Science topics: Animal ScienceAnimals
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Animals - Science topic

Animals are unicellular or multicellular, heterotrophic organisms, that have sensation and the power of voluntary movement. Under the older five kingdom paradigm, Animalia was one of the kingdoms. Under the modern three domain model, Animalia represents one of the many groups in the domain EUKARYOTA.
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Hi everyone, I am looking for animal data sets that can be compared to the plant datasets from Smithsonian plots. The Smithsonian tree plots census plants in a local community (a plot) above a size threshold; size is measured by stem DBH, and plants are identified to species. I am looking for animal datasets that are similar; that is, they need to contain most of the individuals in a given community (say, mammals or insects or fish) ID'd to species or morphospecies; and they need to have all of the masses of the individuals (not just averages for the species). So far I have found some good small mammal trapping data sets from LTER in the USA, and some tree canopy fumigation datasets for insects. What kind of data are available for large mammals, insects, spiders, molluscs, fish, birds, reptiles, amphibians, etc.? I am looking for datasets of any size, location, and timescale. Thanks so much.
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I only have bird counts in one of my papers :)
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Hey everybody,
so I'm currently writing on my Ph.D. thesis and have problems finding a basis for the discussion of my data. So here's the thing:
My project dealt with the regulation of a certain DNA repair pathway during development.
For my assays, I used fibroblasts that were isolated from embryonic or postnatal mice (E13.5 or P21) in which one specific kinase (A) important for this repair pathway was knocked out.
In postnatal fibroblasts, I could confirm previous findings of our lab that kinase A is essential for this DNA repair pathway.
However, when I repeated these assays using MEFs, the depletion of kinase A was not resulting in a repair defect anymore. I confirmed this in WT fibroblasts transiently depleted for kinase A using siRNA and also in animal experiments.
So finally, I was able to find that another kinase (B) of the same family is replacing the function of kinase A and phosphorylates the same substrate in MEFs, although kinase A is still expressed.
Unfortunately, I struggle to find literature that provides information about similar processes, meaning a switch in kinases within one pathway in response to differentiation/developmental processes. Is something like this already known?
Thanks for your help!
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I think these articles may actually help you.
Best wishes,
Sabri
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The specimen has been found from the rocky coasts of Gulf of Oman, bored in to an sponge tissue. albeit its small size, the animal was mature. can you help me to identify it? Thanks. 
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Thank you very much for your answers!
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Do we need to understand zoonotic diseases better to avoid more pandemics in future? Should we all turn vegetarians? Is eating animals the only issue or there are some other human-animal interactions which need to be understood? Will vising the zoos be safe? Or even keeping pet animals?
Please have a logical discussion around these and ask related questions.
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Aman Arora Thanks for raising this important issue, I do agree with prof. Manal Hadi Kanaan And prof. Frank T. Edelmann
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Dear all taxonomists
Do you think that the problem which we had with Zootaxa in this year is an accidental or we should expect similar problems in the future? Not only for Zootaxa but also with other taxonomic journals. Do you think that we can do something with it? Any strategy or ideas? Do we have this problem only in zoology or also in botany?
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I don't understand this and similar discussions. There are hundreds of quality journals that publish alpha taxonomy articles in many fields. Why all attention is focused on Zootaxa?
I never publush my research in paid journals because this is a cheating business. However, this does not apply to journals of scientific societies, where member contributions are required.
Here is just a brief list of free quality international peer-reviewed journals (referring in Scopus and Web of Science core collection) that publish articles on animal alpha taxonomy (many of them are with open access; also many journals publish alpha-taxonomy on fossil records):
Zoology/Entomology:
1. Zoosystema (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless
2. Acta zoologica academiae scientiarum hungaricae (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless, open access
3. European journal of taxonomy (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless, open access
4. Zoosystematica Rossica (Scopus) - chargeless, open access
5. Zoologicheskii zhurnal (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless, open access
6. Zoology in the Middle East (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless
7. Invertebrate zoology (Scopus) - chargeless, open access
8. Acta Zoologica Bulgarica (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless, open access
9. Ecologica Montenegrina (Scopus) - chargeless
10. Annales zoologici (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless
11. Arthropod sytematics and phylogeny (Scopus, WoS core collection) chargeless, open access
12. Zoologischer anzeiger (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless
13. Turkish Journal of Zoology (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless, open access
14. Arthropoda selecta (Scopus) - chargeless, open access
Entomology:
15. Annales de la Société entomologique de France, N.S. (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless
16. Insect systematic & evolution (Scopus, WoS core collection) - chargeless
17. Far Eastern Entomologist (Scopus) - chargless
18. Entomological Review (Scopus) - chargless
19. Fragmenta entomologica (Scopus) - chargless
20. Caucasian Entomological Bulletin (Scopus) - chargeless, open access
21. Russian Entomological Journal (Scopus) - chargeless, open access
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Is it reason, intelligence, superior nature, rights, or something else?
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I am working on assessment of water footprint of dairy animals. But I am stuck in calculation of indirect water footprint consumed by dairy animals.
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Thank you Arun.. Wll go through it.
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An owl bursting through a cloud of bubbles is helping researchers better understand the aerodynamics of flight.
