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Questions related to Applied Entomology
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Other than the dead heart?
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Thanks much
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Hi everybody,
we are using circular pitfall traps (regular yogurt cups) since many years, and unfortunately, sometimes we encounter mice and lizards as by-catch in our samples.
These animals fall in the pitfall traps, are not able to climb out of it and drown...
Researches (e.g. see link attached) and personal reflections resulted in the following possible easy-to-install preventive measures:
1) covering the pitfall traps with a thin, wide-meshed iron grid, so it is too thin to "grab and climb" for invertebrate, but slippery enough for insects and spiders
2) using funnels with a slippery surface, so small vertebrata can't enter, while insects can fall into it
I personally like more solution 1, but I wanted to ask you to share your experience :-)
We aim mostly on spiders, centipedes, millipedes, beetles and other surface insects.
Thank you and greetings,
Michael
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Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) is the major defoliator of eucalyptus plants in Brasil in the last 50 years. 
Since them, no parasitoid had been recorded for eggs of this pest in the field. In te lab we demonstrated that some kind of substance on the surface of these eggs protect them.    
In 2017, we a found a parasitoid in eggs of Thyrinteina arnobia (Lepidoptera: Geometridae) in the field.
I would like to know who can identify this parasitoid. The quality of the photo is very poor but I can take better ones if necessary.
Best regards,
José Cola Zanuncio
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Hi Murilo Fonseca Ribeiro, try reaching out to Erinn P. Fagan-Jeffries at Uni of South Australia - she works on Microgastrinae. Might be worth a shot.
Best, Andy
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Looking to id below beetles, Photographs attached.. Expert comments would be appriciated
Location: Bhaderwah, J & K, India
1. Image 1949- Which Cicada Species ?
2. Image 1663- Is it june beetle ?
3. Image 1644- Have no Idea for this one
4. Image 1919- is it dung beetle ?
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in the last photo i think - Polyphylla alba
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I focus my research on Wasps in Greece.
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Is there any publication so far?
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Dear RG friends,
I am providing a complete H. armigera diet for larvae and maintaining the eggs in the growth chamber as well as in-room conditions. But since three months, eggs laid from the moths are not at all hatching. Could anyone tell the reason?
Thanking you.
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Dear Kariyanna B. you're welcome. Please also see this potentially useful article entitled
Rearing the Cotton Bollworm, Helicoverpa armigera, on a Tapioca-Based Artificial Diet
This article is freely available as public full text on RG.
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I looking for live specimes Ctenolepisma longicaudata. I need live specimes, can someone breeding?
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Dear Aleksandra Wójcik,
do you still need Ctenolepisma longicaudata alive?
You can send me an email to CDressen@gmx.de for more details.
Best regards,
Christian
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I came out to realize that a person who is enlisted as an author of some publications that I am the REAL AUTHOR, is marked instead of me. How do I change that?
Example:
Standardized sampling plan for Aphis gossypii based on the cotton cultivar, plant phenology and crop size
  • March 2019
  • Journal of Applied Entomology
  • DOI:
  • 10.1111/jen.12639
  • Lab:
  • Carlos Alberto Domingues da Silva's Lab
  • 📷Tamíris Alves de Araújo
  • 📷Lucia Avelino
  • 📷Nilson Rodrigues Silva
  • 📷Cristina S. Bastos
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How it is possible?
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Neonicotinoid seed dressings have caused concern world-wide is reported in the 2017 published articel here in 
I am interested to know if seed dressings  with neonicotinoid is really forbidden. A) in which crops and
B) in which countries especially in USA.
Who has a survey what is going on?
Thanks.
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many thanks ....
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If you've worked on islands, especially islands that have never been connected to continents, you've probably noticed that new construction projects often lead to an increase of invasive species in the area. As a scientist, what measures can you suggest to mitigate increases in invasive species abundance in recently disturbed habitats? I'm thinking especially about terrestrial invertebrates (I work mostly on ants and land snails), but it would be interesting to hear people's thoughts who work on different systems as well. If you have any references that you think would be relevant, I'd love to see them! Thanks!
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In French Polynesia, to reduce the spread of Wasmannia auropunctata, they ask to clean the construction equipments (excavators, backhoe loaders) when they move to islands free of little fire ants. The dirt and soil you can find on the engines can bring a lot of invertebrates, of course a lot of invasive ants. And check the material such as the wood, to stop the spread of introduced saproxylic beetles.
