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Antimicrobial Resistance - Science topic

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Hello Altruists!
I have completed my study in major of Veterinary Science and working on Livestock Sector since last 5 years.
I would also like to collaborate with some researchers to develop my further research career. I'm wondering how others have found colleagues to collaborate with there?
Animal Anatomy, Histopathology, Neuroscience, Antimicrobial Resistance and Zoonotic diseases are my main areas of interest.
Thank Everyone.
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I am interested with AMR and zoonosis, count me in.
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I am looking to analyze ARB and ARG from real surface water of marshland.
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You can consider the utilization of eDNA if you want to fully assess the ARGs present in the surface water of Marshland. Focusing on the Marshland alone might limit your analysis. You can also consider analyzing the nearby water sources such as rivers and waste water facilities that might have a greater impact in the increasing problems on ARGs. Good luck with your studies.
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Drug-resistant "superbugs" are now found virtually everywhere. As a result, most of the bacteria are resistant to antibiotics. So, as researchers and scientists, what are the alternative ways that we can prevent this disaster? Is there any novelty?
Source: Review On Antimicrobial Resistance
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I think that the solution to the problem lies not so much in the novelty as it lies in preventing bad practices in order to reduce selective pressure on those microorganisms, because even with new solutions or medicines, they will find a way to resist... My sincere gratitude to all.
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I am treating E. coli at different AgNO3 concentrations in order to follow bacteria kinetic growth. The slope of the bacterial growth curve continuously decreased with increasing AgNO3 concentration. At low concentrations, the growth of bacteria was delayed and at higher concentrations, growth was completely inhibited.
My question is related to why bacteria are not reaching the same Max. OD600 after long-term silver exposure for concentration below MIC. Assuming that the stationary phase is often due to a growth-limiting factor such as the depletion of an essential nutrient, I would expect that all the curves reached the same OD600 at a certain point after bacteria re-growing. I was thinking one possible explanation could be that AgNO3 is inducing the expression of new genes required for survival under stress (e.g, high AgNO3 concentration, lack of nutrients or toxic byproducts).
Thank you in advance,
Cami
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Silver nitrate has a substantial impact on metabolism in E. coli so it is likely that even at sub-lethal doses its metabolism is simply less efficient and a lower OD is attained.
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Hi! I've got the result of bacterial whole-genome sequencing, but it is not integrated into a complete linear sequence. Now I want to know whether a gene is on a plasmid or on a chromosome, and if it is on a plasmid, I want to know which plasmid it is on (eg, rep33). Are there any web tools or software recommendations? what should I do with the contigs? Thanks.
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Hi Yuxin,
you can use the PlasmidSpades tool to assemble plasmid contigs only. Another choice is to blast each contig of your assembled genome to see if it is similar to a plasmid. You can also check the annotated genome(e.g., using RAST) and see the contigs that have plasmid Rep genes and consider them as plasmids.
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I have looked into it; however, found no useful information. MARDy can be used but it is not functional these days.
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AMDD: Antimicrobial Drug Database, antibacterial and antifungal both information available
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Do you prepare it from colistin sulfate powder + distilled water following the equation c1 v1 = c2 v2 then we can mix it with McConkey agar for the isolation of colistin-resistant Gram-negative bacteria.
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Added colistin solution to M.A before drying
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Hi.
We have some carbon nanoparticles and want to check antibacterial activity against drug-resistant bacteria. Before working on drug-tolerant bacteria, Are there any protocols or parameters for checking nanoparticles whether have the antibacterial capability on drug-resistant bacteria?.
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Follow
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How can I get the most related work on this area, as you know, One Health is a comprehensive and multisectoral approach to assess and examine the health of animals, humans and the environment and I want to include in this review Priority of Pathogens in Antimicrobial Resistance Surveillance in Veterinary (Animal), Human and Environmental sample from a One Health approach is discussed. GLASS priority pathogens include Escherichia coli, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Acinetobacter baumannii, Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pneumoniae, Salmonella spp. and Shigella spp., were also. so, pls share your experience in it!
Regards all!
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tHK ALL!
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So my last year project is Drug Efflux Pumps and Persistence in Methicillin Resistant Staphylococcus aureus and we gonna focus on persister cells to study the path way of antimicrobial resistance...my question is how can i link bioinformatics and some coding to this project without requiring wgs cause it's not an option inside our lab !I need a small yet beneficial technique/ tools in small scale that i can learn and implement by my self .PS I love programming in general but im still new to bioinformatics so i need help to link my passion for coding and my field "biotechnology"
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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Hi everyone. I am requesting for researchers willing to share with me their recent publications on AMR in the dairy sector. I would like to engage and collaborate with researchers in this area.
Thanks.
Sylvia
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I have a research proposal for AMA study- one health approach, grant opportunity needed and collaborators. Kindly share opportunities and funding houses
Regards.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
EMBS publication In association with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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in our search for ARBs there are many methods , which is the best from your point of view and expertise?
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Kindly check the following link:
In which it introduces the area of ARB research, summarises the current state of ARB development with emphasis on the various major classes of ARBs currently being investigated and their modes of action, and offers a perspective on the future direction of the field.
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I am trying create a chromosomal integrated gfp reporter fusion in-frame downstream of a gene coding for a toxin in E. coli. I do not want to clone/express this fusion from a plasmid, since I want the fluorescence to be proportional to the toxin expression. In addition, if I express that from a plasmid, use of antibiotic selection to grow them in my downstream experiments will interfere with my conclusions. I am trying to monitor the appearance of persister cells in E. coli. Any suggestion will be highly appreciated.
