Science topics: AnthropologyAnthropocene
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Anthropocene - Science topic

The Anthropocene is an informal geologic chronological term that serves to mark the evidence and extent of human activities that have had a significant global impact on the Earth's ecosystems.
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Planet Earth inclusive of humanity is facing the unprecedented twin crisis of global warming and climate change which are impacting all systems and sectors transgressing all boundaries. There are two main approaches: mitigation and adaptation. Mitigation for preventing greenhouse gases to build up in the atmosphere by curtailing its release at the source as well as by enhancing GHG sink. The second strategy involves measures for living with the climatic changes. A balanced mix of multiprong measures is to be taken from individual to institutional levels, from local, regional to global scale.
All the researchers, thinkers and RG friends are invited to take part in this important discussion with your insightful views and useful literature about the state of the art of mitigation and adaptive strategies - both traditional ecological knowledge and modern tools and technologies.
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14 May MMXXI
This thinking was already stated forty years ago and no one heeded the warning.
Now, we are to believe we can alter the horrific course we have chosen for our planet!
Stop dreaming.
Cordially...
ASJ
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Is there possible that the Tea Gardens proves to be an alternative habitat to forest dwelling organisms? If yes, what pressure do they face in relation to anthropogenic pressure?
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If we increase the shade tree then Tea Gardens will be the alternative habitat to forest dwelling organisms. All the best.
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There is always a dynamic balance in nature, be it homeostasis in local ecosystem to the grand scale of global homeostasis. Human is interfering with the working of nature and tending to destabilizing the feedback systems. Still it can maintain the balance and resistance and resilience stability within limits. By to what extent? We have now some  estimates of certain tipping points. Does it tell the whole story? Does it take into account all the aspects of nature's structural integrity and functional diversity and stability?
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each one depend on the other
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It has been alarming that human activities had increased many proportions and had led to many anthropogenic activities which had been directly and indirectly affecting the natural ecosystems. These activities have replaced many of the endemic natural vegetation with non-native species of vegetation with choices to few species by mostly raising monoculture plantations so as to have increased returns meet the increasing needs of the society. In the process, there has been the dominance of non-native invasive species. Even we see hunting and trade in many of the wild animals. Even many of the countries have even made wildlife rearing legal just to meet their culinary needs. Under the above background, it has been obvious that this is leading to increased incidence and virulence of the diseases.
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The removal of trees without sufficient reforestation has resulted in habitat damage, biodiversity loss, and aridity. Deforestation causes extinction, changes to climatic conditions, desertification, and displacement of populations, as observed by current conditions and in the past through the fossil record.[12] Deforestation also has adverse impacts on biosequestration of atmospheric carbon dioxide, increasing negative feedback cycles contributing to global warming. Global warming also puts increased pressure on communities who seek food security by clearing forests for agricultural use and reducing arable land more generally. Deforested regions typically incur significant other environmental effects such as adverse soil erosion and degradation into wasteland.
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KK
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yes Andrew you are right. The text has been changed to sth not readable.
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This question is prompted by the books review in the September 2020 Physics Today of The Evolution of Knowledge: Rethinking Science for the Anthropocene, by Jürgen Renn.
I suspect that there is such an equation. It is related to thermodynamics and statistical mechanics, and might be characterized, partly, as network entropy.
Two articles that relate to the question are:
and also there is a book, the ideas in which preceded the two articles, above:
The Intelligence of Language.
The question is related somewhat distantly to an idea of Isaac Asimov in his science fiction, The Foundation Trilogy, psychohistory.
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Antonio Fernandez Guerrero
Thank you for kindly mentioning articles by K. Friston on free energy. I don’t recall previously running across those articles or his name. It is marvelous to learn something new, and it is a credit to ResearchGate that it affords so many opportunities for learning. Even in these pandemic times. Thank you taking the time to make your knowledge available to other people.
I read the 2010 article: The free-energy principle: a unified brain theory?
The 2010 Friston article seeks to model acquisition of knowledge by a human brain. Some of its assumptions follow (subject to my having missed understanding more than what I understood when I read the article). The brain seeks to apply inference to sensory perceptions in a way that is maximally efficient, or equivalently, uses the minimal amount of energy necessary to accomplish that purpose. The concepts of free energy and entropy from thermodynamics and statistical mechanics are adapted to apply to a model of how neurons seek to gain information. Part of the brain’s inference processes uses previously acquired data or information.