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One of my friends from Germany was curious to know if there are similar keys like those published by the Royal Entomological Society and other entomological groups in Australia. The only ones I know are usually targeted to a specific family and published in the form of individual research publications.
Are there any extensive and reliable keys for the different orders of Insects?
I can imagine that given the rich biodiversity in India in comparison to Europe it is very difficult to make keys like those which can pin point to the species level ID. However, if you know any then please list them here.
Thanks.
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Hello,
Below you can find a paper regarding to the study of insect fauna associated with tea gardens in India:
You may get help from the authors (e.g. Bulganin Mitra: https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Bulganin_Mitra/projects) of this publication and you may also refer to the references of this article.
Good luck, Elaheh
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Male squash bees choose to sleep/rest in pumpkin/squash flowers.  Perhaps the microclimate within wilting flowers provides temperature cues to male squash bees that make the flowers attractive and cause the male bees to become more sedate.
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Yes, this year 2020, we will be restarting this work (if you read a previously posted answer to this from me, the system added some nonsense that I couldn’t delete/edit) on commercially grown Cucurbita peso (pepo not autoincorrect peso). If others are interested in being part of a team from anywhere in the world, we can share ideas and collaborations.
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The insect was sighted in Mbarara - Uganda (Tropical Climate).
Coordinates of region sighted: 0.6072° S, 30.6545° E.
Feeding: The insect seems to be a pest preferring spicy vegetables and plants such as Rosemary (Salvia Rosmarinus), Spinach (Spinacia oleracea), Vegetable-Dodo (amaranth), & mint species.
Observable traits (see photographs attached): 3 pairs of Legs, a pair of short antennae (2 – 5 mm), no pronounced wing growth, and exo-skelton or outer cuticle soft to the touch.
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Hi Nelson. At last, I am almost 100% certain of the species of these nymphs. They belong to Dictyophorus griseus, the grey foam grasshopper. Once you upload a photo of an adult, we can confirm this without doubt.
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During last months I've been searching for Leptanilla specimens at Madrid, Spain. Leptanillinae are minute, blind subterranean ants rare to find and placed in a basal position in the phylogenetic tree of the Formicidae. I excavated a small area of 40 square meters and used Berlese methods to extract the specimens from the soil. I collected 3 queens, 1 larvae and 535 workers, probably corresponding to 3 species (one of them Leptanilla charonea, and the others pending of identification, without precluding new sp). In a pool placed 50 meters away from the excavation area I collected 370 undescribed males corresponding to 4 (maybe 5) species.
I am seeking the collaboration of experts in order to:
1) Identify and describe the specimens
2) Make DNA analysis to associate males with workers (a special problem not solved in Leptanillinae, currently with two parallel taxonomies, one of males and another of workers and queens).
A brief account of the excavation at Madrid, and some observations on the fligth of Leptanilla males, can be found in these entries of my blog:
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Dear Jose,
We are keen to getting some embryo samples from the Liptallinae. If you still have live colonies or can catch some, we'll be keen to discuss collaboration. I am in Lyon, and could drive down to Madrid with a student if that suits.
Best
Abdou
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Could you please replace "Cover Image" by the title of our article published in
  • September 2019
  • Journal of Applied Entomology 143(8):i-i
  • DOI:
  • 10.1111/jen.12691
  • Thanks
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  • Journal of Applied Entomology 143(8): 797-910.
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Hi!
I want to help a friend with his bioassays on flies with LED lights. He is using commercial LED lights which come with specifications on nanometers (nm) and intensity of light. However since this is a serious scientific project, I think we cannot just take the company's word for it.
I have read about such equipment as a radiophotometer or something to that effect, but we do not have such a specific machine in the lab. I believe perhaps a more common machine such as a spectrophotometer should be capable of giving as a fair measure of these parameters as a reference?
Please any suggestions (please minding I am a biologist with limited engineering or physics jargon) would be extremely helpful. Many thanks in advance.
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Dear colleagues.
I have the same problem and I don't know how to fix it!
we do not access to spectrometer and we want to determine our wavelength of red:blue and white treatment. However two of my light treatments are monochromatic Blue with the wavelength of 460nm (according to it's catalog) and Red with the wavelength of 620nm.
first, I want to know that if I can calculate the wavelength of my R:B treatment by wavelength of each diodes.
second, I want to know that if there is a way to calculate the wavelength of white treatment without using spectrometer.
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Dear All,
I want to learn about pan trapping of bees and the most attractive colours. Does anybody know published spectral reflectance curves of pan trap colors? Can anybody explain the term "UV-bright" to me?