Birds gliding through bubbles reveal aerodynamic trick. Gliding birds use tail to generate extra lift and reduce drag. For more details please refer to the following link:
The approach to human innovation, via emulating nature, is called biomimetic design and has inspired many of our greatest creations – from buildings to bionic cars, here are some of the favourite examples.
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Dear RG Colleagues,
What could make a research study conclude with: " This animal or plant species is endangered and must be mentioned in the red list" ?
What are the most important criteria to use the mention 'endangered' ?
Thank you
Abdenour
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Thank you all of you for your consideration and answers
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We should ascribe dignity to all living beings or only to human persons, bearing in mind the role of the concept of dignity as a ground for human rights.
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Dignity is the right and privilege of all and is never exclusive to a particular individual or a class of people.
Dignity is not for judiciary or Government It is a prerogative for all biotic factors of biosphere.
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The picture was taken close to Hangzhou (Eastern China).
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It could be Trithemis aurora.
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We would like to start marking animals in our animal facility. We can invest a small amount of money in tattoo equipment.
Is it possible to buy a cheap tattoo gun (kit) and which one would be suitable?
Is there a specific needle that needs to be used for laboratory rats and mice?
Which kind of pigment do you recommend?
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Hi Marija,
I know this question was asked a fair while ago, but I just wanted to see if you had any luck with tattoo identification and if so, if you were able to purchase a relatively cheap and easy to use tattoo gun? Please let me know!
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Hello all,
I am wondering if there is any simple way to isolate intact (medium or high quality) total RNA from selected zoo animals. What is the best material for this? Fresh saliva, droppings, hair or something other? I am interested in some tumor supressor gene, which is probably low expressed.
My laboratory workflow:
sampling material -> conservation in RNALater -> RNA isolation -> reverse transcription into cDNA -> PCR -> sequencing PCR amplicon
Invasive sampling of whole blood or tissue is not possible due to many formalities and legislative obstruction.
Has anybody experiences with it? What is the best material and method for animal non-invasive intact RNA isolation?
Thank you very much for answers :-)
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What tissues are you interested in? We had some luck with RNA from feces, although you'll need to troubleshoot your isolation protocol because the quality can decay quite quickly. It's also best to collect the sample "before it touches the ground", so if the animals are quite big it can get dangerous.
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I am interested in studying the role of anthropomorphism in human and animal companion attachment. I want to also understand the phenomenon of abandonment of pets, and if there is a relationship with anthropomorphism and attachment with the same.
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Thank You :)
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Please explain the rationale for your view.
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There is no one answer to this question. Specific uses must be considered, since a scientific find that cures a horrible disease does not carry the same moral weight as things like testing makeup brands on animals. Further, the moral weights given to animal rights vs. scientific discovery differ by moral universe. In the ethics of more biocentric religions, such as Buddhism, one often finds moral dismay regarding the uses of animals in science, like one sees in the work of the current Dalai Lama. The rights of animals not to suffer outweigh considerations of human benefit. Within religious universes that tend more toward anthropocentric outlooks, such as with ethics stemming from the Abrahamic religions, harming animals in science for human benefit remains more tolerated and pursued. Of course, things are not neat and tidy regarding this, since one still may find a Buddhist who supports experimentation on animals and a Christian who does not. You might check out Tom Regan's classic work, <Animal Sacrifices: Religious Perspectives on the Use of Animals in Science>, and the work that he, Jeff Masson, Lisa Kemmerer, and others have done since. You might also look into the essays found in <A Communion of Subjects>.
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I am looking for an inventory where all known species of plants and animals in the Socotra archipelago are registered.
Thanks in advantage.
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The following book summarizes the knowledge on vegetation and flora of Socotra and provides a list of the vascular plants, bryophytes, and lichens of Socotra:
Brown, G. & Mies, B. (2012): Vegetation ecology of Socotra. - Plant and Vegetation 7. Springer Science & Business Media, 379 pp.
But a complete inventory of all species of plants and animals appears not yet available.
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Dear colleagues,
In recent days an article was published in the Washington Post trying to sell the idea that we, humans, should not work towards preventing the extinction of as many endangered species as possible, and that we should only focus on saving species that might help us survived as species as longer as possible. This is the article:
Our colleague Dr. Alexandre Antonelli is organizing a rebuttal and everyone is welcome to sign it. It is currently aimed as a short commentary in the Washington Post, but I believe it might be possible that this would lead to a larger perspective piece in a scientific journals. Please take a look at the short 750-words manuscript and feel free to sign if you agree with the text. To do so, please use the following link and open the corresponding documents: https://drive.google.com/drive/folders/1VJuKuXDP62NQcBdIuIkCi-LqMyRbORv2?usp=sharing
Best regards,
Eliécer
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With my question, I wanted the community to become aware of the initiative to fight back the dangerous and erroneous arguments published in the Washington Post and to gather more signatories. I like when commenters make arguments against the Washington Post piece, but I honestly find unhelpful to make comments about Pyron. Let's focus on ideas/arguments and ways to push back those arguments in the WP article that could be used by insane governments and corporations to continue devastating biodiversity.
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conversion Muscles into Meat
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Kindly check with book by Dafoid etal.,2013 ( meat production) published by Messibi co.
