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I have recorded behavioural data, such as incidences of aggression and grooming partners, in a troop of lemurs over three conditions.
What tests should I be using to compare the rates of aggression in the three conditions?
For the grooming partner data, I want to compare grooming between sex dyads. For instance, the frequency of male-male grooming compared to male-female grooming within each condition and then compare the average proportion of grooming between sex dyads in the three conditions. How would I do this?
Thank you in advance for your help. Apologies if this question is poorly worded, I am very new to data analysis.
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Your explanation or the dataset sounds that it will be suitable for a two-way ANOVA. Other things being fine
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Dear Colleagues,
Please see the following link and information for more details. If you are thinking about submitting, please feel free to reach out to me directly here or at edjfern@gmail.com.
The modern field of Applied Animal Behavior has brought about two major advances in the behavioral welfare of animals: (1) The use of environmental/behavioral enrichment, and (2) the implementation of voluntary training procedures to improve human-animal interactions. Both these practices have their roots in behavior analysis and learning theory. However, few studies have examined the learning effects observed in the application of these practices. For instance, most implementations of operant conditioning to the training of animals is done without measurement of the learning process. Likewise, the effects of enrichment, while originally proposed as a form of behavioral engineering to modify learned behavior, is almost exclusively measured in terms of its pre- vs. post-enrichment effect. Both modern advances thus miss a significant result of their implementation: How behavior is shaped by these environmental manipulations.
The following special issue looks to address how learning theory has been applied and measured to address the welfare of animals. Original manuscripts that examine any aspect of how learning theory has been applied to improve the lives of animals, from studies of behavioral training procedures to the modification of behavior as a result of some environmental change, are welcome submissions. Specific interest will be given to papers that use within-subject methodology to measure changes in behavior over time, as well as papers that address how behavior analysis has served the welfare of animals and can better contribute to the field.
Dr. Eduardo J. Fernandez Ms. Sabrina Brando Guest Editors
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i cannot add anything personally, but Stevan Harnad at Universite du Quebec a Montreal would be a good person to contact.
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Any viewpoint is highly accepted! You can send any research papers or links which focus on this topic.
Thank you all,
C. Mantzikos
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Yes, Applied Behavior Analysis is an appropriate way to educate individuals with developmental disabilities, and I offer you this useful link:
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I am looking for advice and tips how twin data could be used in behaviour analysis? In learning and/or skills development in twins? Recommended measure tools, data analyses, comparing results etc.
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I think that Teti D.M. Handbook of research methods in developmentaL science could be useful. Also the 2015 handbooks of Child Psychology and developmental science of R. Lerner could be illustrative.
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We're trying to inject the cascade blue dextran into mouse visual cortex by the protocol described in Wang & Burkhalter, 2007, but seem to have issues with the pipette clogging. We'd like to do it by iontophoretic injections so that we can closely control the injection amount, in order to only inject a small area. Any advice helps, thanks!
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What concentration of dextranamine are you using? I am using dextran, Alexa Fluor 488, 10000MW, anionic, fixable.
What volumes do you (try to) inject? 0.5
What injection system are you using? Simple syringe, with tubing and a glass pipette
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I have a dataset where for each individual there's a record for its behavior, being a state (with start and end times) or an event (duration 0, i.e. an instantaneous behavior). Some of these events can be simultaneous in time (e.g., you can sneeze while standing, or while sitting). Others usually happen very close in time, but not necessarily one after the other, so there can be some overlapping.
I'd like to analyze this dataset in terms of:
* How many times an event or state is followed by another
* How many times an event or state is simultaneous with another.
* Other cool and sexy stuff with it such as visualizations, etc.
I've never worked with this kind of problem, and I don't know if there's a specific keyword while searching for solutions for this. 
Any help like which tool or documents, tutorials, etc. on the matter (preferably in R language) will be highly appreciated!