The 2009 article on A Theory of Intelligence that I mention in the question supposes that most of what an average person knows is learned from problems already collectively solved by society, forming society’s store of knowledge accumulated over (probably) hundreds of generations. The average person learns speech, how to write, counting, facts and methods of problem solving from society’s accumulated knowledge. Knowledge can be considered to consist of solutions to what were once problems that society, or some subset of society, obtained.
The 2010 Friston article inquires about the individual brain. The 2009 article the question refers to focuses on the a collection of networked brains; there being a network, statistical mechanics can apply.
The 2009 article asks how much greater is the problem solving capacity of society compared to the problem solving capacity of an average individual. For example, 350 million modern English speakers at about 1990 had about (an estimated)72 times more problem solving degrees of freedom. Since 72 degrees of freedom can be expressed as an exponent, the difference between the problem solving capacity of society compared to that of the individual is in effect 72 orders of magnitude (based roughly on the mean path length of a network as the base of a logarithmic function). The number 72 is obtained by developing the concept of network entropy.
The 72 orders of magnitude difference in favor of collective problem solving capacity compared to meager average individual capacity implies that the primary inference engine at work is possessed by society and moreover, possessed by the cumulative problem solving capacities of all human societies that ever existed. In fact, one may suspect that some of our collective knowledge might pre-exist speech and come from forbears pre-existing homo sapiens. While inference capacity that an individual brain has may guide that individual’s behavior, most knowledge is learned, and an individual brain as an inference engine is mostly involved in figuring out how to learn from knowledge that already exists.
The motivation to seek out a function like network entropy is based on a book called The Intelligence of Language that I mostly wrote in 2006 and published as an e-book on Kindle in 2016.
Regards.
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Friends, our paper about Technocene concept in the scope of decision making is inhere: https://www.earth-syst-dynam-discuss.net/esd-2019-49/
Please participate!
ESD has a pretty cool review system which include open discussion
Our main point:
What the Technocene idea makes clear is that as modern human societies exhibit an enormous coupling with technology and for the first time in human history that technology has the potential to modify the very core processes that drive Earth System dynamics, then Technology most be considered as a new dimension of analysis in the study of Earth system in its co-evolution with life and particularly human beings.
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In my view both terms are acceptable but I prefer more "Anthropocene" since many human activities that have influenced the climate in our part of the world at least, have more to do with activities (e.g. shifting cultivation, etc) to ensure survival rather than the use of any technology.
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I have searched some of the top ranking nationalism studies journals (Nations and nationalism, SEN -Studies of ethnicity and nationalism, Nationalism and ethnic politics, Ethnicities, Ethnopolitics) and couldn't find any article even touching the complex relationship between nationalism and climate change.
I have only found a small number of mostly circumstantial (casual) mentions of climate change according to the following distribution:
Nations and Nationalism: 8 mentions (including a roundtable, book reviews and an introductory piece written by me).
SEN: 3 mentions (one political theory article, two case studies)
Nationalism and Ethnic Politics: 3 mentions (all case studies) Ethnicities: 2 mentions (2 theoretical articles)
Studies in Ethnicity and Nationalism: 2 mentions (including a 2009 article)
Even more worryingly, I have found no mentions of the geo-historical concept of Anthropocene, nor any of its more controversial derivates (Capitalocene, Occidentalocene, Consumerocene, and so on), despite the fact that these have been introduced and debated in nearly all the social sciences.
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I am trying to find the 'model' of coral reef ecosystem functioning. I have seen in the literature different models according to the various research questions. Nonetheless, I want to find an ecological functioning model where all the functional groups and its interactions are clearly explained.
If you could give some hint, I would highly appreciate it,
Ameris
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The attached PDF should have valuable references pertaining to numerous aspects of the model you might like to build.
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Too many humans! It is the underlying cause of all things anthropogenic. Ehrlich and Holdren's equation sums it up: I=PAT. Ecological impact (I) is proportional to the human population (P) times the consumption per capita (A), times the ecological impact per unit of consumption (T). Everyone talks about the problem, but no one talks about the best approach to deal with it. Even when they do, the talk is superficial (just decrease the birth rate!), or even fantastical (just find another planet!). The only way to solve a problem is to discuss it. Let's discuss.
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Paul: Encourage people to have less children. Its that simple. There should be incentives that encourage adults to have less children.
Instead, the government imposes incentives for having more children. People get tax credits for having more children. People with children get free food. People with many children get free school lunch. The current incentives re all wrong.
