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Apis Mellifera - Science topic

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Hi, I want to do trials with topical applications of Apis mellifera AKH (adipokinetic hormone) but I have not found a place to buy it. Does anyone know where to get it?
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Hi David,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of good-quality insect pheromone products and services.
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How we can store/ preserve or handle the pollen collected from bee colonies so as to feedback the bees during dearth periods to maintain the colony strength buildup? Please suggest.
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The collected pollen from pollen trap during clear sunny days should b transfer in airtight containers and it can be stored either in refrigrator in the areas where summer temperature rises upto 30 degree centigrade. However in cold climatic condition it can be either stored under normal room temperature..but refrigrator is recommended. Yes it can be use as feed for bee colonies during dearth period either as single feed or by mixing with other components ie soybean flour 'icing sugar'glucose'gram flour etc to make a patty and thn supply to bees as feed during dearth conditions.
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I am looking for good pollen substitute to feed honeybees during dearth periods
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Hi Shabir,
A lot of protein patties are existing now in the market, but often locally produced and not so evident to buy.
If you want to produce it by yourself, the general idea is to make a patty with rather high protein content (16-20% calculated on dry matter) and to put it in contact with the brood nest so that nurse bees can directly consume it. To reach this amount of protein content, you need to use higt proteic sources, like leguminosae flour (soja, peas, etc) or yeast.
You may use at least 10% of pollen (from healthy colonies) to mix with your proteic source, as pollen contains some attractive substances inciting bees to consume it. Mix pollen and proteic source with some syrup and water to get a correct consistency.
Put 50g to 200g by colony each week when necessary, but verify that the bees consumed it, as they always prefer fresh pollen of their own instead of patties.
Hope this helps.
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We Have tried several caging techniques to introduce laying Carniolan (Apis mellifera carnica) queens to queenlees colonies of the East African lowland honey bee (Apis mellifera scutellata). Unfortunately, nothing works!!.
Should you have experience with this issue, please do guide us!
or you please do share your thoughts should you have suggestions.
Thanks
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I suppose you used best practice for introduction. In desperate cases we use special introduction cages (https://www.wachs-hoedl.com/Zusetzkaefig-100). I might send you one in case you still need it.
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This Research will be executed in Punjab pakistan.
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problems of humidity impact on physiology /behaviour/ biology of the bees. Impact of hive material (insulation power for example)
on their performances
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The foraging behavior of European honey bee on Pigeon pea......?
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Hello researchers..
During dearth period studies I observed decline in population of drones as food store declined ... is there any published literature on the same???....i could not find
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This paper from Boes (2010) is a nice starting point. The paper reviews some of the key factors that affect drone brood production, including a summary work from Seeley and Mikheyev (2003) by stating 'They maintained a group of colonies in a food-plentiful environment and observed that the colonies produced similar amounts of drone brood. They then transferred the colonies to an island with very few food sources and experimentally manipulated food availability by provisioning half of the colonies with sugar water and leaving the other colonies to rely on only the island’s limited food sources. On the island, the food-supplemented colonies continued to produce many drones, but the non-supplemented colonies lowered their production of drones.'
One of the key factors is that drones are an 'expensive' investment for a hive, because of their lack of contribution to resource acquisition (in comparison to workers). So production of drones is a trade-off between food acquisition and reproductive efforts.
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I need research material or data related to my subtopic: Significance of dancing pattern for honey bees ( A.mellifera) for Review Research.
Preferred time range 2016-....., if you have material before this time range you can share too.
Note: Material should be open source or full text along with APA/Reference.
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In the 1920s, Karl von Frisch pointed out that bees use special dancing patterns. What scientist or people think about bees communication before its discovery.
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For sure, Adrian and various collaborators of his argued that bees locate foods solely by odours. That was around 1923.
It seems, though, like Von Frisch was the first to witness bee's communication. But you may want to read Ameisen, Bienen und Wespen: Beobachtungen über die Lebensweise der geselligen hymenopteren by John Lubbock (1899). I unfortunately couldn't find a translated version.
However in The Bee Battles: Karl von Frisch, Adrian Wenner and the Honey Bee Dance Language Controversy" by Tanya Munz in 2005, she mentions: " Von Frisch was not the first to investigate insect communication. In his 1923 paper,he already cited nine other well-known authors who’d investigated bee and antcommunication. Buttel-Reepen, 1900, 1912, 1915; Wasmann, 1909 [1899]; Forel, 1910,1924 [1874]; Lubbock, 1883."