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@André, I've attached a sample sheet of how the data is organized. With R there are some challenges. First, how R handles reads time variables from raw data usually is tricky (I know the package lubridate can help me with that). After this is done, how would you implement a code that would do something like this? A pseudocode might help if you have any ideas. 
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I'm currently making SOP
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If you are making a standard operations procedure manual for a company many different aspects may be involved. To start you must clearly define objectives for each position, have a way of measuring job performance across individuals (e.g., employees), behavior, and settings (e.g., structured vs. natural environment), provide feedback, and reinforcement for individual employees. Typically, the main focus of Applied behavior analysis is to improve behavior to a socially significant level, but can be far more than that.  To start, you must have access to assessments (e.g., VB-Mapp, Abllys-R, Fast, Fair-P,  et cetera). These assessments will allow you to objectively observe the current repertoire of the individual. Once you determine the repertoire of the individual, you can write operational definitions of specific goal targets. Depending on the client, you may have problem behavior reduction and/or skill acquisition targets within a treatment plan. Then you will train staff on how to implement these goals in different capacities (e.g., DTT, PRT). Lastly, you will measure staff performance with fidelity checklists, and use behavior skills training (instruction, model, feedback) to train staff on how to implement strategies.
Looking into the Journal of Applied behavior analysis (JABA) is warranted, the journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior is another avenue to explore.
Hope that helps,
Quincy
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People advocate that education/ knowledge is solution to all problems on this planet, but it is observed that in many cases more educated are more found to be more corrupt, more nonsensitive to others problems and so on. Thus it seems that content learning does not really translate in to behavior modification the real purpose of education. what is your point of view?
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I'd question even the basic premise that education is about behavior modification. Unless you define behavior much more broadly than is typical. If you go back to the root word in education  as "drawing out" it is more about self-knowledge than knowledge for behavior change. Even 'learning to do something" would be a more common way to think about education. Certainly no philosopher of liberal education would say that education is about behavior change. If your interest is education, I'd recommend reading more about liberal education, and such books as Parker Palmer's To Know As We Are Known. If your question is really about behavior change, that's an entirely different domain. But I hope you don't imply that education should be about coercion into one particular behavioral path rather than laying out choices that may expose someone's essential character.
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Regards. In the analysis of data from an attitude scale (Likert) what level of measurement must be selected in view of variables: or ordinal scale? My question is because some authors have selected in the view of variables as scale (no tag value) and other authors as Ordinal. There are also those who considered the ordinal variables (dimensions, indicators or items), but the sum or scale transformation consider it? Thanks in advance.
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Technically speaking, Likert-scale items are ordinal because there is not equal distance between intervals. In conservative or hard sciences, ordinal would be necessary. However, in behavioral and social sciences, Likert-scale items are regarded as interval level items (scale). In these sciences, the assumption is that the participants are thinking in a similar fashion about the distance of intervals when responding if the item is framed well. Although this can be problematic, it does open the door for a variety of parametric inferential statistics to be used. So, there is an advantage. My suggestion is that you regard your items in the way that your field indicates that you should. If you are in a hard science field, ordinal. Behavioral or social sciences, scale. Hope this helps!
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Hi!
We are conducting an experiment about the impact of physical exercise (running) on neurogenesis in the adult brain. We use a transgenic mice model and so far, we encountered some problems with the mice because they don't want to run...we have tried to attract them towards the running wheel with some food placed on the running wheel. However, this method didn't work so far. Therefore, I want to ask you whether you have any suggestion about what could we do in this situation.
Many thanks and I look forward to your help :)
Regards,
Daniela Ivan
SILS, Center for Neuroscience
University of Amsterdam
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I've seen some strains of mice be resistant to running in a wheel, although generally C57's will start running within minutes. I assume the running wheels you have are specific for mice? The individual rungs of the wheel are spaced closer together for mice than for rats, so getting a mouse to run on a wheel made for rats could be difficult as they'd likely have their feet constantly falling through and in between the rungs. Are these wheels part of a connected system that measures time/speed/distance? If the wheel could be introduced in their homecage, that could facilitate running. If it can't, could the mice be housed in the running wheel cage and thus constantly exposed to the wheel, increasing the chance they may check it out and use it?
