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# Anisotropic - Science topic

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This study presents a hybrid framework to predict stability solutions of buried structures under active trapdoor conditions in natural clays with anisotropy and heterogeneity by combining physics-based and data-driven modelling. Finite-element limit analysis (FELA) with a newly developed Anisotropic Undrained Shear (AUS) failure criterion is
used t...

Meniscus is a wedge-shaped fibrocartilaginous tissue, playing important roles in maintaining joint stability and function. Meniscus injuries are difficult to heal and frequently progress into structural breakdown, which then leads to osteoarthritis. Regeneration of heterogeneous tissue engineering meniscus (TEM) continues to be a scientific and tra...

6016-T4 aluminum alloy and DP490 steel were systematically tested under 24 proportional loading paths, including uniaxial tensile tests with a 15° increment, uniaxial compressive and simple shear tests with a 45° increment, and biaxial tensile tests using cruciform specimens. Cruciform specimens in the rolling/transverse and 45°/135° sampling direc...

Here we report a breakthrough in the fabrication of a long lifetime transmon qubit. We use tantalum films as the base superconductor. By using a dry etching process, we obtained transmon qubits with a best T 1 lifetime of 503 μs. As a comparison, we also fabricated transmon qubits with other popular materials, including niobium and aluminum, under...

Electronic devices generate heat during operation and require efficient thermal management to extend the lifetime and prevent performance degradation. Featured by its exceptional thermal conductivity, graphene is an ideal functional filler for fabricating thermally conductive polymer composites to provide efficient thermal management. Extensive stu...

Emerging from competing exchange interactions, the helimagnetic order describes a noncollinear spin texture of antiferromagnets. Although collinear antiferromagnets act as the elemental building blocks of antiferromagnetic (AFM) spintronics, until now, the potential of implementing spintronic functionality in noncollinear antiferromagnets has not b...

Orientation control of anisotropic one-dimensional (1D) and two-dimensional (2D) materials in solutions is of great importance in many fields ranging from structural materials design, the thermal management, to energy storage. Achieving fine control of vertical alignment of anisotropic fillers (such as graphene, boron nitride (BN), and carbon fiber...

Layered group-IV monochalcogenides, including GeS, GeSe, SnS, and SnSe, garner attention because of their anisotropic structures and properties. Here, we report on the growth of GeS microribbons via chemical vapor transport (CVT), which affords each of them with a low-symmetry orthorhombic structure and anisotropic optical and electronic properties...

As a unique two-dimensional atomic material, graphene offers excellent mechanical properties, dynamically tunable surface conductivity, ultra-high carrier mobility, and optical transparency, making it great potential for novel electromagnetic devices. However, dynamic manipulation of microwave polarization has not been experimentally realized in a...

Early work on modeling the mechanical response of fibrous tissues suggested a structural model based on integration of angular distributions of fiber bundles over the surface of a unit sphere. This paper considers a discrete fiber model, based on a regular icosahedron with six fiber bundles defined by the twelve uniformly distributed vertices on a...

Establishing covalent heterointerfaces with face-to-face contact is promising for advanced energy storage, while challenge remains on how to inhibit the anisotropic growth of nucleated crystals on the matrix. Herein, face-to-face covalent bridging in-between the 2D-nanosheets/graphene heterostructure is constructed by intentionally prebonding of la...

We report a three-dimensional (3D) molecular orientation control of a liquid crystal organic semiconductor (LC-OSC) based on the long-range ordering characteristic of an LC material. To this end, a synthetic LC-OSC molecule, MeOPh-BTBT-C8, with a fluidic nematic (N) phase that is essential for alignment control over a large area and a smectic E (Sm...

Biological soft tissues manipulation, including conventional (mechanical) and nonconventional (laser, waterjet and ultrasonic) processes, is critically required in most surgical innervations. However, the soft tissues, with their nature of anisotropic and viscoelastic mechanical properties, and high biological and heat sensitivities, are difficult...

This paper develops a Bayesian inference-based probabilistic crack nucleation model for the Ni-based superalloy René 88DT under fatigue loading. A data-driven, machine learning approach is developed, identifying underlying mechanisms driving crack nucleation. An experimental set of fatigue-loaded microstructures is characterized near crack nucleati...

