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Questions related to Animal Physiology
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My SD rats have fasting blood sugar (16-25 mmol/l) after 6 weeks of  STZ-induced diabetes (60 mg/kg) . Can anyone give me the range for FBG in STZ-induced rats?
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Hi Siti Safiah.
Find your answer here
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I want to test the efficacy of a certain plant extract on anemic rats. Anybody with useful suggestion on how to induce anemia in animals?
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I agree with Khalid Al-Salhie
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What are the Minimum required samples for RNA-seq Analysis in poultry diseases (for example, ascites)?
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Hi, Dear Hazhir Gharibi,
It is better that you consider a minimum of three or four replication for each treatment sample, the number of samples depends on fee RNA-seq generally.
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Hello everyone, I have encountered some problems in research, I hope someone can help me. In the blood biochemical analysis of my broiler experiment, the AST (aspartate aminotransferase) of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the positive control group, but there was no significant difference in GGT, LDH and CK. There was no significant difference in growth traits. Therefore, it seems that the treatment group did not cause physiological adverse effects. In the carcass traits, the breasts relative weight of the treatment group was significantly higher than that of the positive control group. Then can I infer whether AST can be used as a positive indicator of animal growth?
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I following the best answer.
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I read a few articles related infant & dog's auditory preference. They both mentioned "baby talk" could be more attractive to infant & dog. And my team and I want to find out the reason from evo-psych. We already know one of necessary condition is high pitch, and had some data about high pitch preference for dogs (we took gaze duration to be parameter).
Our project focus on evo-psych puzzle, so we want to exclude the physical or physiological reason to explain why dog prefer high pitch. I tried to do some reviews to know physical trait of high pitch. But I almost found nothing help because I barely know the domain knowledge of acoustics. So if physical trait of high pitch could explain why mammal like human and dog has such preference, then we should reschedule our project.
Thank you for response such fundamental question.
Sincerely, Jhou.
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Higher sounds (including out of the auditory range of humans) are also emitted by small prey animals which may supplement scavenging in feral dogs and engage prey drive even in companion dogs and those that have had prey-seeking traits bred out. They seem to engage the attention of most dogs which is why squeaky toys work.
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Hello there
As we know researches are being rapidly evolved in most majors. I would like to know where animal reproduction physiology researches will go to in future. where do animal reproduction physiologist see themselves in 5 to 10 years later?
In my opinion, it is vital for researchers in this field to find out which aspects of their major define future studies and accordingly researchers should empower their knowledge in growing areas.
It is my pleasure to know your idea about the future of animal reproduction physiology researches and related areas.
I would appreciate if any related papers, sites and other stuffs be suggested.
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Increased research pertaning to infertility, it physiological and pathological causes as prevelence of infertility in animals is presenting increased trend with time. Similarly, retention of placenta and increase in dystocia, it is all related to chane in physiology.
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I’m new in the field of measuring heart rate and heart rate variability. I’m particularly interested in measuring heart rate in dogs and sheep in connection to stress. I would be very grateful for some advice regarding the equipment for monitoring the heart rate-what monitors do you use, what do I have to pay attention to (there are so many heart beat monitors on the market-which one is good and why…)?
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Polar is the best way to go. The chest belt is worth trying. I recommend contacting directly Polar, they have the longest experience with measuring ECG recordings.
It would be worth to try microcomputer-based devices (Raspberry Pi and similar ones). What you need is a microcomputer, wifi, and electrodes on a chest belt. It can cost in the order of tens of dollars.
Some colleagues from electronic faculty can put it together. 12 bits wide potential recordings exported into the CSV file will serve as a satisfactory input for any software evaluating ECG recordings.
When you got ECG, you can use complexity measures to follow the complexity of the ECGs. It gives much more data than HRV.
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Hello, I am looking for a publication that would allow me to estimate the metabolic mass of young mice, from their birth to adulthood.
Do you know of any publications?
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Thank you very much for your feedback
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Dear all.
Please share the materials and views on canine and feline feeding. In recent times owners prefer to consult doctors more frequently regarding dog foods, quantity to be offered ingredients etc. And many myths are also associated like salt feeding sugar feeding even people dont like to offer milk to dogs. Please put some light and share your experiences in pet feeding.
Please suggest a balanced feedung schedule for dogs and cats.?
Thanks and regards
Partha
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@
Dogs should eat at least two meals each day, about 12 hours apart. But a breakfast, lunch, and dinner schedule is an equally great option. If more than 12 hours elapses between meals, the stomach can become hyperacidic causing nausea.
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Can anyone provide me protocol for Vitamin D estimation from animal brain tissue.
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Very interesting question
and agree with Respected Bassem Refaat
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I work with female mice and I have this doubt. If they are all put together on the same cage, are all of them on the same estrous cycle stage?
If so, is there any literature that supports this?
I do not measure and/or calibrate estrous cycle because I do a protocol where I don't want the animals to be stressed by it.
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After a period(days) the synchronization will occur
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The period of fertility in birds is correlated with the population of sperm-filled SSTs in the UVJ.
To achieve fertilization, the resident sperm must be released from the SSTs in order to migrate to the site of fertilization, which is infundibulum part of the oviduct.