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Dear Subodh,
Thank you very much for your reply!
Regards!
Dear All,
Let me make a little summary of all information in this discussion:
Following wavelength plots in papers referenced by Klaus Lunau & cols. and Mani Shrestha & cols., it seems that all paints whose reflectance spectra have been studied, called "fluorescent" or "luminous" or "UV-bright (Sparvar) have a high luminosity (>90% or >100% reflectance), but very little or no reflectance in UV spectrum (200-400 nm). Curiosly, in the Mani Shrestha & cols. study, only the white bowl without painting, and normal blue and white paint (not fluorescent) have some UV reflection in the UV-A (around 400 nm).
In this sense, I agree with Klaus' statement that "UV-bright" colours and "fluorescent" colours seem to be synonymous. If it is so, "UV-bright" should be understood as pigments that absorb UV radiation but reflect it in the visible spectrum, thus increasing total reflectance above 100%.
Finally, we have the term "UV-reflective" that I would set aside for those colors (or materials) that are able to emit (or reflect) in the UV spectrum (200-400 nm). But this is my interpretation, not a statement.
Does it make sense to you all?
Considering all of this, I conclude that this kind of "fluorescent/UV-bright" colors are atractive to bees and other insects NOT due to UV reflection/emission (thus, NOT imitating to flower UV-clues, which is what I thought), but due to high reflectivity or luminosity (>100%). Am I right?
And just a final question: Are anyboty aware of some publication in which is shown a color/material that have a clear and specific emission/reflectance in the UV spectrum?
Sorry for extending so much and than you very much to all!
Sergio
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Do any one own the mantis of Eremiaphilidae, Chaeteessidae and Mantoididae?
If you have those mantis, would you like to cooperate some experiments?
I want to sequenc those mitochondrial genomes to discuss the evolution of Mantodea.
please contact me.
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Thank you very much! I need your help. I need
those samples.
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Dear Collegues,
Are you interested in Medical and Veterinary Entomology as well as Global Health?
An Entomology Summer School, entitled “Hands on’ Course on Arthropods of Medical and Veterinary Significance: A global perspective, from theory to practice”, will be held from the 26th till the 30th of August 2019 at the National Vet School of Toulouse (ENVT), France.
Please find the complete programme leaflet attached to this message.
The course will encompass topics such as arthropod-borne diseases, resistance in arthropod populations, control tools, principles of laboratory rearing and morphological identification of arthropods of medical and veterinary importance (i.e. mosquitoes, flies, sand flies, fleas, ticks, mites, etc.).
The course targets entomologists, postgraduate students in this field, , post-doctoral scientists ACVM and EVPC residents, pest control professionals and the like.
Applications to attend will be accepted until the 31st of March.
See you in Toulouse?!
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thank you for interest.yes I do.
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I am trying to analyse a data set with a pseudoreplication problem and would be grateful if someone could give me some guidelines on the best way to deal with it.
We have a set of subjects exposed to crossed treatments `Temperature` and `Light`, consisting of 4 and 5 levels, respectively (total of 20 conditions). In each condition, we monitored every individual daily for a given duration, looking for an irreversible change of their status (“inactive” -> “active” in our example). This is similar to survival data (“alive” to “dead”), so we thought Kaplan-Meier representations and Log-rank tests would be appropriate in our case.
However, we have faced unexpected issues during the experiment and had to optimize space in the climatic chambers, which caused a mix-up in the original plan: the 20 conditions are not replicated. Each of the 20 conditions corresponds to a separate box containing several individuals, but there is only one box per condition (20 boxes total). The conditions of `Temperature` and `Light` in each crossed condition were controlled continuously and confirmed to be reliable (with limited to no biases due to laboratory conditions).
To our knowledge, and from what we know of the study system, the status of individuals does not depend on the status of surrounding ones, and they are likely independent. However we have only one pool of individuals in each condition, with a ratio between “inactive” and “active” changing over time. We are not sure that statistical analyses for survival can be used without several groups of individuals per condition. Are there any workarounds for this situation? Alternatively, can we calculate the average duration until status change on all individuals in each box, and use that with tests for comparisons of means? If yes, how should we deal with individuals that did not change status during the monitoring period?
I can give example data if required, though the issue is more about whether this pseudoreplication can be circumvented with a different approach, at the cost of statistical power.
Thanks in advance for the advice.
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Statistical data torture...
