Science topics: ChemistryAntimony
Science topic

Antimony - Science topic

A metallic element that has the atomic symbol Sb, atomic number 51, and atomic weight 121.75. It is used as a metal alloy and as medicinal and poisonous salts. It is toxic and an irritant to the skin and the mucous membranes.
Questions related to Antimony
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
2 answers
Antimony catalysts are used in synthesis of Pegylated esters, such as those used in the Liquid Nanoparticle encapsulated mRNA jabs.
Recently researchers detected Antimony by ICPAES in Moderna product.
Has anyone found Antimony in the Pfizer jabs?
Relevant answer
Answer
How does Antimony poison you? It goes for your Mitochondria (reminds me of Fluoride). Nice free paper from China with lots of references. The authors are going to do more research on Toxicity mechanisms, including Antimony attack on your Thiol based enzymes.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
Hello,
we recorded a photoelectron spectrum of an antimony compound. For antimony there are spin-orbit-coupling effects which are also seen in the PES. Now i want to do some calculations on gaussian 09 regarding the spin-orbit splitting. Unluckily i never worked with spin-orbit effects before and wanted to ask if somebody could provide some sort of starting guideline so i can try and calculate these effects.
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
Spin-orbit coupling is a very difficult subject. The use of numerical methods to study it is actually done by several ab initio programs.
I only can recommend you this website that will tell you about the theory of spin-orbit coupling:
https://staff.aist.go.jp/v.zayets/spin3_32_SpinOrbit.html
However, they still miss a point, i.e., the inversion point symmetry "i", the rest of the material is covered by Dr. Vadym Zayets's pedagogical website.
Now if the material is noncentrosymmetric, then it is even much harder, both ways, theoretically and numerically.
Best Regards.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
Hello Members
I want to convert antimony trichloride to antimony tribromide with an relative easy -if possible - one Pot Synthesis. Is this usefull with antimony trichloride with boron tribromide?
Could anyone describe me the procedure?
Many thanks for helping.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much Emanuel for your answer, may it could help. I have a larger amount of SbCl and I need the SbBr. I will try and check it with HBr. Best greetings. Michael
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
2 answers
I'm trying to synthesize a product in which Tl has to be in the +3 oxidation state. My reaction technique is "solution-combustion". Although i used a reactant in which Tl is in its +3 state, in the product Tl gets reduced to +1. What should i do to prevent the Tl ion from reducing?
The 'fuel' of the reaction has CARBON. But in case of Antimony, using the same fuel didn't reduce the Sb ion.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Taohedul Islam thanks for posting this interesting technical question. Unfortunately it is a bit difficult to give you a qualified answer because too many details about your reaction are missing. Perhaps you can add an oxidizing agent to the reaction mixture?
In any case it makes no sense to compare thallium with antimony. Thallium is a heavy element in group 13 which shows the so-called "inert-pair effect" (cf. the respective Wikipedia entry at https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Inert-pair_effect). This means that for thallium the oxidation state +1 is more stable, and thallium(III) compounds are strong oxidizing agents. In contrast, antimony is in group 15 and cannot be easily reduced to the oxidation state +1.
P.S. When working with thallium please always keep in mind the high toxicity of thallium" ☠️
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
7 answers
Hello, I will try to produce Sb2S3 films with thermal evaporation technique using Sb2S3 pellets or Sb pieces. Then I will complete the production with thermal annealing. Could you please give information about the risks of Sb2S3 pellets or Sb pieces and the precautions I should take?
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
1 answer
what electrolyte should i take to do comparative study of CV and LSV of antimony selenide thin films ? My plan is to do study the "effect of Film Thickness on Photoelectrochemical
Performance of antimony selenide thin films prepared via therma deposition .
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Yogesh Singh thank you for your interesting technical question. Just in case that this is still of interest to you, I can suggest a few relevant references on the preparation of antimony selenide (Sb2Se3) thin films. Please have a look at the following potentially useful articles:
Growth and characterization of Sb2Se3 thin films for solar cells
and
A study on optical properties of Sb2Se3 thin films and resistive switching behavior in Ag/Sb2Se3/W heterojunctions
Both articles are freely available as public full texts on RG.
