Questions related to Animal Pathology
I am having bacterial strains in the agar plate. I want to extract these strains and store them in glycerol for long-term use. Is there any stepwise procedure for this process?
If I want to transport the sterilized laboratory glassware and bacterial culture in petridshes from one lab to another lab of a short distance then what will be the complete best strategy to avoid the contamination??
A lot of factors can be related to litter quality such as, intestinal health, pododermatitis and growth performances. The question is how and if there was more factors which can be related to characteristics of litter.
I want to isolate DNA and RNA from feline faecal samples in order to determine which pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites...) are present in the samples. The isolation will not be carried out until one week after collection, but immediate freezing is not possible (although 4°C fridge is available). Going through the literature, some recommend the use of RNAlater and some ethanol 95% for sample preservation, depending on which specific pathogen you want to isolate. The isolated DNA and RNA will be sent for NGS. Therefore, if you had to chose only one of both for this purpose, which one would you prefer?
I want to isolate DNA and RNA from faecal and blood samples in order to determine which pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites...) are present in the samples. I currently have one PCR workstation with a HEPA filter. Nevertheless, in order to separate the DNA isolation process from the RNA one, I am planning to buy a new PCR workstation, but the price difference with or without HEPA filter is huge and would compromise the purchase of other necessary equipment. I know it would be great to get the one with HEPA filter, but is it indispensable? Please bear in mind that a UV-lamp would be included in the cabinet no matter which one I choose.
I have collected rats blood plasma, and serum & stored it at -4°C but the problem is that the serum and plasma have preserved more than 1 month.
In the lab, this week, we were working with tissues from chicken with (possible) tuberculosis (the samples came ready for processing from another department of the Faculty). But we had some problems sectioning and staining them.
We did our common protocol for paraffin inclusion¹ (since we are starting to work with pathologic samples), and the tissue was still hard as it damaged the microtome blade. We stained the tissues that were possible to cut, but many fell off. Those that stayed, looks really bad, since they are scratched.
Does anyone has any recommendation for processing and sectioning granulomas?
And what about the missing sections during staining?
¹Protocol: Alcohol 70° 1h; Alcohol 80° 1 h; Alcohol 96° 1 h; Absolute Alcohol 1 h x3; Xileno 1 h x3; Paraffin 1 h x2 (the samples stay in the last paraffin bath some additional hours, because the program finishes at middle of the night).
Sirius Red Staining heart. I don't have a clear yellow color. I always get grayish yellow in many areas in one field and this affect analysis with image J is there is any suggestion ?
Two individuals of an ectoparasite were recovered from the body of a Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) rescued from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. It would be great if someone can help in identifying the same with taxonomic keys or related links/papers. Please find attached the images of the ectoparasite.
Is there any water quality standards for animal drinking? My point is on captive animals at Zoo. If you think it as an absurd then comment here why? Do animals also need the one so? Do they also need to enjoy pathogen free /pollution free water?
The abnormality was on the bifurcation of the uterine horns in female dromedary camel.
Genital tract of female camel aged about 16 years, collected from slaughterhouse.
I would like to check if my amphibian larvae have Anurofeca (Prototheca) in their feces, but the light-microscopic images I found in published papers are too poor quality to be used as reference for identification. My friend Google let me down, too. I'd be very glad for some sharp colour photos!
We are caring endangered snakes for a conservation project. Recently 4 baby snakes form same mother have an enlarged heart. Now two snakes died and other two also have bad condition. As we know, the heart problem on snakes is sometime happened but our snakes eat well and bowel movements also good. Does anyone knows the reason and solution of this situation?
I want to know if anyone knows a software that can help me to estimate number of lesions or classify the pathology find on pictures (regular camera) taken from fresh lungs at the time of necropsy. I want to classify pathology by another method that is not empirical (human eyes).
I am interested in what programs and policies have proved effective in controlling Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in South American countries, and also in the analysis of resulting benefits, as for example export expansion.