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Thanks for your reply. But each of these sources points to several mechanisms. But none of them have identified the most important mechanism. In other words, it is still unclear what is the main mechanism of sperm retention for 14-7 days in the bird's oviduct.
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Hi all, I will appreciate if you could direct me to a paper where I can find the stomach pH in crustaceans. I am sure it will vary between species, yet any data will be useful and much appreciated.
Thanks
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It is depend on what time of animal digestibility or other living activity but around neutral pH.
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What is animal cruelty? Is there any limit to it?
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Thank you
Diary R. Sulaiman
!
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Dear RG Colleagues,
When we start a research project with the purpose of publishing and sharing the results in a scientific journal, we are often asked to give the geographical coordinates of our study site where the species has been observed and sampled. The problem is here, when the study concerns a very rare species (animal or plant). My question is: How can we publish works (including the sampling site) on a protected species by preventing it from being annihilated forever by poachers (collector, destructive study, herbalist ...). Lately, I've started to observe and photograph every plant and animal species I found in my region (Mediterranean basin: aquatic and terrestrial environment). I asked myself this question a long time ago because there are endangered species but they continue to survive in secret where people do not have access to find them. Do you agree with me ?!, to be a SELFISH, to admire these species in secret, to never divulge their existence … and avoid seeing them disappear forever…
Thank you for your attention
Abdenour
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Arvind Singh Jean-Pierre Jost Ather-Uz-Zaman Zaman Thank you for your suggestions and comments....My wish is to collect and record available data that can make me say one day: We have to create a protected area in this or that place. I am trying to do my best....with my colleagues and also with your advices...Thank you all of you.
Warm regards
Abdenour
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I want an inhibitor of cytoplasmic malate dehydrogenase from animal, plants, human, yeast, bacteria etc..
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Hello, I would also be very interested in inhibitors of MDH! Thank you!
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I am looking for a book about the concept of transition period in dairy animals and its related metabolic and oxidative challenges.
Any help will be greatly appreciated.
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I hope that these files are useful.
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I'm trying to do research into Behavioural Endocrinology, as I am considering it for my final project for my masters. But I can't seem to find information anywhere, regarding equipment etc. Any help would be appreciated!
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I am trying to find a way and equipment to measure non-invasively, stress and wellbeing. Any suggestions. I have already identified HRV as one modality.
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Hey!
I have been perfusing isolated hearts with KHB supplemented with 4% BSA. With normal KHB I never encountered problems but with BSA some kind of circulatory blockage seems to set in after a few minutes (coronary flow rates drop at constant pressure; pressure rises at constant flow) and the heart enters asystole within ~20min. I have excluded bubbles and other common problems with these preparations as causes.
The only factor determining failure seems to be BSA. I am using plain molecular biology grade one. Some papers I read use fatty acid free BSA, others not. Is purity or other factors an important consideration?
Thank you for all your help.
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Ok, I understand the situation about fatty acids. If it is ok without BSA, well, you have the culprit. You solution pO2 is surely very high around 650-700 mmHg. Hpwever, as you are in anesthesiology, you surely understand that your solution O2 content is very low. Also check your pCO2.Good luck.
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I know it is a carbocyanine-based Mitotracker. Unlike other MTKs like MTK Orange, it doesn't become fluorescent upon oxidation or else. Does anybody have any information regarding how this molecule becomes fluorescent?
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The photophysical properties of these molecules depends on the type of environment they are in, which may allow their free rotation or not.
When rotation is difficult, they fluoresce after excitation. If found free in solution the fluorescence is quenched by rotation (non-radiative pathway).
Mitotracker deep red molecule has a methyl chloride functional site that is sensitive to nucleophilic attacks, most likely from thiol groups found in proteins. Therefore, once the molecule is covalently bound to biomolecules, its rotation becomes difficult and consequently fluoresces.
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I'm trying to install it but it seems the installation process cannot be completed. I follow all the instructions in the .txt doc but still, the .exe file does not run. Has anyone succesfully installed and tested it?
Thanks
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Check ToxTrac, a free software for animal tracking we have developed. Maybe is useful for you. Here is the project site: https://toxtrac.sourceforge.io Here is the project in research gate: https://www.researchgate.net/project/ToxTrac-Free-software-for-animal-tracking
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Dear colleagues,
I would like to start a new research project in which, according to recent articles, I should administer FA through drinking water. I have read a lot of articles that have administered FA through that protocol, but they did not report details. I know the theory from literature, but practical tips would help a lot definitely.
On a footnote, the drinking water protocol is different from gavage!
I hope you could help me with the methodology.
Kind regards,
Baset
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I hope this link will help you
Best wishes
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This is one aspect of reproduction that has no symptoms and is hard to diagnose or detect.
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See this link may be helpful
Best wishes
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I am going to treat the myocardial infarction rats with spironolactone for 8 weeks/56 days. As you know, there are several ways to administer this drug, such as oral (gavage and mixed in rat chow), intraperitoneal and subcutaneous injection. We currently cannot mix it with rat chow.
Which technique do you think is more prior?
How to make the solution of it? Can we make the solution with physiological serum?