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Hello
I'm wondering what would be a more suitable software for motion analysis
in terms of animal monitoring, camels to be exact,
How can one get the speed, distance, acceleration, and maybe incorporate those with vital organs indicators like heartbeats, body temperature ..etc.
trying to build a database for camels linking the above information and looking for patterns.
tried Kinovea but its not quite accurate in my opinion, for a beginner level.
any recommendations?
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Regarding what you define, you just need to use a sensor for daily activity monitoring, usually based on accelerometers. But if you are looking also to dynamics behavior of the animal, in terms of geographic displacement, you need also a localisation plotter like a GPS. There is a lot of cheap sensors that can give you such information.
If you need more accurate data, like spatiotemporal parameters, pressure data, or kinematics, other systems have to be used.
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I have once made an observation that a spider apparently resided on a wall that had almost the same colour as the spider him-/herself. I lived at this location for several months and could see the spider almost daily.
I am certainly not an expert on spiders, nor am I an expert on animal cognition. I tried to question why the spider apparently chose this location. Since houses are painted repeatedly, evolution seemed an impossible explanation (this would imply survival of the fittest, because the spider was best adapted to the environment, where several generations of the spider subsequently resided there). This house was the only house in this area that was painted in this colour.
Rather, it seemed that the spider deliberately chose this location, because the spider recognized his/her own look and therefore knew that he/she is least likely spotted on this wall, which gave him/her an advantage to catch prey and to remain unseen by predators. This, however, would require remarkable cognitive abilities. I would be grateful for an opinion of an expert or for stimulating discussion among lay people like myself. See below for a picture of the spider.
Many thanks and best wishes,
Rainer
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I work on (teleost) fish and am not a spider expert. There are spiders that can change colour and choose backround see e.g. https://www.researchgate.net/publication/279567360_Camouflage_of_predatory_crab_spiders_on_flowers_and_the_colour_perception_of_bees_Aranida_ThomisidaeHymenoptera_Apida
However, I also want to point out that selection per se may remove those spiders that do not blend into the background. Only those that are camouflaged will be left. This will act in the present generation. In the speciation litterature selection against immigrants is termed "immigrant inviability".
Best regards,
Ola
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For exemple: 
The sweep technique (The hunter choses a trail which he will use. Leaves and sticks are removed from the soil – a cleaning or sweep of the trail. The purpose of this is to avoid the production of any sounds which could alert the target species while the hunter walking along the trail. The trail is perpendicularly to paths used by the animals, locally denominated "carreiro" or near to feeding sites areas. Once the animal’s approach is detected, the hunter goes to the location where the animal will most likely be visible or waiting and attempt to kill the animal.) is common between indingenous and non-indigenous in Brazil. 
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In Indonesian New Guinea (western parts of New Guinea Island), there is a tendency of indigenous groups using modern hunting equipment that mostly used by non-indigenous groups to make hunting more efficient  with active technique.  While some of non-indigenous tribes are currently applying passive hunting techniques (using huge number of traps and snares - about 50-200) that commonly used by indigenous tribes to maximize harvest rates for trading purposes. Both practice are using side by side related to the purpose of hunting.
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I am interested in attempting to increase activity progressively over time throughout the aging process. I expect it is physiologically possible to increase activity but have not been able to identify any animal or human study in the published literature.
Thank you.
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I agree with Ron's assertion that aging is, to some degree, linear. It may nevertheless be possible to progressively increase activity throughout up to a point. Imagine, activity is increased slowly through one's 40s to 80s, e.g. then, life happens and an illness or injury impairs the individual's capacity to remain active and there's a sharp drop-off that persists over the remainder of their life. If that remainder is very brief, then sure, the goal of increasing activity throughout one's life was met. At the very least, it could be shown that activity was progressively increased more than had previously been demonstrated.
Thank you for your contributions.
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When I talk about animal models, I can say that germ free mice is the same that gnotobiotic mice?? or there are different terms?? 
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Hi Gloria,
Germ-free are mice free of all microorganisms, while gnotobiotic mice are mice with known microorganisms.
Normally gnotobiotic are germ-free mice intentionally infected with known microorganisms.
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Hi everyone,
I am writing my MSc thesis about vocal communication in woolly monkeys and I want to make a general description of their different types of calls. I want to obtain various acoustic parameters such as duration, frequency range, low frequency, high frequency, maximum amplitude, average frequency, initial frequency, and final frequency. Hence, I have to analyse my recordings using SoundRuler, but I've never used this software before. I've read the instructions but I have some questions anyway.
- I recorded in stereo, so when I introduce the recording in the software, it asks me if I want to analyse left or right channel. Can I analyse both separately and then calculate the mean of both channels?
- Also, when I introduce the recording, I mark the section that I want to analyse using green bars. Once this section is marked, I proceed to do the analysis. Is it as easy as clicking the "manual" button? When I do it, it appears a table with the different values of the parameters, but I don't know if it is as "simple" as that.
That's all at the moment. Thank you for your answers!
Laura.
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Hi Laura,
I agree with Pavel regarding the channels and amplitude. I also don't use SoundRuler (sorry!) but I thought it might be useful to add that you need to be sure there is no background noise overlapping your calls of interest. If for example these recordings were made at a zoo, there may be visitors chatting, or in the field there could be other animals calling etc. on your recordings. If there is, then you can either need to filter it (if it does not overlap in frequency with the monkey calls), or if that's not possible, you could manually extract the frequency measures, or simply eliminate those calls from your analyses. It might be that you can use the read-out on all your "clean" calls (i.e. no background noise, one individual calling at a time) and in that case it could be just as simple as you say!