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The winter and summer seasonal papullation abundance table in timely based or any refarence of papullaton abundance in seasonal winter and summer any used method
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I would like to know what is the current opinion about the best field method for measuring VSH behavior in Apis mellifera colonies that have survived to Varroa destructor without chemical control but have not been selected for that specific trait.
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Thanks! We have some preliminary results and probably I will perform a new pre-experiment again. In this first attempt we infested as many cells as we found capped within 10-12 hours, marking in a transparent sheet (15/30 cells per colony). After that we infested the cells with mites from a susceptible non selected donor colony and we open and close without infesting approximately 15/20 cells (control cells) in the same frame. So we have paired data in every frame coming from "resistant selected" colonies. We classify the colonies with 80% of infested brood removal as VSH colonies.I would like to adjust the protocol a little more as we are starting a two year project to study the mechanism underlying colony survival in this population.
Thanks again!! I keep in touch
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Reasons are likely shortage of food stores or avoiding infestation by varooa mites...
But i m looking for published literature for specific reasons as well
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Some relevant literature I did manage to find...thanks Scopus
Boes, K.E. (2010). Honeybee colony drone production and maintenance in accordance with environmental factors: An interplay of queen and worker decisions. Insectes Sociaux, 57: 1-9.
Seeley, T.D. and Mikheyev, A.S. (2003). Reproductive decisions by honey bee colonies: Tuning investment in male production in relation to success in energy acquisition. Insectes Sociaux, 50:134-138.
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I would like to know if it is possible to breed Apis cerana in Europe in order to merge it with Apis mellifera under controlled conditions of course.
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It would be illegal! We have seen endless problems created by spreading living organisms beyond their natural borders, so luckily it is banned.
Besides, the two species can’t interbreed, eggs fertilised by sperm will not develop a proper embryo. See this paper for reference:
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During flower blooming season (Four months) I have performed experiment w.r.t pollen collection using pollen traps in Honey bee , Apis mellifera colonies. The colony parameters like Honey , Nectar, Stored Pollen, Egg, open and sealed brood were counted using square inch counting frame. The number and proportion of pollen loaded foragers entering into colonies were also recorded during different times in a day. One of the objective of the research was to select colonies as High and low pollen hoarding colonies. In general, what is the appropriate criteria for selecting colonies as high and low pollen hoarders ? Is pollen consumption by a colony an important criteria to ascertain them as good pollen hoarders?
Thanks in advance
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Trapping pollen from a hive for extended periods of time seems to cause the bees to recruit more pollen foragers to make up for their losses. Anecdotally, I have seen colonies with pollen traps more than triple the amount of pollen they collect in a little over a week. That being said, I don't think there have been studies confirming this phenomenon, but it could be something to consider if you want to use pollen traps.
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For example the large carpenter bees can visit Calotropis or other wild bees visit Peganum. I would like to understand how the bee deal with these plants and is the nectar of these plants contain the same toxic contents of the whole plant? 
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Thanks a lot for this great clarification, although I left Saudi Arabia 3 years ago and the questions was to figure out how larger carpenter bees is adapted to get nectar from Calotropis procera. The stems of the plans also were used by bees for nesting. I may try to find this work again when I will be back to Egypt after my research visit to Hungary.
Thanks again Christopher and I wish for you all the best.
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It has been observed during the Apis mellifera L. honey analysis that the electric conductivity and fructose percentage of tree-origin honey was high compared to herb- and shrub-origin honey. One possible reason may be that the trees have deep roots and can absorb more nutrients as compared to herbs and shrubs.
Aphids secrete honeydew to extract protein/ amino acids from sap, but in tree roots there should be plenty of nutrients. So on these observations what do you think about root-aphids - do they secrete honeydew or not?
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Yes, at least some subterranean aphids are even attracting ants that collect their honeydew:
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I would like to perform RNA Seq on apis mellifera heads, however, I want to use the whole head (not just the dissected brain).
This is a first robust screen looking for important differences between two populations (neurological differences but also differences in for example expression of receptors on the head and antennae).
Is it best to remove the compound eyes before extracting RNA, or is there a method to incorporate the eyes in the extraction but clear out the pigment afterwards?
Thanks in advance !