Your advice and suggestions will be much appreciated and welcomed.
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It is possible to determine some markers of oxidative stress or generally animal condition for single gammarid? If yes could you suggest some method?
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We want to determinate electrolytes (among other things) in rats with diabetes insipidus secondary to the removal of the neurohypophysis but we are having problems with urine Na and Cl electrolytes.
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Dear collegues,
I am not a researcher investigating animal behavior, but I need some data and impression from the field.
From evolutionary perspective, weak individuals, for example these who are injured have less chance to survive.
Is it the case, that in some species (I am not talking about humans now), others take care about injured, weakened individuals thus increasing the chances to survive? Which species exhibit such a behavior?
To simplify, are there examples in animal world that some representatives of e.g primates take care about injured, weakened individuals?
Thank you
Wacław
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My experience is mostly with domestic livestock (cattle, sheep, swine, horses, chickens, turkeys). Among these species, older animals, especially mammalian females, will protect young from predators. I have seen videos where many females in a herd of cattle will work together to keep bears from attacking a calf or weak calf. Hens will protect their chicks. I have not seen this type of behavior toward aged, older or dying mature animals. This behavior may be different than your interests, because the young are the future of the herd or flock, whereas the older animals represent the past.
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Dear colleagues,
I am going to induce diabetes in C57/BL6 mice using a high dose of (150 mg/Kg) STZ. I should be able to keep them for 16 weeks after induction of diabetes.
May my potential dose have a lot of mortality rate?
Is it better to have anesthetized mice at the time of intraperitoneal injection?
What are the solutions to prevent the death of mice over the project? I know the theory of literature, but practical tips would help a lot definitely.
I would be grateful if you could give me anything about the induction of diabetes by a single dose of STZ.
Kind regards,
Baset
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Dear Abdulbaset!
I have used the 150mg/kg STZ protocol in Swiss mice for many years. It is a very good protocol for severe diabetes induction but the death rate is really high( about 40%).
I'm not sure about to keep them during 16 weeks after induction.I use to keep them during 3 weeks after induction.
Anyway, I use to keep a 30% glucose solution during 24 ou 48 hours after induction. It heps to prevent the death by the initial hypoglycemia. I also change the cages every day to avoid the death by cold exposure ( high urinary rate ).
I hope I had helped.
Good luck.
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Dear colleagues,
I am going to induce acute myocardial infarction in rats by LAD ligation. We do not have access to ECHO and ECG to confirm the MI model. Does the observation of damaged area (color changes) after LAD ligation confirm our model?
I am just looking for MI-induced fibrosis.
I would be very grateful if you could give me some advice.
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Dear Dr. Gennadiy
Great and most useful articles!
I truly appreciate your kind help.
Best wishes to you for success in your career and life!
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Hello
I am looking for a rat somatostatin (SST) 96 well plate ELISA with a required sample (plasma) volume of 10-20 µl, preferably from a US/Canada based supplier. All SST ELISA kits that I have been working with so far require a sample volume of 50µl in duplicates.
I know that in the case of small volume samples, original samples can be diluted to solve the problem, but I'm trying to avoid dilutions as much as possible, so instead I'm hoping to find an alternative ELISA with the minimum undiluted sample volume required.
Thank you in advance,
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Thanks for your input Molly!
ELISA kits are cheaper, less time consuming and much safer compared to RIA kits, so they are usually preferred over RIA. Also, as far as I know, RIA kits are not common for rat somatostatin at least.
As for EIA, I believe ELISA is basically a form of competitive EIA.
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I want to identify sea anemones in muddy coastal waters (subtidal zone).
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Hy, Moslem
The best (and more complete) key for sea anemones identification is, undoubtedly, that of Carlgren 1949:
CARLGREN, O. 1949. A survey of the Ptychodactiaria, Corallimorpharia and Actiniaria. Kungliga Svenska Vetenskapsakademiens Handlingar, Fjärd Serien Band 1 (1): 1-121
To understand and recognize the structures you need to identify in the material, please consult:
STEPHENSON, T.A. 1928. The British Sea Anemones. Ray. Soc. v. I n.113 (1927), p. 1-148, figs 1-41 t. 1-14
Concerning methodology, when you collect the anemones you have first to anesthetizate them in a small bowl with sea water, using either a small amount of menthol crystals on the surface of the water or slowly drip a solution of magnesium chloride (or sulfate) and wait until the specimen gets anesthetizated (when it doesn't contract the tentacles anymore). This procedure causes the tentacles to keep exposed and the tissues and other structures, in general, don't look contracted! Then, fix the specimens in a 10% saline formaldehyde solution, better prepared using sea water of the same area. Finally, you have to prepare the material to obtain histological sections, stain these sections with Hematoxilyn and Eosin and/or using a trichromic dye (like Mallory's or Gomori's). All these methodologies can be obtained in a good book of Histological Techniques.
Good luck, Moslem. When you get your slides prepared post me a photo, please!
Best wishes,
Priscila.
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We are interested to show evolutionary functionality of the circadian system. Specifically we are now interested whether timing of male display (both seasonal and daily timing) might be generate more attraction for females and possibly lead to more offspring with higher survival. We think about systems like morning song in birds (dawn chorus) or roaring behaviour in red deer. There may be many more examples out there, but the literature is not easily disclosed. We would love to obtain insights from specialists in these behaviours.
