Science topics: Mathematical SciencesApplied Mathematics

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# Applied Mathematics - Science topic

Applied Mathematics are a common forum for all branches of applicable Mathematics

Questions related to Applied Mathematics

What’s the most common programming paradigm of no-code platforms? Why?

I am looking forward to hear from you. Best Regards

The aim of the research here is to prevent the propagation of the crack in the fabricated elastic medium with useful applications.

Can an elliptic crack (small enough to remain a single entity, with

**no internal pressure or shear force**) inside an isotropic material (no boundary effect) be expanded in its own plane under**externally applied shearing stresses**only?If yes, how did you show that? Do we have experimental evidence for the process?

A simple crack system (

*Figure***1**) can be readily studied to estimate the Hertzian conoidal crack angle and length, and also the stress intensity factor.This is a 3

*-D*brittle elastic half-space on the flat boundary*Ox*1*x*3 of which a rectilinear contact pressure along*Ox*3 is exerted by a cylinder whose axis is parallel to*x*3; the cylinder lies along Ox3 on the flat boundary. A planar straight-front crack inclined by an angle*θ*with respect to*x*1*x*3 is present under the action of the load along*x*2 due to the cylinder. The relevance of this modelling may be understood as follows. A slab of cylinder with thickness*dx*3 at spatial position*O’*(0*,*0*, x*3) exerts elastic fields (displacement and stress) proportional to those of a point load at*O’*(proportionality coefficient*dx*3). Physically, this corresponds to the action of a spherical indenter to which is associated a conoidal fracture surface for sufficiently large load (Roesler (1956) as quoted by Frank and Lawn (1967)). The coalescence of conoidal cracks from different slabs of cylinder along*Ox*3 would produce planar fracture surface envelops parallel to*x*3 at large crack lengths. Therefore, we expect the modelling in**Figure****1**to provide the experimentally observed fracture surface inclination angle*θ*and crack length*l*as a function of critical load*P*by both a spherical indenter and cylinder. This is the essence of the modelling depicted schematically in**Figure****1**.Cross-slip, twinning and fracture are major deformation modes adopted by loaded materials. It appears sound that these apparently different deformation mechanisms can be analysed on the equal manner!

All good derives from bad. Disincentives are everything. Deduction is more rigorous than induction.

The simulation theory is NOT parsimonious because at least partial free will is self-evident. Reason would not exist without the fundamental choice to focus on life. Even animals probably make decisions thus, have souls.

Violating [(tradition)' = (risk analysis)' = (skin in the game)'] = ethics has many risks.

1)LONG-term higher SELF.

2)Morality is more about concrete empathy than the abstract kind.

3)Criminals risk A LOT.

4)More parsimonous, given the law of identity, and time is an illusion, the individual is more likely eternal than abstract ideas are.

5)We probably realize, upon death, time is an illusion.

6)People evolved to be more easily bored by the abstract than concrete. So, applied mathematics may help teach math.

I am wondering if the Gamma function is completely monotone within the interval (0,1). I use Mathematica to plot the derivatives of Gamma function up to 10th order of derivatives and the results looks like it is completely monotone. Is it possible to prove it mathematically?

"DNA is SO unpredictable that they are either fractals or something less predictable, thus a gene is never known to manifest into a trait, debunking hereditarianism and vindicating CRT" (Ohnemus 2024).

The equation in fig.1 can be transformed to the one in fig.2. Using ‘atan’, we can turn the periodic function ‘tan’,which is on the left of Eq.1, to the sum of ‘atan’ and l*π. However, for the case of fig.3, such method cannot be applied.

Anyway to combine the two ‘cot’s on the right? If not, any methods to eliminate the periodic functions in Eq.3, and gain a function only contain aperiodic functions and the term l*π. The first two equations derive from the PDF below(Eq 70/71).Much obliged!

we think of a point as a spot in an Euclidean plane

indicating a position.Intuitively we assign arbitrary

framework.The confusion (for me) is when

we consider a line segment.It is made of

infinite points aligned in a certain direction.

So a segment results when all these “ directions”

are added vectorial, but a zero vector is

conceptually an infinite direction entity

so how is this vector direction specified for

a point nathematically. physically of course

we have a visible dot with visible dimension,

Any insight or explanation from all sources

is welcome.