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You refered to the article 11 of the Japanese constitution in your recent paper (The Anthropocene concept as a wake-up call for reforming democracy) . This article 11, however, still remains nothing more than a sheer ideal or cliche. We japanese have neither any Constitutional Court nor OFG. The Supreme Court is institutionally provided with the right to overrulle any law it judges as unconstitutional; But, it has rarely, if ever, excercised this right. A great majority of the Japanese voters are most nlikely, so seems to me, to acccept the concept of Future Branch powerful enough to check and contain the popular/parliamentary sovereignty. I would much appreaciate if you let me know how it is possible to 'launder' people's political preferences
Yukio Adachi
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Dear professor Tremmel:
Thanks for your quick response.
I did read your article (The Anthropocene concept as a wake-up call for reforming democracy), and was very much impressed and attracted by your idea of 'Future Branch' . I have no idea, however, how to persuade legialators to establish Future Branch......To confess, I have much sympathy with Profesor Dror's idea strerssing the urgent need to establish 'School for Rulers', though there exists no small risk in such an idea.
Yours,
Yukio
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The 10th IALE World Congress will take place July 1st-5th 2019 in Milan, featuring the theme of "Nature and society facing the Anthropocene challenges and perspectives for landscape ecology". http://www.iale2019.unimib.it/
Have a look at our symposia SYMP4 Reconstructing the past landscapes to simulate future sustainable scenarios through multidisciplinary approaches
We accept abstracts by 25th of February!!
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Grazie Claudia per l'invito che terrò presente.
Paolo
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According to Harvell, et al. (2004), there is a lack of research of the tracking of the origins and spread of marine pathogens. 
Reference: Aronson R, Baron N, Harvell D, et al. 2004.The rising tide of ocean diseases: unsolved problems and research priorities. Frontiers in Ecology and the Environment 2(7): 375-382.
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Hi. How can I determine the ratio of heparin as anticoagulant for fish blood
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Since global warming is attributed to human activities since the 19th century and in particular to the emission of GHG wouldn't be interesting to also know the increase of energy produced since the 19th century (for which we centainly have a record) and wasted in various types of radiations (more difficult to quantify) and their impact onto climate change ?
Thank you in advance for sharing your experience and expertise.
Kind regards
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Hi Guy,
My apologies but I am not willing to get into yet another interminable debate with Ken on his pet theme of the impossibility of doing anything about global warming. This seems to happen on every question posted on ResearchGate that has even the remotest relevance to AGW.
You conclude with the two remarks:
"Are these hypotheses unreasonable?
Would it be possible to make an experiment worldwide without any geoengineering?"
To the first, I would say there is another anglophone scientist you may not have heard about called William of Ockham (1288 - 1347). He proposed the principle known as Occam's Razor which arrgues that the simplest solution is the best solution. So global warming caused by an increase in carbon dioxide needs no further causes.
To the second question, my reply is that we are already involved in a major geoengineering experiment, which is changing the Earth's climate. Isn't one enough? Won't another make things even worse?
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Drought has been generally defined as a recurring extreme climate event that occurs NATURALLY... Given the current anthropocene, one may ask if drought is still strictly a natural hazard?
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Dear Zilefac Elvis Asong, my answer to your query is definitely yes.
In the perspective of tropical climates, where I was born and grown, drought is a result of prolonged dry season over the wet season naturally. This prolonged dry season will result in depletion of water sources, drying of plants and consequently result in drought. But we have to bear in mind that our unprecedented intervention to the natural ecosystem contributes much for drought occurrence.
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At present the paper on anthropogeology (in Journal Anthropocene Review) is copied wrongly to the project Winden Syncline
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Delete it and upload it into the right folder.
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Then, this meeting is for you...
The Red Macrolatinos (RML), together with the Society for Freshwater Science (SFS), the Asociación Ecuatoriana de Limnología (AEL), and the Sociedad(e) de Odonatología Latinoamericana (SOL) cordially invite you to the Meeting “Tropical Aquatic Ecosystems in the Anthropocene AQUATROP“, which will be held July 23-26 2018, in Quito, Ecuador (with pre-meeting courses July 21 – 22, and post-meeting excursions starting July 27, 2018).
This will be the fourth meeting of the Red Macrolatinos (RML), the first of the Ecuadorian Association of Limnology (AEL), the first international initiative of the Society for Freshwater Science (SFS) and the second meeting of the the Sociedad(e) de Odonatología Latinoamericana (SOL). The meeting focuses on tropical freshwater ecosystems in the context of the major changes that are occurring due to human interventions. We live on a planet where the human footprint is inevitable and it is for that very reason that we need to understand how our ecosystems function in their natural conditions and when altered by humans. The objective of our meeting is to promote the dissemination of high quality scientific research in any of the areas related to the study of tropical and subtropical aquatic ecosystems in the Americas. We also seek to actively promote communication and collaboration between scientists, stakeholders, and members of the different scientific organizations with similar interests.