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I have extracted RNA from whole bees including their heads with good success. I would only lose maybe one or two samples per 24, but then would just try taking these through Qiagen plant mini kit protocol again and it would work on these samples, suggesting that it was probably an issue with my technique or having too much RNA that would clog the filter. I used beta mercaptoethanol for the RNA extraction followed with a Qiagen plant mini kit. The key I found was not to use the g column filter in the kit because sometimes these would get clogged and no RNA yield would result. I used a DNAase treatment on the column which has to be used anyway because the g-column doesn't work well enough to remove all of the genomic DNA. Using a DNAse treatment on the column works much better than treating the extracted RNA later with DNAse. My RNA yield did not correlate necessarily with the pigment of the solution. I was able to get at least 50 ng/ul of RNA extracted for all samples needed for my qPCR gene expression study. From my experience using phenol chloroform DNA extraction or other RNA extraction methods there are always a few samples that do not yield much DNA/RNA for whatever reason. Therefore, I think this method works just as well as others when bee heads with compound eyes are included. Attached you will find the study where I used the methods above.
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For example, into Apini tribe from honey bees we have 9 species but among them, Apis mellifera has the most of the subspecies but dwarf honey bees have not any subspecies. Or in the Euglossini tribe, the genus Euglussa has the most species higher than 120 and other genus in this tribe have low species. What is the main reason for this difference? Whether a genus or species with highest numbers of species/subspecies has a specific genomic structure?
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Hello Taghi;
1.When populations of a species are small and or isolated from one another they are likely to diverge from one another.
2. When a widespread species occurs in a mosaic of habitats or in a mosaic of competitors/predators/resources there is likely to be differentiation of the species.
Factors like these are generally invoked to explain population differentiation.
3. For parasitic species, host selection mechanisms may cause isolation of parts of a population in the sense that the site of mating may cause isolation. The fly genus Regoletis, the cerambycid genus Megacylene are examples of suites of species that are isolated only by host plant selection.
4. There are many other examples of similar mechanisms that cause reproductive isolation.
Examples like these will stimulate thinking about many other factors that increase the likelihood that a breeding population will be fragmented.
Best regards, Jim des Lauriers
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How to collect the data of false positive rate in facial recognition by testing five facial recognition APIs? Who can help me with this question? Thank you very much
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you need to implement this formula in your testing code.
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specially on apis mellifera
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No 
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This beetle has been reared from one of the numerous larvae that a colleague of mine collected from bee corpses (Apis mellifera) found on a hive bottom board. Size: ca. 1.5mm. Location: NE Ukraine.
To my layman's eye, this looks like a Cryptophagus sp. (some species of which have been reported from bee hives), but I am not sure. So any help in its identification would be much appreciated. 
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APICULTURIST
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It depends on the purpose. Will you use this pollen as food for bees? If so, you need to dry it in low temperature, to not destroy important organic compounds. Do you need to obtain dry mass at the same time? If so vacuum freeze dryer is the best solution. Another solution would be vacuum drying oven (similar to "regular" dryer but allows drying at low temperatures, like 30-40 OC).
The paper below may help you.
Kind regards,
Michał Filipiak
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I am undertaking my research on hoarding behaviour of Apis mellifera. What are the best methods to ascertain the genetic basis of insect behaviour without the intervention of molecular methods and if molecular methods are required what is the protocol?
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Please check these PDF attachments also.
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Auxiliar cells are importante in the evolution of queen production.
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Hello Dear
I read this artickle
Produção de rainhas em colônias de Plebeia lucii (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Meliponina)
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Time and again I have been reading about spike in dengue and chikunguniya cases and measures taken by municipal authorities in the form of fogging for controlling responsible factor like mosquito. Is fogging effective enough to curtail the mosquito multiplication during favourable seasons?
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you can use syntheses of pyrethroids in standing water as you can also use entomopathogenic Beauveria bassiana and Metarrizium sp, gave interesting results
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The use of leaf-cutting ant baits may impact organisms, including Apis mellifera. 
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Hello Jose:
There is a review paper by Isenring & Neumeister 2010 about the Ecological risks of sulfluramid baits used to control leaf-cutting ants. Large-scale use sufluramid may present a risk to non-target animals (birds, mammals, amphibians, and reptiles) in the long term. Granular baits contain 0.3% of sulfluramid. Total application rates of baits vary between 0.4 kg/ha and >3 kg/ha. However, on average, ants left 28.4% of baits directly available to non-target animals  and the problem is that sulfluramid metabolites are gradually accumulating in living organisms and in the environment, so I suppose on plants and pollinators too like bees. The same situation with neonicotinoid insecticides.
Regards,
Luis Miguel
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My PhD thesis subject is about apis mellifera venom (AMV). I will use AMV on experimental animals (rat). The experiment route will be IP and I will dissolve it in isotonic saline. Its all ok until here, but I don't know and can't gain adequate information about pH of this solution. I mean what is the optimal pH for best absorbtion of AMV while practicing IP injection?
