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Apomixis - Science topic

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Publications related to Apomixis (2,123)
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Article
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Weeping lovegrass ( Eragrostis curvula [Shrad.] Nees) is a perennial grass typically established in semi-arid regions, with good adaptability to dry conditions and sandy soils. This polymorphic complex includes both sexual and apomictic cytotypes, with different ploidy levels (2x-8x). Diploids are known to be sexual, while most polyploids are facul...
Article
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Somatic embryogenesis receptor-like kinases (SERKs), a subfamily of receptor-like kinases, play important roles in response to abiotic stresses in addition to apomictic reproductive development in numerous plant species. The purpose of the present work was to determine if an ortholog of the SERK gene is present in the Diospyros lotus genome, isolat...
Preprint
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Heterosis is a common phenomenon in biology, and fixation of heterosis can be achieved via artificially induced apomixis. Sundaresan's team used mitosis instead of meiosis ( MiMe ) rice mutants that ectopically expressed BBM1 in egg cells to induce the production of clonal seeds. In this study, we ectopically expressed BBM1 in MiMe mutants, and 62....
Article
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Field studies of the breeding systems of terrestrial orchid, Habenaria lindleyana Steud. were established, at Phetchaburi Rajabhat University Pong Salod campus and Pong Salod community forest Nong Kapu Sub District, Ban Lat District, Phetchaburi province, from October 2018 to September 2019. The five different types of breeding systems, including...
Article
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Sexuality and apomixis are interconnected plant reproductive routes possibly behaving as polyphenic traits under the influence of the environment. In the subtropical grass Paspalum notatum, one of the controllers of apospory, a main component of gametophytic apomixis reproduction, is TRIMETHYLGUANOSINE SYNTHASE 1 (TGS1), a multifunctional gene prev...
Presentation
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Fixation of heterosis through Apomixis
Presentation
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BREEDING FOR ORGANICAGRICULTURE Organic Agriculture is a production system that sustains the health of soils, ecosystems and people. It relies on ecological processes, biodiversity and cycles adapted to local conditions, rather than the use of inputs with adverse affects (IFOAM. 2015). Presently, organic farmers depends greatly on conventionally br...
Article
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Poa pratensis L. is a perennial turfgrass with high regeneration and fertility, resistance to cold and drought, and quick colonization. By facultative apomixis, this plant can create a wide range of ploidy levels (2n = 22 to 2n = 154), resulting in a wide range of chromosomal numbers and sexual and apomictic reproductive diversity. The plant materi...
Article
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Apomixis is the phenomenon of clonal reproduction by seed. As apomixis can produce clonal progeny with exactly the same genotype to the maternal plant, it has important application value in genotype fixation and accelerating agricultural breeding strategies. Introduction of apomixis to major crops would bring many benefits to agriculture, including...
Article
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Key message An approach to release ‘frozen’ variability in apomictic species using sexuality of another species, eventually its utilization in crop improvement and de-novo domestication of crop wild relatives is presented. Abstract Pennisetum squamulatum, a secondary gene pool species of pearl millet (P. glaucum), harbours many desirable traits. H...
Chapter
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Some angiosperms exhibit the ability to form seeds asexually through apomixis. This reproduction mode is more common in some families such as Melastomataceae, in which 64 autonomous apomictic species have been identified within different lineages. The Henrietteeae, Lavoisiereae, Marcetieae, Merianieae, Melastomateae, Miconieae, and Rhexieae tribes...
Article
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The combination of apomixis and hybrid production is hailed as the holy grail of agriculture for the ability of apomixis to fix heterosis of F1 hybrids in succeeding generations, thereby eliminating the need for repeated crosses to produce F1 hybrids. Apomixis, asexual reproduction through seed, achieves this feat by circumventing two processes tha...
Article
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Apomixis is a special process of reproduction through seeds that is different from sexual reproduction. Kentucky bluegrass (Poa pratensis) is a natural apomictic species and the genetic control of its apomixis is complicated and not completely clear. Thus, investigating natural apomixis mechanisms in Kentucky bluegrass would provide a better unders...
Experiment Findings
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Seeds were obtained from four populations of P. indecorum using two experimental pollination conditions. Three inflorescences were bagged before anthesis (obligated self-pollination, five plants/population) and three were bagged after anthesis (open pollination, five plants/population). We performed a flow cytometry analysis to assess these seeds'...
Article
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Most apomictic plants are facultative, maintaining the ability to reproduce sexually at different frequencies depending on the taxa, ploidy, and reproductive stage. In this context, Paspalum species are good model systems for studies evaluating the varying levels of apomixis expression. We aimed to identify, in apomictic tetraploid Paspalum species...