Showing ABSTRACT moral absolutes probably don’t exist, women evolved to try to fix men’s flaws. Very few women cite Prince Charming as the sexiest man. God maybe designed women to desire the men they could fix or, all females would wait until the second coming to reproduce. Many women are sexually attracted to serial killers.

1)

Hello,

The sum of Kinetic energy Ke(t) and Potential energy Pe(t) in a physical system is referred to as Total energy Te(t)=Ke(t)+Pe(t), what can we say about the difference Ke(t)-Pe(t) and what can we call it?

I asked this question because I have found polynomial decay of the sum and exponential decay of the difference!

Thank you in advance!

Khaldi Said

Hi everyone,

I'm working on a project where I need to compare the similarity between line curves on two separate charts, and I could use some guidance. Here’s the situation:

**First Chart Details:**Contains two curves, both of which are moving averages. These curves are drawn on a browser canvas by a user. I have access to the x and y data points of these curves.**Second Chart Details:**Contains two curves, with accessible x and y data points. In this chart, the x-axis represents time, and the y-axis represents values.

**Challenge:**

- The two charts do not share the same coordinate system values.

**Goal:**

- I would like to compare the similarity in patterns between individual lines across the two charts (i.e., one line from the first chart vs. one line from the second chart).
- Additionally, I want to compare the overall shape formed by both lines on the first chart to the shape formed by both lines on the second chart.

Could anyone provide advice on methodologies or algorithms that could help in assessing the similarity of these line curves?

Thank you for any help.

Lovro Bajc

I have attached

The current dynamic innovation, research, and development in the fields of Artificial Intelligence (AI), Ultra-Smart Computation, Applied Mathematics, Modeling and Simulation, and Fast Internet, promote the creation of Automated Ultra Smart Cyberspace, which opens a new horizon of opportunities for government, business, academia, and industry worldwide.

As a research area, simulation is an interdisciplinary endeavor with a vast literature. Cybersecurity research is also interdisciplinary. There is a strong connection between these areas of research.

source: JOURNAL ARTICLE - Simulation for cybersecurity: state of the art and future directions

I want to do phd on mathematical modeling of infectious diseases (eg. Covid 19, maleria, denge). I am also interested in pure mathematics as well like Nonlinear Analysis, Variational Inequalities so my question is can i get any connection between this two part. Need suggestions thank you.

*Mathematical Generalities:*‘Number’ may be termed as a general term, but real numbers, a sub-set of numbers, is sub-general. Clearly, it is a quality: “having one member, having two members, etc.”; and here one, two, etc., when taken as nominatives, lose their significance, and are based primarily only on the adjectival use. Hence the justification for the adjectival (qualitative) primacy of numbers as universals. While defining one kind of ‘general’ another sort of ‘general’ may naturally be involved in the definition, insofar as they pertain to an existent process and not when otherwise.

Why are numbers and shapes so exact? ‘One’, ‘two’, ‘point’, ‘line’, etc. are all exact. The operations on these notions are also intended to be exact. But irrational numbers are not so exact in measurement. If notions like ‘one’, ‘two’, ‘point’, ‘line’, etc. are defined to be so exact, then it is not by virtue of the exactness of these substantive notions, but instead, due to their being defined as exact. Their adjectival natures: ‘being a unity’, ‘being two unities’, ‘being a non-extended shape’, etc., are not so exact.

A quality cannot be exact, but may be defined to be exact. It is in terms of the exactness attributed to these notions by definition that the adjectives ‘one’, ‘two’, ‘point’, ‘line’, etc. are exact. This is why the impossibility of fixing these (and other) substantive notions as exact miss our attention. If in fact these are inexact, then there is justification for the inexactness of irrational, transcendental, and other numbers too.

If numbers and shapes are in fact inexact, then not only irrational numbers, transcendental numbers, etc., but all exact numbers and the mathematical structures should remain inexact if they have not been defined as exact. And if behind the exact definitions of exact numbers there are no exact universals, i.e., quantitative qualities? If the formation of numbers is by reference to experience (i.e., not from the absolute vacuum of non-experience), their formation is with respect to the quantitatively qualitative and thus inexact ontological universals of oneness, two-ness, point, line, etc.