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There are lots of different methods to do what you wish to do. I would probably suggest you look at the Datsenko and Wanner protocol for integrating DNA into the E. coli chromosome. There have been dozens of updates to the protocol and if you review the literature you might find that someone has made something just like what you need. Just search for GFP fusions along with Datsenko and Wanner and see what you find.
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Databases of antimicrobial resistance (AMR) genes have been well established, but I wonder is there any similar database of disinfectant resistance genes. Does anybody have any idea about this?
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Thanks Rawaa Aswad and Ana M Gonzalez-Villoria for your suggestions. These are what I am looking for.
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I need to investigate clonal typing of ESBL producing E. coli and antimicrobial resistance gene based on sequence assay? How is it possible and what kind of tool is required?
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The method of choice depends on the available funding for your data. You can use WGS and these articles can give an insight: https://www.frontiersin.org/articles/10.3389/fmicb.2019.01797/full
Adapt them intelligently.
Best of luck
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I have just been looking at:
Hsu, J. (2020). How covid-19 is accelerating the threat of antimicrobial resistance. BMJ, 369.
It sounds worrying. The threat of antibiotic resistance has been increasing year on year and now the added use of broad spectrum antibiotics in patients who are being treated with COVID-19, to stop secondary bacterial infection, is very concerning.
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Good discussion
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I am looking to use bioinformatics for characterisation of previously sequenced Bacillus isolates. Mainly focusing on characterising antimicrobial resistance, toxin genes, thermotolerance and nitrate reduction. I have no previous experience with bioinformatics.
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See some of my preferred tools:
Unipro UGENE: http://ugene.net/
Obs.: These tools are also indicated for beginners.
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Antimicrobial resistance in poultry
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Yes absolutely. It would be a great research.
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Can anyone point to any studies (other than the one below) that suggest a loss of microbial diversity in a given habitat exacerbates the spread of ARGs, or that increasing microbial diversity (e.g. via inoculation) reduces ARGs?
And/or if you have any general thoughts on this, please leave comments.
Thanks,
Jake
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Dear colleague,
Please see this study:
We discuss aspects of how the loss of microbial diversity impacts ecosystem functions, with a focus on the degradation of organic pollutants.
To date, I only know the work Chen et al. (2019) on this theme. Being that for 7 years I am inserted in the field of study microbial diversity and degradation of organic pollutants in the soil.
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I'm working on the virulence gene profile (sefA, pefA and lpfA genes) and the antimicrobial resistance gene profile (bla-CTX-M, bla-SHV and bla-TEM genes) of 95 Salmonella enterica samples.So basically for each sample, I have scored them for the presence or absence of each genes. Could you suggest the best stat analysis to correlate the presence of virulence and resistance genes? I'm thinking of using Fisher's Exact test for pairwise comparison (3 virulence genes x 3 AMR genes). Thank you so much!
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Yap, Sir Eric ha a good points to your question, Sir Jason, and that's the possible evaluation to be done in correlation between the two genes.
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In the latest publication of The Lancet Global Health, I noticed that still antimicrobial resistance remains as the biggest challenge of this planet to fight against infectious diseases. Why the global community fails to address the challenge despite different interventions around the Globe?
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A 70 year female admitted to the ICU with UTI. 
Report: Isolate- Serratia marcescens 
Susceptibility report: 
Aztreonam- resistant
Cefazolin- resistant
Cefotaxime- resistant 
Ceftriaxone- resistant
Cefepime- MIC 4 microgm/ml
Cefotetan- resistant 
Piperacillin/tazobactam- resistant
Imipenem- MIC less than 1 microgm/ml
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i agree with Jay Siddharth
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Sir, I am doctoral candidate who will like to work with you in this project. I will contact you by sending a mail through adeniyiadebule@gmail.com.
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Good question
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By asking the question I wanna know whether gene present in one genera of bacteria coding for particular antibiotic resistance will also be present in another genera of bacteria. For eg whether qnr gene coding for fluroquinolone resistance will be same for Staphylococcus spp and E.coli or not.
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Both are possible, but bacteria exchange resistance genes through the horizontal genes transfer, even if they are of a different genus.so I would say in most cases they are the same.
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Alternatives to current treatments for bacterial and viral infection
Please discuss your findings and thoughts on this.
In the face of antibiotic and antiviral resistance increasing worldwide are there other approaches than antibiotics to address this approaching crisis such as immunotherapies that enhance immune responses in infected patients? The impact of antibiotics on the world, about eighty years ago, revolutionized the treatment of bacterial infections just as antiviral therapy changed the prognosis of HIV infection.  Despite the World Health Assembly adopting a resolution, in 1998, encouraging member states to address the problem of antimicrobial resistance and to take action.1 Following this, in 2000, the World Health Organization presented a global strategy for the containment of antimicrobial resistance, calling for a multidisciplinary and coordinated approach.2,3 The resources needed to implement the strategy are not available.
Some of alternative strategies against infection include gene therapies that enhance the immune response to infection and bacteriophage antibiotics as antimicrobial defenses. Prokaryotic gene therapy has been suggested to combat multidrug resistant bacterial infection and was in use pre-antibiotic (pre1929).
A pathogen that tends to develop resistance such as Staphylococcus aureus is responsible for about 260000 nosocomial infections in the USA and causes between 60000 and 80000 deaths annually. Resistance to the newer Streptogamins, where resistance is related to the horizontal transmission of SatA (Synercid), has already been documented in streptogammin fed poultry. Apart from the obvious lifestyle choices and dietary requirements for a healthy immune response to pathogens (reduced stress factors, increased antioxidant function). Once infected, could biomedical approaches to boosting innate immune responses an alternative to antibiotics and antiviral drugs, a similar strategy to some cancer gene therapy approaches that consist of protective immune response stimulation.
