Science topic

Anura - Science topic

An order of the class Amphibia, which includes several families of frogs and toads. They are characterized by well developed hind limbs adapted for jumping, fused head and trunk and webbed toes. The term "toad" is ambiguous and is properly applied only to the family Bufonidae.
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Does anyone know roughly what percent of anurans or urodeles exhibit direct development vs having a larval stage? I've been trying to find numbers for both groups but no luck so far.
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Its tough to say.... because i don't guess there is a complete list available for this.... check amphibian species of the world website..... best wishes.... looking forward to read your work
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Recently, I got an invitation from the editor of 'Eliva Press'. The editor mentioned one of my recently published articles and invited me to publish a book on those works. I want to know whether 'Eliva Press' is legitimate? Is it worth publishing a book with them? I am copying the whole email for your reference below.
Thanks in advance.
Regards-
Md Mizanur Rahman, PhD
The e-mail
Dear Dr. Md Mizanur Rahman ,
My name is XX (I replaced the name) and I am editor at Eliva Press. I went through your list of recent publications and it is impressive. We are interested in publishing a book of your works, including this paper: "Confirmation of the Applicability of Skeletochronology and Estimating the Age Structure of Kaloula borealis (Microhylidae: Anura) at Lake Sihwa, South Korea".
We specialize in publication and dissemination of academic books. The publication is free for our authors. You will retain copyrights and earn up to 50% royalties. In addition, the book will be distributed through Amazon Distribution Channels and many more.
Do you want to find more about our publishing services?
Your reply would be greatly appreciated.
-- Sincere regards, XX (I replaced the name) Editor
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I am carrying out a phylogenetic analysis on the relationships of several families within Anura and was planning on using cytb and COI in my analysis but I am not sure whether I should be choosing less conserved genes?
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There is no single correct answer to this question, and the above three responses all make good points.
In response to Shi, I would say that the matrilineal bias of mtDNA is mainly a problem at the level of populations or phylogeography, and that by the time species have separated and no longer interbreed, the entire genome is an isolated, independently evolving unit from the genomes of other taxa (barring horizontal transfer or other non-phylogenetic phenomena). However, of course, any individual gene or the entire genome might not reveal the "true evolutionary history".
Mustafa is correct that patterns implied by multiple genes can be confusing, and it is arguable that the entire field of phylogenomics has become confused about how to treat gene trees vs. "the species tree" with "deep coalescence" and so forth.
Filipe makes a good practical point, and probably the best advice for Lucy: look at studies of comparable levels of diversity in related groups of frogs - particularly ones that are not belabored with hand-wringing about gene tree incongruence, and see which markers they have used. Using the same markers as colleagues in your field provides you with sequences you can use for outgroups or to enlarge your own data set, and likely means that your paper will be more widely cited than if you develop markers that others have not used before (unless you are extremely lucky and everyone else starts using them, too).
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Hello everyone. I represent a small group of students from Maastricht University in the Netherlands. We are currently working on a project regarding toe-tapping behavior in frogs and toads (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gl_A4UosQjw). We are collecting as much information as possible regarding it in order to try to shed some light on this very understudied phenomenon. If you've ever observed it and could spare a few minutes of your time to help us in our research, please fill out our questionnaire or share your knowledge with us. Any input is greatly appreciated.
Thank you for your time and happy herping.✌️
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Hi Nikola,
This is a very interesting topic. I first noticed this phenomenon when on a field trip to Thailand in June, 1995 with my then graduate student Thom Ludwig and my then post-doc, Jakob Christensen-Dalsgaard. We saw several females of Polypedates leucomystax toe tapping on the dense vegetation on which they were perched. We reported this in several publications, including these:
Narins PM (1995) Comparative aspects of interactive communication. In: Active Hearing (Å Flock, D Ottoson, M Ulfendahl eds.) Elsevier Science Ltd, Oxford, UK 363-372.
Narins PM (1995) Frog Communication. Scientific American 273: 78-83.
Narins PM (2001) Vibration communication in vertebrates. In: Ecology of Sensing (F Barth, A Schmidt eds.) Springer-Verlag, Berlin 127-148.
Christensen-Dalsgaard J, Ludwig TA and Narins PM (2002) Call diversity in an Old World treefrog: Level dependence and latency of acoustic responses. Bioacoustics 13: 21-35.
Narins PM (2019) Seismic communication in the Amphibia with special emphases on the anura. In: Biotremology- Studying Vibrational Behavior II (PSM Hill, R Lakes-Harlan, V Mazzoni, PM Narins, M Virant-Doberlet, A Wessel eds.) Springer-Verlag, Heidelberg pp 277-292.
Hope this helps!