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I am interested in behavior analysis and recognition of autistic children.I have read literature on recognition of stereotypical motion disorders in autistic. children.I really need to know where to get data sets to analyze the behavioral patterns of autistic children.
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I can suggest you the ADOS scale as an useful instrument to assess autism and related autism spectrum disorder. It allows a standardized assessment of autistic symptoms. It consists of a series of semi-structured tasks that identifies segments of the child's behavior and assigns these to some specific observational categories that are subsequently combined to produce quantitative scores for analysis. Specific cut-offs identify the potential diagnosis.
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I would like a few ideas on how to implement the active support model with daily staff persons using ABA.
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Hi Janani, I am not sure what you mean by "Active Support" however, I frequently utilize behavioral skills training (BST) and direct behavioral consultation (DBC) to train teachers on behavior intervention implementation. Please see my attached article and references on these topics. I would also recommend researching the terms i previously mentioned. 
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I can video with insects (Musca domestica). I need the software for analysis moving of individuals from video. I find new packages Bemovi http://bemovi.info. What similar programs you know and how to use them?
I want to analyze video from three different cameras.
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The Noldus company (based in the Netherlands) specialises in this type of analysis software. I haven't followed this in recent years so I don't know if they are still active or if there are now good alternatives.
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I am analysing repeatabilities of behavioural traits. One of the behaviours appeared to be affected by the "repeat number". I need to calculate the adjusted repeatability, but after reading papers I still have no idea how. Is there anybody who could  describe me the procedure in a very simple way.  Thanks a lot!!!
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Hi Simona,
1) Repeatability calculation. Correct! For the CI of the random effects, I forgot to mention that those are calculated on the standard deviation and not the variance by default. So the CI for repeatability becomes: lower CI =  0.13172583^2/(0.13172583^2+0.70764854^2) = 0.03; upper CI = 0.6405711^2/(0.6405711^2+0.9557547^2) = 0.31.
2) Count data. You basically have 2 solutions here.
- If the range of possible values for your behaviors is large (say For varies between 0 and 50) and if this variable looks relatively normally distributed you may not have to change anything (hist(K$For)). Using a square-root transformation may also help. You should also check the normality of your residuals: hist(residuals(LMM)).
- If the your range of values is narrow (say 15-20 possible values or lower), then you should use a GLMM with Poisson distribution. However, the repeatability has to be calculated a little differently because of that (following Nakagawa and Schielzeth 2010 paper). The easiest way to do that in lme4 would be:
obs <- rownames(K)
K$obs <- as.factor(obs)
GLMM=glmer(For ~ repeat. + age + (1 | ID) + (1 | obs),family=poisson(link="sqrt"),data=K)
summary(GLMM)
confint(GLMM)
This corresponds to calculating repeatability on the latent scale, with additive overdispersion and a square-root link (see Nakagaw & Scheilzeth 2010, Table2, p944). The "obs" random effect is just a factor variable containing each row number and allows to capture the residual variance. I prefer to use the square-root link here because the repeatability does not depend on the intercept and allows comparison among studies. Your repeatability would then be:
R = var_Id/(var_Id+var_obs+0.25)
Good luck!
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So, this is the question. I have recorded the behavior of individuals every 30 seconds and I want to compute the bout duration averages dedicated to each type of activity. I have already included this data in an excel file.
As I said, I prefer to do it in R, but recommendations on any other program will be welcome.
Thanks
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We need more information.  Do you have a 1/0 every 30 sec for each type of behavior? Is each row coding a 1/0 for n behaviors by individual y?  Or, is each row coding individual y on behavior i?  
If it's 1/0, then you can either sum the number for each behavior and do a Poisson regression as a function of behavior classification (glm(count~behavior, family=Poisson) in R) or a multilevel logistic regression.