It is a great pleasure for us to welcome you to this meeting, which not only brings together the members and participants of the four collaborating associations, but also invites professionals, students and resource managers interested in biology, ecology, hydrology, management, management, conservation and restoration of freshwater ecosystems in the tropics and subtropics of the Americas.
Our meeting includes eight plenary sessions which will be of interest to the meeting participants, but also to the public of the city of Quito and all of Ecuador. We also expect to have over 100 oral presentations in diverse subjects and 100 posters presentations. Our Special Sessions or symposiums will cover a wide range of current and innovative topics relating to tropical freshwater ecosystems.
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Dear JJ
It's a shame not to count with your presence. We will be reporting on relevant news of the congress.
Un abrazo,
Carlos
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Recently came across the concept of anthropocene in social science and philosophy but unsure how to relate to it, what is the added value from a social constructivist and/or critical perspective ?
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Andrzej (above) provides an excellent answer and states most of the things I would wish to say. In addition, I would prefer the term 'Capitaloscene' to 'Anthroposcene' on the basis that early homo sapiens and human civilisations up to the last 500 years did not have a huge impact on the natural environment. The advent of capitalist society, developing from the 14th century, but speeding up its expansion rapidly from about 1750, has had the main impact on such phenomena as climate change. Secondly, I would recommend highly Jason Moore's book on these issues: "Capitalism in the Web of Life: Ecology and the Accumulation of Capital" (Verso, 2015).
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I need just concise answer to this question. what is the evidence.
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Dear Titus,
In geological time scale, the Quaternary period comprises two epochs, Pleistocene and Holocene. There is no epoch named “Anthropocene” in the geological time scale. It is used to indicate the impacts of anthropogenic activities on climate in the last 300 years. But not yet recognized by 'International Commission on Stratigraphy' or 'International Union of Geological Sciences' ?
Regarding introduction of this ‘word’ etc. you can see the link (given below) for expert comments. It was also my question.
Best wishes
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I am writing a chapter on how the Anthropocene may be replacing Globalization (on which I have written a great deal) as the dominant discourse in the social sciences, humanities and creative arts. I came across your work from the AWG Newsletter and your talk at the Venice Biennale in 2013. I hope we can exchange ideas.
best wishes,
Emeritus Professor Leslie Sklair, London School of Ecoomics [l.sklair@lse.ac.uk]
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Dear Andrzej,
good to hear from you but, to be perfectly honest, I think these endless debates about our relationship to/with/beyond/away from nature are philosophically interesting but a distraction from the urgent question (maybe in a time-frame we can visualise or in deep geological time) of planetary survival and/or the survival of all life forms on the planet.If you like just email me directly at: l.sklair@lse.ac.uk
and I send you some material directed at how to answer this question.
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Hello. I am very interested in the questions about the impacts of the human era in the natural ecosystems. It would be great if someone could suggest some papers or authors about the plant evolutionary response of our interventions.
Greated,
Alejandro Cuevas.
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From my understanding the Anthropocene is characterized by extremely rapid changes (in comparison to earth history) induced by humans; therefore in my opinion there is barely any time for "conventional" evolution of higher organisms, like (vascular) plants - rather we observe changing (eco-)systems due to the movement and die-back of species ... the things happening when there is no time to adapt/evolve.
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It's been about 3 years since I asked:
Now I've been thinking as a specialist for one integrated question about the two questions I've made before, and concretely::
First question was: "How does climate change affect flora and fauna?"
Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have as great an effect on flora and fauna. Climate change has important implications for nearly every aspect of life on Earth, and effects are already being felt.
Second question: "How does climate change affect Human Beings life?
Historical climate change has had a profound effect on current biogeography, so we can expect our ongoing and rapid climate change, to have a great impact on human beings life. Climate change has important implications for almost every aspect of Human life on Earth , And effects are already being felt day by day, everywhere and everybody ...
Together:, we have "How does climate change affect on Flora and Fauna, and in particular the affects on Human Beings Life?".
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Dear Bashkim Mal Lushaj 
Good question
One of the most important issues affecting the productivity of man and his impression is climate changes, especially the extreme temperature like Middle East countries.