We developed a method to detect attenuation changes during seismic wave propagation excited by precisely controlled artificial seismic sources, namely Accurately Controlled Routinely Operated Signal System (ACROSS), and applied it to monitor the temporal changes for in situ data collected by previous studies. Our method, together with the use of th...

Optical devices capable of suppressing diffraction nature of light are of great technological importance to many nanophotonic applications. One important technique to achieve diffractionless optics is to exploit field canalization effect. However, current technological platforms based on metamaterial structures typically suffer from strict loss-con...

The seed-mediated method is a general procedure for the synthesis of gold nanorods (Au NRs), and reducing agents such as ascorbic acid (AA) and hydroquinone (HQ) are widely used for the growth process. Further, they are mild reducing agents; however, when AA is used, controlling the size of Au NRs with a higher aspect ratio (localized surface plasm...

We present a scanning tunneling microscopy (STM) and ab-initio study of the anisotropic superconductivity of 2H-NbSe 2 in the charge-density-wave (CDW) phase. Differential-conductance spectra show a clear double-peak structure, which is well reproduced by density functional theory simulations enabling full k - and real-space resolution of the super...

This paper is build around the stationary anisotropic Stokes and Navier-Stokes systems with an $$L^\infty $$ L ∞ -tensor coefficient satisfying an ellipticity condition in terms of symmetric matrices in $${\mathbb {R}}^{n\times n}$$ R n × n with zero matrix traces. We analyze, in $$L^2$$ L 2 -based Sobolev spaces, the non-homogeneous boundary value...

Although modeling of fractures in solid materials has been within the focus of researchers for decades, a generally applicable and reliable numerical description is still an open topic. The complexity of fracture description hides within its multiscale nature, whereby the nano- and macroscale material behavior often vary significantly, and the tran...

The inherent anisotropy of shale makes it exhibit different mechanical properties when measured in different directions. Generally, the measurements of the anisotropic mechanical properties of shale are generally conducted on cylindrical samples, and the computation of elastic constants is usually an empirical approximation. To accurately estimate...

Simplification and reduction resulting to conservation laws obstructs the advance of physics since more than 100 years. Instead improved methods need to be used, which are transport balance equations, which have been already proposed for answering until today unsolved questions, but were rejected. The internal logic of such methods provides anisotr...

Glass has been used for millennia as the most common imitation of gemstones. Almost any gamstone can be imitated with glass. Glass can be both transparent and opaque and can have different colours. We analyzed a blue transparent pendant, which the seller declared to be a new mineral from the Himalayas. The refractive index was 1.520, which characte...

In this paper, we are concerned with the convergence analysis of a combined finite volume-non-conforming finite element scheme, to approximate the two incompressible phase flow with dynamic capillary pressure in anisotropic porous media. All diffusion terms are anisotropic and heterogeneous and they are discretized by piecewise linear non-conformin...

Plate anchors are used to resist uplift forces of both offshore and on-land structures. Numerous studies have been carried out to date to evaluate the ultimate uplift capacity of anchor plates. Most of them assumed the soil as homogeneous and isotropic. Naturally, the soil is heterogeneous and anisotropic. The undrained shear strength of soil may v...

In energy, sensor, and biomedical applications, borophene is considered as an emerging and promising material. However, since bulk boron exhibits rather intricate spatial structures and multiple chemical properties, the synthesis of borophene is yet to be considered as a challenging issue. A large amount of theoretical work has been conducted to ch...

In this study, a three‐dimensional (3D) finite‐difference time‐domain (FDTD) approach utilizing time‐domain weighted Laguerre polynomials (WLPs) and space‐domain isotropic–dispersion (ID) finite‐difference scheme is presented (i.e., 3D ID‐WLP‐FDTD). The method exhibits unconditional stability and comprehensively improved performance such as lower a...

The negative Poisson's ratio (NPR) mechanical metamaterials exhibit excellent mechanical properties, whereas their low stiffness limits the development. In this paper, we investigated an NPR mechanical metamaterial: star-circle honeycomb (SCH), which possesses enhanced stiffness compared to the classical star-shaped honeycomb (SH). Based on the Cas...