Article
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About 130 seed-propagated walnut trees (Juglans regia L.) grown in the same location were evaluated for 2 years based on 37 quantitative and qualitative traits. The late-leafing trait ranged between 1 April and 14 April (13–27 days after Payne). The first female and male flowering dates ranged from 8 April to 5 May and from 7 to 29 April, respectiv...
Article
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Apomixis, or asexual seed formation is prevalent in the Citrinae via a mechanism termed nucellar or adventitious embryony. Here, multiple embryos of a maternal genotype form directly from nucellar cells in the ovule and can outcompete the developing zygotic embryo as they utilize the sexually derived endosperm for growth. Whilst nucellar embryony e...
Article
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Asexual reproduction through seeds in plants (i.e., apomixis) is a heritable trait, and apomixis-linked loci have been identified in multiple species. However, direct identification of genomic elements is typically hindered as apomixis-linked loci and are commonly found in recombination-suppressed and repetitive regions. Heterochromatinized element...
Article
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The capacity for apomixis in Paspalum notatum is controlled by a single-dominant genomic region, which shows strong synteny to a portion of rice chromosome 12 long arm. The locus LOC_Os12g40890, encoding the Auxin/Indole-3-Acetic Acid (Aux/IAA) family member OsIAA30, is located in this rice genomic segment. The objectives of this work were to ident...
Article
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In Southern Brazil, much of the livestock activity is developed in native grasslands. Studies about forage traits, frost tolerance and nutritional value of native forage species there has been increasing with better results of productive efficiency (animal gain). The objective of this work was to evaluate forage yield of forty-five intraspecific hy...
Article
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Warm-season grasses are C4 plants and have a high capacity for biomass productivity. These grasses are utilized in many agricultural production systems with their greatest value as feeds for livestock, bioethanol, and turf. However, many important warm-season perennial grasses multiply either by vegetative propagation or form their seeds by an asex...
Article
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Apomixis, or asexual reproduction by seed, represents an easy shortcut for life cycle renewal based on maternal embryo production without ploidy reduction (meiosis) and ploidy restitution (syngamy). Although the first studies officially published on this topic in scientific journals date back to the early 1930s, the identification and introduction...
Article
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The invasive grass‐fire cycle is a widely documented feedback phenomenon in which invasive grasses increase vegetation flammability and fire frequency, resulting in further invasion and compounded effects on fire regimes. Few studies have examined the role of short‐term adaptation in driving the invasive grass‐fire cycle, despite invasive species o...
Article
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Speciation via hybridization and polyploidization is a major evolutionary force in plant evolution but is still poorly understood for neopolyploid groups. Challenges are attributed to high heterozygosity, low genetic divergence, and missing information on progenitors, ploidy, and reproduction. We study the large Eurasian Ranunculus auricomus specie...
Chapter
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The fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis exhibits a peculiar case of apomixis, in which an embryo develops from somatic cells of the prothallium (apogamy). The effect on vegetative and apogamous gametophyte development of 14 phytohormones and inhibitors of their biosynthesis or transport (HBTIs) was analyzed in homogenized gametophytes cultured in...
Article
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Rubus L. is one of the most diverse genera belonging to Rosaceae; it consists of more than 700 species with a worldwide distribution. It thus provides an ideal natural “supergenus” for stud- ying the importance of its edible, medicinal, and phylogenetic characteristics for application in our daily lives and fundamental scientific studies. The Rubus...
Article
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Cotoneaster is a taxonomically and ornamentally important genus in the family Rosaceae; however, phylogenetic relationships among its species are complicated owing to insufficient morphological diagnostic characteristics and hybridization associated with polyploidy and apomixis. In this study, we sequenced the complete plastomes of seven Cotoneaste...
Preprint
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Premise: Few studies have explored competition in fern gametophyte populations. One limiting factor is the tedious measurement of gametophyte size as a proxy for biomass in these small plants. Here, an alternative approach of estimating the number of green pixels from photos was employed to measure the competitive interactions among apomictic and...
Article
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Premise: Biodiversity is often only measured with species richness. However, this ignores evolutionary history and is not sufficient for making conservation decisions. Here, we characterize multiple facets and drivers of biodiversity to understand how these relate to bioregions and conservation status in the ferns of Japan. Methods: We compiled...