I also strongly suggest that you use the "Search" function of RG to find and access other helpful papers on this topic. Just search e.g. for "Sb2Se3 thin films" and then click on "Publications". This will provide you with a long list of relevant papers which have been posted on RG. Some of them can be freely downloaded as public full texts:
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
4 answers
Antimony potassium tartarate hemihydrate is often used for quantification of phosphate using ammonium molybdate method with ascorbic acid as a reducing agent. We are recording significant decline in absorption maxima in presence of antimony compared to what we record in its absence. I am unable to uderstand why antimony is used? Amongst reducing agents [used so far by various research teams], we find ascorbic acid to be better.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
6 answers
I have purchased 25 g of magnesium silicide -Mg2Si powder (99.9% pure, 20 mesh) and i want to dope it with pure antimony powder upto 1.5% atomic %.What method i should use? Can anyone explain in detail?
Relevant answer
Answer
Ram - Just in case that this is still of interest to you: Sb-doped magnesium silicide compounds can be prepared through ball milling and solid-state reactions. For more information please see this interesting article entitled "Solid-State Synthesis and Thermoelectric Properties of Sb-Doped Mg2Si Materials"
Of further interest should be this article entitled "Structural, compositional and functional properties of Sb-doped Mg2Si synthesized in Al2O3-crucibles":
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
1 answer
Hi. As compared to silver cyanide electrolyte (without antimony) which brings me about 0.63 microns/minute silver layer by 1 ASD, after mix with some antimony salt into electrolyte the plating rate reduced to 0.44 microns/minute by 1 ASD. Further more, using the same electrolyte, I increased to 5 ASD (with time reduction relatively by 20%), plating rate reduce even further to 0.38 microns/minute.
Why antimony slows down the plating rate? Why increases current density will reduce plating rate even further?
Relevant answer
Answer
The following link may be useful for you https://patents.google.com/patent/US3425917A/en
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
7 answers
I am looking for an Antimony compound which is soluble and stable in water, able to suffer from hydrolysis for a solution based synthesis. Anyone can recommend a commercial product or a home-made process to make a water soluble one?
Relevant answer
Answer
Antimony sulfate, Sb2(SO4)3 is soluble in water
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
4 answers
I am working on Low temp. schottky diodes. It is the extended work of my recent publication " The influence of antimony doping on I–V, C–V-f and (G/w)-V-f characteristics of indium/ SbXW1-XSe2 (X=0, 0.1, 0.5) alloy Schottky diodes".
Normally, ln(I0/T2)-1000/T have negative slope , but i got positive slope in one case. can it be possible??
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you.
I assume that these data originate from fitting the IV characteristics in Fig. 2b? In that case, what you are probably observing here is an ohmic shunt developing at low temperatures (<200K). See how the current for 180K, 160K and 140K is lower than for the higher temperatures as soon as the voltage is above 0.25V? THIS is your diode current; but below that voltage, you have a shunt, i.e. parallel resistance dominating the characterstics. My guess is that something in your sample broke during measuring. This could have happened during cooling, for example some delamination of your metallization, failure of contacting/bonding etc. There are anumerous possibilities. Checking the behaviour upon heating would therefore be interesting to see (i.e., does it restore to the initial behaviour or does the shunt remain?).
From what I can read in your paper, you considered the series resistance, but not the shunt resistance in your modelling. I suggest you try that and see what it does to your I0 and n values (although the range you do your fit is pretty narrow, might be difficult). The diode parameter values as you have them now -- both in your published paper and in your new data -- are probably not physically meaningful whenever that shunt appears.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
18 answers
The physical and chemical properties,
Toxicity,
Impacts on human, animals, plants, soils, waters, ...
Relevant answer
Answer
Well, According to WHO, 2011
Guideline value; 0.02 mg/l (20 µg/l) Occurrence; Concentrations in groundwater less than 0.001 µg/l; concentrations in surface water less than 0.2 µg/l; concentrations in drinking-water appear to be less than 5 µg/l .
Tolerable daily intake (TDI) 6 µg/kg body weight, based on a NOAEL of 6.0 mg/kg body weight per day for decreased body weight gain and reduced food and water intake in a 90-day study in which rats were administered potassium antimony tartrate in drinking-water, using an uncertainty factor of 1000 (100 for interspecies and intraspecies variation, 10 for the short duration of the study).
