & Yang Lianfang & Tian Lixin Language: English ISBN/ISSN: 7563002405 Published on: 1994-01 Paperback
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It is because of nutrient or some elements. Please explain?
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Probably eutrophication caused by the sewage discharge from cities can be one of the reason for yellowish-green color of costal water near cities .
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I have noted dramatically change in color on the body of some marine fishes. For example, I saw a dramatically change from a "intense-yellow" color to "brown" color (normal color), just in one second. Is not a gradual change of color, is very quickly, similar like an octopuses. How could be explained this color change?
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Body coloration in many poikilothermic animals is plastic and can be adjusted at the individual level. Particularly in fish, this rapid change is called physiological color change and refers to synchronous movement of pigment organelles within pigmented cells in the skin called chromatophores (black melanophores containing melanin, yellow xantophores containing pteridine, red erythrophores containing carotenoids, and the more rare blue cyanophores containing an unknown cyan biochrome), as well as in changes in angles of light reflecting crystals in iridophores and leucophores . When aggregating the dark melanosomes of the melanophores, the skin not only becomes pale but also more transparent. Increased body transparency can also aid background matching.
The advantage of rapid color change is obvious, because it allows rapid adjustments and flexibility at the individual level depending of the situation. It is used for background matching as well as for communication and sexual display . Studies on pipefish have shown that the color ornaments of the females are shut off if a predator enters the mating area, clearly indicating the advantage of an adjustable body appearance and the risk of a colorful display .
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Photo number 1 is a fish that came out in the stomach contents of a Coryphaena hippurus collected in the Southeast Pacific.
Photo number 2 (Fish) and 3 (Otolith of the fish) is a fish that came out in the stomach contents of a Xiphias gladius collected in the Southeast Pacific.
Photo number 4 is a fish that came out in the stomach contents of a Xiphias gladius collected in the Southeast Pacific.
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Dear, sorry for the delay in responding; unfortunately we do not have a better photo, and by mistake the otolith was not saved. Best regards.
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Some people argue that it is completely acceptable to trade non-endangered sharks species, such as bull shark and blue shark by-caught by fisheries. They hold that even if these sharks are still alive and stand high chance of surviving by-catch if released, it is still okay to kill them and trade their fins, meat and jaw.
What do you think of this problem?
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Hi Li Chen.
He considered that James Des Lauriers is right in what he raises; fishing for any shark species should be restricted and regulated, even if not in danger. It should be analyzed that only intensive fishing is not the only factor leading to the danger of extinction of certain shark species; we must also consider climate change and ocean pollution. Set of factors that in a relatively short time can dramatically reduce shark populations in the world.
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I study fish assemblage structures, which observed unimodal response to environmental gradient and relationships between environmental factors.
I would like to use constrained ordination methods (like RDA or CCA), which allow to use bray-curtis dissimilarity matrix.
(If I choose using RDA or CCA , I will choose CCA.)
I think CAP or db-RDA is useful for my study.
When assemblages response unimodal to environmental factors, which should I choose CAP or db-RDA?
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When you let concrete channels "go" and do not maintain them, vegetation seems to take over and the concrete can crack or collapse over time. I am sure there are effects to biota when you let the channels naturalize, but I am not sure what those effects are. Is there any uplift or benefit to letting concrete channels naturalize? I am looking for articles (preferably free/available) that would help answer this question. Are there any specific cases where someone did a study on this? Studies can be from any time frame and any location in the world.
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Concrete is often hyped as "chemically inert". But in my experience, new concrete leaches alkaline solutes in low concentrations that get lower over time. I used new concrete paving stones as substrates for a disturbance experiment in streams. I realized from the soapy sensation on my hands that there was a chemical effect. So I let them leach for six weeks before starting the experiment.
My samples included midges, a diverse set of mites, caddisflies, beetles, and mayflies. The river lacked stoneflies in any appreciable numbers so I was not surprised at their absence on concrete. So, I believe that the chemical effect would be very minor, short lived, and probably negligible in established flumes..
The physical effect would be more interesting and permanent. A flume is so uniform as to attract only certain species fond of those conditions. If you have replicate flumes.....seems like an opportunity. Add physical structure to some and not to controls: coarse woody debris; cobbles; boulders....see who moves in and write that paper.
Good luck in all your work.
Declan
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Do you have any idea for to do research on this species? Maybe unexplored yet or needs more further study? Thank you so much ♥️
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Aaron Baxter has published on diamondback terrapins in estuaries of Texas :
google his names and terrapins for several pdf reports of his studies. Best, PZimba
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My name is Hairul from Selangor, Malaysia, 36 years old, 175cm, 66kg. I am looking for an opportunity to further study in PhD level. Any body here looking for a PhD student in research field such as wildlife management, conservation biology or life sciences. So far my expertise on breeding assessment, exitu management, terrapins/turtles, ecology and conservation.