Article
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ABSTRACT Our research focused on the reproductive phenology of Mauritiella armata, a key veredas species in southeastern Brazil, and aspects of its floral and fruit morphology and sexual system. We observed the reproductive phenological patterns of M. armata for 36 months, and examined the relationships between phenophases and environmental variabl...
Article
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In 1949 S. S. Khokhlov (one of the founders of the Russian scientifi c school on the problem of apomixes) proved the original conception of the progressive evolutionary role of apomixis. He contended that the basic direction of the reproductive system evolution in angiosperms is a gradual failure of sex reproduction and transition to apomixis. This...
Article
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Townsendia lemhiensis (Asteraceae) is described from the Lemhi Valley of east-central Idaho. From a genus with weak intrinsic isolating barriers, T. lemhiensis remains distinct apparently due to apomixis and to its isolation and habitat specialization on spatially limited occurrences of ashy white soils in the Lemhi Valley. Despite similarities to...
Preprint
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Poa pratensis , commonly known as Kentucky bluegrass, is a popular cool-season grass species used as turf in lawns and recreation areas globally. Despite its substantial economic value, a reference genome had not previously been assembled due to the genome's relatively large size and biological complexity that includes apomixis, polyploidy, and int...
Article
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In plants, embryogenesis and reproduction are not strictly dependent on fertilization. Several species can produce embryos in seeds asexually, a process known as apomixis. Apomixis is defined as clonal asexual reproduction through seeds, whereby the progeny is identical to the maternal genotype, and provides valuable opportunities for developing su...
Article
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Leavenworthia (Brassicaceae) has served as a model group for investigating the evolution of mating systems in plants, yet several Leavenworthia species remain understudied. One such taxon is Leavenworthia exigua var. laciniata, one of three varieties of L. exigua, a winter-annual plant endemic to the central United States. Because L. exigua var. la...
Article
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We had the fortune of starting our scientific /research careers in the Molecular Biology and Crop Biotechnology laboratory of Professor P.K. Gupta at Ch. Charan Singh University, Meerut, U.P., India. Here, we describe most important scientific contributions of our beloved mentor in the area of cytotaxonomy, cytogenetics, mutation breeding, quantita...
Article
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Citation: Bakin, E.; Sezer, F.; Özbilen, A.; Kilic, I.; Uner, B.; Rayko, M.; Taskin, K.M.; Brukhin, V. Phylogenetic and Expression Analysis of CENH3 and APOLLO Genes in Sexual and Apomictic Boechera Species. Plants 2022, 11, 387.
Article
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Melastomataceae is a megadiverse family with records of transitions from specialized to generalized pollination systems for several species. These transitions are associated with the colonization of new, unpredictable and/or impoverished pollinator habitats or habitats where specialized pollinators are scarce (e.g., in highland environments). The b...
Article
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Hybridization and polyploidization are important processes for plant evolution. However, classification of hybrid or polyploid species has been notoriously difficult because of the complexity of processes and different evolutionary scenarios that do not fit with classical species concepts. Polyploid complexes are formed via combinations of allopoly...
Article
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Apomixis, the clonal formation of seeds, is a rare yet widely distributed trait in flowering plants. We have isolated the PARTHENOGENESIS (PAR) gene from apomictic dandelion that triggers embryo development in unfertilized egg cells. PAR encodes a K2-2 zinc finger, EAR-domain protein. Unlike the recessive sexual alleles, the dominant PAR allele is...
Article
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Apomixis has high value in fruit crop propagation and breeding applications, particularly for the transgenerational fixation of heterosis. In this study, we found that flowers of the triploid Malus cultivar 'Royalty' that were bagged after emasculation (EB) and pollinated with pollen from the diploid cultivar 'Flame' (EFB) produced high fruit set a...
Article
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Objective: To ratify the importance of the application of molecular tools in the pasture breeding programs. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine papers were consulted and reviewed, which approach the methods based on molecular (genetic markers, CRISPR technology and molecular cytogenetics), available in databases (Google Scholar, Dialnet, Redalyc, Sci...
Article
Full-text available
Cotoneaster integerrimus represents a multiploid and facultative apomictic system of widely distributed mountain populations. We used flow cytometry to determine genome size, ploidy level, and reproduction mode variation of the Balkan populations, supplemented by analysis of nuclear microsatellites in order to address: (i) geographic distribution a...
Article
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Premise: The great variation of genome size (C-value) across land plants is linked to various adaptative features. Flow cytometry (FCM), the standard approach to estimating C-values, relies mostly on fresh materials, performing poorly when used with herbarium materials. No fern C-value reports have been derived from herbarium specimens; however, t...