Good luck with your interesting project!
All the best,
Esther
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Is cordycepin is produced by Ophiocordyceps or any other fungi/microbs/plants/ animals?
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The requested article: Caterpillar Fungus (Ophiocordyceps sinensis) Production and Sustainability on the Tibetan Plateau and in the Himalayas can be downloaded from my www.mushroaming.com webpage under publications. All the best
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Hi all . I have data about animals coming to a certain place, and I can distinguish individuals. What is the appropriate method of analysis to use, to find out which individuals are in place most often together and which are not.
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Hristo, call us. We are doing such analysis with we one of our PhDs. There is a special R package which our PhD was working on for addapting it to the temperate regions with changeable duration of day, night and crepuscular hours
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We measured average blood glucose levels in male Wistar rats as follows:
Age matched control animals - 124 mg/dL (non-fasting) and 83 mg/dL (fasting)
High-caloric diet fed animals - 139 mg/dL (non-fasting) and 105 mg/dL (fasting)
How will these values be classified?
I can't seem to find any published guidelines for classifying animals as normoglycemic or hyperglycemic.
I'm specifically looking for fasting and non-fasting guidelines.
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I agree with Dr. Bhansali. We have measured whole blood glucose twice daily in rats for over three years.  Non-diabetic (regardless of regular 18% fat or 40% high fat  diet) had mean glucose of 90±0.89 mg/dl and 92.34±1.15 respectively for diets and after development of diabetes all >200mg/dl (324±9.83mg/dl and 333±11.50 respectively.)
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I need some articles that can help me understand electromagnetism in different animals.
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You'll need to be a bit more specific about what you are asking. All living things generate electromagnetic fields. More complex organisms like mammals can generate numerous fields from various tissues. The gut for instance, produces a range of low frequency fields as muscular peristalsis moves food through. Other species have specialized organs that can generate/detect electric fields that can be used for sensing (lots of fish). Some can even generate such large fields that they can use an electric discharge as a weapon (electric eel). Some folks in my lab have measured various magnetic fields in animals using SQuID magnetometers. We also look at action potential propagation through tissues using the fluorescence of voltage sensitive dyes. There are most likely thousands of papers that discuss some aspect of electromagnetism in animals so it would be best to narrow it down a bit.
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LFP and EEG,  noise only when the animal is moving
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I to have worked on EEG of wrist rotate signal, leg rotation of human.
Placement of the electrode is important cerebral cortex that to p7, p8 position is where the Mu signals are much accurate. U could sample the signal at a higher rate and use a LPF and BPF. My paper on Hand rotate EEG signal will be helpful for you if you refer it.
I would suggest to make a study of the signals of animals EEG signal and classify them like we have to Humans alpha, Beta, delta, Mu, gama etc.  
U can also use DWT of order 2 to analysis the signal in better way.
Any help you need i can work on ur signals and send it back to you regarding pre processing.
This publication of mine might help you.
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I am interested in understanding ways to classify species which are of increased risk of becoming invasive species. Can we come up with a list of comparative attributes that will help authorities adjust policy regarding the movement of exotic animals using scientific logic?
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Understanding invasion of undesirable, alien species should move away from species, but look at management of landscapes (and seascapes) instead. The point is made in other Q&As on RG. This position starts from the observation that invasive plants cluster in particular landscapes (e.g. tropical Kwazulu-Natal, RSA; wetlands within the temperate zone  and much more rare in adjacent ones. The second issue is that eradication/control efforts directed at species are usually ineffective. I only know two exceptions to the latter.
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I doubt that this species is belongs to molluska but Iam not sure to which group and I want to know the genus and species.
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At first sight, the ventral side [?] is reminiscent of a (highly retracted) polyplacophoran, especially because of what looks like ctenidia. But no visible signs of shells--Could it be one of the shell-less looking (those that have small shells or whose shells are covered by the girdle) families? Possibly a juvenile with plates not developed? 
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I want to measure the strenght of a turtle (adult, juvenile and hatchling) limb. Is there anyone did this kind of measurement on the field? or do you have any idea for doing this harmlessly?
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dynamometer was my first choice but marine turtles, especially green turtle, are hard to fixate. moreover fixing the adults on beach after they laid their eggs, will disturb them too much.
Thanks for your answers Mehdi and Dusan. But it seems that i have to find another way to measure it.
best regards
onur
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Does anyone know of any studies which have used short video clips (~5 seconds) of animals? Preferably with a white background but videos including moving animals. This is for a semantic processing task, pairing words with short video clips.
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Hi Mehdi,
I do apologise, I only just saw your answer - strangely, Researchgate didn't let me know. 
They are to be part of a semantic processing task - e.g. to see which brain regions respond to videos of animals. I would compare them to other videos of actions and objects with white backgrounds.
Rachel
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They are found occasionally in grab samples from Kara and Laptev seas. Pictures of  paraffin embedded cross sections stained by hematoxylin and eosin.
Thanks in advance.
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Hi Valentin,
I'm not a specialist, but they look a lot like sipunculids (Phylum Sipuncula). 
Cheers,
Camilo
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For the better anesthetic effect?