Thus,

**, in all their detail, are a species of qualities, namely, quantitative qualities,***mathematical structures***. Quantitative qualities are ontological universals, with their own connotative and denotative versions.***defined to be exact and not naturally exact*Natural numbers, therefore, are the origin of primitive mathematical experience, although complex numbers may be more general than all others in a purely mathematical manner of definition.

Bibliography

*(1) Gravitational Coalescence Paradox and Cosmogenetic Causality in Quantum Astrophysical Cosmology*, 647 pp., Berlin, 2018.

*(2) Physics without Metaphysics? Categories of Second Generation Scientific Ontology*, 386 pp., Frankfurt, 2015.

*(3) Causal Ubiquity in Quantum Physics: A Superluminal and Local-Causal Physical Ontology*, 361 pp., Frankfurt, 2014.

*(4) Essential Cosmology and Philosophy for All: Gravitational Coalescence Cosmology*, 92 pp., KDP Amazon, 2022, 2nd Edition.

*(5) Essenzielle Kosmologie und Philosophie für alle: Gravitational-Koaleszenz-Kosmologie*, 104 pp., KDP Amazon, 2022, 1st Edition.

Hellow.

I am interested in challenging the remaining String theorist's for an online 60 minute debate. Any date they will choose.

I will take on 5-10 remining String theorists. 10 on 1. I think it's fair.

How can we arrange this match-up ?

Thanks.

I begin scientific inquiry by somewhat philosophizing. Science approximately derives from philosophy. Engineering is roughly derived from science.

I need the above book if any one have please share with me. I will be thankful for this.

email: sak549128@gmail.com

Liberalism is a highly hegemonic and maybe all encompassing force that stems from God as humans would NOT have the ability to reason to implement social justice WITHOUT The Holy Trinity.

Respectfully who agrees that reincarnation is highly improbable? How? Why? My answer: Respectfully, I believe reincarnation is highly improbable for many reasons including but not limited to:

0)Eternal salvation for all is the most probable afterlife.

1)The uniqueness of each organism, meaning if everyone and all organisms are unique then they unlikely share spirits.

1.5)Spirits probably individualize each being.

2)The low probability of absolutes, that would govern the reincarnation cycle, besides, the Holy Trinity(one entity in three different unfalsifiable forms which all double as survival heuristics).

3) More specifically, God the Father is reason, logos, the master of the simulation theory, the creator, Yahweh, and the unmoved mover.

4)Jesus, God the Son, is the perfect individual, humanity’s redeemer, everyone’s savior, and the gate keeper to the fourth dimension(http://www.math.brown.edu/tbanchof/Yale/project13/bible.htm ).

5) The Holy Spirit, the moral guidepost, observably vibes, empathy, etc.

6)My sources are available for more explanation.

Sources:

Hello,

I'm writing paper and used various optimizers to train model. I changed them during training step to get out of local minimum, and I know that people do that, but I don't know how to name that technique in the paper. Does it even have a name?

It is like simulated annealing in optimization, but instead of playing with temperature (step) we change optimizers between Adam, SDG and RMSprop. I can say for sure that it gave fantastic results.

P.S. Thank you for replies but learning rate scheduling is for leaning rate changing, optimizer scheduling is for other optimizer parameters, in general it is hyperparameter tuning. What I'm asking is about switching between optimizers, not modifying their parameters.

Thanks for support,

Andrius Ambrutis

Who Wants to Invite me To Speak at a Conference for Applied Mathematics and or Social Policy?

As for example, light beam attenuation is described by the differential equation

dS/dx = -S

which solution is S~e(-x).

But what physical processes could be described by the differential equation:

dS/dt = -t*S or dS/dx = -x*S

which solution is S~e(-t^2) or S~e(-x^2), with t as time and x as distance.

Do you have ideas?

Thank you very much in advance,

Algis

What is the probability that people can learn applied mathematics by noticing the mathematical and other senses of vocabulary? Why? How? My answer: high probability because many terms that are used in their sense outside of stereotypical and or pure mathematics are still applicable to the applied mathematical sense. Such as differentiate, integrate, etc.

Hi,

I have a question regarding the derivation in the attached paper.

How did the author get eq. 27 by solving the dp/dx integrals?

When I computed integrals for dx/h^4 and dx/h^2 with limits from 0 to lambda, my resulting answer is 0 when I substitute the limits.