Article
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Apomixis is a reproductive model that bypasses sexual reproduction, so it does not require the combination of paternal and maternal gametes but instead results in the production of offspring directly from maternal tissues. This reproductive mode results in the same genetic material in the mother and the offspring and has significant applications in...
Article
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In plants, small RNAs have been recognized as key genetic and epigenetic regulators of development. Small RNAs are usually 20 to 30 nucleotides in length and they control, in a sequence specific manner, the transcriptional or post-transcriptional expression of genes. In this review, we present a comprehensive overview of the most recent findings ab...
Article
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e genus Crataegus L. is one of the largest species in the family Rosaceae Juss. e fruits are used as medicinal raw materials (Crataegus fructus), as they contain a set of biologically active compounds. e genus is voluminous and taxonomically problematic due to significant variability, hybridization, apomixis, and polyploidy. As a result, it is di...
Article
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Reproductive strategies are diverse and a whole continuum of mixed systems lies between strict sexuality and strict clonality (apomixis), including automixis, a parthenogenetic mode of reproduction involving a meiosis and increasing homozygosity over generations. These various systems impact the genetic structure of populations, which can therefore...
Article
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The gametophyte of ferns reproduces either by sexual or asexual means. In the latter, apogamy represents a peculiar case of apomixis, in which an embryo is formed from somatic cells. A proteomic and physiological approach was applied to the apogamous fern Dryopteris affinis ssp. affinis and its sexual relative D. oreades . The proteomic analysis co...
Article
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The available methods for plant transformation and expansion beyond its limits remain especially critical for crop improvement. For grass species, this is even more critical, mainly due to drawbacks in in vitro regeneration. Despite the existence of many protocols in grasses to achieve genetic transformation through Agrobacterium or biolistic gene...
Article
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Objective: To ratify the importance of the application of molecular tools in the pasture breeding programs. Materials and Methods: Fifty-nine papers were consulted and reviewed, which approach the methods based on molecular (genetic markers, CRISPR technology and molecular cytogenetics), available in databases (Google Scholar, Dialnet, Redalyc, Sci...
Article
Full-text available
Objetivo: Fundamentar la importancia de la aplicación de herramientas moleculares en los programas de mejoramiento genético de pasturas. Materiales y Métodos: Se consultaron y analizaron 59 artículos, que abordan los métodos basados en biología molecular (marcadores genéticos, tecnología CRISPR y citogenética molecular), disponibles en bases de dat...
Article
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Background Hawthorn species ( Crataegus L.; Rosaceae tribe Maleae) form a well-defined clade comprising five subgeneric groups readily distinguished using either molecular or morphological data. While multiple subsidiary groups (taxonomic sections, series) are recognized within some subgenera, the number of and relationships among species in these...
Article
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We compare biogeographic and morphological parameters of two agamic complexes of western North American hawthorns so as to evaluate possible explanations of the differences in range between sexually reproducing taxa and their apomictic sister taxa. We have documented range, breeding system, morphology, leaf vascular architecture, and niche breadth...
Conference Paper
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Perennial warm-season grasses share several agronomic characteristics, such as marked seasonal growth, cold susceptibility and photoperiod sensitivity. Breeding efforts in South America have been focused on attempting to improved cool-season growth, cold tolerance and also adaptation to the alternation of flooding and drought periods. Warm-season g...
Article
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Plants with a small number of specific pollinators may be vulnerable to fluctuations in the availability of those pollinators, which could limit plant reproductive success and even result in extinction. Plants can develop mechanisms to mitigate this risk, such as apomixis. Reproductive assurance mechanisms have been largely ignored in obligate poll...
Article
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Premise: Apomixis, asexual reproduction by seed, spore, or egg, has evolved repeatedly across the tree of life. Studies of animals and angiosperms show that apomictic lineages are often evolutionarily short-lived and frequently exhibit different distributions than their sexual relatives. However, apomixis is rare in these groups. Less is known abo...
Article
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In angiosperms, gametophytic apomixis (clonal reproduction through seeds) is strongly associated with polyploidy and hybridization. The trait is facultative and its expressivity is highly variable between genotypes. Here, we used an F1 progeny derived from diploid apomictic (aposporic) genotypes of Paspalum rufum and two F2 families, derived from F...
Article
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Introduction and objectives: The members of the genus Pilosella are native in Europe and Asia, but they are successful invasive species on most continents. These species form an agamic complex with common apomixis. Apomictic species hybridize, they have different degree of residual sexuality. Main aim of this paper was to determine if the interspec...