Here are images of a rainbow lorikeet (RBL) with a severely swollen head. It was noticed in the backyard of a carer when the local RBLs came to raid the food from her rehab birds. She caught it from behind and brought it to me for advice. It eats well and flies, etc but obviously to be caught using a towel means its survival chances are reduced and the severity of the lesions would obviously be compromising its ability to survive for much longer, especially if it is becoming more severe. The mostly bilaterally symmetrical lesions mainly affect the head but there are also lesions on the back. The affected skin feels rough but the lesion is spongy.
I have not seen anything like this. Any ideas?
I know that humans can sometimes crack their teeth if they are too careless with how they bite, and I was wondering if any animals, which often have much higher bite forces compared to a human, can also break their teeth in a similar manner. I would think that such breakages would also be less of an issue for some groups like reptiles, due to their polyphyodont teeth.
I have prepared carp gill lamella using H&E and observed the number of vacuolated cell were increased following intoxication. I decided to identify whether that's really mucous cell or not.
I think AB-PAS is a good. Please let me know if you have any experience for staining of gill lamella to observe mucous cells.
I'm working on a disease causing fungus which only infects amphibians and I would like know which genes from this fungus are responsible for disease. So to do this, how can I proceed? Any method or protocol to find out these genes?
I’d like to set up collaboration with those who have an access to human and/or canine prostates with cancer and might be interested in 1) exploring interstitial optical studies of prostates with cancer for diagnostic purposes and 2) using gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for prostate cancer detection. The goal is two-fold.
First, we want to establish a correlation between concentrations of major chromophores like Hb, HbO2 and H2O and a presence of PC, as well as measure optical absorption and scattering parameters of the organ on ex vivo excised prostates. Since those prostates will be excised anyway we’d like to perform optical measurements on them after excision before they go for some other destructive tests etc. Once this stage is completed and data make sense, we can proceed to a development of an endoscope for performing such measurements in vivo (illumination via rectum, detection via urethra). The approach would be similar to cystoscopy and will utilize a side-firing fiber (or its variation) as a detector and a cylindrical diffuser as the light source.
Second, we would like to target PC biomarkers (like PSMA) in the gland, functionalize gold nanoparticles with appropriate surface agents, deliver Au NPs to the prostate with cancer and detect them with the same technique (illumination via rectum, detection via urethra). This project is more challenging on a number of reasons: 1) preparing Au NPs for targeting PMSA and still protected from RES that can be efficiently accumulated in the gland has never been done (most studies in vitro); 2) since such studies would require working with Au NPs and patients, FDA approval can be an issue. Doing these experiments in dogs would be almost ideal. However, there are conflicting reports on PSMA as a biomarker in canine prostate cancer (see below). Thus, if PSMA can indeed be used and targeted in canine PC, no human prostates would be involved and entire experiments can be performed on canine prostates.
Why not going with rats, for example? Because of the size of the prostate. We really want to go through cm’s of prostate tissue, and dog’s prostate is almost an ideal substitute for a human prostate (sizewise). On the other hand, we’d like to target realistic Au NPs concentrations in the prostate that can be achieved in such studies. So, I’d really like to get your thoughts and possibly practical suggestions on this aspect. I do believe that such molecular imaging of PC via optical detection of Au NPs may not only improve the early cancer detection but pave the way for Au NPs-mediated thermal therapies for focal cancer ablation (but this is a scientist talking:) The nature of this project would require a multidisciplinary team of oncology urologists, molecular biologists, chemists.
We can detect Au NPs in the prostate via urethra using optical radiance technique. Moreover, the sensitivity is much better than the sensitivity of the clinical CT (see the comparison in the publication and relevant references). We can see <=10^10 Au nanorods in the prostate. It means that with saturating of 1-10% of existing PSMA copies per cell ( close to 10^6 sites per cell), detecting 10^10 Au NPs would correspond to seeing ~10^5 malignant cells in the prostate. This number corresponds to the so-called angiogenic switch indicating very promising potential for early cancer detection.