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apply in wwf
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Hello!  I am looking for info (published literature, grey literature, or also any personal observation that you may have had) about the current -- or at least most up-to-date -- geographical distribution of the planorbid snail Planorbarius corneus L. in Europe.  This species seems on the decline in many areas, though where still found it occurs in high numbers.  Myself, I haven't seen a single individual (not even as an empty shell) anywhere in central Italy in the past ten years at least, though it was a common sight just 20-25 years ago.  Info about any change in the past 20-30 years (or less) would be greatly welcome to try to understand the reasons behind the apparent decline of this otherwise very sturdy species.  Published work would be especially welcome, as I'm trying to get my experimental results on Planorbarius published.  Thanks a lot!!
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I should add. It would seem that this snail could be considered to be a cryptogenic species as it was first found in Ireland in the late1800s. Its distribution follows that of an expansion from Belfast and Dublin westwards. So it is very likely to be a human introduction. However, look at Baker (1945) The Molluscan Family Planorbidae. He discusses the spread of this genus through a Caribbean Island chain. This implicates birds in dispersal. In the case for Ireland one wonders why if it was found only from the 1890s (and is a conspicuous species) why did birds not transfer this snail beforehand since the last glaciation. So while not absolutely certain to have been introduced to this island by humans, it would seem to be the case. The Biodiversity Ireland www has a distribution and to this there are further records I have found on the Shannon, which I indicated earlier. Dan
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The seriousness of the ecological crisis creates major new philosophical and scientific global challenges. What can you suggest? What is your response?
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Hello James Des Launriers, I fear you may be wrong to say that there are 'more people that the earth can support', because the earth may not be able to support even a single greedy!
I think, the greed and selfishness of the powerful individualist minority (both in the poor and rich countries) is responsible for the mess on the earth!
The pathetic fate of ignorant people in the poor populous countries is not the sufficient reason to say that excess of population is the main problem of the earthly mess there or the less population size in the developed world is the reason for the environmental care or cleanliness found in such societies!
Mahatma Gandhi once truly said "the earth has enough resources to meet everybody's need, but not enough to meet anybody's greed"
Agricultural analysis of food production says " five kilogram of grains are required to make a kilogram of meet!"
So if people had led a simple life style, the soils should not have been so intensively manipulated to not only of its utter degradation, but that of water, air, food and all of the environmental components!
In the above context, there is a challenge in the philosophy for humans to find a wise answer to certain significant questions: 'Why don't people change their faulty lifestyle?' 'Why don't people care the needy?', Why don't people worry about future generations?' and the like.
If people properly understood ecological philosophy, they would have changed their attitudes and found reasonable answers to the above questions and would have solved the environmental crisis!
Rather, people want to keep away such ecosophical questions from science as 'spiritual' matters!
The challenge of ecology is to reasonably equip people to bother about the ecological basis of the same and to find out true answers to such questions!
Ecology is a moral science too! Ecology enables humans to find answers to the ultimate of good and bad in all individual actions on the earth!
Eco-spirituality is a scientific theme that require proper scientific attention, rational analysis and criticism!
It doesn't happen, because the irrational individualist who rule the current world always ignorantly behave as if "to be in darkness is so easy, but to get exposed in light is difficult and painful an experience" that prompt them to sacrifice the existing physical comforts!
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Hi,
I'm looking for the proper way to analyze some of my data.
I studied predation in fish, by looking at survival rates of different groups of larval fishes when facing predators.
In the first trial of the experiment, I put 10 larval fishes of the group A, 10 larval fishes of the group B, and 10 larval fishes of the group C, all together in a predation arena.
After 2 hours:
Group A had 10 survivors
Group B had 8 survivors
Group C had 6 survivors
In the second trial, same procedure.
Group A had 5 survivors
Group B had 4 survivors
Group C had 3 survivors
etc, multiple times.
The issue here is that predators are sometimes very hungry (see the second trial) and sometimes not that much (see thr first trial) so calculating a "survival mean" for each group, among all the trials, makes no sense to me (lot of variability).
So what I did is calculating the "overall survival rate" in each trial.
Overall survival in trial 1 : 0.8
Overall survival in trial 2 : 0.4
Then I substracted this "overall survival" to each group survival, in order to create some sort of an index that "normalizes" each survival rate according to the "overall predation" in each trial.
So this gives me the following:
In the 1st trial
Group A survival index = 1 - 0.8 = 0.2
Group B survival index = 0.8 - 0.8 = 0
Group C survival index = 0.6 - 0.8 = -0.2
In the second trial
Group A survival index = 0.5 - 0.4 = 0.1
Group B survival index = 0.4 - 0.4 = 0
Group C survival index = 0.3 - 0.4 = -0.1
So when I calculate the mean of these indexes for each fish groups among all the trials, I end up with something nice : group A survival index is always positive, group B around 0, and group C always negative, so low variability and nice means that suggest that group A survived more than group B, and group B survived more than group C.
But now I would like to test this statistically, and I can't find out how to compare multiple paired data of that type. I usually do my stats in R.
If anyone has suggestions I'll be more than happy.
Thank you very much for those who read me up to here, and thanks in advance for those who'll be able to help :)
Cheers
Marc
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Hi Mark
I agree in large part with Andrew: Certainly use the raw data rather than converting to a percentage. Variability is expected; ANOVA accounts for that. I would add that you can simply test for normality to confirm that each of your three groups is normally distributed. If you learn that your data are not normally distributed then you can try some transformations to make them normal....that usually works; same transformation for each group. Then proceed with your ANOVA adding trial as a factor in the ANOVA thus accounting for fussy predators. If it's well replicated and the effect is real....you should be able to detect it.