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I am interested in documented cases where defoliation by European giypsy moth (Lymantria dispar dispar) has led to die-back of oak on larger area (preferrably Europe). There is an on-going debate whether weakened oak forests need help by combating mass infestations of gipsy moth to avoid complete defoliation. Often a combination of different stress factors with the relatively late defoliation by gipsy moth may lead to death of individual oaks the followong year because necessary resources to develop new leaves are depleted. Forest owners fear the loss of old oaks on larger scale in extreme years like 2018 and argue for combating caterpillars of gipsy moth which may also affect non-target organisms. But are these fears reasonable? How big is the impact of defoliation on oak or other tree species?
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Dear Daniel, here you can find a paper from Croatia
Best regards, Stefanie
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I am looking into the assemblages of Silphidae between different habitats and within each habitat as well.
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I have about the same experience in this with Fabian. In my work ''Seasonal variation of the insect fauna in hedgerows and cereal fields in the area of Elassona, Larisa'' (in Greek), in pitfall traps with small dead mice and turtles (accidentally fallen into them), I caught hundreds of Silpha tristis (= granulata) and Aclypea undata (= Blitophaga undata), plus some Nicrophorus.
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I am looking to collect adult Ceratopogonidae in SE Australia, targeting species with aquatic larvae. Can anyone suggest good trapping methods?  I know people used malaise traps before. Would you use them overnight or during the day?
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Besides effective methods mentioned above, I also suggest yellow plate with liquid.
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I want to detect virus in Culex & Aedes so they should be kept alive from field to lab. I should identify them before virus assay ( RTpcr)
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following
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An alternative wihch can be dissolved easily in order (with citrus oil our other safety product) to study trapped insects in the lab. I'm looking for a product which can be brushed on plastic.Thanks.
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Justine Vansynghel , Hi Justine, i was able to find tangle Food (paste formula) for my expriment and so did not need any alternative. I don't know if there is an equivalent product on the market unfortunately.
Good luck !
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Applied entomology, Research work, PhD project
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As per stage of larvae is concerned, its really difficult to identify as I personally experienced. Some will say you to see caudal hair pencil, some will size, and some will of less body girth. But in actual phenomenon they could not work so far successfully. However, the followings might be assisting.
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On egg stage - few days before hatching.
Visual differences in zoom, size, color, structure, weight and so on.
Do you have any ideas about automating this process?
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Two publication can help you on sexueldimorphism on eggs stage:
- Bhattacharya, A. K., Ameel, J. J. & Waldbauer, G. R. 1970. A method for
sexing living pupal and adult yellow mealworms. Annals of the Entomological Society of America, 63, 1783.
- Font, E., & Desfilis, E. (2003). Courtship, mating, and sex pheromones in the mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor). In Exploring Animal Behavior in Laboratory and Field (pp. 43-58).
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On larva or adult stages. Do you have any ideas about automating this process?
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Do you have some thoughts about automation of process?
Smth like: 'Insects as Sustainable Food Ingredients ' https://bit.ly/2Kacfdc
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I have reared mealworms for 5 years, being part of my reseaerch. The simplest method to rear mealworms is to provide cut potatoes plus bran in large bowls and to cover the top of bowl with cloth. leave the bowl untouched for about 15 to 30 days. you can also read my paper.
A comparative toxic effect of Cedrus deodara oil on larval protein contents and its behavioral effect on larvae of mealworm beetle (Tenebrio molitor) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae).
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I found these insect pests on the Sal (Shorea robusta) trees. I found these trees were dying due to an unknown pest. I found these two pest only on the affected trees. These does not seem to be Sal borers are they? Can anybody identify these pests for me please?
Thanks in advance
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Following
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During my field studies of water- and saproxylic- Coleoptera of Serbia I regularly use some non selective methods for attracting and collecting beetles (light traps, baited traps, pitfall traps…). Usually I separate all beetles from samples, including  the representatives of families that I am not interested. The separated material I conserve and pack; mainly in paper cylinders but also in 70% alcohol. Over time, a large number of individuals and species (Carabidae, Staphylinidae, Aphodidae etc…) were accumulated.  I am ready to provide this material to interested researches for further study. In return, I am not asking for anything. Only the list of identified species for my database.
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Dear colleague
I'm interested in Silphidae, Agyrtidae. Leiodidae (Catopidae, Cholevidae), Dermestidae. If yoy have any specimens of those families please contact with me.
Best regards, Sergey
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Wind turbines pose a threat to bees.