Thanks.
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Just try 0.09% 
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Is anyone aware of (preferably peer reviewed) publications on the pollination of Cucurbita pepo by Apis mellifera and Bobus sp. (preferably in in Europe)? I am particularily interested in the effect of pollination on C. pepo seed development and yield.
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Dear Michael:
I only found this article since 1993, relates the pollination of Apis mellifera on Cucurbita pepo. It's the only whose study site is in Europe.
I hope it will be helpful.
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Does the foraging flight speed changes between different species?
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Yes, almost certainly, and also within species given the large variation in sizes even within the same nest (see work by Dave Goulson for example).  However I don't know of any published studies.
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 this pollinator was watched on August in Xishuangbanna Tropical Botanical Garden, Yunnan,China. And it was visiting Bauhinia yunnanensis as a really efficient polinator. It is quite important for my research. I will be very appreciate if anybody could help me to identify it.  thank you~~ 
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In my opinion the above mentioned bee belongs to Amegilla sp. Dr Hema Somanathan,IISER,trivandrum is one of the bee expert in India,her email address is hsomanathan@iisertvm.ac.in
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Bees are known to forage up to 12 kilometers for nectar produced by flowering plants. In their search, bees could be exposed to different systematic pesticides that are designed to rid human propagated vegetation of insects that eat these crops and carry pathogens and diseases.
When producing honey, the molecular arrangement is dependent on which flowers bees pollinate. In harvesting and consuming honey contaminated with neonicotinoids, will this adversely affect us and poison our body systems?
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Hello Jason,
Honey combs have a magnificent characteristic: the wax absorbs most materials, including pesticides. I'm not absolutly sure about neonics, but it can be checked.
If  the honey is extracted in modern facilities, and if its filtered, the amount of wax in the honey will be so small that exposure to neonics is negligable. 
Bear in mind that we eat neonics in our fruits and vegtables, and if I'm not wrong, it contaminates our drinking water.
And so, honey should not be a major source for such exposures
Erez
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Some recent literature have restarted the debate about the attraction-repellent function of pollen grains and nectar. It is known that some pollen and also some nectar possesses toxins preventing them of being consumed by some species of bees or even other pollinating groups. It was also shown that nectar may have alkaloids and other substances able to "manipulate" the flower visitor psychology increasing visitation rate. So, would you expect that generalist eusocial bees should have different criteria to collect a resource that is mainly consumed by adults (nectar) or by next generation (pollen)?
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Good ideas Peter! Why not also follow the causes for visiting various sources of pollen? Peters answer is somewhat restricted to pollen mixing during a single foaging trip, which might be caused by the rareness of some flowering plant species or signal standarsization (formerly Mullerian mimicry) in these plants. Recently Eckhardt M, Haider M, Dorn S & Müller A published an article termed Pollen mixing in pollen generalist solitary bees: a possible strategy to complement or mitigate unfavourable pollen properties? which arreared in J Anim Ecol. (2014) 83(3):588-97. doi: 10.1111/1365-2656.12168. showing that pollen mixing might be caused by toxic pollen. Other caused might be rareness of amino acids and other compounds in pollen of some plants. In these cases solitary bees are more affected than eusocial bees, the latter of which exhibit pollen mixing at the colony level.
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I am interested to purify honey bee DNA from honey samples and even royal jelly to identify the bee species which produced that product (eg. Apis cerana, Apis mellifera, Apis dorsata ecc.). How much DNA can I extract from this kind of samples? Can I find bee DNA even in commercial samples that have been filtered?
Thanks a lot for your help
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This would not be an easy task if the honey is will filtrated, but if the honey do have incidents of being extracted in traditional methods then you might find small particles of the bees like parts of the legs and wings. and the would be on the upper layer of the honey jar. 
But this would be a very not easy task
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I would like to explore I.I. on Bee Queens. Is there any risk in facing that technique.
Thanks in advance for your courtesy in this matter.
Regards
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With I.I.  we can create specific crosses that do not occur naturally. Also, virgins could be inseminated when drones are naturally unavailable by using stored semen . On contrary, generally the I.I. queen live shorter than those which mate naturally. Also, one may exclude some natural factors which may exclude inferior drones from superior ones.
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I tried several special stains, but none works on 100% of the organisms on Nosema in bees. I was hoping that people working in other fields (even fish or other) might have a better experience than me on other stains I could try, or modifications that might improve the sensitivity.