The cracking of fresh concrete, while still in a plastic state, includes both plastic settlement and plastic shrinkage cracking, which starts once the concrete is cast to around the final setting time. The cracking process is complex and is influenced by numerous factors which include the climate, mix proportions, element geometry and construction...

We present a study of high-quality BaCo$_2$(PO$_4$)$_2$ single crystals via magnetization, heat-capacity, thermal-expansion and magnetostriction measurements. Sharp anomalies in the thermodynamic properties at $T_N=3.4\,$K reveal a long-range antiferromagnetic order in these single-crystalline samples, which is absent in polycrystalline BaCo$_2$(PO...

Studying elliptic measure data problem with strongly nonlinear operator whose growth is described by the means of fully anisotropic N‐function, we prove the uniqueness for a broad class of measures. In order to provide it, the framework of capacities in fully anisotropic Orlicz–Sobolev spaces is developed and the capacitary characterization of a bo...

The main purpose of this paper is to discuss the global well‐posedness, asymptotic behavior, and blow‐up of solutions in finite time for a parabolic system of equations driven by the (p(x), q(x))‐Laplacian operator with variable exponents and sign‐changing nonlinearity. More precisely, we consider
u t − Δ p ( x ) u = | v | s ( x ) | u | s ( x ) − 2...

In the present article authors investigate the anisotropic stellar solutions admitting Finch-Skea symmetry (viable and non-singular metric potentials) in the presence of some exotic matter fields, such as: Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter, Kalb-Ramond fully anisotropic rank-2 tensor field from the low-energy string theory effective action...

The effects of different size and number distributions of particles after intermediate annealing treatment on the final microstructure, texture and formability of Al–Mg-Si-Zn alloy after solution treatment were systematically investigated using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffractometer (XRD) an...

We study various holographic pure and mixed state entanglement measures in the confined/deconfined phases of a bottom-up AdS/QCD model in the presence of a background magnetic field. We analyse the entanglement entropy, entanglement wedge cross-section, mutual information, and entanglement negativity and investigate how a background magnetic field...

During morphogenesis, the shape of living species results from growth, stress relaxation and remodeling. When the growth does not generate any stress, the body shape only reflects the growth density. In two dimensions, we show that stress free configurations are simply determined by the time evolution of a conformal mapping which concerns not only...

Seismic fluid identification plays an important role in reservoir exploration and development. Natural vertical fractures are common in carbonate rocks, it is essential to consider fracture-induced anisotropy in the fluid identification of fractured carbonate reservoirs. We have developed a novel Bayesian elastic impedance variation with an angle a...

In the present article authors investigate the anisotropic stellar solutions admitting Finch-Skea symmetry (viable and non-singular metric potentials) in the presence of some exotic matter fields, such as: Bose-Einstein Condensate (BEC) dark matter, Kalb-Ramond fully anisotropic rank-2 tensor field from the low-energy string theory effective action...

In a recent advance, Nb3Cl8 two-dimensional crystals with a kagome lattice and electronic topological flat bands have been experimentally fabricated (Sun et al. in Nano Lett 22:4596–4602, 2022). In this work motivated by the aforementioned progress, we conduct first-principles calculations to explore the structural, phonon dispersion relations, sin...

We develop an anisotropic compact stellar model by assuming a Buchdahl ansazt (Phys. Rev. 116: 1027–1034, 1959)-type metric potential and a particular radial pressure profile. We analyse the tidal behaviours of such class of compact stars by estimating their tidal Love Numbers (TLN). In particular, we find a relationship between the TLN and the cen...

Plain Language Summary
Chorus waves are naturally occurring electromagnetic waves in the Earth’s magnetized space known as the magnetosphere, and they typically have two frequency bands. A previous study proposed that the banded characteristics is produced by two anisotropic electron populations. This study aims to address two basic questions about...

The noncentrosymmetric superconductor Ru$_7$B$_3$ has in previous studies demonstrated remarkably unusual behaviour in its vortex lattice, where the nearest neighbour directions of the vortices dissociate from the crystal lattice and instead show a complex field-history dependence, and the vortex lattice rotates as the field is changed. In this stu...