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I would also like to know if there are studies on the electromagnetic pollution generated by wind turbine farms on the magnetic detection of flowers by bees sensitives hairs ? It is pretty hard to imagine that there are no effects from these massive electromagnetic field generators on the very sensitives and delicate bees already to often high on pesticides.
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Ogloblin, A.A., 1965. Los generos nuevos de la familia Diapriidae (Ambositrinae, Hymenoptera). - Revista de la Sociedad Entomológica Argentina 27: 107-116.
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Thanks Victor!
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I found this creature on a goldenrod plant.  From looking at treehoppers and nymphs in Bugguide, I didn't find anything like this, but imagine it is the nymph of some kind of treehopper.  Can anyone give me some clues (or an ID) as to what it is.  It was found in Albion, Michigan on June 15, 2017.  Thank you very much!
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Agree with Rinaldo Nicoli Aldini
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In the context of disease vectoring research, we wonder if this insect could be relevant. 
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Hi
What pathogens could it be vectoring? Not aware of any viral vectoring capacity in natural hosts for Aleyrodes spp.
If fungal/bacterial, they could transfer from surface to surface as they have a broad enough host range (especially on Rosaceae) to try and feed on cherry. In fact, Evans (2008) has it on Prunus dulcis. But I have no personal observations from the genus (yet).
(not the 2008 version)
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Kim, J. H., Kim, Y. H., Lee, G. S., Gho, H. G., & Han, M. W. (2003). Biological Characteristics and Mass Rearing System fro Cadra cautella (Walker) as a Substitute Diet fro Natural Enemies. Korean Journal of Applied Entomology.
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I found it for you in Korean ,
Google Translate if you're desperate and if you're desperate and well funded have it professionally translated :)
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I collected many sample of scolytid which intercepted from the imported tropical Africa log, but I cannot identify some of them besides of Xyleborus sp. Some samples belong to the Hylesinini tribe is most difficult to identify. 
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Dear delegates I wish to get some information on rearing techniques of rice yellow stem borer. I started doing the same on natural host. But i face difficult and also feel cumbersome in doing mass culture. In this regard if anyone is having idea on artificial rearing techniques kindly help me.
Also if anyone having idea on best method to mass rear rice yellow stem borer kindly give me your valuable inputs.
With sincere regards
M. Annamalai
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Hello students,
Are you interested in doing an internship or master's research on sensory profiling of insect based feed ingredients? At Protix (Dongen, Netherlands), we have an position that may interest you.
Check the link below:
Regards,
Aman Paul
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Mr. Vahid,
Please write to me at aman.paul@protix.eu
Regards,
Aman
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I found it on a wasp (Rhynchium Oculatum).
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Pupa of Syrphid fly..
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Lot of Macrolophus this year on Bactrocera oleae in south France.
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These are couple of grasshoppers ?
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Sorry all the links are working, and thank   you all.
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Investigating mechanics of the mandible and mouthparts as model for wood-cutting and processing strategy. Video of the organism would also be helpful.
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The only way to understand the mechanism of operation of the mandibles of Acrocinus longimanus is by extracting the mandibles from a collected specimen to understand how the various parts work.. Also from a living individual to observe the way in which the mouth parts work. It is very difficult to find a detailed diagram or scanning electron mycroscopy photograph of the mandible of this cerambycid beetle. Perhaps from a local museum you can study this species.
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Hi all,
I studied Monochamus saltuarius, a major insect vector of pine wood nematode, in Korean White Pine forests using Mark-Release-Recapture based on pheromone traps. 
However, their recapture rate is very low about 2~3% during study periods, i.e., 4~6 individuals were only recaptured (total marked and released individuals were about 168~243 individuals).
Thus, in each session, only 1 beetle or no beetles were recaptured (My experiments were conducted 11 occasions).
In this case, can I analyze population size of M. saltuarius using estimation methods, such as Jolly-Seber model?
Thanks.
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The assumptions of the JS model are:
1. Every individual has the same probability of being caught in the sample, whether it is marked or unmarked.
2. Every marked individual has the same probability of surviving from t to the (t +1) sample.
3. Individuals do not lose their marks, and marks are not overlooked at capture.
4. Sampling time is negligible in relation to the intervals between samples.
Capture rate is not included, so you can use the model imo :)
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I need information about Chinavia musiva (Hemiptera: Pentatomidae), like biology, hosts and importance for  crops. Thanks
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Dear all,
We are planning to study plant volatiles in crop plants with and without aphid infestation in the field. My questions are:
(1) Which headspace sampling setup would you recommend?