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Complication of vomiting and aspiration is the risk related to anesthesia. Moreover gastrointestinal motility is slow to return after anesthesia. However in case of small and light weight animals there is risk of hypoglycemia so that needs to be monitored and due to this their time of fasting is usually shorter.
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In part of my research i have to develop the abundance biomass curves for the gastropods.In most of the cases i found dead animals (only the shells of gastropods).Therefore i want to know an exact method of measuring the biomass of them using the muffle furnace. At which temperature for how many hours?
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Dear Aravinda
Gastropod shells may be the rests of animal died years or decades ago. As long as I understand you must estimate the biomass of gastropods alive at a given time (and at different times to build abundance curves), so you need to know their behaviour, in order to collect them when they are active (by night or rainy weather, for ex.), not to try to collect them when they are hidden.
The gross weight of live animal is probably the first valuable information, completed with the dry matter weight of a representative sample (dried in a ventilated oven  at 60-100 °C until the weight is stable)
the muffle furnace can only give you the ashes, i.e. mineral content (non-organic), not the biomass itself
You probably need also to sort gastropods by species and size...
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I am interested in doing a subchronic drug paradigm and would like to look at protein levels.  How long after the last drug treatment is given should I sacrifice the animals and look at protein levels?
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Okay, thanks for your help!  I am looking at changes in the neuronal calcium sensor 1 and D2 dopamine receptors after a two hour cocaine self administration session
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Are there any methods for inbreed testing (laboratory tests) among of animals?
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Genetic background or strain determination must look at markers across the whole genome, so there is no simple test.  The easiest would be to send your DNA to the Jackson labs and they will do this for you for around $200.  Sorry, but that is about as easy and cheap as this will get. 
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We administered Triton at a dose of 200mg/kg to experimental rats at a dose of 200mg/kg i.p. and after 10 minutes of injection the animals started showing writhing responses, suffocation and finally died.
Can anyone help me find out the reason for this and how to combat this problem?
Thank you.
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Why are you doing this?
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I am recording video of birds foraging in different tree species in order to get accurate data about different behaviours etc. Does anyone know if there is a good way to watch the videos to get accurate times etc, or if there is a computer program that would be good to use? I'm thinking something along the lines of Raven Pro (for sound recordings), but for video. Thanks!
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There are a lot of expensive and free options available out there, including Ethovision, Jwatcher, Scribe, Matlab (if programmed correctly), and each of their usefulness largely depends on what exactly it is that you want to record. Some questions to consider as you look up each of them and make a choice:
1) Are you looking for something that will automatically track and record a behavior for you? That is tough, as most tracking software programs use color contrast to compare video frames to previous frames. That allows, for example, video to pull aside any frames with the color red in a separate file, which could be useful for some behaviors like quantifying how much time a bird flashes its red patch while courting.
2) If you're doing it manually (e.g., you need personal discretion to identify behaviors), several of the programs will let you press certain keys on the keyboard to record a behavior, identify it as a one-time event or ongoing event, and will automatically quantify number of events and time spent in such event.
3) If you're only interested in time stamps to the nearest second and you have to watch the videos manually, it might make sense to use a good video player instead of a behavior analysis software. I use VLC Media Player because it easily allows you to speed up and slow down, and is highly compatible with various file types. 
Sorry I can't be more specific, but it really depends on what sort of behaviors you need to actually measure. Is there something you will be measuring beyond "accurate times"?
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I am interested in finding an exercise wheel of an appropriate size for monkeys or dogs. Does anyone know of a commercially available wheel? It needs to have the ability to give data about speed and time spent on the wheel.
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There are treadmills for dogs and even horses.  I'm sure a monkey could be trained for one made for a dog. 
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I am trying to find names of such researchers.
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Audrey Derose-Wilson recorded heartbeats of incubating Wilson's plovers as a part of her master's work. She is currently at Virginia Tech. 
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We pool samples from 3-5 animals and is stat analysis done differently comparing to testing samples from each separate animal?
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You need to determine whether your data is paired or unpaired as the statistics is different for the two cases. This might help http://www.tufts.edu/~gdallal/paired.htm
The statistical tests are different depending on whether there is pairing or not.
Eg you have a paired t test
and an unpaired t test
You need to be careful as somtimes you can get partially paired data
and this can require special methods
or
you may need to use permutation methods
see
which is explained with examples here
for which you might need software
see
Your data may well be partially paired and partially unpaired if you have taken samples from different animals and if you have taken multiple samples from the same animal.
So first determine the degree of pairing and then decide on what test you need. Do not forget the other things that can be violations of a test such as whether the data needs to be normally distributed, whether the variances are equal or not (all of which depends on the test you use).
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How do you prepare to count them?
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Dear Maj,
do you want to count Eosinophil in blood of animals? 
If yes, You can make a smear and follow the Gimsa protocol; we evaluate this WBC in poultry and rat blood. and also there is some apparatus which design to count and recognize differentiation of WBC form each other indeed.
Regards,
Mehdi 
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Other than DAL
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Dear Raju,
You could may be try the P388 so-called "leukemia" cell lines, which behave like a lymphoma when injected subcutaneously and not i.p. as classically done with this model.
I never performed actual lymphoma characterization of this model, in which I was interested for its aggressive behavior as an actual metastasizing process to the liver.