The issue you'll face is that count/duration data will be heavily skewed so a standard arithmetic mean will be inappropriate.  If you only want descriptive stats and not a test of difference, use geometric means of the counts/durations.  This can be done in R on a column of counts by creating a new column (log.count<-log(count)), averaging these logs and then transforming back (exp(mean(log.count)).
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Are there any specific behaviour change models for specific patient based interventions that are more efficient and successful than others?
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Several approaches are defined in the Theories of behaviour change.  One of them is "Theory of reasoned action" which I find it useful in the primary care setting along with "Transtheoratical theory"
The theory of reasoned action assumes that individuals consider a behaviour's consequences before performing the particular behaviour. As a result, intention is an important factor in determining behaviour and behavioural change. Therefore giving information to the patients and enabling them to take charge of their actions is important for the primary care providers. It is especially useful when doing the screenings of the patients. 
The second approach I use in the primary care setting is "transtheoretical model, which is also known as the Stages of Change Model, in which behavioural change is a five-step process. The five stages, between which patients may find themselves entering and exiting before achieving complete change, are precontemplation, contemplation, preparation for action, action, and maintenance. It is important to find out at which stage the patient is at and tailoring the approach according to patients' stage. I find it useful in smoking cessation, diet and exercise. A problem faced with the Stages of Change Model is that it is very easy for a person to enter the maintenance stage and then fall back into earlier stages. Therefore primary care provider should closely work with patient.
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I consider that different behaviors or lifestyles need different energy saving technologies. Is there a feasible description method for occupant behaviors of the indoor environment?
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Dear Wang Xu,
you also might have a look at materials from IEA Annex 53 (Volume 2: http://www.iea-ebc.org/fileadmin/user_upload/images/Pictures/EBC_Annex_53_Appendix_Volume_2.pdf) and IEA Annex 66 work on Occupant Behviour explicitely.
We are also going to host a symposium on this topic in August in Karlsruhe this year (see: http://annex66.org/KarlsruheMeeting)
Best,
Marcel
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I have been trying to find research on risks for recidivism in pedophilic behaviors such as consumption of child pornography or child sex abuse in persons with an autism spectrum disorder (or if there are any) and pedophilia. I'd greatly appreciate any tips.
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I do not think you are going to find the answers to that question.  While it is known that patients with Autism will show sexial deviancy, I doubt there are many scientific studies of treatment and even fewer of follow-up.
Asperger, back in the 40s, recognized this issue.
It would be an interesting study, paying attention to the 'obsessiveness' of the subjects ideations.
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I'm interested in PRT implementation in schools. I've been able to find 10 studies examining this, but wonder if there are more out there. Is anyone aware of any?  Is anyone doing any work in this area?  Thanks!
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Check out this EBI website.
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What are the applications of data mining in the municipality? Actually, what are the applications of artificial intelligence in the municipality? Based on polling and data which are gathered from other resources.
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Hello, some time ago I did the review of Data MIning in public organizations:
Pejić-Bach, Mirjana. Data Mining in Public Organizations // Proceedings of ITI'2003 / Budin, Leo, Lužar-Stiffler, Vesna, Bekić, Zoran, Hljuz Dobrić, Vesna (ed.). Zagreb : SRCE University Computing Centre, 2003. pp. 211-216
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I am trying to define inhibition, planning, set-shifting, and working memory in behavioral terms. Can anyone help with that?
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Hello Danielle,
Here is a perspective from a cognitive neuropsychologist. I think in reality, these terms are not very well operationalised.
Generally speaking, a working memory task is defined one that involves not only temporarily maintaining a small amount of information, but also to acting or operating on it in some immediate way. Tasks that most closely fit this definition are things like number rearrangement tasks, like backwards digit span, or visuospatial rearrangement tasks, like mental rotation, and mental arithmetic (the kind you cannot do from rote-learned information). But in reality, most researchers use tasks that are way more complex than these, and I don’t think they have a clear grasp of what, exactly, the demands of their tasks are. An example is the popular N-back task, which has complex monitoring/updating and inhibitory control components as well. In the measurement of working memory in normal individual, even more complex tasks are used, like complex span, which looks like it has a set-shifting component (see Randy Engle's work on his RG page). The more complex you make your task, the more likely you'll find variation in your population and the more likely it will be predictive of other aspects of performance. But then you're less likely to actually be able to pinpoint what cognitive skill is actually critical to your findings, or whether it is all of them put together.