(2) Which material should be used to capture the volatiles (e.g. charcoal filter)?
(3) At which temperature should we store the samples (-20 or -80°C)?
Thank you very much!
Christoph
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Dear Christoph,
I advise you to have a look at this paper:
Kallenbach et al (2014). A robust, simple, high-throughput technique for time-resolved plant volatile analysis in field experiments. The Plant Journal, 78, 1060-1072.
I found this paper very inspiring when I did VOC analyses during my PhD.
Cheers,
Benjamin
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We found this yellow eggs on Mango leaf. It was found with larva of cabbage butterfly. when it was reared under rearing box, we found some parasitoid emerging out from this egg. And next time  when we reared the larva of cabbage butterfly solely in a rearing box, we found that egg automatically on the box the next day(sorry for not having that image!!!) and after few days same thing emerged.. How could that be possible??? Please suggest..
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It is evident that what you call eggs were pupae of the parasitoid of the larva.  When the larvae of the parasitoid finished their development inside their host they came out of the parasitized larva and pupated next to it.  As far as the observation that the same occurred with another larva it is obvious that this larva was also parasitized by the parasitoid and upon completion of the larval development they exited their host and pupated.
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After rearing insects (Lepidoptera), all the mating couples were not able to disrupt copulation. They stay then still they die.
Can someone provide me papers or links for such phenomenon?
Thanks
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Im  not sure that I understand- You mean that after mating they stayed joined until they died ? 
What species did you rear ?
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My corn plot is suffering from insect infestation. I guess (not sure), it is fall armyworm infestation in corn. At this stage crop is around 5 feet tall. Any suggestion regarding use of proper insecticide will be appreciated.
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The damage you are seeing is most like from fall armyworm Spodopter frugiperda. The application of a carbamate, phosphorus, or pyrethroid at the rates recommendated in your area for maize is recommended. 
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Looking for relatively inexpensive source for coating Lindgrin funnel traps.
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Hello Claire,
I have gotten it from Synergy Semiochemicals - product #5001.  If you are buying traps you can also order them with fluon already applied.  
Hope this helps - Alicia
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Wax worms, the larvae forms of moths such as Lesser wax moth (Achroia grisella), Greater wax moth (Galleria mellonella), and Indian meal moth (Plodia interpunctella), were recently discovered to be plastic-eaters. They are called wax worms because they are known to ingest beeswax. It was found that beeswax and polyethylene, that is present in plastic bags, plastic bottles, etc. have the same chemical composition. 
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Hello Leivane:
This question was formulated by another RG member recently about the significant finding of Bombelli et al. 2017. Is the Polyethylene polymer that is chemically degraded by contact with the worm homogenate. The fast rate of biodegradation reported in the paper of Bombelli et al. 2017 have potential for significant biotechnological applications. This means that the chemical components of the wax moth caterpillars can be used to decompose artifical plastics, not the caterpillar on its own, so this biotechnological application does not pose any environmental risk. On the contrary, it is a great news to be able to degrade the large amount of plastic wastes that pollute this planet
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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I am Ph.D. Scholar working on biology of little millet shoot fly (Atherigona sp.). I need taxonomic keys for genus Atherigona for species level characters
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I can also recommend: 
Pont, A. C., and Magpayo, F. R. 1995.  Muscid shoot-flies of the Philippine Islands (Diptera: Muscidae, genus Atherigona Rondani).  Bulletin of entomological Research, Supplement 3: 123 pp., 750 figs.
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Glass is inert, can be cleaned with solvents and heat, so it can be reused. But plastic petri-dishes, vials, centrifuge tubes are omnipresent in laboratories, are disposable and can easily be modified. Of course one cannot use an aceton solution on polystyrene dishes or vials, but what are the disadvantages of coating plastic surfaces with insecticides for single use? 
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It is more likely that the pesticide will get bound in the plastic. Most likely adsorbed, but possibly chemically bound or diffused into the plastic. This may be good or bad.
Good: the dose that you apply is likely the dose experienced by the insect.
Bad: the dose that you apply in the field can be adsorbed, absorbed, or bound to the leaf surface. What you would like is a petri dish that mimics the physical/chemical properties of a real plant. Then you have a more realistic dose transfer model as the pesticide gets from the plant to the target insect.