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Bart Kempenaers might have something for you. It is not necessarily about the displaying, but early (song)birds are probably more successful in extra-pair affiliations
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Is there a macula and fovea? 
What is the vascular pattern in their retinas? 
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I am looking for concentration of nitrogen in fecal matter of different waterbirds.
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Dear Sagar,
the paper below has been accepted for publication in Ecology and should be available soon. According to the abstract: " The dataset includes 10,534 observations from freshwater and marine animals of N and/or P excretion rates. These observations represent 491 species, including most aquatic phyla." Sounds interesting.
Kind regards,
Michał Filipiak
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In the Paxinos & Watson mouse atlas, each page/slice has a coordinate grid and is referenced to some landmark (for coronal, A/P relative to bregma).
The reference mouse atlas from the Allen Institute is available as segmented 2D figures, and also in 3D (Brain Explorer 2).
Is there a way to determine the stereotaxic coordinates of a point in the Allen mouse atlas (either in the 2D slice viewer, or the 3D viewer), referenced to anatomical landmarks (such as bregma)?
Thank you!
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Did a little digging. The original 2008 version of the reference atlas has coordinates:
I can't tell you why the new atlas doesn't have coordinates but I suspect that the answer is that although they generated a highly detailed and accurate atlas, the high-throughput nature of their process means they started with extracted brains and did not have a good system to register them to the skull. The white paper for the original reference atlas (http://www.nature.com/nature/journal/v445/n7124/extref/nature05453-s03.pdf) suggests that the coordinate system was provided by registering their hierarchical atlas with that of Paxinos and Watson, rather than measurements they made themselves.
In terms of stereotaxic surgery, 1600+ averaged skull landmarks referenced to brain anatomy with data on variability in suture shape and landmark location would be more helpful. But I guess we will have to settle for expression patterns of 1000s of genes and extensive circuit tracing...
One way to work around this limitation would be to data mine their viral injection coordinates (http://help.brain-map.org/download/attachments/2818171/InjectionSites_and_StereotaxicCoordinates.pdf?version=1&modificationDate=1456192675271), cross-reference to the connectivity atlas, and fit a coordinate system that way. That would only work if they used a systematic way to mark landmarks, but I imagine they standardized that process as well. Either way it sounds like a lot of work so I'm sure that's why it hasn't been done!
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Hi all. Is anybody of you experienced with measuring folate levels in mouse plasma? If yes, which method do you usually use and what levels do you expect in a healthy adult mouse? Thanks lots for your help!
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Dear Dr. Ulrike Weber ,, this link can help you
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I need to know how long after ovariectomy in rodents eliminates the physiological effect of estrogens and if I recommend some paper about this.
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Hi Cinthia,
3 weeks should be already ok to get rid of estrogen influence, but to be on the safe side we always wait 6 weeks, especially to be sure to get rid of estradiol stored in the animal's fat. Also note that there could be a local estradiol synthesis in the brain, depending on which tissue you want to analyse.
Two papers that you could reference/read : Brock and Bakker, Endocrinology 2013; Konkle and McCarthy, Endocrinology 2011. 
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Dear researchers,
Does anyone have any reference or an article (review) about the types of intestinal amino acid transporter and its actions in poultry other than article entitled absorption of amino acids and peptides by C. R. Krehbiel and J. C. Matthews).
Regards
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Dear Khalid Hassan,
Thank you for your suggestions.
But as I say I need review about amino acid transporters.
Best regards
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Dear Researchers,
I am working on a behavioral and molecular study in a transgenic mice model. I want to evaluate the improvement in cognitive ability among mice after using certain agents. I want to know if it is necessary to test Morris maze among both male and female? 
Please, if possible provide me with an article to read more about this. 
Regards, 
Mohammed 
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I agree that it is important for any of the studies to test both males and females.  Long history of differences in neuronal plasticity alone makes such studies important.
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I intend to use the Callaway approach with (EnvA-deltaG) rabies virus for monosynaptic retrograde tracing. My idea is to inject, at the same time as the rabies, the 'classical' retrograde tracer Fast Blue, as a kind of positive control. Does anyone have experience with that?? I'm worried that Fast Blue might somehow disturb the action of the rabies virus..
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Ha, think those are a little bit too big for endocytosis? ;)
1. The *very* nice thing about these beads is that they do not fill the processes: the signal is only in the soma, and is punctate (probably clumps/vesicles filled with many beads). With reasonably good imaging, you can readily distinguish between "filled" red cells like you'd get from RV, and bead-labeled cell bodies. Have a look at the (Kiritani et al) paper that I attached - this is what Taro did: RV-GFP together with two different colors of beads; I think he has a figure where you can see the difference in labeling pattern.
2. Have a look at the retrobead spectra here, if you like: https://lumafluor.com/Information.php
3. The other option is to go with cholera toxin subunit B (CTB), conjugated to a dye, for instance one of the Alexa variants. You can get quite a range. I've used CTB-Alexa-647 when I already have red and green dyes in the tissue. Of course, you'll need an imaging system that can detect far red. I believe you can get CTB conjugated to other dye families too. This will give you a cytosolic signal, unlike the Lumafluor beads. As I recall, in the (Kiritani et al) paper, Taro also used CTB together with RV. 