This model is described in the attached article. May be it could of help for you.
Best regards
Robert
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We have attempted to do this and are recently now aware of such interpretation relating to the Altai.  Are there others?  I thought it possible in the American Southwest rock art and saw reference to a discussion there as well.  Any other areas?  How did you make this connection?  On what have you based your arguments?
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Some time ago I tried to argue that the figures of the kind might mark some border/transitional point where different modes of behaviour switch from one to another. Thus, say, symmetry in the figure of Animal Mistress in Scythian (as well as Greek etc) art with her hands spread apart and holding two minor figures. And - the scenes of the same symmetrical (frontal) figure as giving birth or with the accent at her privates
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Species that normally migrate but can not because they are in captivity or injured, unrecoverable animals. How do they get around this innate behavior.
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For many of animals, birds and mammals alike, their circannual rhythm of behavior and physiology persists even whilst in activity. For migrating species in captivity, their migratory behavior is manifest by what is widely termed migratory restlessness and this is often accompanied by significant changes in body mass and condition and hormonal changes. Suggest you do a key word search for 'migratory restlessness'.
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- easy to understand, and not theoritical..
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English would be appreciated, but French and Spanish are both Ok...
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I am working with C57BL6 mice, which are little aggressive.
I need to feed them by oral gavage. We have tried doing it in wake animals but they are giving us a tough time holding them and even if we manage to do that, the animal is wriggling so much that we ended up injuring one mice while performing the gavage.
So I want to know whether it can be considered to anesthetize the mice and then perform the gavage?
Any references or videos demonstrating the same would be helpful.
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Dear Mallu,
Having administered per os treatments in the past (although mostly to rats), I totally agree with Ornella to say that anesthetizing animals before gavage isn't the right solution.
Since your problem seems mainly practical, the link below contains a video that could be of interest to observe how to effectively hold the animal and insert the feeding needle in its mouth, throat and oesophagus.
Rodents sometimes need to get used to the procedure to relax, so do not hesitate to pre-condition them (handling, habituation to the introduction of the feeding needle, possibly a “mock” water injection) a couple of days before injecting your drug. This will reveal extremely useful, especially if you wish to apply chronic treatments in obedient subjects.
Good luck,
David
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This is collected from Kerala (Deep sea Trawl by-catch) west coast of India. Unfortunately I don't have more precise information.
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looks like a sea cucumber
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It is known that the ingestion of some plants high in selenocistathionine can cause seleno toxicity. I would like to know if the endogenous synthesis and, under specific conditions, accumulation of this metabolite can possibly be toxic or cause any impairment in the metabolism. Thank you
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Thank you very much!!!
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I want to see how thermal tolerance differ from among animals.
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the below article may be of interest to you - basically says that tropical ecosystems are an excellent place to find thermal specialists
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We have problems on our Bongo, Tragelaphus eurycerus, in which some individuals seem slender even we serve them sufficient leaves and pallets. If there Bongo keepers offer me the daily diet list of this animal? It will be helpful to compare the detailed contents for the nutrition issue on our Bongo. Many thanks.
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Thanks a lot! It is very helpful.  ^^
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I'm looking for so-called hard evidence about the impact of urban pressure on animals. I need concrete examples. I want to block the construction of a large hotel complex on the border of the National Park. There is only general information in the literature that urban pressure has a negative impact on nature. No examples which would be evidence. Can anyone help?
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Marzluff has papers on the impact of suburbs on bird populations - the relationship actually curves up and then down.  He works at the University of Washington in Seattle
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Dear colleagues
I want to ask you about the period of time that is taken to change the animal body condition score after application of some management techniques
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It depends completely on the energy balance over time. Animals that are losing a large amount of stored body energy and protein for a function such as producing milk without having sufficient energy intake to meet that need will lose body condition score quickly. Mature animals that are not "growing" or "lactating" will lose body condition score slowly, even with restricted energy intake. Animals with a very high metabolic rate, such as humming birds, may live only a few day without adequate food intake because of loss of body energy. Some species, such as seals and certain bears, will store a lot of energy and then may go for months without consuming any food while their body condition declines naturally. So there is not easy rule to answer your question.
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In general, MCA was found in some animals from different latitude, however, I am not sure whether MCA hypothesis also suit for animals from the different altitude.
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The metabolic cold adaptation (MCA) hypothesis predicts an increase in the metabolic. Levis, using different populations along a distributional range with a wide ... used to explain metabolic differences in altitude, latitude and habitat .Several interspecific studies support the MCA hypothesis for a suite of both terrestrial.
please cane  be visited
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(In addition to the commonly used "head ring")
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I believe there is some research on using harnesses for cannulated rats, rather than head caps. I'm not sure if anything has been published yet though. 
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Hello everyone, I am looking for some recent articles which is related on using animal and plant proteins and their effects on egg production and quality? thanks in advance
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Thanks a lot for these suggestions, they were really good, again thanks
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How to calculate/quantify water use efficiency of meat production in indoor concentrated feed based feeding system?
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I have found what I am looking for at "A Global Assessment of the Water
Footprint of Farm Animal Products" by Mekonnen and Hoekstra (2012).
Thanks for your responses
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I am using Tunicamycin as ER stress inducer in vivo and it is reducing the body weight a lot.