Have fun!
Declan
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Hi everybody,
I was looking for some decent company which supplies field material as kick nets, litter bags or emergence traps (aquatic biology bias, here). Does any one can recommend me some supplier within Europe?
Thanks for the help,
Best,
Raquel
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Thanks! Relly good ones!
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I am Vice President of Edenworks Inc. in New York City, earlier I was Senior Research Scientist and Scientific Specialist in the Middle East, worked under the guidance of Dr. James Rakocy and his team as well in 1999-2001. I've 20yrs R&D and now business experience in aquaponics. Currently I am running vertical shallow water aquaponics with Tilapia and baby/micro greens. We are about to start R&D on Hybrid Striped Bass.
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Hi.can any one present for me the pdf reference about theory and scale for philanthropy in psychological perspective
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UPD: This week we have a great news! The deparment will function as separate one as it was during last 90 year and continue marine and fresh water investigations! We are realy happy and thankful to everyone who wrote letters and signed the petition!
________________________________________
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Hi everybody,
which method/protocol would you suggest to measure total biomass of samples of aquatic macroinvertebrates? Organisms are now "stored" in 75% ethanol.
Thank you!
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And its important to remember that once inverts and other animals are stored in ETOH, they lose some of their solues, making it difficult to obtain an accurate estimate of biomass by drying and weighing.
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Do you know any study that found a low trophic position inferred with nitrogen stable isotopes for known predatory aquatic macro-invertebrates?
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It depends on the isotopic baseline in your food web. Primary producers can have a very wide range of d15N, and if the predators specialise on grazers which in turn specialise on a low d15N source, their d15N can be very low as well.
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Hello there!
Im working with a community matrix (abundance data), and i would like to check if there is a taxa indicative of different trophic state of lakes. I would to that with Indval command in R.
The problem is that my data has zeros and some taxa abundance goes up to 10000 individuals per sample.
In this scenario, would it be advisable to transform my data prior to the analisys? Should i use a Hellinger transformation?
I ask about a hellinger transformation because im thinking of doing after a CCA in this same community matrix, with some environmental data.
Any recommendation?
Thank you for your time!
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Lucas, Hellinger transformation is meant to solve the issue of double absences when computing Euclidean-based ordination techniques (PCA, RDA). Thus, it is not appropriate for CCA. Now, in the context of indicator species, you have to ask yourself if transforming your data (Hellinger or otherwise) is meaningful, especially if same sampling effort is put into collecting species from each of the categories you want to find indicators for. Remember that the indicator value doesn't depend only on the relative abundance of the species among categories but also its relative frequency, and the fact that a species has much higher abundances than others in the system must have some ecological implications. Now, the indicator value of one species is independent from the value of the other species in the assemblage, thus transforming for the purpose of accounting for large differences in abundance has little use. If you apply Hellinger (the square root of the relative abundance among species within a sample) and then compute the indicator value (highest value among sites of the product of the relative abundance and relative frequency of a species within a site) you are no longer values independent among species. Hope this helps.
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I have a long term dataset which includes a variety of chemical and physical water variables sampled from an inland river. These variables include: metal loads (Al, Ca, Cd, Cu, Fe, Hg, Mg, Mn, Na, K, Pb, Ni, Zn); in Situ measurements (Electrical conductivity [EC], water temperature, air temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH); water nutrients (Ammonium, Chloride, Nitrate, Phosphate, Sulphate, Total Organic Carbon [TOC], Dissolved Organic Carbon [DOC]); and others (Acid capacity, base capacity). Some of these variables (e.g. chloride, EC, ammonium, nitrate, dissolved oxygen, phosphate, pH, sulphate, TOC and water temperature) were sampled consistently and therefore have a good resolution, whereas others (e.g. metal loads [Al, Cu, Fe, Hg, Pb, Ni, Zn], acid capacity and base capacity) were sampled less frequently and therefore do not have the same data resolution.
With that said, the focus of my research is not exactly the chemical interactions of DOC and other chemical constituents per se, but rather the interaction and effect of DOC on freshwater macroinvertebrate taxa. I do, however, understand that the interaction of DOC with other water chemical properties is of vital importance and ones needs to consider these interactions.
Therefore, I would like to know what variables (from the lists mentioned above) are the most likely to interact with DOC within the freshwater environment. This will aid in my selection of the relevant variables that I will carry into further statistical analyses.
Any help in this regard would be greatly appreciated.