Best Regard
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I would like to know the level of chemistry included in the model used to model air quality
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Dear Kishore,
The most comprehensive description is provided by the Master Chemical Mechanism
Depending on the specific needs you can obtain a simplified scheme. Exploring the options provided in the Leeds site is very educational and rewarding experience.
The practical aspects of the chemical kinetics from the point of view of WRF-CHEM model are discussed in the following presentation
Based on my past experiences I'm convinced that it is important to invest some time to analyze the master mechanism before starting the actual calculations with a simpler kinetic scheme.
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Human activity heavily disrupts community resilience. Other than that, is community resilience heavily reliant on the producers, consumers, keystone species, or something else entirely? How so?
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No problem, it is a pleasure.
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Instead of living within the annual interest that biophysical wealth of Nature gives us, we are using up our natural capital. We are taking more resources than Nature/Earth can provide and  throwing more wastes and pollutants than that Nature can metabolize and assimilate. What are the impacts? What future is waiting for us? What should we do for restoring our ecological balance sheet?
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Dear Dr Kumar
There is no doubt today that a major dimension of the present multidimensional crisis, which extends to the economic, political, cultural and general social level, is the ecological crisis.  The upsetting of ecological systems, the widespread pollution, the threat to renewable resources, as well as the running out of non-renewable resources and, in general, the rapid downgrading of the environment and the quality of life have made the ecological implications of economic growth manifestly apparent in the past  years.
By contrast to the focus on wild places, relatively little attention has been paid to the built environment, although this is the one in which most people spend most of their time.Ecosystem destruction is already happening.
Humans destroy ecosystems. Our lifestyle creates pollution and we overuse our natural resources. Today,  We build roads, hunt animals, cut down trees destroying forests and just litter the planet . We waste resources that are not infinite and will soon run out, if we continue our practice.
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No string of my thought or personal clue is provided. Feel free to share your views and thoughts.
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Humanities are influence by the planets so to say planets play an important part where humanity join with the nature.It is a fact that humanities cannot ignore planets as all the 7 major planets have its influence all humanity both in the positive & negative traits .
With this humanities cannot afford to close their eyes on the nature as nature is Omni present & quite often planets & nature go hand in hand .
Human beings have to understand the influence of planets & nature initially as an observed but with the influence they have to take a right course of action so as to receive favorable environment both of planets & nature.
This is my personal opinion 
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Open your head, heart and mind and share your thoughts on whether the carbon-based civilization is the root cause of major environmental woos and pathological symptoms of the ailing planetary health. How can we make a transition from carbon excess/ build up to carbon neutrality.
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No.  Carbon based civilization is not the root cause of our environmental problems; rather it is one of the symptoms.  We over-consume everything, including the environment's ability to absorb our wastes. 
We will begin to transition to low carbon after the majority of the fossil carbon has been burned - around 2060.  It will be hard - the last great transition of equal scale was the transition between horse to car.  That caused (directly or indirectly) the First World War, the Roaring 20s, the Great Depression, and to some smaller extent, the 2nd World War.  The transition from Carbon to something else will be worse, in that almost all economies will be tied directly to carbon, and the rate of change away from carbon will be greater than what many (most?) economies can adapt to.  No one will be able to provide a hand-up for those that have fallen, because all will be teetering.
The actions we take now, even if just for the excuse of Climate Change Adaptation, will soften the blow to some extent, but have no way to prevent it.  But we also have the same problem coming from soil loss, collapse of fisheries, drinking water quality and quantity, etc.  Over-consumption has forced us to have a seriously reduced rate of consumption in the future.  We can choose now what that will look like - what we will choose to do without.  If we fail to choose, the choice will be made for us.
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The planet has suffered dramatic climatic changes in the Pleistocene, with several peaks of cold (glacial) and warm (inter-glacial) conditions. I ask what do you think about the role of the Central American isthmus appearance, breaking important ocean currents, and probably altering regional or global climate. For example, "El Niño" southern oscillation is a recent climatic phenomenon and is related to the emergence of the Central American isthmus? Thus, in general, what would be the role of this isthmus and the overall climate oscillation during the Pleistocene and Holocene? Thanks!
Nilton   
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Dear Nilton,
The closure of the Isthmus of Panama around 3.5 Ma had major implications on ocean circulation and global climate. In fact, it initiated the onset of the thermohaline circulation we have today (the ocean conveyor belt), as well as the glaciation on the northern hemisphere during the Pleistocene. El Niño conditions have been found to prevail also prior to the closure, in the early Pliocene.