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very good suggestions
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Hi, Is it possible to induce keloid in skin of lab animal? If yes, Could you please introduce me any papers?
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Not that Im aware of unfortunately.
Some success with hypertrophic models but not yet with keloid models of scarring. This study nicely illustrates the different attempts made to create an ideal model - none of which have been fully successful.
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I'd prefer a book using results based on both molecular and classical methods. If there's no such book covering the whole animal phylogeny, then I'd also welcome a book on "Chordata" or "Vertebrata".
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Hello Gábor,
I can recommend: "Animal Evolution. Genomes, Fossils, and Trees", edited by M.J. Telford & D.T.J. Littlewood ... published by Oxford University Press in 2009 ... ISBN 978-0-19-957030-0
Best wishes, Mike
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The domestic cat (Felis catus or Felis silvestris catus) is a small, usually furry, domesticated, and carnivorous mammal. They are often called a housecat when kept as an indoor pet, or simply a cat when there is no need to distinguish them from other felids and felines. Cats are often valued by humans for companionship, and their ability to hunt vermin and household pests.
A small group of cats have some difficulties to drink water. How can you improve them to drink more water?
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HELLO, 
I own two gentle tom cats, who are on a hypocaloric diet, because they have grown too fat (one weights 8Kg...) As I know that tom cats usually tend to develop urinary problems, I am very careful with their drinking water.
The first thing I do, every morning , is to fill their two bowls with fresh water. apart from that, they have a water fountain, that filters permanently, and which is great fun, because they enjoy playing with the pouring water.
Also, in the 6 warmer months of the year, I add a few ice cubes to the water tray, and they enjoy playing with the ice cubes, and I am certain that these silly water games that I prepare for them, also act as a reminder that they should drink water. 
The secret with cats is that they are in general joyful and playful, and so, whenever  I want them to do certain things, I invent games or pleasurable mind traps.
(You need to be a sort of cat-person, yourself, to get along with cats!)
Hope this was useful,
Kind regards
Maria
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I wanted to know if anyone is an expert in the area of genotoxicity and reproductive toxicity and has the animal lab facility that we can collaborate.
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Hello
please , read the articles and ppt in attachment i hope help you .
Good Luck
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I get higher creatinine serum levels in the treated groups receiving the androgenic compound compared to the control and untreated ones, is there is any explanation for this? Thanks you all
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So glad it helped!
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what is the method for producing granule-form vaccine?
 Production of Animal Vaccines in Baculovirus-Infected insect Larvae.
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Hello Morkaz Happy new year good luck 
Vaccines are drugs used to increase the body's ability to combat disease organisms. Most vaccines are designed to help the body fight off a specific type of bacterium, protozoan, or virus. Some vaccines have been developed to stop the growth of cancer cells and to protect military troops from biological warfare.
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Does anyone know if there are any articles written on the impact of cold or warm fronts on the gestation period of farmed animals and where I could find them if there are any? Thank you for any directions.
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can anyone help me in installing a differential pressure gauge in animal house (preclinical) and tell me the range of pressure to be maintained.
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Dear David
Did you find the answer you were looking for in the documents?
Pressure is only used as a monitoring parameter for directional airflow. However, Differential pressure is not direcly proportionate to directional airflow, So the exact pressure steps will depend on the leakiness of the doors and fabric as well as the design of the ventilation system. Typical pressure steps between two are 15 and 50 Pascal, but the direction of airflow will depend on the scientific requirement over pressure for SPF and under-pressure for biocontainment. Document 2 gave values for clean room (GMP/SPF) requirements, which is typically at greater equal 15 Pa. If the barrier is for biocontainment larger pressure steps are typically used to create a robust pressure cascade. There are many different manometer types that can be used, dependent on the level of monitoring that is required. in the most simple ones a liquid column is displaced and where the differential does not need to be monitored continuously, and does not need to be alarmed these can be very cost efficient and easy to maintain. Others operate without liquid (which can evaporate), but are more expensive and harder to calibrate.
Best regards, Uwe
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I wondered what n number to use to do analysis on the colon of mice when doing FACS analysis?
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This is the link to a website that we used in one of our statistical analysis classes. It has a sample size calculator but also gives information about how to properly use it and what types of things you should be considering. We found it very useful, hopefully you will too. http://homepage.stat.uiowa.edu/~rlenth/Power/ 
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Can We Use Human or Other Animal Serum in Cytogenetics Analysis Instead of Fetal Bovin Serum FBS ?
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Try to go serum-free! See attached article.
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Bacterial load of animal cages?
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I work in the zoo sector and it would be interesting if you could survey zoos in the AZA and/or EAZA about their policy on this because from the many zoos I am familiar with, I have never heard of zoos having a maximum threshold that they monitor. In the UK, the governing body DEFRA sure doesn't. I expect there to be a difference between North American and European zoos which could prove very interesting to analyse.
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Phytoreo viruses are being recognized the insects and able to multiply in insects, it means plant viruses may also multiply in invertebrate animals. In the evolution of the viruses there will be a chance for the above.
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To my knowledge there is no description of a virus able to infect both plants and vertebrates. The reason is likely that the antiviral defenses are very different in those two kingdoms. Plant and insect use post transcriptional gene silencing, when vertebrate use pattern recognition and lots of antiviral effectors. This means that from plant to animals, a virus has to adapt in order to face the new antiviral system.