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Hi Nathan, we have high DOC and highly colored waters here in Maine. DOC is both an acid and contributes to alkalinity. We tend to have alkalinity even below pH 5 where the carbonate system is exhausted. DOC makes are streams and lakes more acidic for a given alkalinity, but DOC also supplies acid neutralizing capacity when pH is below 5. DOC is negatively charged and attracts and binds cations. This make heavy metals and Aluminum less toxic. Because lakes are solar collectors and because DOC is digested by UV light, there is a lot of clearing of water color in lakes. Maine streams are often tea or even coffee colored while lakes can be crystal clear. This digestion process releases Al, Fe and phosporus, generates alkalinity (or was it acidity? any chemists out there?), and precipitates TP as aluminum and iron compounds. Ferrous iron binds P, but will release it during reducing conditions (such as low oxygen conditions in the winter). Aluminum does not do that and is a permanent loss of TP in the bottom of the lake. Fish and macroinvertebrates benefit from DOC when soils are acidic and Al is mobilized. Ionic Al is bound by the DOC and particulate (POC) forms. Episodic pH drops can release Al and put in back into the toxic form and can lead to fish kills. Macroinvertebrates may also be killed and will drift downstream. So for the most part DOC is natural, important, and helpful for wildlife. Climate change probably increases the decomposition of organic matter in soils, leading to more DOC export from watersheds.
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There is a directive in Ghana by the Ministry of Fisheries and Aquaculture Department to ban all imports on ornamental fishes and Tilapia species including gametes-eggs and milts from now to the close of the year as an immediate response to halt the spread of the virus which is said to be prevalent in Africa, South America and Asia, especially in farmed Tilapia. This is a blow against the global Tilapia industry.
Kindly share your views on the new virus, ways of preventing it and other references. Thanks in advance. Best regards
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Following
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Is nitrogease enzyme (nifH) are stable in extreme environments??
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Dear Mr. Thajudeen,
The premiere enzyme responsible for fixation of dinitrogen to ammonia, the nitrogenase, is extremely sensitive to the presence of oxygen because of the degradative tendencies of oxygen towards the Fe-S co-factor of the enzyme. However, hot springs provide an ideal environment for diazotrophs or symbionts as the excess temperature ensures that the partial pressure of gaseous oxygen would be higher than the ambient atmosphere and generally results in outgasing of oxygen into the atmosphere and the water becomes hypoxic. This is effect is absolutely conducive for the nitrogenase to function. However, the temperature might prove to be a hindrance for the enzyme to perform optimally for which hot spring cyanobacteria or other microbes tend to synthesize excessive extracellular mucopolypeptides and other polymers. The dissolved carbonates in the alkaline hot springs serve as buffers to any pH swing, thereby protecting the enzyme.
At or near deep sea vents, nitrogen fixers encounter environments where the element with highest electron affinity is usually sulfur. And the absolute absence of free or dissolved oxygen in there immediate environments enable the nitrogen fixers to perform optimally. Production of methane, hydrogen sulfide, sulfur di-oxides farther bolster the situation of hypoxia. There are articles indicating that gaseous nitrogen is abundant in hydrothermal fluids and the environment itself is limited by fixed nitrogen. Hence thermophilic nitrogen fixers reduce N2 to ammonia in the unsedimented deep-sea vent regions.
In very cold regions, like the polar climates, the nitrogen fixation do take place beneath the ice or permafrost, in peat bogs etc but at very slow rates. And in it very rare in arctic oceans since the cold ensures presence of excess dissolved oxygen in the water which is a big roadblock for the nitrogenase. The global nitrogen cycle is not balanced since in the arctic regions, nitrogen fixation hardly, if ever, occurs, apart from some limited coastal settings and the rate of microbial denitrification far outweighs the ammonification in high latitudes. The tropical regions are characterized by higher rates of nitrogen fixation within the euphotic depth followed by greater ammonia oxidation through Annamox in the lower reaches of the nitricline.
This is why if all the niches of the world were considered, nitrogen fixation concept would have been needed to be rewritten as a result of a paradigm shift. Hence, in terrestrial conditions nitrogen fixation may or may not occur in polar climates but in water it is truly a rarefied phenomenon and can only, theoretically/hypothetically take place in oxygen minima zones, which need research to corroborate.
Thanking you,
Dr. Abhishek Mukherjee
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Very interesting project!
Will it take place in freshwaters?
What techniques will you use for sampling fish larvae / juveniles at the microhabitat scale?
How are you going to describe the vegetated beds?
A Malagasy PhD student is presently trying address identical questions in Toliara Bay, SW Madagascar (so, tropical marine species, a lot of them unknown at larval & juvenile stage...).
Best regards
Dominique
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Hi
In order to answer this question/problem, several remarks have to be studied.
1. General remarks:
Research studies are usually carried out on sample of subjects rather than whole populations. The most challenging aspect of fieldwork is drawing a random sample from the target population to which the results of the study would be generalized. The key to a good sample is that it has to be typical of the population from which it is drawn. When the information from a sample is not typical of that in the population in a systematic way, we say that error has occurred. In actual practice, the task is so difficult that several types of errors, i.e. sampling error, non-sampling error, Response error, Processing error,…
In addition, the most important error is the Sampling error, which is statistically defined as the error caused by observing a sample instead of the whole population. The underlying principle that must be followed if we are to have any hope of making inferences from a sample to a population is that the sample be representative of that population.
2. A key way of achieving this is through the use of “randomization”. There several types of random samples, Some of which are: Simple Random Sampling, Stratified Random Sampling, Double-stage Random Sampling... Moreover, the most important sample is the simple random sample which is a sample selected in such a way that every possible sample of the same size is equally likely to be chosen. In order to reduce the sampling error, the simple random sample technique and a large sample size have to be developed.