Regards
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
5 answers
I am trying to dissolve antimony trichloride in 0.1 M HCl or DI water at concentrations as low as 2 mM but it is not dissolving. I am having the same problem with another antimony compound potassium antimony tartrate, which is also not dissolving. Does anyone have an idea how to dissolve these compounds?
Relevant answer
Answer
Antimony trichloride readily hydrolyzes in water or aq. solutions. It is hygroscopic, so that it can uptake moisture from humid air, while also converting to hydrolyzed products, such as antimony oxychloride (SbOCl). The last may then convert itself to tetra-antimony dichloride pentoxide, Sb4O5Cl2, which can precipitate and crystallize from solution. Also Sb3+ and SbO+ can hydrolyze in aq. solution. By adding excess chloride to the solution, chloroantimonate(III) ions tend to form from SbCl3, such as SbCl4- or SbCl52-.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
4 answers
I am working on phosphorus analysis in water using molybdenum blue method. I have several questions about it.
1. Sometimes the blank (distilled water or deionized water)becomes blue while it has no phosphorus.
2. Sometimes the color of standards and samples becomes more intensive one or two hours after reading of the absorbtions. Is there a problem?
3. When and why should we acidify the water samples and standards before adding a mixture of ammounium molybdate, antimony tartarate and ascorbic acid?
Thank you in advance.
Relevant answer
Answer
Molybdate itself can be reduced to produce a blue chromophore unless the solution is first acidified. Read the paper by Murphy and Riley 1962, and the review by Nagul et al. 2015
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
9 answers
Hi
Is it possible to make Ag and Sb soluble with acid digestion for ICP-OES, when we have an antimony ore sample?
Thanks in advance.
Relevant answer
Dear Sir. Concerning your issue about the acid digestion of Ag and Sb for the ICP analysis. Ultra high-purity or equivalent acids must be used in the preparation of standards and for sample processing. Redistilled acids are recommended because of the high sensitivity of ICP-MS. Nitric acid at less than 2% (v/v) is necessary for ICP-MS to minimize damage to the interface and to minimize isobaric molecular-ion interferences with the analytes. Many more molecular-ion interferences are observed when hydrochloric and sulfuric acids are used (Refs. 3 and 4). The use of 1% (v/v) HCl is necessary for the stability of antimony and silver concentrations in the range of 50 - 500 µg/L. For concentrations greater than 500 µg/L silver, additional HCl will be needed. As a consequence, the accuracy of analytes that need significant chloride molecular-ion corrections (e.g., As and V) will degrade. For more details, I think the following below link may help you in your analysis:
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
when i dissolve SbCl3 in methanol, the pH becomes 1-3. So how can i adjust the pH of the solution upto 7 or more? is antimony acetate soluble in methanol?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi, Sanjit!
I agree with Nebojša, the scale of pH you are mentioning was developed for and used with aqueous solutions. Also, I think that you might end up non-soluble antimony oxychloride if you increase the pH(MeOH), but that is just a guess.
regards,
Daniel
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
The introduction of nanotechnology opened new horizons previously unattainable by thermoelectric devices. The nano-scale phenomena began to be exploited through techniques of thin-film depositions to increase the efficiency of thermoelectric films. This chapter reviews the fundamentals of the phenomenon of thermoelectricity and its evolution since it was discovered in 1822. This chapter also reviews the thermoelectric devices, the macro to nano devices, describing the most used techniques of physical vapor depositions to deposit thermoelectric thin-films. A custom made deposition chamber for depositing thermoelectric thin films by the thermal co-evaporation technique, where construction issues and specifications are discussed, is then presented. All the steps for obtaining a thermoelectric generator in flexible substrate with the custom deposition chamber (to incorporate in thermoelectric microsystems) are described. The aim of thermoelectric microsystem relays is to introduce an energy harvesting application to power wireless sensor networks (WSN) or biomedical devices. The scanning probe measuring system for characterization of the thermoelectric thin films are also described in this chapter. Finally, a few of the prototypes of thermoelectric thin films (made of bismuth and antimony tellurides, Bi 2 Te 3 Bi2Te3 , and Sb 2 Te 3 Sb2Te3 , respectively) obtained by co-evaporation (using the custom made deposition chamber) and characterized for quality assessment are dealt with. All the issues involved in the co-evaporation and characterization are objects of analysis in this chapter.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Omari,
I think you wrote a good introduction for nanotechnology based thermoelectric devices and application..