I can't say whether either of these options is better than Fast Blue, but at least they've been used (and published) in conjunction with RV.
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How to estimate the age of rodents and carnivores?
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There are several methods that can be applied to dead individuals or museum specimens (skeletons). In the latter case, the analyses of tooth wear or baculum (os penis) in carnivores, for instance. The analysis of the dry weight of the eye lens or the analysis of the growth of the long bones are others.
This review is old, but recent literature on this topic, as to my knowledge, is scanty: 
Morris, P. (1972). A review of mammalian age determination methods. Mammal review, 2(3), 69-104. 
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Dear all,
Any suggestion for correct assessment of Heart Rate Variability in Dogs especially in the frequency domain?
Thanks,
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Time domain measures are universal (see link attached)
Put any data and you will see something.
You may expect pronounced RSA.
However concerning frequency domain I have some methodological doubts. The standards are for humans. The HF range is centered on the respiratory frequency 0.3 Hz. The LF range is centered on the Mayer wave frequency: 0.1 Hz. The border between them is a compromise: low frequency modulation of the respiration will fall into LF (or lower) anyway.
1. What is respiratory frequency in dogs of the breed you use?
2. What is the Mayer wave frequency? In rats it is 0.4 Hz instead of 0.1 Hz in humans.
Once I've heard that in dogs it is approximately the same as in humans.
In order to use it safely you would need a good reference for that; unfortunately I don't have any, but concerning the human frequency band definition: caveat emptor.
Cheers
Teodor
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I'm working on intestinal protozoans of poultry. I have an objective to estimate the impact of damage of parasites on the productivity of the poultry I'm working with. I am not completely sure I know what parameters to measure and how to measure them. Thanks.
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What type of poultry are you working with? With broilers you would look at growth rate and feed conversion. You could also look at breast muscle (as a % of BW) if you wanted to know if yield was affected. Breast muscle growth is hampered more than other muscles when nutrition, management, or environmental conditions are compromised. 
In laying hens, what you measured would depend on how old the birds were. You could look at growth traits in pullets, but would focus on egg production traits (number, egg mass, feed conversion) later on. 
These would all be secondary effects to the direct damage the protozoa are causing. Measuring these secondary effects will not be as important as directly assessing this damage.  
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I know many literature on host specificity of herbivore insects, that is herbivore insects rely on a subset of plant taxa for feeding and breeding. Then how about non-herbivore insects? Do non-herbivore insects show prey specificity?
Thanks.
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"Non-herbivore" is a very generic term, it also includes mycophagous insects, saprophagous, and so on. But I think your question refers principally to the carnivorous insects and particularly to zoophagous insects on other insects (= entomophagous insects), which comprise predators and parasitoids. Even among entomophagous insects, there are various degrees of magnitude of the food spectrum, according to different species; therefore there are polyphagous, oligophagous, monophagous insects even among them ... if you want, you can search and find many examples. The first one which comes to mind is suggested by the cases of biological control interventions against insect pests accidentally introduced in new countries, by using their specific antagonists (often parasitoids) specifically collected in the country of origin of the pest, and secondarily introduced in order to take advantage of the activity of these beneficial insects in the same new countries. One example of monophagous parasitoid: Encarsia berlesei, useful against the scale Pseudaulacaspis pentagona.
Regards,
Rinaldo Nicoli
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While working in Ghana, I came across a number of severely abnormal marine turtle hatchlings, including ones with only one eye (in the middle of the head), deformed heads (skull deformations), deformed spines, and co-joined twins.
It seems very odd that this was common on one beach, but not on any other beach I've worked on.
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Some years ago I've worked for Projeto Tamar at an olive ridley rookery in Brazil (Pirambu), an area where arribada does not occur. During the season I was there, a couple of nests presented a high proportion of hatchlings with abnomal morphology such as deformed jaws that did not close. As far as I remember one particular nest was in an hatchery and should have experience similar conditions to the remaining nests there. By then, my supervisors suggested it could maybe relate to hybrid nests. Not sure if anyone there looked into the matter.
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How to distinguish between the scats of Cats ( Leopard, clouded leopards, jungle cat, marbled cat, leopard cat), civets (small and large indian civets)  and canids (Dhole, golden jackel)?
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the most secure way would be DNA Barcoding but this is quite expensive and not always easy to do if the scats aren´t fresh. The other way is to measure the scats (especially the diameter) and compare it with a book ( for african mammals for example Scatalog by Kevin Murray). Then you can wash them until you only have hairs left (most of them will be prey hairs). You then have to separate different types of hair and determine them under a microscope using reference hairs. They all have a different medulla and cuticula structure. I´ve done this for Leopard, Hyaena and Jackals in Namibia.
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we are conducting a research about hyperlipidemia and I need some expert's opinion regarding my question
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What makes you think that making 10% solution in itself is important?