3. Specific remarks:
The following factors are highly affected the sample size and need to be identified:
  • Population Size,
  • Margin of Error,
  • Confidence Level (level of significance) and
  • Standard of Deviation.
4. Then, the sample size can be estimated by,
Necessary Sample Size = (z-score or t-value)2 * StdDev*(1-StdDev) / (margin of error)2 .
Regards,
Zuhair
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We are looking into building an antenna system for a project. Anyone done this and have an idea of price, etc. or have some general advice? I'd also love to talk to someone who used solar for energy. Wondering if its more price effective to do this. We will be doing this in a pretty shallow narrow-width aquatic system but heat will be a factor.
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That would be great. Thanks!
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I am currently analysing temporal and spatial zooplankton groups and in many samples from the same time period there appears to be a very high proportion (~90%) of the same group (Cladocera). I have been unable to find literature related to whether zooplankton (specifically cladocera) can develop in blooms under optimum conditions, similar to those of phytoplankton.
If anyone could point me in the direction of any literature related to this topic, it would be greatly appreciated!
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Which is this aquatic plant species is
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It seems to be a leaf of Ceratophyllum (possibly C. demersum).
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Dear all,
do you know if:
1 - can I run an RDA with negative (taxa) values (as delta Control - Treatment)?
2 - Do I have to use the function decostand function on these delta values before performing the RDA?
3 - Shall I use Bray-Curtis distance (dist='bray") in the RDA function?
Best
Alessandro
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I have no idea yet.Good question.....
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Dear all,
I have maybe for the "time series" experts a silly question:
-I have a dataset of European rivers =80
-In 50% of the rivers I have more than 1 project; in the other 50% is 1 river = 1 project
-In 50 % of the projects I have data collected only for 1 year; in the other 50% of the projects data were collected over years (from 2 untill 20 years, depending on the project)
->I want to assess the Fish diversity depending on the altitude, latitude, catchment size.
After exploring data for the model assumption of normality, variance heterogeneity etc..I though to run this model:
mod<-lme(Fish Diversity~log(altitude)+log(latitude)+log(catchment size), random~1|Rivers/Projects, method="ML", data=dati)
When I look at the residuals of model mod and at the acf (residuals(mod) and pacf(residuals(mod), they are pretty good but in acf there is autocorrelation in lag1
and in pacf the line goes slightly over in lag 3. I think I would give it a try with CorAR1 (p=1) correction in lme.
My questions are:
1- Is the model developed in your opinion correct?
2- Can I fit a correlation CorrAR1 in the lme by just looking at the acf and pacf plots from the model mod? As u see I have different project over time that means potentially multiple time series (for each project). Can I just fit a unique AR1 structure looking at the residuals of the model (without CorrAR1) and not at the raw data and assume that the same temporal trend is present in all the projects analysed? How can the acf and pacf know what is the temporal repetion (i.e.
how the acf and pacf biuld the lags in the plots)?
3- if the question number 2 is yes, do I have to organise in the dataframe chronologically in the dataset for each project? (e.g. Project1 from 2000 untill 2008; Project 2 from 1998 untill 2015, and so on?) as dati[order(dati$Project_names, dati$Year_evaluation), ]
and give to the corrAR1 the form structure form=1|Rivers/Project_names
Would this model be ok?
modAR<-lme(Abu~log(altitude)+log(latitude)+log(catchment size), random~1|Rivers/Project_names, method="ML",
correlation=corARMA(form = ~1|Rivers/Project_names, p=1)
Thank you for your time
Alessandro
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Dear Keston and Fjdor,
thank you very much for your suggestions. These were really usefull. I will check both options (including VEC models).
Thank you very much
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It is a tropical freshwater snake caught in a seasonal pond 
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I caught one of these in Liberia I would say a Lycodon capucinus
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I'm trying to collect wild animals for ecological and aquaculture research and there seems to be very few of these in Sarasota Florida where we have subtropical weather.  The only place we have found any is in a specific shallow Thalassia seagrass habitat near deeper pass water during Summer and Fall.  I suspect the population is low and might be recruitment limited but maybe there are more animals in deeper water.  Any insight on this would be greatly appreciated.  
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Hi Tom, I have seen these refs, but this does help and I do appreciate your assistance on this. I. badionotus appear to be very patchy in distribution probably due to poor recruitment and low population levels. Their population decline due to high fishing pressure is concerning as they appear to be important reef sediment processors. Their presence in my systems looks to have a functional stabilizing influence on water chemistry. Thanks again for your help!
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In aquatic ecology research, the relationships between different trophic level are important. Stable carbon and nitrogen isotopes analysis(SIA) are widely used to ravel the interactions between linkages in food web.
The biomass and quantity of top level organisms in food web are always low, and the collection metod requires dead individuals, and which could collect tissue samples easily.
Currently, a large proportion of top predators are rare or threatened. Few articles use the non-lethal methodologies which collect the blood or fins.
Why the non-lethal method is not widely used?
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Such methodologies are widely used, but the resolution is poor. I spent several years doing a master's using fatty acid analysis to differentiate between food sources in Atlantic Tarpon in the early 2000's. It worked...sort of. Here's the thing, fatty acids in tissue are not just diet-related, they're biosynthesized and utilized at different rates based on physiological changes & stresses to the organism. The best paper at the time was produced by a lab in the far white north, and there was so much mathematical black magic used in the paper that few people who were doing the work at the time believed them.