Guaranteeing the sealing capacity of caprocks becomes paramount as CO2 storage scales up to the gigaton scale. A significant number of laboratory experiments have been performed with samples of intact rock, showing that low-permeability and high-entry pressure caprocks have excellent sealing capacities to contain CO2 deep underground. However, disc...

Packing problems are abundant in nature and have been researched thoroughly both experimentally and in numerical models. In particular, packings of anisotropic, elliptical particles often emerge in models of liquid crystals, colloids, and granular and jammed matter. While most theoretical studies on anisotropic particles have thus far dealt with pa...

Large discrepancies are found between the observational estimates and the theoretical predictions, when exploring the characteristics of dust, formed in the ejecta of a core-collapse supernovae. We revisit the scenario of dust production in a typical supernova ejecta in the first 3000 days after explosion, with an improved understanding of the evol...

Background:
Thresholding apparent diffusion coefficient (ADC) maps obtained from Diffusion-Weighted-Imaging (DWI) has been proposed for identifying benign lesions that can safely avoid biopsy. The presence of malignancies with high ADC values leads to high thresholds, limiting numbers of avoidable biopsies.
Purpose:
We evaluate two previously re...

In this work, we present for the first time a variational and quantitative phase-field model for non-isothermal sintering processes. The model is derived via an extended non-diagonal model with no restriction on the range of diffusivity ratio. The model evolution equations have naturally cross-coupling terms between the conserved kinetics (i.e., ma...

To determine the anisotropic mechanical characteristics of carbonaceous slate at the Jinman Mine located in Lancang River Gorge, China, uniaxial compression, acoustic emission (AE) monitoring, and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) tests were conducted. The results show that stress loading directions and bedding effects have a significant impact on...

A refined model of fault structure in the active New Madrid Seismic Zone (NMSZ) is presented based on relocated hypocenters and application of a statistical clustering method to determine fault planes. Over 200 earthquakes are recorded in the NMSZ every year, but the three‐dimensional (3‐D) fault structure is difficult to determine because the zone...

Plain Language Summary
Electron cyclotron harmonic (ECH) waves are widely observed in the Earth's magnetosphere, which are important for the diffusion auroral precipitation. Previous studies have shown that the main source region of ECH waves in the magnetosphere is near the magnetic equator, and the electron loss‐cone distribution provides the fre...

The ability to design vectorial optical fields with desired properties in different media has a significant impact on many applications including microscopy, optical trapping, micromachining, and data communications. Here, we set up a framework, based on Maxwell’s equations, that can be used to generate a desired three-dimensional vectorial optical...

The melting of Bi nanoparticles embedded in nanometer-thick amorphous Al film was studied by electron diffraction. The Bi nanoparticles were prepared by sputtering an Al-Bi-Al multilayer followed by annealing at 60 K above the Bi bulk melting point, Tm. For heating at a rate of ~ 3 K/min, the onset melting of the Bi nanoparticles was ~ 120 K below...

Stationary Poisson processes of lines in the plane are studied whose directional distributions are concentrated on $k \ge 3$ equally spread directions. The random lines of such processes decompose the plane into a collection of random polygons, which form a so-called Poisson line tessellation. The focus of this paper is to determine the proportion...

Analytical expressions for the cross-spectral density matrix of a partially coherent twisted Laguerre-Gaussian pulsed (PCTLGP) beam in anisotropic atmospheric turbulence are derived based on the extended Huygens–Fresnel principle. Numerical results indicate that the atmospheric turbulence induces the degeneration of the spectral intensity distribut...

The tetranuclear linear complex [Dy4(1,1,4-H3Lr)2(OAc)6]·CH3OH (1·CH3OH) was satisfactorily prepared and characterized. Its X-ray structure shows that it contains two types of octacoordinated DyIII ions, with distorted triangular dodecahedral and square antiprism geometries. This complex is an SMM, with multiple relaxation pathways, and with an ani...

We compute numerically the second and third order nonlinear magnetic susceptibilities of an Ising ladder model in the context of two-dimensional coherent spectroscopy by using the infinite time-evolving block decimation method. The Ising ladder model couples a quantum Ising chain to a bath of polarized spins, thereby effecting the decay of spinon e...