Animals are much exposed to plant and bacterial viruses, through contact, or eating or even drinking. They evolved a strong antiviral system that creates an effective barrier against those pathogens.Still viruses can adapt to a new host.
I happened, example for the circovirus: "A plant virus that switched to vertebrates" http://www.virology.ws/2010/04/26/a-plant-virus-that-switched-to-vertebrates/
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I thought the opinion article written by Pieter Roelfsema and Stefan Treue did a great job of explaining the complex issues involved in NHP research, as well as some of the research breakthroughs that have come as a result of NHP research, with positive consequences for brain understanding and human health. The article ends by encouraging researchers to engage in more public outreach to ensure continuing support. But the question of how this could be accomplished is not addressed.
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Dear Andre,
Thanks for pointing this out. There is indeed an increasing awareness among neuroscientists that it is beneficial to become more open about the benefits of our research. We should inform the public about our research to gain support and to combat misinformation.
A useful resource - presumably known to all of us - is www.brainfacts.org, and there are other comparable websites. You can also work together with organizations such as "Speaking of research", and talk to the press when you uncover something new and exciting. I can recommend the paper on this topic by Holder (2014).
All the best,
Pieter Roelfsema
Holdert, T (2014) Standing up for science: The antivivisection movement and how to stand up to it. EMBO Rep. Jun;15(6):625-30
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I just start a project to do animal face recognition, does anyone know some methods to improve the recognition rate?which algorithm is best? thanks very much.
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Hello Yunpeng, it is an interesting problem. I was wondering whether you'd like to do either animal classification or fine-grained animal recognition. The former aims at naming different animals, e.g. tell cat from dog, the latter aims at tell sub-categories of the animal, e.g. tell Affenpinscher from German pinscher. If the former, it is kind of easier, you might use a good classifier (e.g SVM, Random Forest, or more advanced Deep Learning) based on the features extracted from the face bounding box. The latter is relatively more difficult, you might need to localize some key parts on the animal face, like the eyes, months, nose tips, etc, Then extract features from them and feed the features to a classifier. I hope this will help, 
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I asked similar question some time ago and i want to try to get the help once more! During experiments with abdominal writhing induced with acetic acid very different results are obtained! In the same group (control with vehicle) large discrepancy in number of writhing is observed? Also different publications are saying that in 20 minutes the animal has like 100 wriths! That is unbelievable for me! I have never seen more that c.a. 45 wriths during 20 minutes!
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We had also problem with extremely jumpy mice :D Thanks any way 
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Antibiotic type and standard interpretation.
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Thank you, Mehran, Alex. Should I test it recommended by NCCLS also?
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I want information about counting the number of birds and wild animals that die as a result of accidents on the roads.
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You could get data from some hunting bag statistics. But only for those animals which are counted for hunting bags and which really died!
We are working on this topic (a little bit), it is difficult getting accurate data: The hunters do only report the dead animals, the police only counts those accidents where any animal was hit (and only those, where the drivers want to get money from the insurance), but without species (just game animal)
there will always be a big gap: those hit but did not die, those hit and did die somewhere else, those who died on the road but not reported...
However, there is a lot of literature existing: look on the Web of Knowledge
Here are some:
Baker, P. J., Harris, S., Robertson, C. P. J., Saunders, G., & White, P. C. L. (2004). Is it possible to monitor mammal population changes from counts of road traffic casualties? An analysis using Bristol’s red foxes Vulpes vulpes as an example. Mammal Review, 34(1), 115-130.
Blanco, J. C., & Cortés, Y. (2007). Dispersal patterns, social structure and mortality of wolves living in agricultural habitats in Spain. Journal of Zoology, 273, 114-124. doi: doi:10.1111/j.1469-7998.2007.00305.x
Grilo, C., Bissonette, J. A., & Santos-Reis, M. (2009). Spatial-temporal patterns in Mediterranean carnivore road casualties: Consequences for mitigation. Biological Conservation, 142(2), 301-313. doi: 10.1016/j.biocon.2008.10.026
Gryz, J., & Krauze, D. (2008). Mortality of vertebrates on a road crossing the Biebrza Valley (NE Poland). European Journal of Wildlife Research, 54, 709-714. doi: DOI 10.1007/s10344-008-0200-0
Peris, S., Baquedano, R., Sánchez, A., & Pescador, M. (2005). Mortalidad del jabalí (sus scrofa) en carreteras de la provincia de Salamanca (NO de España): ¿Influencia de su comportamiento social? Galemys, 17(1-2), 13-23.
Roberts, C. W., Pierce, B. L., Braden, A. W., Lopez, R. R., Silvy, N. J., Frank, P. A., . . . Alpizar, J. (2006). Comparison of Camera and Road Survey Estimates for White-Tailed Deer. Journal of Wildlife Management, 70(1), 263-267.
Rodríguez-Morales, B., Díaz-Varela, E. R., & Marey-Pérez, M. F. (2013). Spatiotemporal analysis of vehicle collisions involving wild boar and roe deer in NW Spain. Accident Analysis & Prevention, 60(0), 121-133.
Thurfjell, H., Spong, G., & Ericsson, G. Factors affecting wildlife-vehicle collisions. 19.