Antibacterial therapy
Currently, an immunotherapeutic is in the early stages of development and would work by using antibodies, which neutralizes Clostridium difficile. Development of immunotherapeutic is being considered to treat patients with difficult to treat bacterial infections.
Antiviral and antitumor therapy
Immunotherapy has been used to treat cancer for some time and some researchers have reported antiviral effects when using percutaneous, intrahepatic IL-12 gene therapy for hepatocellular carcinoma [Sangro B et al., 2004]. An adenoviral vector delivered this IL-12 gene and when delivered directly to the site of the tumour there was little evidence of hypersensitivity and autoimmune reactions. Antiviral effects have been reported in patients treated with IL-12 gene therapy for liver tumors. One issue arising from enhanced immune response such as systemic IL-12 and IFN gamma therapy to treat viruses such as HCV can cause drug-induced hypersensitivity.
As our understanding expands about innate and adaptive immune responses and immunotherapy techniques develop, could this knowledge be directed to investigating new approaches to treating some microbial infectious diseases by pooling our knowledge and resources collaboratively?
There is great therapeutic potential in antimicrobial peptides, part of the innate immune system, whose action is confirmed in animal models and indicates that host defense peptides are crucial for both prevention and clearance of infection. However there is an argument that using these peptides may advance microbial resistance to natural innate defenses.
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Specific plasmids engineered by deleting antibiotic resistance genes can help restore antibiotic susceptibility in plasmid-mediated bacterial colonies in vitro. It is to be hoped these interference plasmids might help reverse antibacterial resistance in vivo as well.
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It is said that ASP is an effective program in this era of rapidly growing antimicrobial resistance. It optimizes the management of microbial infections and reduces the chance of developing resistance and adverse events related to antibiotic use. What does it actually mean? How to organize and implement it?
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There should be an ASP policy based on national antibiotic guidelines where local microbial patterns and resistance patterns are considered properly. Physicians prescribing behaviour is a worthy consideration and of utmost importance.
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I would like to understand the current landscape of patterns in various healthcare settings and outcome measure of current interventions that are available in LMICs for resistance (an epidemic?).
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To sustainably establish sound systems of antibiotic stewardship. See e.g. Implementation and impact of pediatric antimicrobial stewardship programs: a systematic scoping review.
Donà D, Barbieri E, Daverio M, Lundin R, Giaquinto C, Zaoutis T, Sharland M.
Antimicrob Resist Infect Control. 2020 Jan 3;9:3. doi: 10.1186/s13756-019-0659-3. eCollection 2020.
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Silver nanoparticles are currently effective against multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria.
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Silver nanoparticles which biosynthesized by bacteria are high effective specially against MDR pathogenic bacteria.
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Of late the spotlight is again on the emergence antimicrobial resistance. Antibiotics have been widely used in dentistry both for therapeutic and prophylactic reasons. I personally feel that their use is rampant in the developing countries than developed economies but many disagree with me. What are your views on this topic along with the practice followed in your country and if any policy on Antibiotic prescribing practice by dentists exists in your country?
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Antibiotic use and the potential for resistance should be instilled in young dentists from the beginning. ie in Dental school. There is always the instinct by newly qualified practitioners to 'prophylactically' prescribe antibiotics after common dental procedures. This is obviously not needed in most cases but instead a good and well enforced post-op instruction protocol will almost always prevent any clinical misshapen.
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How would you experimentally determine whether antimicrobial resistance is chromosomally-mediated or plasmid-mediated, please?
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First you see the plasmids are present in that bacteria or not...If yes then simply you perform the plasmid curing and see the resistance.
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Dear researchers,
I would like to request to solve my problem regarding Antimicrobial resistance genes in Campylobacter isolated from poultry.
I am searching for reports on the prevalence of Colistin resistance gene particularly, mcr-1, 2 in Campylobacter. Unfortunately, I could not find any research article on it.
What's wrong with this? Did nobody work on it? If yes, then why?
It would be greatly appreciated if anybody provides any report of mcr genes in Campylobacter, or clarify the above questions.
Thanks in advance.
Md. Mehedi Hasan
Bangladesh Agricultural University, Bangladesh
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Campylobacter exhibits intrinsic resistance to colistin. So I think because of that no one try to find mcr-1 gene on it.
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Can someone please help me with this question? Why is bacteria isolate obtained from small mammals sampled in human induced habitats likely to be more resistant to antibiotic drugs than isolates obtained from small mammals sampled in their natural habitats?
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Many studies have linked this resistance predominantly on indirect association. but few new articles have described this on high use of antibiotics in humans without prescription, improper dosage and stopping the schedule before prescribed time.
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Hi. If I were to supplement a 500ml media with two different antibiotics of the same concentration (10μg), how do I make sure the concentration of each antibiotic doesn't change?
Apparently, my strain (which is ampicillin-resistant and tetracycline susceptible) grows on BHI agar supplemented with 10μg ampicillin and does not grow on BHI agar supplemented with 10μg tetracycline, which is fine. However the bacteria grows on BHIA supplemented with tet + amp, both 10μg. Could this possibly be caused by any change in the antibiotics concentration?
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No, it would not be due to any change in the antibiotic concentration, they are independent of each other (assuming that the plates were made correctly). You should look to some other explanation.