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Hi
I think that the chromotrope 2R is suitable for microsporidia detection and diagnosis.
Regards
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I am studying feeding behaviour in adult honey bees and would like a good method to sample faeces. I will have several test cohorts so it will be a repeated sampling. One thought is to use filter paper at the bottom of each cage and/or dissect guts of bees from each test cohort. But if anyone could give me a better/less time consuming way to sample it I would appreciate. Thank you.
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Dear Raquel,
I have not an experience in the study of the honeybee feces, but I collected Osmia rufa, Megachile rotundata and Bombus terrestris faeces for pollen analyses.
Below you will find links to these publications.
It may come in handy.
Best regards
Dariusz
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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it would be a nice idea...but I don't think the current technology is up to it yet. Despite the enormous miniaturisation of current mobile phone devices, I don't think there is a GPS tracking device so small and so light as to be attached to a bee. Bear in mind that the weight of a honey bee worker is about 0.1 g and a bumble bee about 0.4 g, so you'd need a device at least 10-20 times lighter than the bees and that can transmit information to a satellite. GPS tracking devices can be attached to small birds because they are about 150 times heavier than the bees....we're still a long way.
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Is it only a marketing strategy or do they really produce 7-10 kg Royal Jelly per beehive?
Just for compare, production of 10 kg of honey is normal for stationary beekeeping with extra quality. But we are talking about Royal Jelly.
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Yvan, I found published paper wher it is wrote that productionis 7-10 kg per hive.
Nils, price for 1 kg of real, pure, royal jelly is much more then $100. That price is for "made in China" royal jelly, but can't understand what is the trick.
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Nosema locustae was used for grasshopper control in 1980 in the US, in 2000 there were  still three products with Nosema locustae as the active ingredient.  The potential  exposure to Apis mellifera I have only found a short statement by the EPA (117001) Fact sheet.
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It can affect digestive system of Apis mellifera if consumed which may lead to death of the insect.
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Insect breeders and geneticists.
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Yes, agreed, those too groups of bees are far too genetically distinct to hybridise.
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It is assumed that the unbalanced species distributions of gut microbiota (especially that of Lactic acid bacteria (LAB), Bifidobacterium and Acetic acid bacteria (AAB)) may negatively impact the physiology of the honey bees that result in susceptibility of host to different diseases. Can you please tell me the exact minimum concentration of these bacteria required for disease resistance?
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According to Rada V., Machova M., Achovahuk J., Marounek M. and Duskova D. (1997). Microflora in the honeybee digestive tract: counts, characteristics and sensitivity to veterinary drugs. Apidologie 28: 357-365 , Counts of aerobic microorganisms are noticeably lower than the anaerobes (104-10 5 viable cells per gram of intestinal contents versus 108-10 9 per gram).
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I am researching how to setup a remote station to measure weight and internal temperature and humidity of a bee hive. I need 24/7 data collection. I will have access to WiFi. I am working with a botanist and we want to correlate local flora conditions with honey/pollen flow. We have access to 24/7 meteo data, as well. Any suggestion is welcome.
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Dear Ornella,
There is a branch of Apimondia that is dedicated to monitoring colony losses, they are all over the world, I advise you to check out if there are researchers involved in your area, as they might have faced similar situations (as far as I know there have been plenty of ideas proposed by members on how to monitor weight, temp and humidity on a real-time approach):
Finally, this research group from Latvia proposed this web based system for real time bee monitoring:
Let me know if you have problems in downloading it!
Good luck with your bees,
Carlos
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An entire hive has disappeared without trace, and even worker bees were found dead although there was a queen excluder on the door.
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Pollen powers honeybee genes
Bees could be dying because they lack a nutrient found in honey.
The western honeybee (Apis mellifera) adds billions of dollars to the global economy by pollinating crops, but a mysterious 'colony collapse disorder' has killed off many hives. Agricultural pesticides, overcrowding, frequent transport and bee parasites have all been blamed.
Work by May Berenbaum and her colleagues at the University of Illinois at Urbana–Champaign suggests another contributing factor: honey substitutes, which are often fed to bees by commercial beekeepers. The researchers used liquid chromatography to identify compounds in honey that activate the genes known to be upregulated by the foodstuff, then analysed gene expression in bees that were fed different diets. Those fed p-coumaric acid, a compound found in pollen, expressed more detoxification genes than bees given plain sugar syrup. Bees fed the pollen compound also produced higher levels of genes for antimicrobial peptides.
Proc. Natl Acad. Sci. USA http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1303884110 (2013)