As long as the dose used is what you wish to test, you will be fine. It matters not one whit whether you begin with 10%, 8.273% or 3.14159265% stock! 
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I am currently working with triton x-100 and i was just wondering whether I could make a 10% stock solution of triton x-100 to induce hyperlipidemia in rats. another one is that I don't unerstand how i can make a 200 mg/kg dosage of this solution if it is in liquid form.
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Sharmaine,
The specific gravity is the only thing you need to know, assuming it is quite different than one. The rest of it is simple math and you should be able to handle that. 
A quick check reveals that the specific gravity of Triton X100 is 1.065 at 25C, meaning that 1 ml of it weighs 1.065 gm.
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I would like this information, preferably from reliable data collection, in order to carry out FAR dung survey methods to estimate camel populations in Dhofar, Oman. It could save me a lot of time!
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Dear Lawrence
As long as I understand, you want to get a figure of the camel population and better a picture of the camel grazing/browsing pressure. Such grazing pressure is probably as heterogeneous as the foraged plant distribution, so sampling may be very tricky... I don't know about the defecation habits of camels, but very mobile animals or animals with latrine behaviour (horses) may defecate far from the grazing area...
Did you consider using remote image analyses for a better sampling?
Why not using last available technologies (drone + RGB or IR camera + GPS) for counting camels on large areas, as well as getting valuable plant density and so on... including  seasonal variations in green matter availability.
Local knowledge about camel grazing behaviour may help to design the drone flight sequences in order to optimise the observation of grazing camels (probably better early in the morning or late in the afternoon, when long shadows should make easier image analysis).
Regards
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first couple of hour, within 24  hours, 3 days post surgery?
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I would not choose one, but rather do a time course.
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I am recently doing experiments on CA1 pyramidal neurons from adult mice to induce the GABA tonic current by bicuculline in the presence of TTX (0.2uM), APV (50uM) and CNQX (20uM), but the tonic current is always downward not upward as previously reported. Does anyone have same experience or any suggestion. I excluded the contamination of bicucullline.
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If you are using a standard ACSF recipe, your reversal potential shouldn't be the issue.  Have you considered that this is an effect of dialysis of the neuron with your Cs+ based solution.  As dialysis occurs, you will get a progressive block of K+ channels which will depolarise your cell and consequently increase your "downward" holding current over the first few minutes.  How soon after break-in are you starting your experiment (are you sure your baseline is stable)?  You should be able to assess if this is the problem by making the same recordings, but perfusing vehicle instead of bicuculline.  If this is the problem, wait around 5 minutes after break-in for your baseline to stabilise before you start your experiment.
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estrus is clearly expressed by physical activity, what of diestrus, metestrus 
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Vaginal smear methods is a simple way to indentify every stage of cycle. I have some publication about it. the methods as follow:
Sampling of vaginal smear were done by scraping the inside of the epithelial cells of the vaginal wall using a cotton. The smear were stainined using Giemsa.. Determination of the estrous phase is was carried out by observing the morphological changes of vaginal epithelial cells. Epithelial cell shape of each estrous cycle have different characteristics. Criteria phase of the estrous cycle was determined by a percentage based on the description of the morphology of epithelial cells was observed
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Birkhead in his book "Bird Sense" (2012) writes that unfortunately there is very little published about touch receptors in the bills of small birds.
He also refers to the work of Herman Berkhoudt (1980, 1985)  who has studied this issue and who found several touch receptors including Merkel cell receptors, double-column Merkel cell receptors and many Herbst corpuscles, all those in a zebra finch bill (Birkhead 2012). Other species beaks may contain even more receptors. I also tend to believe that both cormorants and pelicans may well have lots of such yet unstudied receptors in their beaks or pouches or other parts of their front bodies which help them locate prey. Unfortunately, I suppose there is no or very little research done in such anatomical and physiological issues on birds right now, so we may discover them after many years.
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Thank you very much indeed Kostis, this is exaactly the kind of information I am tryingto  collect right now.The article by dr Martin is excellent. I have already written to thim and asked hime to send some clarifications. 
Big thanks
Giorgos
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I would like to know the precise caloric value of the average daily food intake for an adult vervet monkey (or cercopithecines). I would like to study them in the wild but I haven't been successful so far in finding literature on the species caloric value for an average day.
Thanks,
Sincerely,
Miguel
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Animal Behaviour
Volume 115, May 2016, Pages 1–10
 
Foraging vervet monkeys optimize travel distance when alone but prioritize high-reward food sites when in competition
Julie A. Teichroeba, , ,
William D. Aguadob
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hello;
I'm searching for some methods to measure intestinal food absorption in rats.
thanks.
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As DR Kan wrote there are several methods in books and literature. but I prefer to test new protocol for rodents which used in poultry; please read about Some MARKERS such as chrome. you can add some determined chrome to their feeds after eating by them, you can evaluate residuals in their faeces. As previously mentioned, this method is used in poultry to measure of digestibility or absorption of feed, but search it about rodents, indeed.
Regards,
Mehdi
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Animals have mitochondial where oxidative phosphorylation can occur but what happens in bacteria; how do they carry out this process?
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In Animals they use mitochondria for oxidative phosphorylation.