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For my current literature review I'm still looking for numbers of antibiotics used in agriculture / livestock/ animal production in developing countries. We already know about bad or no data collection in many countries and I have read a lot of "over the counter sales" etc. but rather in human than in veterinary medicine. Unfortunately, I didn't find any numbers of used antitbiotics in developing countries or any data about antimicrobial resistance of livestock in developing countries. Any help would be appreciated :)!
Thanks in advance!!!
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Thanks for all the tips! This was extremely helpful
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I am looking for seminar topic as well as gathering new information for the community.
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The current status of antimicrobial resistance on human, animals and food chain, among the populations and state of health care, besides the role of the surroundings and the expansion of new diagnostic and thus therapeutic plans, through making counseling of experts to counter the international threat of antimicrobic resistance.
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Hi! I have done E-TEST for some bacteria such as Bacillus, Lysinibacillus and Paenibacillus. How can I find the breakpoints of them?
Best
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Hi. Information added on EUCAST new definitions of the S, I and R categories.
and Trimethoprim breakpoints were removed for Enterococcus. The clinical efficacy is not predictable by AST. Using the ECOFF, it is however possible to predict the presence and absence of resistance mechanisms.
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Good Day
Greetings
Do any body have ever observed or know Sugar-Sweetened Beverages (SSB) or Carbonated Beverages have any correlation with Antimicrobial Resistance. '
Your kind help will be always highly appreciated.
Regards.
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pH - carbonation and often phosphoric or citric acid
and some include Na benzoate/Benzoic acid
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I performed whole genome NGS (Mi-seq platform) of bacteria to identify antimicrobial resistance genes.
bacterial genome assembled with A5-miseq and I want to separate contigs with plasmid origin.
I`m new to the field of Bioinformatics and any recommendation is highly appreciated.
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CLC Microbial Genomics Module has tools for this (and is user friendly for non-expert-bioinformaticians :-) ) The contigs can be separated either based on taxonomy or on sequence similarity and coverage profiles.
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I am trying to analyze which are the antibiotics that can stop the formation of biofilms of pseudomonas aureginosa
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Dear Andres,
Technically antibiotic/antimicrobial resistance of biofilm is not measured. Bacteria which possess EPS can form biofilms. So, you have to determine the antimicrobial resistance/sensitivity profile of Pseudomonas aerogenosa, using standard methods. For this a number of different antibiotics (of variable potencies/concentrations) will be used against your bacterium. Its resistance/sensitivity will be the measure of biofilm resistance/sensitivity.
Sometime lower concentrations do not kill the bacterium/bacteria but may stop the production of EPS, which will automatically stop biofilm formation. This I am telling about the lab experiments, this can not be applied on patients as such. As there are many other factors which should be considered and the experiment must need elaboration after the above mentioned preliminary experiment.
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Hi, I am going to perform a conjugation experiment. I have a donor that have antimicrobial resistance and I wonder how to choose my recipient? and how to mark it? can I use rifampicin as a marker? If yes, is there a fixed protocol for that or just selecting the bacteria on agar plates that is supplemented with increasing rifampicin concentration? I will use this donor and I will try to conjugate it with different strains of bacteria.
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Hello,
In general you can pick any strain as recipient given that it contains a chromosomal resistance. However, I recommend that you choose a nalidixic acid resistant recipient because:
1- it is easy to isolate a nalR resistant derivative of strains that you might want to use as recipient.
2- Nal will inhibit further conjugation.
To create the NalR resistance either as you describe grow on increasing concentration or spread an overnight culture on a medium contain the selection concentration of Nal and simply pick the colonies that grow.
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Hi,
There will be a book citation index as the one exists for articles?? I will highly appreciate if someone could recommend me a couple of reputed publisher (free of cost or with affordable cost) for publishing a book in the area of Microbiology (antimicrobial resistance).
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Following
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I want to know the effects long storage has on the antimicrobial resistance of bacteria
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Dear Isa
Perhaps, the old culture (More stored culture) will affect on the antimicrobial susceptibility test. The antimicrobial agent to be with optimum activity, it needs the bacterial growth curve to be at the logarithmic phase. If the culture is more stored, the bacterial growth will be in stationary or early decline phase, thus, the antimicrobial activity will be at lower threshold. With the passage of time, the reduction of virulence may occur and the genetic elements encoding resistance will be lose their ability accordingly. Regard
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Am trying to transfer some genes from staphylococcus aureus to RN42200 strain, I need a commercial available expression or cloning vector which is suitable to clone these genes and still be able to be transformed to another staph. strain and to be still expressive.
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It has a tetR as a marker, and one of my genes I want to transfer is tet also! , thanks a lot Manuela.
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Antimicrobial resistance is a growing threat. Scientific community is working on different strategies to tackle this problem. Chalcones are known to have antimicrobial activity. Either these can be used to treat the resistant infections or not? If yes, is there any option to use these in combination with some other drugs like antibiotics?
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the toxicity of molecule in itself and in combinations must studied before any study then the antibacterial study is established and the effective dose is the guide to good results.
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One Health is "the collaborative effort of multiple disciplines – working locally, nationally and globally – to attain optimal health for people, animals and the environment". In what specific ways this approach may help us to contain antimicrobial resistance and what should be our role in it?
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The feedback from colleagues here is awesome. I Just wanna add a new thought.
We must take noted that recently, the scope of one health (human, animal, environment) should include PLANT HEALTH. Hence ONE HEALTH = Human health, Animal health, and Plant health, and all these three components as subsets within Environment health. We must pay attention to plant health, and resistance developing to antimicrobials against plant pathogens which may show cross resistance to those in humans and animals within the environment.