You may want to see following publications for further information:
Haug GH, Tiedemann R. 1998. Effect of the formation of the Isthmus of Panama on
Atlantic Ocean thermohaline circulation. Nature 393: 673–676.
Haug GH et al. 2005. North Pacific seasonality and the glaciation of North America
2.7 million years ago. Nature 433: 821–825.
Fedorov AV et al. 2010. Tropical cyclones and permanent El Niño in the early Pliocene epoch. Nature 463: 1066-1070. DOI :10.1038/nature08831
Bacon CD et al. 2015. Biological evidence supports an early and complex emergence of the Isthmus of Panama. PNAS 112: 6110–6115, doi: 10.1073/pnas.1423853112
Best regards,
Thomas
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Can anyone provide some literature and studies related to the various working definitions of Anthropocene in relation to the urban planning?And how the present urban planning system in developing countries like India influence the Anthropocene?
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We know that the term "Anthropocene", was coined recently (year 2000) and almost that by accident or spontaneity, to replace by analogy the term "Holocene"; in general terms have the same meaning and are related to the direct impacts of human activity on the Earth and its natural system.
He accelerated process of "urbanization" that is evidence from it was industrial, has provoked serious transformations in them relations functional between the half natural and the half built, the expansion and growth macrocephalic of them cities in the world modern, have been them factors more worrying that affect substantially the structure natural of the land.
Then urban planning, not necessarily affects the environment on the other hand, tries in terms technical and methodological, harmonize the growth of cities with their natural environment maybe, preventing ills for the planet.
It is urgent and necessary to processes of urban planning, consistent with regional and local development plans so that they impact positively in the territories; to do so, they must take into account the phenomenology of the natural systems, as an essential part of the processes of urban planning to make interventions on the territory, sustainable; in this way, ensure intelligent, logical and efficient processes.
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The emerging concept of Anthropocene, era in which human influences modify various environmental properties, has direct implications on coastal research. Indeed, anthropogenic chemical (e.g. metals, pesticides, pharmaceuticals), physical (e.g. microplastics, sediments, temperature) and biological (e.g. invasive species, eutrophication) stressors increasingly affect marine and coastal aquatic systems. Thus, what is the meaning of pollution if the understanding of coastal environments is intrinsically linked to the identification of shifts on contaminant baselines, biology, and oceanographic variables. I will be chairing a session at YOUMARES 7 (link below), and welcome abstracts (deadline June 15) discussing coastal and marine pollution in a broad context including environmental changes related to human interference. 
Also contribution and responses posted here might be presented during the session opening. 
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Hi Desmond, 
The question was more about what is exactly the meaning of term. In system where the very baselines and functioning are no longer natural, which are the stressors and consequences of coastal pollution? Some contaminants are more clearly human-derived, such as POPs, metals, nutrients, etc. However, what are the stressors that we have not looked at or to which our assumption of natural behavior is no longer sustainable?
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I am thinking mainly in terms of the evolutionary impact of reduced populations sizes and genetic diversity, adaption to anthropogenic habitats and radiation potential of interchange between biogeographic regions (i.e. alien species) and then indirectly how the community structure in ecosystems [old (anthropogenic) and new (anthropogenic)] may change?
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"radiation potential of interchange between biogeographic regions (i.e. alien species)". Probably hybridization and introgression among previously isolated (by habitat, by geography) populations and species are important outcomes of globalization. Outcome is an increase in genetic diversity.  
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While substage MIS 5e (~120 ka) is considered to have been globally warmer than the second half of the Holocene, and sea-level was several meters above present datum (almost worldwide), a few regions seem to have experienced cooler SST than nowadays. Documenting and understanding this paradox is important for climate modeling efforts in the context of the on-going global warming, especially for these particular regions (eg. S Peru and N Chile).
I am also interested in evidence for Anthropocene cooling trends in coastal regions (like in Central Peru and N Chile).
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Hola Luc, 
When I'm crossing cool with interglacial on my database on coastal sequences, here are the paper related(see attached doc). 
I hope it helps 
Cheers
Kevin 
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Any curriculum for the Anthropocene presents a number of key challenges for traditional higher education structures including fields of study and associated pedagogies. It is disruptive in a number of ways. It is essentially transdisciplinary in nature but drawing from a wide range of disciplines (spanning the full breadth of the natural and social sciences and the humanities). It recognises that socio-political frameworks of the disciplines themselves have contributed to the environmental & social issues that need to be addressed.
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