I am using

to calculate integrals

h = 1 + phi*(sin(2*pi*(x/lambda)))

Could anyone please help

I really appreciate any help you can provide.

regards,

Shannon

Dear Colleagues,

This Special Issue, "Numerical and Computational Methods in Engineering", aims to explore the latest advancements and applications of numerical and computational techniques in various engineering disciplines. It provides a platform for researchers and practitioners on which to share their innovative methodologies, algorithms, and computational tools that facilitate the analysis, design, and optimization of engineering systems.

The scope of this Special Issue encompasses a broad range of engineering fields, including but not limited to civil engineering, mechanical engineering, electrical engineering, aerospace engineering, and chemical engineering. It welcomes contributions that address fundamental principles, the development of novel algorithms and computational techniques, the implementation of computational models, and practical applications in a diverse range of engineering domains.

Keywords

- applied mathematics
- numerical methods for partial differential equations
- computational mechanics
- optimization algorithms
- structural analysis
- heat and mass transfer simulation
- computational electromagnetics
- multi-physics simulations
- computational materials science
- high-performance computing
- data-driven algorithms
- big data analysis
- machine learning in engineering

How to apply mathematically the

**ISE, ITSE, IAE, and ITAE**for the transfer function in terms of error:1-Integral Square Error

2-Integral Time Absolute Error

3-Integral Absolute Error

4-Integral Time Square Error

Whenever I like an article in which regression analysis is used, I ask the authors if they can share some raw (!) data, because I'm writing a book and software about this topic, and I want to include very diverse real examples.

But, to my disappointment, practically nobody even reacts! Why?

Are people affraid that a new light on their data might disrupt their conclusions?

I thought openness was considered a virtue in the world of science?

But if I want to see articles that include data, I have to dig in the very old ones!

What are your thoughts?

P.S.: I can still use simple datasets from physics to psychology, from chemistry to sociology, anything...(just 1 independent variable, preferably with information about the measurement imprecision). Of course I quote you as the source. Thanks in advance!

I authored a paper titled

"The Essence of 'E': Revealing the Infinitely Infinite" in the IJFMR Volume 5, Issue 5, September-October 2023, authored by Haque Mobassir, Imtiyazul Haque, and Shaikh. The DOI is 10.36948/ijfmr.2023.v05i05.7494.

In this paper, I introduced the concept of 'E' as the fundamental reason for all existence. I am now sharing a preprint of an experimental hypothesis to explore some ideas mentioned in the aforementioned paper

1. "Finite and Infinite originate from a common source, 'E.'"

2. "E is significantly smaller and lighter than any of its creations."

I would appreciate your thoughts after reviewing the attachment

Everything In The World Is Made Of Mathematics. True Or False ?

For any real symmetric matrix X and Q with the appropriate dimension, does the following inequality relation holds?

λmin(Q) ‖X‖

_{2}≤ X^TQX ≤ λmax(Q) ‖X‖_{2 }where λmin(Q) and λmax(Q) represent the minimum and maximum of matrix Q eigenvalues, respectively, and ‖X‖

_{2}represents the 2-norm of the matrix X."Artificial intelligence may automatically be able to turn theories into marketable products"(Ohnemus 2023).

A new branch of applied mathematics will emerge concerning designing prior to 3D printing. The categories of scholar and entrepreneur may soon begin to overlap more. The more advanced 3D printers become, the faster a concept can go to a finished product.

Work Cited

Ohnemus , Alexander . "Education for an Automated World." ResearchGate.net . 6 Aug. 2023. dx.doi.org/10.13140/RG.2.2.29293.15843. Accessed 10 Oct. 2023.

Hellow.

I have been wondering why some people claim that the new theory proposed is not experiment tested. To those one ask:

1. when the theory produces the

**that govern the right measurement values, it does not count as experimentally tested ?***principle*2. When the theory produces a the correct number at the 26 position of an infinite series along side two first numbers which are correct, The only implication is that the continuation is correct, as those are dependent on one another.

3. The Physics community Not yet accepted the full framework despite It is fully principle governed. Therefore it is a bit disappointing.

Ecologists should pay attention to which aspects when applying mathematics?

If breastfeeding correlates with reducing risks of autism in infants parsimoniously (as the most simple explanation with the most evidence) then that could also lower toxic masculinity in adult males. Especially because pegging is already thought to lower toxic masculinity.