But in bacteria they lack specialized structures like mitochondria so they uses their cell membrane for the purpose of oxidative phosphorylation and it involves iron as a major component for electron transport. It also uses various type of flavins and some how chytochrome that contains cytochrome oxidase for oxidation purpose.
The main difference between eukaryotic and prokaryotic oxidative phosphorylation is that bacteria and archaea use many different substances to donate or accept electrons. This allows prokaryotes to grow under a wide variety of environmental conditions. In E. coli, for example, oxidative phosphorylation can be driven by a large number of pairs of reducing agents and oxidizing agents. The midpoint potential of a chemical measures how much energy is released when it is oxidized or reduced, with reducing agents having negative potentials and oxidizing agents positive potentials.  
Respiratory enzyme                                              Redox pair
Formate dehydrogenase                                      Bicarbonate / Formate
Hydrogenase                                                          Proton / Hydrogen
NADH dehydrogenase                                         NAD+ / NADH
Glycerol-3-phosphate dehydrogenase             DHAP / Gly-3-P
Pyruvate oxidase                                                  Acetate + Carbon dioxide / Pyruvate
Lactate dehydrogenase                                       Pyruvate / Lactate
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I was told that females of Atlantic Spotted Dolphin tend to get more spots after going through pregnancy, due to hormonal variation, in the same way some women notice changes in pigmentation during pregnancy.
Any opinions on this? 
I´ve been looking for papers regarding this topic but found none myself...
Thanks!
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its not true.Spotted dolphins are born without spots, they are dark gray on their backs graduating along their sides to a white belly. At approximately four years of age they begin to get spots. As the years go on, black spots fill in their lighter bellies and then upward, while white spots fill in along their upper sides and back. The older adults become so fused with spots their bellies appear almost black with white specks Female Spotted Dolphin reach maturity around 12 years old.
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I just found a tooth in the zygomatic arch in a marsupial skull, I have never seen that before. I want to know if anyone already seen that too.
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that´s a quite interesting picture, even in a puma...
I think is really strange to see teeth in bones related to the orbit or the temporal region, and even sranger in mammals (snakes and other reptiles present teeth in bones pertainig to the palatal roof such as vomer and palatines). Maybe this "teeth" that you see there is rather a teratoma, a tumor that grows teeth, hair and bone... In humans those tumors are removed, but maybe in this felid the teratoma growed until reached the skin surface and opened causing an infection...
cheers!
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Hi everyone ! would like to know  about exact  difference between negative   and positive control in PCR
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A positive control is one that you expect to work under the conditions given.  The positive control will test your master mix, MgCl2 amounts, primer annealing temperature, and extension times.  If your positive control does not work, those results indicate that something is wrong with your annealing or extension times or temperatures, or something is wrong with your MgCl2 or master mix set up. If your positive control does work and your test samples do not, then there could be something else going on such as not enough or too much template.  I will often use a plasmid with the desired sequence I want to amplify for my positive control (typically around 500 pg as an amount).
A negative control for PCR is one which should not give you amplicons, typically the negative control will contain no template or will have one or the other primer.  Setting up two negative controls, each containing only the forward or reverse primer, should not provide visible amplicons.  Therefore, any visible bands might be a result of contamination or multiple opposing binding sites for the designed primers. 
Short and sweet of it: A negative control is one you expect not to work under the conditions.  A positive control is one you expect to work and to provide you with the expected result.
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It is known that women have higher brain perfusion than men, but I'm strugling on finding reportes about mice in physiological conditions. I'm using 8-10 month mice and DCE-MRI, but evidence from any other technique or rodent would be of great value. Thanks in advance!
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Thank you for the reference, however it refers to vessel diameter and not cerebral blood flow. Since females have larger vessel, does the perfusion is also smaller?
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It will enhance the animal population in the community provided the cows are healthy.
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I want to knwo I if there is an assay kit that is easy to be used and specific for quantifying the levels of different cytokines in the blood of dogs. 
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Thanks
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I want to work on pesticides and heavy metal contamination in egret, which is a least concerned bird in red data book, but is an important bird in agricultural system.
i need 4-5 ml blood from this bird and some eggs (4-5). what are the laws that i shall follow before perusing my experiment.  
if i need to take permission from some  government agency or some thing like that?
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Hi Sachin
   First you have to get work permit from your college and submit letter of it to CCF or DCF of your district. 
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Hi. I was wondering if someone know how to use ImageJ to automatically measure head width, length, area and perimeter of ram sperm. 
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To have good results, the best way is to do it manually and parameter after parameter.
Automatic count can only be applied to sperm cells count that seem to not be really important in this case.
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The calcium-sensing receptors (CaSR), are receptors senses levels of calcium ion in the human body, where are they located? blood vessels? parathyroid gland? or where?
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Hi Taha,
Also this web resource is usually quite nice to check tissue expression of any of your favorite proteins.
Hope this helps. Norbert
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There are studies on how animals are predated, but do we have much of an idea about how many animals die from predation versus other causes such as emaciation, desiccation, injury, infanticide and siblicide, disease, and ‘old age’?