Isotope work is even more vague than fatty acid analysis. Okay, as Sharon pointed out, sharks may feed in marine and freshwater biomes...but what does that really tell you? Not much! A gut-content study (they can be done non-lethally) can tell you what species are consumed specifically, rather than...over the last year or two the shark fed on saltwater and freshwater organisms. For example, gut content studies in Florida in the 1970's (I believe 1977) found that alligators were feeding on a variety of native fish, turtles, and mammals. The lab I worked in did a preliminary study in the mid-2000's on alligator diet using gut-content analysis and discovered that their diet had switched to 95% exotic fish species. Would an isotope study been able to catch the change? I'm not sure, but I know it's much cheaper and more accurate to have students sort through the stomach contents of an alligator to see what it ate compared to using fatty acids or isotopes to calculate a ratio. What are tiger sharks eating in SW Florida estuaries? Probably saltwater and freshwater organisms when they can get them. But the 8'1" tiger shark I examined had eaten saltwater catfish and batfish. That's more interesting than a vague trophic-level analysis.
Isotope and fatty acid analysis can be good tools IF you are only examining higher-level trophic interactions. If you want fine details, stick to the old, dirty, stinky, disgusting methods that work.
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Dear Colleagues,
When studying algae species, is there any standard points to take into account (depth, area...) to make a complete and good inventory (mediterranean sea)?
Thank you
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Thank you all of you
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I am investigating the functionality of a lotic river and would like to calculate the exergy to compare with the values of other biotic and abiotic parameters to obtain a quality scale of ecosystem functionality. So I need the values of the βi coefficients in accordance with the Functional Feeding Groups (FFGs) of the macroinvertebrate community of a lotic river.
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thank you very much
the first-one I know already, I will look for the second-one
hi
maurizio
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I am working on some cyanobacteria from fresh water in Zimbabwe's upper Mhanyame catchment. I am requesting for assistance in identifying the attached species. Could it be Tolyprhrix?
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Dear Stephen,
Please request the following ResearchGate member for identification.
Good luck
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Metal nanoparticles are showing promise in tackling different problems in different domains of environment. How they can be used in aquatic ecosystems? What are different likely interactions? What may the possible toxic effects on different ecosystem components (planktons, bacteria, macrophytes and fish)? How can we track the ecotoxicological linkages? How could we manage metal nanoparticles for positive (beneficial) uses and avert the adverse/untoward consequences?
RG friends and researchers you all are welcome to participate and help to promote a sustained brainstorming on pros and cons of apllyting metal nanoparticles in aquatic systems like, ponds, lakes, rivers, etc.  
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The best review article on "Nanoparticles in aquatic systems". I hope this review addresses most of your questions. Here is the link to access the paper.
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Loss of species of  Heleopera, Hyalosphenia, and Nebela and increase of species and numbers of Trinema, Corythion,and small Euglena should  parallel physico-chemical changes in dessication.   
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I think it must be an experiment of 2 years.
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Hello there, i'd like to plot some environmental variables (Cond, Clo-a, pH, etc..) with some biotic diversity index (Shannon, Simpson, Pielou), to check the effects of these parameters on macroinvertebrate diversity.
And i'd like to know if are there any drawbacks or if its statistically wrong the use of PCA to do this analisys.
-My PCA is based on correlation matrix and rotated by Varimax technique (SPSS).
Thank you very much!
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Dear Lucas
Choosing the right multivariate analysis can be a bit painstaking. In general, it all depends on the preference of the investigator to choose their ordination analysis. Some use weight of the parameters and others eigenvalue. Having said that, not all ordination analyses can be used for every data. There are ways that you can figure out what ordination analysis best suit your data.
If you have CANOCO software then your life can be a bit easier. Fear not if you don’t. Simply use the open source program PAST which contain all the ordinations and many more multivariate analyses. It also has non-metric multidimensional scaling which some prefer over PCA if values are not linear.  
First thing first you need to figure out whether your data (i.e biological) are linear or unimodal or somewhere between. Best test to do this is to run a Detrended Correspondence Analysis (DCA) and look at axis 1 gradient length of ordinated species data. If this number is lower than 2 [SD] units, your data is linear. In this case the best ordination to compare your biological data with environmental data is a linear analysis, such as RDA (Redundancy analysis). If it is higher than 4 [SD] then you have a unimodal data and analyses such as CCA are the best fit for your data. If it is between 2 and 4 standard deviation [SD] units it is not clear whether a unimodal or linear response model best fit the data. In this case run two separate ordinations, both linear approaches RDA and unimodal approaches CCA. Whichever, method gives you higher variation on community data that methods best represent your data (i.e. correlation with environmental variables).
Make sure to perform Stepwise backwards elimination to find what environmental variable are best correlated with benthos community composition.
Hope this helps.
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I am trying to understand what drives bioerosion by grazing organisms.  I understand that algae are a major food source, but there are often problems in the literature distinguishing between basic herbivory grazing and BIOEROSIONAL grazing.  My question is specifically related to what controls bioerosional grazing in reefs with depth, especially related to food sources.  Please let me know if you can help. 