More research is needed in this inclusion.
Thanks
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Antimicrobial resistance (AMR) is a global problem to the fight against most infectious disease. Our planet costs a lot because of widespread AMR. Scientists in the field urged that stakeholders need to promote rational use of drugs to slow down the effect of AMR. Among the different steps to be considered, establishing antimicrobial stewardship is very crucial. I am wondering how this could be started, what are the different steps to follow....?
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The ECDC and CDC resources are certainly good documents to read. You can also look at the ReAct Toolbox section of rational use https://www.reactgroup.org/toolbox/rational-use/ that provides some hands-on advice on how to get started.
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The human microbiota/ normal flora comprises the populations of microbial species that live on or in the human body. The biggest populations of microbe reside in the gastrointestinal tract. Evidences showed that the gut is the epicentre of antibiotic resistance. How these microbial population (that are estimated to be over 1,000 different species) contribute for antimicrobial resistance?
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Antimicrobial resistance is multi-factorial. Sub-optimal exposure to antimicrobial, gene transfer (both horizontal and vertical), spontaneous mutation are among the many. When there is frequent infection, there will be exposure to broad spectrum antimicrobials which will result in selection pressure in which resistant strains are selected. These strains will constantly evolve and result in gene transfer, both horizontal and vertical. The spontaneous mutation also contribute to the emergence of resistance.
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There are two approaches for molecular antimicrobial resistance (AMR) surveillance: 1.Typing-based, in which resistance is predicted by association with genotype, and 2. The direct detection of genetic markers of AMR.
If the prevalence of Neisseria gonorrhoeae is low in a city(for example 25-30 isolates during 6 month sampling), which approach is suitable for molecular AMR surveillance?
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Detecting and sequencing of AMR genes, is also an option, however that mean your selection of genes to be detected or sequenced will be based phenotypic characteristics of the isolates at MIC level. Some researcher also select the genes to be sequence based on previous history of existing resistance gene circulating within a geographical area. take for example blaCMY2 id very prevalent in North america while blaCTXM is more prevalent in Europe or bla metallo genes in Asia or India. So prior knowledge matters alot as well as phenotypic characteristics of the isolates derived from MIC reading.
If the resistance genes detected are associated with/specific to phenotypic characterictics of the isolates, and based on available information e.g. questionnaire survey or nationally collected data from routine surveillance, its possible to say frequent/continuous prescription maybe relating resistance.
Cheers
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Hydrolysis of β-lactam antibiotics by β-lactamases is the most common mechanism of resistance for this class of antibacterial agents in clinically important Gram-negative bacteria. Because penicillins, cephalosporins, and carbapenems are included in the preferred treatment regimens for many infectious diseases, the presence and characteristics of these enzymes play a critical role in the selection of appropriate therapy.
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Hey, for a real time update on classification of beta-lactamases in general, you got to always check this online database
From the website you have all the known abd emerging beta-lactamases list and classifications
Cheers
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  • As I am also going to work on animal handlers and antimicrobial resistance hence I just want it as reference and also for review. This will give me more insight.
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Are you looking at doing molecular studies to determine zoonotic potential of bacterial pathogen?
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Mycobacterium abscessus is one of the hardest to treat non-TB mycobacteria due to antimicrobial resistance, side effects of therapy, and patient comorbidities. It is even harder to treat in certain patient populations such as people with cystic fibrosis. I am interested in YOUR EXPERIENCES in treating M.abscessus especially in CF patients. Any adjuvant therapies, synergestic antimicrobial combinations, or specific measures taken, especially in early disease where there is no focal areas to consider surgical resection. P.S treatment guidelines attached
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Very challenging infection to treat.
I would recommend longer IV therapy (then what the guideline states) if patient can tolerate it.
Inhaled liposomal amikacin (after IV antibiotic phase) - if you can enroll your patient in compassionate use protocol. (http://www.insmed.com/clinical-trials/)
Also there is an updated guidelines on management of NTM in the CF population. Here is the link :http://thorax.bmj.com/content/71/Suppl_1/i1.long
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Hello,
which software may I use to analyze whether specific antibiotic resistance genes are present or not (e.g. mecA, blaZ) or whether virulence genes (such as the shiga toxins (Stx1 and Stx2) or the Staphylococcus aureus Panton-Valentine leukocidin) are present?
  • I am not allowed to load data to a server or a cloud (thus I am not allowed to use e.g. ResfInder or to use RAST to annotate the genome)
  • I was trying the CLC Microbial Genomics Module . It works fine but as I do not use CLC genomic workbench for any other analysis, it`s getting quite expensive.
Which other tools may use? I only have very little experience in using command line programs (I only learned how to use R. However, it`s several years ago...) and we only have windows here. However, I am willing to learn how to use command line tools and maybe it is possible to use a virtual box in order to be able to run softwares that are not running on windows.
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Hi Sarah,
Using command lines, you can download the databases of ResFinder and other resistance gene databases to run a BLAST search on your computer. ResFinder has its subject database of resistance gene sequences publicly available - you can download it and query your sequences against it without having to use a cloud.
This process does require command lines, but if you have access to a Linux server it doesn't take long to learn. Happy to talk about this more via direct message or by email (dre16@pitt.edu).
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Dear Friends,
Recently we have got approved our Concept Note on Therapeutics interventions for the treatment of various disease conditions caused by AMR bacteria under NAHEP Programme of ICAR funded by World Bank. 