Ugly: pesticides are seldom applied as a pesticide+diluent. Typically there are a range of adjuvants that are included in the formulation. These adjuvants will affect the physical and chemical interactions between the pesticide and the petri dish as well as the transfer of pesticide from the petri dish to the insect.
To make life simple, use glass because you don't know what you are getting with plastic.
You might argue that a plastic dish assay is more relevant because your application is to baseboards and floors for pest management in homes. This seems reasonable, so long as you are using the same plastics. The effect on HDPE will likely be different than the effect on polystyrene (or any other class of plastic).
If you can, match the application method to the expected application method in the field. The distribution of deposits on a surface (any surface) matters. What looks like a uniform coating to a person might have large gaps to an ant.
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Larvae of lepidopterans have been known to cease feeding and leave the host plant once after they finish feeding. After this they pupate on suitable sites. How do we determine if a certain larva is about to enter wandering phase. Some times pupation occurs on plant surfaces, making it difficult to determine wandering stage. Are there any guidelines?
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When the larva is fully grown, hormones such as prothoracicotropic hormone (PTTH) are produced. At this point the larva stops feeding, and begins "wandering"  for a suitable pupation site, often the underside of a leaf or other concealed location.So, detection of the above mentioned PTTH hormone is a good way to determine the wandering stage.
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I consider breeding mosquitoes of this genus difficult. I wonder if anyone is succeeding in raising. Another advice are welcome, such as type of food, place for oviposition, development time...
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Exélis, Thanks for the suggestions. My goal is to better understand the rearing of this mosquito genus to support various works.
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i studied mechanism of resistance in sand flies in laboratory. I asked that we must separated male from female  in selection before expose with insecticide.
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I would like to collect hemolymph (at least 10 microlitres) from worker bumblebees in the field. I tried the protocol by Borsuk et al. 2017 (Borsuk G, Ptaszyńska AA, Olszewski K, Domaciuk M, Krutmuang P, Paleolog J (2017) A New Method for Quick and Easy Hemolymph Collection from Apidae Adults. PLoS ONE 12(1):e0170487. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0170487): I captured a bumblebee with a hand net, blocked the bee on the edge of a polystyrene piece with my thumb, removed one antenna (then the other to be sure) with tweezers, gently pressed the bee’s abdomen to increase hemolymph pressure… and not a drop came out!
I also tried to collect hemolymph by puncturing the cuticle with a capillary (between the head/ thorax or between the second and third tergites of the abdomen [side sting]), but I could find only small amounts of hemolymph and there is a high risk of contamination (probably connected to a prolonged drought?).
Has anybody tried the method conceived by Borsuk and colleagues?
It is much less invasive than the microcaps method, so it would be better for my type of study.
Do you have any suggestions related to the best method to collect hemolymph from wild bumblebees in field conditions?
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you can collect the hemolymph from the joint connection between the cocsa and sternum 
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My workshop's external siding seems to attract various kinds of things that do at least some of their growing inside a case of twigs, stones, or other junk.  Some of them look like fine felt.  Yesterday one of the cases was abandoned but not too far from where it had been, I saw a creature that was about the color (orange) as the occupant of the case.  It looked like a big ant but with interesting patterns in its wings. I snapped picture after picture (It was running around).  When I was cropping them, I saw that it seemed to have a pair of flies or wasps probably mating underneath its wings.  I wonder if this is a case of parasitoid flies or wasps whose female will lay her eggs in the abdomen of the host.  Anything you can tell me will be so helpful!  The creature was about a 10 mm in length....Much larger than the ~6 mm case.
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If the insect in the first photo is a larva of a casebearer moth, not only the family Psychidae can be taken into account, but also other families of Lepidoptera, e.g.  Tineidae and Oecophoridae. The most typical cases of larval psychids are quite different from the one in the photograph. Tineids and oecophorids are generally small moths, so their larval cases can be only 5 mm in size even for a mature larva. Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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I am trying to rear freshwater Ceratopogonidae larvae to associate them with adult forms. I have found only a handful of references mostly related to Culicoides sp.  Any extra information on lab conditions like oxygen requirements and diet would be valuable.
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Stages of development (nymphs, adults, eggs, ...) with accumulated day degrees
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Dear Joris,
Regarding Lobesia botrana, Ostrinia nubilalis and Cydia pomonella there are a lot of valuable information and papers. You should only type “the name of pest”,   “forecasting”, “day degree” in google and you can harvest them.
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I conduct the experiment on the control of T.castaneum by A.indica, Now I search for the review of literature related to this topic
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Please correct your target pest species name that is "Red flour beetle" instead of Red floor beetle.