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One of my student is going to start her work on eutrophication modelling and sag curve modelling for a local pond extensively used for drinking purpose. Could anyone help me to find out the software's and manuals to proceed the work in a good way.
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Dear Dr. Kani,
you can collect water samples from local pond and measuring the chlorophyll a content and determining the trophic level of that pond during different seasons. Also, assessing some physicochemical parameters to evaluate the water quality status. You may identify phytoplankton if there toxic species or detect the level of Microcystis in water samples.
comparing your data with pervious study on the same pond, if there. Detecting human activities near to the pond that may help you to interpret your final data.
Use canonical corresponds analysis (CCA) to get the correlation between all different detected data.
Good luck,
Sara Sayed
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What could be the reason of a massive single-night macroinvertebrate drifting event occurred in an sub-alpine stream after 2 days of a 4 week experiment performed in Mai 2014? Drifting rate of the night before and of the night after was 100 times lower then the one observed during the night of "the event". Moon-light intensitites? Ice melting? Thanks in advance
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dear collegue
According to my experience, seeing the big difference of drift between the previous night and the next, I suspect two events:
- an sudden abnormal water release from some retention structure (dam etc.)
- a spillage of toxic substance during the night
Maybe you can check out these events
cheerio
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Or other important methods (outside of standard Molecular Biology techniques) that would be appropriate to have a grasp of if wanting enter the field. 
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Try to play with MG-RAST server and MetAMOS pipeline:
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I received this photo from Polish anglers, Fish was caught in river of central Poland, size about 25 cm. It is not Esox lucius.
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It looks like Catostomus sp
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How deep into a structure - an artificial or a natural reef - is utilized as habitat by settling organisms? e.g - how far inside a gap between boulders of a breakwater, we can expect to find encrusting organisms?
Any papers on the subject will be appreciated.
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Tomer,
The depth of colonization within a reef matrix is light dependant for encrusting autotrophs, but for sessile encrusting heterotrophs it's probably the water flow, i.e. food supply, that would be the key limiting factor. So the depth of colonization within the reef matrix is complex and will depend on numerous factors. The two attached papers may be of some help to get you started.
Tomas
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I'm referring to the spread of freshwater species that are attractive aquarium/angling fishes such as the sunfishes, catfishes and snakeheads in European waters (aliens!!!). Europeans will continue to keep them in captivity and will use them as angling attractions or to stock their big mouth bass fishing areas. Please, any innovative ideas would be very much appreciated!
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 Showing the damage caused by invasive species can educate and convince many people.
I work as technician in the conservation project LimnoPirineus (http://www.lifelimnopirineus.eu/en). We are removing invasive fish from eight high mountain lakes in the Pyrenees. After three years of work we are getting some nice results such as the recovering of the natural transparency and the increase of abundance or the natural recolonization of many species of amphibians, invertebrates and crustaceans.
I have experienced that showing these milestones to the local people and pupils in local schools and high schools is convincing most of the audience.
Also, I have to recognize that a few people is not convinced anyway. However, I can see a very good progress at community scale.
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Dear All,
I have collected this fishes from Visakhapatnam fishing harbour. I think three species in Gobids and other one is very difficult for identification. Can anybody identify this fishes.
Regards,
K.Silambarasan
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Pl send me pics preferably fresh one I will try to Identify it.
Dr.Gore 
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drinking water treatment plants
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yes, the processes are many. There is also the "natural" version through (constructed) wetlands. They can be compacted by chosing a good locally adapted version of microbes and macrophytes, but natural regeneration through the filtering capacity of soils and plants has also been used in multifunctional parks (water filtration and recreation). Unless space is very scarse, such solutions tend to be less costly, but require a different set of knowledges and competencies than more conventional treatment plants. In any event, it's worth analysing entire process cycles and explore whether substances which are particularly difficult/expensive to remove can be separately captured and processed. As a general rule, end of pipe solutions are much more costly than cycling (where "waste" at one step of the cycle can become a resource for another one), thus learning from nature.
.
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These samples were gathered in freshwater in Iran (north of Iran) in pond. 
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This copepod is a  tiny  Cyclopoid . The identification requests  delicate dissection of  the legs with focus on  the differenciation  between the right  and left  4th or 5th leg  in male and female .From which habitat is the specimen ?
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Tatia;
Tilapia;
Glanidium;
Parauchenipterus;
Trachelyopterus
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Hello,
Our group in the Office of Research and Development at the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency would like your help. We are conducting a systematic review of stream algae and macroinvertebrate responses to nutrients and ask for any relevant studies or reports to consider. 
The focus of our review is ONLY on total nitrogen and total phosphorus and its effects on chlorophyll-a, diatoms, and benthic macroinvertebrates in flowing waters. We have completed searches of standard publication databases based on these parameters, but want to ensure that we have not missed any relevant publications that include primary data on these relationships (i.e., not reviews or meta-analyses).
If you know of any relevant studies, particularly difficult-to-find reports or older publications, please send a citation (for easily obtainable works) or a PDF to: bennett.micah 'at symbol' epa.gov or post a response here. PLEASE LIMIT THE NUMBER OF STUDIES TO 10. If you have more than 10 studies for consideration, we can speak directly to better assess the relevance of the studies.