However, can you upload the chapter so interested readers like me can download it ? Or kindly send it via the email if you do not want to share it widely.
Thanks
Hien
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I need to synthesize the Tris(triethylsilyl)bismuthane [(CH3CH2)3Si]3Bi. 
So far I tried an analogous method for Antimony described in DOI:10.1021/cm102904f. I assumed that the chemistry should be similar for bismuth. In the first step, I used Sodium naphthalenide and bismuth powder in DME in order to prepare Na3Bi alloy (reflux 2days). Then injected Chlorotriethylsilane followed by reflux for another two days. However, I noticed, that no Bismuth has been reacted (or maybe small fraction) after refluxing for two days, and I have some mess in flask now...
So my first assumption is that no Na3Bi alloy was formed, and the reaction did not proceed.  Because Bi is also black powder as resulting Na3Bi, I can't visually evaluate if the alloy is formed or not. 
So my question is maybe this method is not appropriate for bismuth? Or something wrong with the starting materials?
The alternative is to use NaK, but for safety reasons, I prefer to avoid NaK. 
All reactants used right after purchase, used bismuth powder (325 mesh) DME was purchased dry, stored under molecular sieves.
Any tips? suggestions?
I really need your help. 
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you very much for your answers, it helped a lot!
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
I have tried to use a green method to make silver nanowires, problem is when I used AgNO3 crystals despite my best efforts I stained my labs bench and left a few black marks on my hands from when I was handling it. Ok we could say in small doses that is ok and also that it does only is absorbed on the top layer of dead skin, the problem is though that I want to avoid this risk. Are there any ?
It would not be nice for my team if I made a mess again so trying to make sure I don't cause problems for anyone.
Every MSDS sheet I read says AgCl or AgNO3 etc. precursor is corrosive.
Any tips?
Harry
Relevant answer
I am a bit worried about being clumsy and causing my lab colleagues problems with their experiments, I will try that next time. I am wondering if there is another method too.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
8 answers
Which acid can I use for digestion of plant parts and soil if I use ICP-OES instrument for Antimony (III and V) and Arsenic (III and V) analysis? Reference is necessary.
Relevant answer
Answer
The type acids may be used to dissolve either plant tissues or soils are dependent on the the element to be analysed and and nature materials. If organic substances ar tobe oxidesed any of acids containin high oxygen ratio such as HClO4, H2SO4, HNO3. The ooxidation ability of these acids ordered HClO4> H2SO4> HNO3. If the material cosists of silicate minerals, in this case HF should be used. The mixture of HNO3 and HCl for Au, Pt, Ag, and other precious metals. In the analysis site the ion in the digest should not give complexation reactions. NO3 <Cl<ClO4 have complexation tendency with metals. The weaker complexation results in the higher sensitivity of metals in ICP and AAS.  
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
There are structural changes occur in the internal structure of antimony trioxide as when the subjected to torch flame ,it absorbs heat energy, causing a change in its internal structure, leading to its transformation into antimony tetroxide. The antimony tetroxide is also considered flame retardant , and constantly shed heat torch absorbs oxide quartet turn the heat energy, causing it to collapse in the end to antimony trioxide again. My question from the standpoint of chemistry, are these changes are infinite or they stop at a certain point?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Dr.Saeed,
I appreciated your kinds and thank you very much.
Best Regards
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
A lot of industries use ATO (Antimony doped tin oxide) as heat absorber layer. Majority of UV-Vis spectra shown that ATO absorb strongly at IR region while quite transparent at visible part.
While as long as I know, as ATO has semiconductor properties, IR absorbtion represent low band gap material. If IR is absorbed, how can ATO transmits visible light rather than absorbs it?
Relevant answer
Answer
Transparent conducting oxide has a wide band gap to transmit light through them. However, they hold a property called "plasma frequency", which is in the near-infrared (NIR) region of the spectrum. Go through a few literature about this property, hope you can easily grasp the concept.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
3 answers
I've tried two different recipes to synthesize antimony sulphide and in both cases the solution changed color after a few minutes.