The Miyake paper mentioned by Muneera above is an attempt to try and sort out the different elements that contribute to these more complex tasks, and its good, except that normal people might not be the best population to do this, since all sorts of diverse cognitive functions tend to intercorrelated in this population. You can find more developed arguments along these lines in Randi Martin’s work, she also as an RG page (see articles co-authored with Hamilton).
Inhibition is perhaps a little cleaner. Its the idea of being able to inhibit or override a potent response in order to make another response that's more consistent with your current internal goal, or no response at all. The classic measure is the Stroop task. You could also use other tasks that have this idea of overriding a prepotent response and produce an alternative, like the Simon task or the antisaccade task. Again, in study normal diversity, more complex tasks are often used.
A slightly different aspect of inhibitory control is measured by tasks where you have to cease form responding at short notice – like the stop signal task (http://psytoolkit.gla.ac.uk/library/stopsignal/) and the go-no-go task (http://www.cognitiveatlas.org/task/go/no-go_task). But I think these tasks might have a strong monitoring component as well, especially stop-signal.
Set shifting is the one I know least about, so I'll only comment briefly. I would define it as the capability to maintain at least two concurrent goals, and switch between then as circumstances require, and in a way that maximses the achievement of some internal goal. If I wanted to examine the ability to switch between tasks or sets in a neuropsyc population, I would start with the trail making test: http://doa.alaska.gov/dmv/akol/pdfs/uiowa_trailmaking.pdf
Of course, many classic neuropsyc tests suffer from similar problems as the ones used int he normal adult population. Tasks like the Wisconsin Card Sorting test are often touted as tests of "executive function", but they seem to have multiple cognitive requirements, including set shifting, monitoring, updating, etc. It is predictive of a lot of things but nobody really knows why. I don't think its very useful, at least as a way of unravelling what is really going wrong cognitively in that person.
Not sure if any of this is of use to you, you might be looking for some “agreed” tests in the developmental domain? That’s probably best answered by a developmental neuropsychologist.
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My data use baseline WPPSI tests to compare with later WPPSI tests after a year of treatment. Dose of Reflective Network Therapy sessions correlates with IQ rise, regardless of diagnoses.
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Dear Gilbert,
The following study: Predictors of effectiveness of early intervention on children with intellectual disability: a retrospective cohort study
Der-Chung Lai, et al. ; BMC Pediatr. 2014; 14: 170.
compares WPPSI test before and after treatment with the following methods:
We presented descriptive statistics of the variables as mean ± SD or percentage. We evaluated differences in IQ scores using the paired t-test or Wilcoxon signed ranks test when data were compared in pairs, and applied the Mann–Whitney U test when the differences in IQ scores were evaluated by stratified analyses. To identify the predictors of the effectiveness of early intervention and evaluate their effects, we used linear regressions. We conducted the data analyses using SPSS for Windows Version 15.0 and performed statistical tests at the two-tailed significance level of 0.05.
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I am planning to conduct an experimental research on competitive state. I would appreciate if somebody could recommend me any software with flexible cognitive task and features to evaluate the individual and team performance.
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So you seem to be interested in (holistic or analytic) quality of team performance, .e.g. effectiveness, efficiency, cooperativeness, communicativenes, etc.? Seems to me that both task and scoring will be mutually dependent, unless you reduce both to very elementary processes.
Think for instance of the cognitive task "Analyse, design and construct a software prototype supporting the registration of attendants of a seminar". Nice assignment for students of software engineering.