Peter
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I would like to analyse the shape of parotoid glands between two species by using landmarks. But because of assymetries between glands of an individual (i have observed assymetries in many of my samples) i m doubtful to try it. I am also inexperienced in this approach. So,could anyone inform me whether it is an appliable idea to analyse the shape of parotoid glands ?
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Christopher James Evelyn I am thinking about both of them but mainly focusing on the positional status. Thanks for advices, i got them.
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I'm working on the osteology of fossil anuran amphibians. Please let me know has the radioulna some diagnostic characters in these animals (i.e. is it possible to determine this bone up to species/genus level etc.)? I will be very thankful for your comments.
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Я определяю эти кости как Anura: строение их у современных представителей из Восточной Европы очень сходно. Иногда кажется, что какие-то конкретные кости более вероятно относятся к тому или другому семейству, но я не могу объяснить это морфологическими особенностями.
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As above. Need to take some close-up reference photographs of a Spadefoot Toad fixed in 70% ethanol and was wondering whether it is possible to remove from solution without causing major damage to the tissues. Is this possible?
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Photographs of preserved specimens of anurans (or of any fluid preserved specimen), including close-up takes of morphological details, have better results with the specimen immerse in the preservation fluid (normally ethanol alcohol at 70 Gay-Lussac degrees).  Do not use water, because the specimen will float and the photograph becomes virtually impossible to make. If it is necessary or interesting to take pictures outside the fluid, normally the specimens are very resistant. Special attention must be given to the eyes, which become withered after exposed to air, and to the fingers tips, which become dry. In these situations, the specimen must be immersed in the preservation fluid and the turgidity is recovered. Also it is possible to involve the specimen with a cloth piece wetted in water, with only the structure to be photographed exposed; in this case, it is necessary only to observe if this part is drying.  After the photographs, the specimen must be quickly devolved to its vial.
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This frog species has been found in my garden at Rajiv Gandhi University Campus, Itanagar, Arunachal Pradesh (India). As I am a bit poor in taxonomy of frogs I do hope experts in this field may like to help me in identifying the species.
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Hoplobatrachus tigerinus
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Picture was taken in the Taroko National Park. Could it be Kurixalus idiootocus (Rhacophoridae)?
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It's a pleasure.
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We are sampling tadpoles in wetlands to determine mortality as a function of a few different biotic and abiotic variables. We know (roughly) how many tadpoles are in the wetlands because we count either tadpoles or egg masses. We use a 0.5 m^2 pipe sampler to collect data and estimate abundance using the methods for plot sampling from Borchers et al. 2002 on estimating animal abundance. 
I am concerned we are underestimating abundance in large wetlands because we can only sample a set amount which means the probability of sampling tadpoles is lower in larger wetlands. I believe the probability of detection for the area in that we sample is 1 or very close to it (as required for the assumptions of plot sampling) but as wetland size increases, the likelihood of actually sampling tadpoles decreases.
Does anyone have any suggestions on how to deal with what the influence of differences in wetland size (via different detection probabilities) might be on our abundance estimates?
Cheers,
Paul
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Hi Paul,
I think that the best to do to take into account detection probabilities would be to use hierarchical model, so that you can model the detection process using a simple binomial process. You can also include some spatial variation too.
You can refer to: 
- Dodd, C. K., and Dorazio, R. M. (2004), “Using Counts to Simultaneously Estimate Abundance and Detection Probabilities in a Salamander Community,” Herpetologica, 60, 468–478.
- Royle, J.A. & Dorazio, R.M. (2008) Hierarchical modeling and inference in ecology: the analysis of data from populations, metapopulations and communities. Academic Press. (especially chapters 1 & 2).
If you have troubles to find these chapters, do not hesitate to ask me
Cheers,
Guillaume
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Anuran tadpoles respond to chemical cues of predation reducing foraging and swimming activity. In many cases this behavior is produced by a predation event releasing different kind of cues, in particular alarm cues, coming from tadpole itself, seem to play a key role in elicit antipredatory responses, even if they often need to be associated to kairomone (from predator) to have the whole response.
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In terms of actual chemical characterization, none have been described (to my knowledge). However, Fraker et al 2009 (Horm Behav) showed a nice neuroendocrine response from a skin-released compound in larval amphibians. Fish have been well described (e.g., ostariophysan alarm pheromone). The Fraker paper has a nice summary of what is known as well. I doubt my answer helps, but I would also love to know if you have any updates on this question.
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Does the FFPE-kit work with tadpoles?
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Yes, thanks! But the standard CTAB revealed only moderate results. I thought that maybe someone has used e.g., FFPE kits.
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It was seen on a garden at Pozo del Tigre, Formosa province.
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Thanks!