The concept theme is based on our recent research on Synergistic Interactions of herbal antimicrobials with each other and with antibiotics with the aim to develop Herbibiotics (synergistic combination of Herbal antimicrobials) and Combiotics (synergistic combinations of Antibiotics and herbal components).
Under the programme, we are searching for international collaboration specifically for faculty and Student exchange programme to further the research and keep the hope against emerging drug resistance through trained human resource to deal with the problem. In recent years we have identified feasible synergism between important antibiotics and herbal antimicrobials, useful synergism between two or more herbal antimicrobials and identified the utility of some herbal components as effective antimicrobials. Besides, we are able to locate and identify genes responsible for herbal antimicrobial resistance and synergism.
Your Early response is anticipated as we need to give the names of collaborators within next two weeks.
Thanking you with regards and with anticipation for participation.
Sincerely yours
BR Singh
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We manufacture magnetic Nano particles with Silver attached to the particles. These particles have a minimum 5 log reduction value against a broad spectrum of microbes. I would suggest using these reusable particles of attaching your herbal chemistries to these particles for sterilization
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Horizontal gene transfer mechanism allows bacteria to acquire genes responsible for Anti-Microbial Resistance. But what benefit that the donor bacteria gets? and Why do they do?
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You can read this article it may help: Review:
Horizontal Gene Transfer among Bacteria and Its Role in
Biological Evolution. BY Werner Arber.2014
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Diameter of the disk = 8mm
Isolate A
CAZ = 20mm
CAZ-CLV = 30mm
Isolate B
CAZ = no inhibition (0mm????)
CAZ-CLV = 10mm
We would know that isolate A tested positive for ESBL
since the diameter is greater than 5mm with clv
However, for isolate B, this is harder for me to determine
since I can’t make a judgement on whether the diameter
with Caz-clv should be taken to be more than 5mm,
even though the observable increase in diameter is only 2mm
owing to the disk being 8mm itself
(10mm – 8mm = 2mm; ESBL-ve)
OR (10mm – 0mm = 10; ESBL+ve)
(should Isolate B be counted as an ESBL producer???)
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For isolate A, you have demostrated ESBL. For isolate B, the result is indeterminate as you need to take into consideration the diameter of the disc (usually 6 mm). It seems likely that isolate B may have ESBL activity as there is some increased susceptibility with clavulanate - however if the isolate also produces AmpC enzyme this can lead to the type of result you are seeing (i.e. the clavulanate cannot completely nullify the combination of resistance mechanisms). To confirm ESBL using PCR requires screening for a variety of genes (including those encoding CTX-M and variants of SHV, TEM, etc..). It is easier to investigate such isolates further using phenotypic methods e.g. by including an AmpC inhibitor in the disc (e.g. a boronic acid derivative) or by selecting a cephalosporin that is relatively stable to hydrolysis by AmpC ß-lactamase (e.g. cefepime). Such discs are commercially available (e.g.
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What is the suitable regression to be used if I have binary independent variables and also the dependent variables ar binary ? i.e. yes/no ?
Details:
I am checking whether the presence/absence of virulence genes is associated with the presence/absence of antimicrobial resistance genes. I coded them all as 0/1. ? 
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You could use either a logit or a probit model.  Both are regression models designed for a binary dependent variable. 
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What are the suitable recommendations to have only one inhibition zone around the antibiotic disc? the problem in the attached file is having two zones around one disc? ( the work was done under restricted conditions ).Thank you in advance.
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Hi:
Its clear that you have mixed culture.
Have you applied the guidelines of recent CLSI document, if you stick to these guidelines, every things will be fine.
Regards
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Antimicrobial resistance and genes on plasmids
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Dear Adnan,
You could determine the number of different plasmids carried by a bacterial isolate using a number of techniques depending on the nature of your isolate and the plasmids. If the plasmids are reasonably small and high copy number, then DNA samples can be assessed by gel electrophoresis. In order not to be confused by plasmid supercoiling you could try digesting the DNA sample with restriction enzymes likely to cut only once. However, if you had many different plasmids each with multiple cut sites, the banding profile will look very complex. You could attempt to obtain a draft genomic sequence using a NGS technique, but this approach is expensive and plasmid DNA may to be well-represented in the total DNA sample. As suggested by Bhoj R Singh, you could try a PCR approach targeting known plasmid replication, maintenance or transfer functions, and use theses as a measure of the number of different plasmids present. However, there are a lot of examples of plasmids having multiple replicons etc. which will confuse the issue.
As you are looking at antibiotic resistances, have you considered transforming or conjugating another host bacteria with your isolates? It may be possible to determine how many plasmids there are based on the diversity of transformants or transconjugates you can recover. This will also mean that you have isolated single plasmids in your host which would mean that subsequent analysis is easier. However, this approach requires that you have a host bacterium that is phylogenetically close to your isolates, as transformation, conjugation, plasmid replication and maintenance are all sensitive to host range issues.
Regards, Andrew.
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The overlay is with super resistant microbes
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Hello dear.
For detection of antibiotic resistant bacteria, we have enormous methods include of Phenotyping and Genotyping methods. You can find this methods by one simple search or read this attached review 
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 From my previous screening study, Acinetobacter baumannii was found to be highly resistant to many antibiotics tested. I think it should be some guidelines or documents for microbiologists and doctors about the effective antibiotics against this bacterium. Thanks  
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Hi Emad:
Please refer to Table 2B-2. Zone Diameter and Minimal Inhibitory Concentration Interpretive Standards for Acinetobacter spp. (in CLSI, 2015, pp. 56), attached below:
Best regards
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  Does any body know any standard protocols used for determining such effects?To make things clear, the microbes in the environment are exposed perhaps to mixed pharmaceuticals at low concentration. this might theoretically accelerate development of drug resistance.  So, should any body know how to approach such issues ...please assist
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Any body knows whether it exisits a data base including spatial and temporal information on occurrence of antibiocrobial resitant genes in the environment?