Please send any relevant materials by 31 August 2017.
Thank you in advance for your help!
Best wishes,
Micah Bennett, Ph.D.
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 Hi Lewis - thanks for your suggestions. The Science Citation Index is included in our Web of Science search and we aren't limiting based on date so hopefully we've already taken advantage of those papers. Best, Micah
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what is the species.it is a Linatella
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The low spire of this Monoplex parthenopeus, remember me the more eastern form "echo" from Taiwan and Japan. I have a similar specimen from Masqat (Oman).
Cordially, Gianluigi.
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i want to know that does there exist any change in the feeding behaviour pattern of an organism in lakes and streams 
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I have not worked in the tropics, but for boreal lakes and streams the answer is yes; at least for functional feeding groups of littoral invertebrates in lakes and riffle invertebrates is streams. For example, see Johnson R.K., Goedkoop, W. and L. Sandin. 2004. Spatial scale and ecological relationships between the macroinvertebrate communities of stony habitats of streams and lakes. Freshwater Biology, 49: 1179-1194. 
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Are there any publications with details of where BAF units are installed in France? (or The Netherlands or Belgium, but given size France should have more sites).
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Hi Jeremy.  Look for information on Cergy, FR; Blagnac, FR; Formiguere, FR; Colombes, FR; Lagny, FR.  These are all BioStyr, but there are many Biofor units too.
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Hello all,
Does anyone know of research indicating that large-polyp stony corals (e.g. Tubastraea coccinea) prey on ichthyoplankton? I am aware that there are several studies that indicate that they can prey on copepods and crustacean nauplius. Generally, I am considering if reefs dominated by predatory corals are more hazardous to settling fish larva than reefs dominated by primary consumer bivalves. I have evidence indicating the bivalves in question are generally primary consumers and the corals are secondary consumers.
Best,
    Ryan
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Thank you very much for your responses, I should note that the habitats I am looking at are artificial structures in the GOM where Tubastraea occupy a abnormally large proportion of the encrusting biomass (in comparison to their natural habitat). I have  found some other research indicating they are secondary consumers:
Thanks again,
Ryan
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All freshwater in a tropical lake
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 The first picture seems (as Daniel above noted) to be a Botryococcus. The second a Chlorella and the third picture a cyanobacterian filament (Lyngbya?). Focus does not help.
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Dear all,
I'm looking for an example of a country that possesses both the source and the recipient habitat of an invasive species, except Israel and Egypt..
It may be marine, terrestrial, faunal or floral organism.
I'm mainly interested about the conservation management-actions taken by the country.
In other words, how to protect a species in one place, and cull it from the other.
Thanks in advance,
Nir Stern
Israel Oceanographic and Limnological Research Institute
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Also the snakes I metioned from Spain meet your requirements.
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Most fish have a range of wavelengths which they respond to (e.g. see electroretinography studies by researchers at the Virginia Institute of Marine Science):
Some fish have two regions (bimaxwellian) of peak response within the range of wavelengths that they respond to, while most seem to only have one (a Maxwellian distribution). I suppose this has to do with evolution and how they have adapted to their habitat (e.g. standing/flowing fresh vs salt water, depth of preferred temperature), predators and prey, etc. I am a physicist, but interested in both physical and biological explanations, preferably with references, not just speculation.
Best regards and thank you for your contributions in advance!
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Dear Alex
Your question is very interesting, I advice you to read the paper; **Behavioral responses of two deep-sea fish species to red, far-red, and white light**, and interesting book in this link. Thank you for your consideration, good luck for your research.
Fatima
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I have read papers on bacterial community structure in mangroves and papers that quantify the fish populations in mangroves. However, I would like to read on any study which may have combined the both.
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Plz see the attached PDF..
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Hi and good day to all. Does anyone here have experience with ESBN fishing gear? I tried to look for information online but it is scarce. From my reading, I can conclude that this fishing gear can catch high amount of fish but rather destructive (due to high catches of juvenile). If I need to use ESBN for my research, is it right for me to claim that the selection is because ESBN is a broad spectrum fishing gear (for homogeneity reason)? I appreciate if someone can explain this fishing gear in detail (how it works, mesh size use) and other advantages of using it. 
Thank you very much in advance. 
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Thanks due to your interesting question. 
Please consult the attached paper, I believe that will definitely stimulate your understanding about ESBN.  
Chowdhury, M. S. N., Hossain, M. S., Das, N. G., & Barua, P. (2011). Environmental variables and fisheries diversity of the Naaf River Estuary, Bangladesh. Journal of Coastal Conservation, 15(1), 163-180.
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What characteristics of species, such as temperate or tropical, sessile or motile, and so on, make them especially delicate to stressors inferable from environmental change?
What particularly about species makes them more prone to being affected by climate change?
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Hi Koleen,
Your question is similar to Lance Tolentino. I have worked on the spawning traits of fishes in the wild and in captivity and found temperature as one of the influencing factors that triggers spawning behavior. They have range of temperatures suitable for spawning.
This could be applied to other organisms as well, though temperature might have varied degrees of influence to different organisms. Migratio