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Well this topic has attracted a huge range of comments, and I find it particularly interesting to consider what people think of as "causal". I return to the duality here of proximal vs ultimate causes of death. There's a lot of comment here discussing parasites, diseases and other immune compromises (cancer being in this category to my mind). From the perspective of the organism, these are the proximal cause of death, but surely not the ultimate cause in most cases? Most animals have an immune system that can deal with these kinds of assaults unless the immune system itself is stressed by an over-arching ecological cause. My own bias leads me to think about energetic stress, water stress, or some other cause of chronic stimulus (like the semelparity examples).
Similarly, predation and misadventure turn up a lot in telemetry studies as causes of death (at least in my limited experience with fauna of conservation significance in Australia). With a proximal cause like this it's even more difficult to unpick an ultimate cause. Was the victim weakened in such a way as be unable to avoid the predator? Was it a species of predator against which the victim had no evolved defences (Australia is good for examples like this)? Was the predator a particularly fit example of its species? Is this all just down to chance?
As previously stated by all, a really broad question, but I think before you get at questions like the one raised by Emmy Leung you need to understand how proximal and ultimate causes interact. How can you ask whether anthropogenic disturbance has increased animal deaths if you don't understand how anthropogenic disturbance can influence causes of death? Road trauma is pretty easy to understand, but the increased hunting efficiency of predators in fragmented landscapes resulting from increased movement capacity along roads is a pretty convoluted thing to unravel. I'm not sure that I've ever seen that quantitatively linked to increased deaths in animal populations, but that is one of the environmental management positions that we work from here in Australia.
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Hello.
I need know the mechanism of action BD1063. Is antagonist of sigma 1 receptor but I can't find a paper whit mechanism.
Thanks for your time.
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Rebeca, busca la siguiente referencia ( see the next reference):
Behav Brain Res. 2016 Jan 15;297:196-203. doi: 10.1016/j.bbr.2015.10.013. Epub 2015 Oct 14.
Ethanol-related behaviors in mice lacking the sigma-1 receptor.
Valenza M, DiLeo A, Steardo L, Cottone P, Sabino V.
Saludos!
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I'm working on snail project but there is some numbers I just can't find such as the substitution rate, mortality rate, and fertility rate. I need those rates to plan the total number of animals.
The specie is the Helix Aspersa Maxima.
If anyone knows something about this species, please, share! Thanks 
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Thanks !
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I'm looking for a diet to make my rats obese, is there anyone who could help me?
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Hi,
check this article, i found it very relevant
Methods Mol Biol. 2012;821:421-33. doi: 10.1007/978-1-61779-430-8_27.
A mouse model of diet-induced obesity and insulin resistance.
good luck!
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I have recorded meerkats in zoo, and need exact discrimination of call types, becacuse i cant sort them from behavioural context. I will be glad if someone cant help me. I can send wave files of calls. Thanks!
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Dear Erik,
Ask Marta Manser: marta.manser@ieu.uzh.ch
All the best,
Indrikis
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Hello,
I would like to use Spike2 to compare evoked potentials from two signals recorded with a Neuralynx Cheetah Data Acquisition System with different Input Range values. As I need to compare the amplitude of the responses I am not sure if I need to apply some correction in the voltage scale or if the input range does not affect these values.
Thank you very much in advance!
Arturo
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you will be welcome !
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I need to estimate (with power calculations) how many animals would be needed for my experiments with primary mouse hepatocytes. Assuming good yeilds. 
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Efficient isolation yields 20-30 million hepatocytes/liver after Percoll gradient.
Typical seeding would be 0.25 million cells/mL. That would be 0.5 million / well in a 6-well plate. 
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If using large fish, I can use its blood to assess osmolality, electrolyte content, stress indicator (such as blood glucose), hormone, etc, what if i use small fish? is whole body measurement reliable enough?
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You cannot use whole body values instead of blood values for many hormones, since their targets in the body can be widely varying in the tissues, and because blood volume is only 3-4 % of the total fish volume. So, even if you in large fish, where blood sampling succeeds easily, see a significant change in a hormone concentration of blood, if hormone binding occurs only in a small percentage of the rest of the body, any change may remain undetected in whole body measurements because of limits of resolution of the methods. Where the hormones are secreted to water (only some of them are), the water measurements can be a useful measure (of changes).
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Langerdoff isolated hart preparation
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Dear Pocholo,
I believe they would, because when you cut axons they do not necessarily die immediately, but still are able to release neurotransmitters for many hours if not days. Plus you have the intracardiac ganglia that sits on top the heart. I have worked on intracardiac ganglion neurons and they definately survive for a long time after dissection. And one would expect them to have at least some, even small, modulatory effect.
best wishes,
Refik
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I have delta N15 data for seabird muscle, but what I really need is the guano. Does anyone know how much that differs?
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Well, for anyone still interested in this question - I ran my own samples for guano and had samples for muscle. The muscle samples I had were for Wedge-tailed shearwater in Hawaii = 9.99 d15N and for the guano that I ran for Newell's Shearwater in Hawaii = 8.2 d15N.  so it is not a direct comparison but it is what I found.  Hope it helps.  
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Dose anybody know the collagen level in the testis of animals, specifically mice? And if there is any difference in the level between human and mice testis?
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