The only databse I have found is the ARDB - Antibiotic Resistance Genes Database. But it seems to be a DNA sequece type data-base. As far as I saw, it does not include information about where and when resistant genes where found.
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is any researcher working on Fluoroquinolone resistance in MTB?
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Dear Dr., 
I am working on this topic.  i Have some collection of Pre-XDR strains. 
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Invitro hemolysis of human/sheep blood is tested in order to detremine biocompatibility. my question is that why only erythrocytes?? why cant any other cell be tested for checking biocompatibility?? if there is a relation between antimicrobial biocompatibility and hemolysis or if there is any special significance of hemolysis in such aspects, please let me know
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It is common also to test compounds for cytotoxicity using an immortalized human cell line.
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Are there any recommendations or specific protocols for performing Modified Hodge test? Can I perform it without positive control? Thank you.
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Dear Suzan,
you can also refer to the CLSI guideline M100 S26: Performance Standards for Antimicrobial Susceptibility Testing. The CLSI suggest K. pneumoniae ATCC BAA-1705 as positive control and K. pneumoniae ATCC BAA-1706 as negative control.
However, an easy and cheap way to test for carbapenemase production is the Carbapenem Inactivation Method (CIM). See this paper:
van der Zwaluw K, de Haan A, Pluister GN, Bootsma HJ, de Neeling AJ, Schouls LM.The carbapenem inactivation method (CIM), a simple and low-cost alternative for the Carba NP test to assess phenotypic carbapenemase activity in gram-negative rods. PLoS One. 2015 Mar 23;10(3):e0123690.
Good luck,
Simon
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If we have to treat some biofilm or persistent cell population then why researchers are trying to test their killing concentrations which are far beyond the clinical achievable level. e.g. For treating S. aureus why 50-100X MIC which is nearly 25-50 ug/ml. And we knew that Cmax is not going to be above 4 ug/ml. 
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I agree with Andrew, the use of very high antimicrobial agents can serve as a way of actively selecting the sub-populations of persister cells. Also in my opinion, it may enable the study of the mechanisms of survival by the bacteria in terms of overcoming this stress.
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Self-medication is a human behavior in which an individual uses a substance or any exogenous influence to self-administer treatment for physical or psychological ailments.
The most widely self-medicated substances are over-the-counter drugs used to treat common health issues at home, as well as dietary supplements. These don't require a doctor's prescription to obtain.Excessive and not always proper use of antibiotic is a serious problem, of which antimicrobial resistance, currently cause for worldwide concern, is the major one. How can we reduce self-medication with antibiotics?
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Key messages for the general public: Self-medication with antibiotics
 Antibiotic-resistant bacteria are a danger to us all because they cause infections that are difficult to treat.
If we take antibiotics repeatedly and improperly, we contribute to the increase in antibiotic-resistant bacteria, one of the world’s most pressing health problems [1-6].
So if at some point in time you, your children or other family members need antibiotics, they may no longer work [7].
Self-medication with antibiotics is not a responsible use of antibiotics [8].
Self-medication is when you take (or want to take) antibiotics without first consulting a medical doctor by:
  • using leftover antibiotics from previous treatments; or,
  • getting antibiotics at the pharmacy without a prescription.
Note: With the word “antibiotics”, ECDC means antibacterial agents or antibacterials.  
1. Antibiotics can only be prescribed by a medical doctor who has examined you
Many winter illnesses can cause the same symptoms, but they might not require the same treatment. If you have been prescribed an antibiotic for a previous illness and have recovered well, it is tempting to want to use the same antibiotic if you have similar symptoms. However, only a medical doctor who has examined you can ascertain if a winter illness requires treatment with antibiotics.
  • Never try to buy antibiotics without a prescription.
  • Never save antibiotics for later use.
  • Never use leftover antibiotics from previous treatments.
  • Never share leftover antibiotics with other people.
 
Do not keep leftover antibiotic treatments [8]. If you received more antibiotic doses (e.g. tablets, gel caps) than you were prescribed, ask your pharmacist about how to dispose of the remaining doses.
2. Antibiotics are not painkillers and cannot cure every illness
 
Antibiotics do not work like painkillers and cannot relieve headaches, aches, pains or fevers.
 
Antibiotics are only effective against bacterial infections and cannot help you recover from infections caused by viruses such as the common cold or the flu [9–12, 14].
Up to 80% of winter illnesses affecting your nose, ears, throat and lungs are of viral origin, so taking antibiotics will not make you feel better [11, 12].  
 
3. Taking antibiotics for wrong reasons, such as against colds and flu, will not help you feel better faster, and may cause side-effects
 
Taking antibiotics against a cold or the flu has no benefit for you: antibiotics simply do not work against viral infections [9-12]. In addition, antibiotics may cause several unpleasant side effects such as diarrhoea, nausea or skin rashes [9, 10, 13-15].
 
Taking antibiotics to fight mild bacterial infections, such as rhinosinusitis, sore throats, bronchitis or earaches, is often unnecessary [15-19] since, in most cases, your own immune system is able to deal with such mild infections.
Most symptoms can be alleviated with over-the-counter medicines. Taking antibiotics will not reduce the severity of your symptoms and will not help you feel better faster [10, 12, 15, 17].