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I want to be able to separate the sexes into different vials. Is it possible to differentiate between the sexes at an immature stage?
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Note the size and color often female larger and darker than male or find lawrence
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it doesn't work with me in the case of Parlatoria blanchardi (date palm scale)
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Thank you Sahir Halouane Fatma and Oadi Matny  for your responses, my problem is how to do the bioassay under laboratory conditions and most of works conducted were about bio-ecology of the insect 
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Galanthamine hydrobromide is a good compound for positive control, but it is very expensive, which other compounds can be used as positive assay against the flour beetle Tribolium castaneum?
in many papers DEET is used as repellent, could be used also as insecticide?
please provide me a reference
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@Lewis,
There are a number of products that can be applied to the grain. http://spiru.cgahr.ksu.edu/proj/iwcspp/pdf2/9/6280.pdf
It would also be possible to treat the storage container. Other options would include pheromone traps, or cultural controls like heating the grain.
Given that a professor in pharmacy is taking on an applied entomology project, I can see a large number of potential problems starting with maintaining a colony of insects for testing. The first few weeks are easy. Is this a small project for fun and personal edification, an industry grant, or for publication in Science? I could even see this as a great science fair project for a student (grade school through undergraduate level). So this might not even be Ammar's project, and he is simply trying to help.
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There were no traces of egg damage and beetles were reared in artificial diet.
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Intraguild egg cannibalism is an important strategy amongst aphidophagous ladybugs in field, mainly for neonates. When reared in cages in a condition of limited amounts of food, space, including air quality (even under optimum values of humidity and temperature this environment is different from the field)  egg cannibalism by adults could occur as a result of stress of the adult insects.  
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does anyone used DDT for selection of sand fly in laboratory؟must we separated male from female before exposed to insecticide?
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Hi Leila, I have been trying to select for permethrin and malathion resistance in P. papatasi for a few years now.  It has been very difficult to drive resistance into our laboratory populations.  For my populations, I don't differentiate between males and females; they all get exposed to the insecticide.  Saul is right, though, that there is probably differences between sexes.  Saeidi et al. 2012 looked at differences between male and female P. papatasi "Baseline susceptibility of a wild strain of Phlebotomus papatasi (Diptera: Psychodidae) to DDT and pyrethroids in an endemic focus of zoonotic cutaneous leishmaniasis in Iran"
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I´m interested in carrying out studies of bark beetles dispersal (Hylurgus and Hylaster). Anyone know practical experiences of marking those insects, using fluorescents dust or paint ?
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Dear Miguel,
Please check the useful PDF attachment..
Good luck
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I'm a new PhD student and I'll soon be identifying chironomid head capsules from lake sediment as part of my project. I have some prior experience with chironomids, beetles, pollen and fungal spores and previously used an Olympus CX41 high powered optical light microscope, however this was a number of years ago. I was wondering if anyone could recommend a microscope best suited to this task?
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If you will work with midge subfossil head capsules, I recomend you to do permanent slides in Euparal, I usually put about 10 hc under one large cover slip (15x15 mm) directly from 90% alcohol to Euparal dorp, and then make 2-3 cover slips on one slide praralelly, this fasten the work and save space. to my experence you don't need some special microscope. Just middle class Nikon for about 3 000 Euros is perfect, I use Japan microscope and Chiense bioncular each one for about 1000 - 1500 Euros and I am vary happy about that.
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Hello everyone,
I am preparing a protocol for injecting insects (ant larvae, eggs, lepidopteran larvae) with small volumes such as 30-50nl. I'd be injecting acetone mixed with some oily alkaloids. I have previously used Hamilton Neuros syringes with quite good results but it is expensive and now in another faraway lab.
I have been now trying to secure a prepared capillary tube to the tip a normal glass Hamilton syringe. This is because the usual metal needle is too thick and beveled, thus not practical for injections of small volumes into small subjects.
However it is proving tricky: securing with a small piece of parafilm has been easier but hard to reproduce, and seems to not be sufficiently airtight. I have tried silicon but it didn't work well at all.
Does anyone here recommend some adaptation or alternative to the needle tips of Hamilton? 
Thanks in advance!
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Dear Fox: I've never worked with it. I hope someone can help you solve the problem.
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The larvae need to be alive when I'm done.
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use flexible needle of some kind if could be some kind of hair (Horse hair) or platinum needle fine and flexible.