Relevant answer
Answer
Orange is the color of amorphous Sb2S3. The solution coloration corresponds to nucleation of amorphous Sb2S3 in the homogeneous phase, which is occurring at the same time with deposition on a substrate (heterogeneous phase). One way to favor the heterogeneous phase nucleation over the homogeneous phase nucleation, is to reduce the temperature: at 5°C the orange coloration will occur later than at at 25°C and it favors film deposition, as a general rule. Of course, other parameters can be tuned, like concentrations. Converstion from amorphous (orange) to crystalline (grey) is generally achieved by annealing at e.g. 320°C 15min, under nitrogen.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
1 answer
Making a research on thermoelctrics with different modules recently working on bismuth telluride but also wanna know about two other materials...
Relevant answer
Answer
There are no modules avaiable with real Bismuth selenid. The SbTe is the the classical p of normal Bi2Te2 Modules. If you mean Bithmuth telluride with Selenium you will find this in some modules.
What is your real question?
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
2 answers
I'm trying to dissolve it in HCl, but I'd like to think about other solutions.
Relevant answer
Answer
Pls. find an other method( along with calculations). Hope it will find your favor.
The residue is transferred in a beaker and is dissolved in hot dilute nitric acid. 2 to 3 mL. of conc. H2SO4 added and boiled in a fuming cup board to expel off fume of SO2. Cooled. The concentrate is diluted to 20 or 30 cc mL. PbSO4 is filtered off. Also traces of hydrocarbons leave.
The filtrate ( free from Pb) but containing the copper is treated with aluminum powder*; boiled so that the copper is thrown out of solution. The excess of aluminium is dissolved with a few mL. of HCl.
To the solution containing containing As(III) add solid K2CO3. Boil, cool and make up to 1 L. Aliquots of 100 cc. ( =0.5 gram) is taken for analysis. The solution is made faintly acid with hydrochloric acid by testing the solution with litmus paper.
An excess of NaHCO3 or KHCO3 is added and is titrated with N/10 I2
according to the standard procedure for arsenic using starch as indicator.
One mL of N/10 I2 = 0.003748 gm of As= 0.004948 gm of As2O3.
* Converts CuSO4 directly to Cu.
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
2 answers
I am having some problems in synthesizing La(0.85)Sb(0.15)MnO(3) through sol-gel synthesis. I would like to know in which all solvents antimony nitrate [Sb(NO3)3] is completely soluble.
Relevant answer
Answer
Easily soluble in water
  • asked a question related to Antimony
Question
2 answers
I need a patent.
Relevant answer
Answer
Though the best PATENT awailable is :
Grade M-343,
Yet a methed to produce Antimony impregnated carbon graphite mechanical seals is outlined here. The word “ OUTLINED” is intentionally used because the exact conditions/ composition of the constituents is a trade secret.
Compositions:
Mechanical carbons contain graphite with self-lubricating characteristics. To make mechanical carbons, fine graphite particles are bonded with a hard,strong, amorphous carbon binder to produce a mechanical carbon material that is called carbon~graphite.
Further, the heat treating causes the amorphous-carbon binder to become graphitized resulting in a material known as electrographite.The electrographite is generally softer and weaker than the carbon-graphite material but has superior chemical resistance, oxidation resistance and thermal conductivity compared to the carbon-graphite
Impregnation:
Both carbon-graphite and electrographite are normally produced so that they contain approximately 159 mess porosity by volume. To produce mechanical carbon grades with enhanced properties, the porosity in the carbon-graphite and electrographite materials can be impregnated — by vacuum or pressure processes,with thermal setting resins, metals or inorganic salts as explained below:
Resins:
The most common thermal setting resins used are phenolic poly-ester, epoxy and torso resins. Resin impregnation produces materials that are impermeable (to 100 psi air) and have improved lubricating characteristics.
Metals:
The most common metal impregnations are babbitt (an alloy of' tin,
antimony and copper ) ,copper, ANTIMONY ,bronze,nickel~chrome and silver. Metal impregnation produces materials that are harder stronger and impermeableI to 100 psi air with improved lubri cating qualities and better thermal and electrical conductivity.
Inorganic salts:
The inorganic salt impregnations are formulations that provide improved lubricating qualities. These salt impregnated materials also exhibit improved lubricating qualities