Work Cited

Ohnemus , Alexander . "Why Women Should Breastfeed Their Male Romantic Partners." ResearchGate.net . www.researchgate.net/publication/372401611_Why_Women_Should_Breastfeed_Their_Male_Romantic_Partners. Accessed 8 Sep. 2023.

Ohnemus , Alexander . "Erotic Lactation Reduces Toxic Masculinity Theorem "ELRTM Theorem" (Group Theory)(Dynamic Systems)(Differential Equations) A theorem." ResearchGate.net . www.researchgate.net/publication/373448419_Erotic_Lactation_Reduces_Toxic_Masculinity_Theorem_ELRTM_Theorem_Group_TheoryDynamic_SystemsDifferential_Equations_A_theorem. Accessed 8 Sep. 2023.

Ohnemus , Alexander . "Differential Equations of Erotic Lactation (Group Theory)(Dynamic Systems)(Differential Equations)." ResearchGate.net . www.researchgate.net/publication/373711079_Differential_Equations_of_Erotic_Lactation_Group_TheoryDynamic_SystemsDifferential_Equations. Accessed 8 Sep. 2023.

Hello, I'm about to join a team working on auditory speech perception using iEEG. It is planned that I will use Temporal Response Function (TRF) to determine correlations between stimulus characteristics (variations in the acoustic signal envelope, for example) and characteristics of recorded neuronal activity.

I would therefore like to fully understand the different stages of data processing carried out, as well as the reasoning and hypotheses behind them.

I took a look at the article presenting the method

and I studied the matrix calculations

But several questions remain.

In particular, regarding this formula:

**w = (S**

^{T}S)^{-1}S^{T}rwhere S is a matrix of dimension (T*tau) presenting the characteristics of the stimulus over time (T) as a function of different temporal windows/shifts (tau) as :

S =

[ s(t

_{min}-tau_{min}) ... s(t) ... s(t_{min}-tau_{max}) ][ ... ... ]

[ ... ... ]

[ s(t

_{max}-tau_{min}) ... s(t) ... s(t_{max}-tau_{max}) ]and where r is a matrix of dimension (T*N) presenting the recorded activity of each channel in time.

- Why do S
^{T}S? What does the product of this operation represent? - Why do (S
^{T}S)^{-1}? What does this operation bring? - Why do (S
^{T}S)^{-1}S^{T}? What is represented in this product? - And finally w = (S
^{T}S)^{-1}S^{T}r. What does w of dimension tau * N really represent?

Hypothesis:
S

^{T}S represents the "covariance" of each time window with the others (high covariance in the diagonal (because product of equal columns), high covariance for adjacent columns (because product of close time windows) and low covariance for distant columns whose time windows are very far apart (and therefore presenting little mutual information)). Maybe that (S^{T}S)^{-1}S^{T}(of dimension T*tau) makes it possible to obtain a representation of the stimulus according to time windows and time, but with the abrogation of any correlations that may exist between windows? However, the representation of the stimulus in this product remains very unclear to me... And finally, w may represents the weights (or correlations) of each N channel for the different time windows of the signal. My incomprehension mainly concerns the representation of the stimulus by (S^{T}S)^{-1}S^{T}and I would like to better understand the reasoning behind these operations and the benefits they bring to the decoding of neural activity. I'd like to thank anyone familiar with TRFs for any help he/she can give me. My reasoning may be wrong or incomplete, any contribution would be appreciated.Hello everyone,

I am Danillo Souza, and I am currently a Post-Doc Researcher at Basque Center for Applied Mathematics (BCAM). I am currently working on the Mathematical, Computational and Experimental Neuroscience Group (MCEN). One of the challenges of my work is to derive optimal tools to exact topological and/or geometrical information from Big data.

I am trying to submit a work to arXiv and unfortunately, an endorsement in Physics - Data Analysis and Statistics is required. I was wondering if some researcher could be my endorser in this area.

Beforehand, I appreciate your efforts in trying to help me.