This is a challenging complex cognitive task, appropriate for students in their third or fourth semester. The team performance needs to be analysed in detail, in advance, so that a adequate scoring system can be set up. Not an easy task in itself!
No software will take this burdon from the cognitive task designer (usually the lecturer, tutor) and the performance assessor (same as or different from the lecturer).
The performance criteria will be split into two broad categories: process criteria (team dynamics) and product criteria (team outcomes).  BTW: There are several good books about team performance, see link below.
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The empirical evidence on the educational benefits of inclusive education for students with disabilities appears minimal, but inclusive education is promoted by a variety of professionals in special education, intellectual disability, autism, disability studies, and so on. "Presume competence" appears to be the rallying cry for full inclusion advocates, but also is used to defend pseudoscientific and invalidated interventions like facilitated communication and rapid prompting method. The notion seems largely supported by professionals aligned with a postmodern epistemology and may have been a strategic tactic by proponents like Douglas Biklen. Is "presuming competence" different from "presuming capable" and, regardless of the position, should we refrain from skepticism of people like Carly Fleischmann, Ido Kedar, and Sue Rubin to implicitly endorse the notion, or suspend belief until compelling evidence to substantiate their communicative competence is presented? Consider that members of society generally do not presume anyone to be competent and that we instead rely on evidence to substantiate such claims. Under what circumstances would people with disabilities be exempt from this application?
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Actually, there is some empirical evidence on the educational benefits of inclusive education, or at least for the educational benefits of placing of students with certain disabilities in regular education. I wrote a systematic review of research in this field regards students with Down syndrome. It is downloadable as pdf :  http://www.downsyndroom.nl/reviewinclusive . It shows that if schools and parents succeed in supporting regular classroom placement for a student with DS, in general these students learn more academics, and develop better language skills, than their counterparts in special schools, also after controlling for differences in moderating variables (like IQ of the child, and parental characteristics). Of course that doesn't prove that regular classroom placement will lead to favorable outcomes for any student with a disability. However, that will always be impossible to prove. As, at the end of the day scientific evidence yields statements that are true on a group level, but might be wrong on an individual level for certain individuals belonging to that group.  Yet, let us realize, that it has never been proven that special school placement is educational beneficial, or at least the evidence for benefits of special schools are even more meager than that for benefits of regular placement. The advantage of special schools is just assumed as special school placement  is the status quo. I would agree with Goodey that segregated schools are based on ideology as well. As regards "presuming competence", I believe it is better to err on the side of being too optimistic than too pessimistic about hidden competences, as low expectations, followed by not even trying, tend to come true.
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I am looking for current primary research that involves the use of ABA to teach reading skills.
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Off the top of my head, I would recommend Chapter 16, TEACHING READING, in the second volume of the American Psychological Association Handbook for ABA (Daly & Kupzyk, 2012). This chapter provides a great overview of a behavior analytic approach to reading. There are many references within the chapter that will provide a useful foundation for further searching specific to implementation with individuals with autism.
Lastly, you might benefit from searching more specific terms other than ABA. I would recommend you search within the Direct Instruction and Precision Teaching literature.
I hope this helps as a starting point since it doesn't really give you specifics to application of autism.
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I have heard and read this message in various forms and it is even emblazoned on the wall where I work yet I am having trouble finding the source. Anyone able to help me? Who said it/what research backs it?
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“Be the change that you wish to see in the world.”
― Mahatma Gandhi
^ Better
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This is currently a serious question being considered by APA and insurance companies in the United States.
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Skinner was my great grand mentor (my doctoral advisor's advisor's colleague and mentor), and he was a psychologist who used almost his last breath to speak to the APA convention. I was there. Behavior analysis has always been an important thread in psychology, but represents only one approach to asking questions of and controlling nature. Behavior Analysis seems to have always - and still does - marginalize itself by asserting it has a unique (only) way to find the truth and disparaging other methodologies that may be much better suited to answering certain kinds of important questions. We know that inductive methods can show real functional relations in individuals, but what if we want to establish population level safety guidelines?