If your symptoms persist or if you have any concern, it is important that you see your doctor. If you really have a severe infection such as bacterial pneumonia, your doctor will prescribe antibiotics. Seek help more quickly than other people :
  • if you are over 65 years old;
  • if you have asthma or diabetes;
  • if you have lung disease (e.g. chronic bronchitis, emphysema, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease);
  • if you have heart problems (e.g. previous heart attack, angina, chronic heart failure);
  • if you have a medical problem where your immune system is suppressed; or
  • if you are taking drugs that suppress the immune system (e.g. steroids, chemotherapy for cancer, some drugs used to suppress thyroid gland functions). 
List adapted from ‘Genomics to combat resistance against antibiotics in community-acquired LRTI in Europe’, a project funded by the European Commission’s Directorate-General for Research and Innovation.  
4. Take the time to get better
Meeting life’s demands while being ill can be a source of stress, especially if you are experiencing certain symptoms for the first time. Finding an appropriate time to visit the doctor can be difficult, expensive and time-consuming. Knowing how to manage your symptoms can help you cope better with your illness. Learn how you can take care of yourself without antibiotics.
For most winter illnesses, your condition will improve after two weeks.
Indicative duration n of symptoms for common winter illnesses in adults
Ear infection                                                                         up to 4 days
Sore throat                                                                            up to 1 week
Common cold                                                                      up to 1 ½ weeks
Flu                                                                                          up to 2 weeks
Runny or congested nose                                                up to 1 ½ weeks
Sinus infection                                                                    up to 2 ½ weeks
Cough (which often happens after a cold)                    up to 3 weeks
5. Ask your pharmacist for advice: other medicines can help relieve your symptoms
Your pharmacist may recommend over-the-counter medicines to help alleviate your symptoms.
Always ask for advice, especially if you are taking medicines for any other condition.
Painkillers relieve aches, pains and fevers.
Anti-inflammatory medicines, such as throat sprays or pastilles, help you swallow more easily.
Oral expectorants clear secretions in your airways.
Nasal sprays and decongestants help you breathe more comfortably.
Antihistamines alleviate stuffy, sneezy and itchy noses.
Drinking plenty of fluids and getting some rest will help improve any winter illness.
References
[1] Bell BG, Schellevis F, Stobberingh E, Goossens H, Pringle M. A systematic review and meta-analysis of the effects of antibiotic consumption on antibiotic resistance. BMC Infect Dis 2014;14:13. [open access link]
[2] Chung A, Perera R, Brueggemann AB, Elamin AE, Harnden A, Mayon-White R, et al. Effect of antibiotic prescribing on antibiotic resistance in individual children in primary care: prospective cohort study. BMJ 335(7617):429. [open access link]
[3] Donnan PT, Wei L, Steinke DT, et al. Presence of bacteriuria caused by trimethoprim resistant bacteria in patients prescribed antibiotics: multilevel model with practice and individual patient data. BMJ 2004;328(7451):1297-301. [open access link]
[4] London N, Nijsten R, Mertens P, van den Bogaard A, Stobberingh E. Effect of antibiotic therapy on the antibiotic resistance of faecal Escherichia coli in patients attending general practitioners. J Antimicrob Chemother 1994;34(2):239-46. [link]
[5] Malhotra-Kumar S, Lammens C, Coenen S, Van Herck K, Goossens H. Effect of azithromycin and clarithromycin therapy on pharyngeal carriage of macrolide-resistant streptococci in healthy volunteers: a randomised, double-blind, placebo-controlled study. Lancet 2007;369(9560):482-90. [open access link]
[6] Nasrin D, Collignon PJ, Roberts L, Wilson EJ, Pilotto LS, Douglas RM. Effect of β lactam antibiotic use in children on pneumococcal resistance to penicillin: prospective cohort study. BMJ 2002; 324(7328):28-30. [open access link].
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Have a nice day
Ali
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Antimicrobial
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There should be a central body in the government to lead the change. In low-income countries, antibiotics can be purchased over-the-counter and some people self-medicate with antibiotics. There should be a government-led dissemination of information - not just to the health workers, but to the general public at large. Laws must be created to prevent dispensing of antibiotics without prescription. There should mandate of illegalising unnecessary use of antibiotics in the livestock industry and more robust infection control measures in the hospitals. Public should be made aware the dangers of antibiotic resistance and the ill-effects of antibiotics in human microbiota - for example decreased gut microbial diversity when given with antibiotics, and its link to chronic diseases like diabetes mellitus and obesity. This should be participated by all sectors of the society and we all should look at antibiotics at a different perspective.
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Resistant microorganisms (including bacteria, fungi, viruses and parasites) are able to withstand attack by antimicrobial drugs, such as antibacterial drugs (e.g. antibiotics), antifungals, antivirals, and antimalarials, so that standard treatments become ineffective and infections persist, increasing the risk.
It is an increasingly serious threat to global public health that requires action across all government sectors and society.Antimicrobial resistance is present in all parts of the world. New resistance mechanisms emerge and spread globally.
Can someone Provide/share some innovative ideas to combat AMR
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GMO is universally killing microbes.   Legumes have suffering microbiomes for nitrogen fixation and nodes in the soil are half the size.   It is estimated we have only 40% of the microbiome diversity.   I think any strategy should address all of the things that are universally harming  microbiomes: pesticides,  antifungals, antibiotics in animal feed, etc., need to be stopped and regulated.  Antibiotic resistance is affected by so much happening outside of health interests.
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