With kind regards,

Danillo

Email: dbarros@bcamath.org

Danillo Barros De Souza requests your endorsement to submit an article
to the physics.data-an section of arXiv. To tell us that you would (or
would not) like to endorse this person, please visit the following URL:
https://arxiv.org/auth/endorse?x=UOKIX3
If that URL does not work for you, please visit
http://arxiv.org/auth/endorse.php
and enter the following six-digit alphanumeric string:
Endorsement Code: UOKIX3

importance of applied mathematics

Fatigue fracture surfaces of broken high strength materials exhibit rough conoidal cracks at the vertex of which are located inclusions or heterogeneities

Experimental: The observations refer to Sakai et al. (2002), Abdesselam et al. (2018), Stinville et al. (2018) ... These cracks have been named “fish-eye marks” by two former authors and their formations have been divided into three stages: (

*i*) formation of the characteristic area as a fine granular area (FGA); (*ii*) crack propagation to form the fish-eye (i.e. according to us “rough conoidal crack”); (*iii*) rapid crack propagation to cause the catastrophic fracture.This subject is important because evidence of conoidal rough cracks is observed experimentally on various macrographs of broken specimens, under fatigue for instance. Our recent works (see below in answers) provides associated physical quantities.

Usually to know the financial performance of the co-operative society, we use ratio analysis and more than that any other tools available to find the financial performance or growth of the organization suggest me.

Hi Dears, according to implementation RSA in python. I found that if p and q large.

the decryption phase takes a lot of time to execute.

for example, in this code i select p=23099, q=23059, message=3

it takes 26 minute it decrypts the encrypted message.!

So I wonderful how we can select to large prime number for RSA, while it cannot execute in desired time. !

So, I think that we cannot use RSA i n real time systems.

Are you agree with me?

the source code is:

from math import gcd

import time

# defining a function to perform RSA approch

def RSA(p: int, q: int, message: int):

# calculating n

n = p * q

print(n)

# calculating totient, t

t = (p - 1) * (q - 1)

start = time.time()

# selecting public key, e

for i in range(2,t):

if gcd(i, t) == 1:

e = i

break

print("eeeeeeeeeeeeee",e)

# selecting private key, d

j = 0

while True:

if (j * e) % t == 1:

d = j

break

j += 1

print("dddddddddddddddd",d)

end = time.time()

# print(end-start)

e=0

#RSA(p=7, q=17, message=3)

RSA(p=23099, q=23059, message=3)

d=106518737

n=532639841

e=5

#RSA(p=23099, q=23059, message=3)

start= time.time()

ct=(3 ** e) % n

print(ct)

pt=(ct ** d) % n

end = time.time()

print(end-start)

print(pt)

#----------------------------------------------------

Up to this point, I thought that when doing a dimensional analysis using the Buckingham-Pi theorem the exponents are generally quite "simple". For example 0.5, 1 or 2 and so on.

However, I now have found a paper where the exponents of the dimensionless numbers that are formulated by a data-driven approach have "strange" exponents like 0.07 or 0.304. This seems a bit odd to me and brings me to the questions: are such exponents (still) physically meaningful? If so, in which cases does such a type of exponents occur (and why)?

Thank you very much!

This question deserves to be posed and clarified. It is at this price that we will be able to consider an improvement involving analyses including new concepts. The answer to this question is given below.

**SOURCE OF MAJOR FLAWS IN COSMOLOGICAL THEORIES:**

**MATHEMATICS-TO-PHYSICS APPLICATION DISCREPENCY**

**Raphael Neelamkavil, Ph.D., Dr. phil.**

The big bang theory has many limitations. These are,

(1) the uncertainty regarding the causes / triggers of the big bang,

(2) the need to trace the determination of certain physical constants to the big bang moments and not further backwards,

(3) the necessity to explain the notion of what scientists and philosophers call “time” in terms of the original bang of the universe,

(4) the compulsion to define the notion of “space” with respect to the inner and outer regions of the big bang universe,

(5) the possibility of and the uncertainty about there being other finite or infinite number of universes,

(6) the choice between an infinite number of oscillations between big bangs and big crunches in the big bang universe (in case of there being only our finite-content universe in existence), in every big hang universe (if there are an infinite number of universes),

(7) the question whether energy will be lost from the universe during each phase of the oscillation, and in that case how an infinite number of oscillations can be the whole process of the finite-content universe,

(8) the difficulty involved in mathematizing these cases, etc.

These have given rise to many other cosmological and cosmogenetic theories – mythical, religious, philosophical, physical, and even purel