More details on the method are provided in our recent publication (below). I encourage you to read it, and I’d be happy to discuss logistics and answer questions on this topic because there is no way to address all relevant issues in this posting.
Really looking forward for the feedback!
We currently have a trouble with hydronephosis in 5-weeks male SD rats which being used for our experiments. The clinical results from pathologist stated that our rats (11 out of 15 rats) are unhealthy with hydronephosis, gastric mineralization and cardiomyopathy. SD rats are male and only 5 week old which is quite young and not expected to see hydronephosis.
Is this common physiologic dysfunction in these SD rats or just genetic disorder happening in our rats in Thailand? Any comments would be appreciated.
I have different farms with brown and white layers (LSL and LB), which show a yellowish and foamy diarrhea shortly after being placed on the production farm (18 weeks of life). We could find different germs, but never consistently one except Brachyspira in the ceca. But histology showed a mixed inflammation in the jejunum and ileum, not in the ceca. The chickens don´t die, they are vital, but have this enteric issue and very pale yolks. Has anybody had such a case?
I've found two groups of articles that state different conclusions.
According to Aggarwal S, Ricklis RM, Williams SA, Denmeade SR, "Comparative study of PSMA expression in the prostate of mouse, dog, monkey, and human," (Prostate. 2006 Jun 15;66(9):903-10), "PSMA is not expressed in any significant amount in the prostates of mouse, beagle dog, or macaque monkeys in this study but is expressed in high levels by human prostate. These non-human species, therefore, are not suitable toxicologic models to assess prostate damage from PSMA-activated intraprostatic prodrug/protoxin therapies."
However, in the more recent article of Schmidt S, Fracasso G, Colombatti M, Naim HY, "Cloning and characterization of canine prostate-specific membrane antigen," (Prostate. 2013 May;73(6):642-50) it's stated that "We demonstrate that canine PSMA reveals similar characteristics to human PSMA rendering this protein useful as a translational model for investigations of prostate cancer as well as a suitable antigen for targeted therapy studies in dogs."
Another recent article below appears to support PSMA as well:
Lisa Y Wu, Jacqueline M Johnson, Jessica K Simmons, Desiree E Mendes, Jonathan J Geruntho, Tiancheng Liu, Wessel P Dirksen, Thomas J Rosol, William C Davis, Clifford E Berkman, "Biochemical characterization of prostate-specific membrane antigen from canine prostate carcinoma cells," (Prostate, 74:451-457 (2014))
So, can somebody clarify if PSMA can be indeed a useful biomarker to target in the PC canine model? Thanks!
I couldn't find much (or anything) on reports of spectrally resolved optical properties (absorption and scattering) of thermally coagulated muscle tissue. So, please share your knowledge on the topic. Human, bovine, porcine, canine - anything would be useful. Any group of muscles will do. Single-wavelength measurements will be useful as well.
I am planning to use a BALB/C mice for inducing humoral or immunogenic responses. In literature it is reported that the authors used female mice for this kind of experiments, and this same procedure is reported in all articles that I read. What is the scientific reason for this? The ethical committee need this justification before they approve my proposal.
Two rabbits died with the following post mortem findings:
Frothy discharge from nose, Haemorrhagic Tracheitis, Pulmonary oedema, Consolidation of lungs,Diffuse and patchy necrosis of liver, Pin point haemorrhages in heart, Pericardial effusion, Peritoneal effusion, Petechiae in kidney, Haemorrhage in urinary bladder, Haemorrhagic enteritis
Organ culture revealed highly mucoid pink coloured colonies on Mac Conkey agar. On gram staining, Gram negative bacilli were observed. So P. multocida is ruled out and colony morphology suggests Klebsiella. I want to go for further characterization of the bacterium. But is Klebsiella that pathogenic and prevalent in rabbits?
If somebody can provide numbers for in vitro and in vivo, it would be great!
I'd like to trial an antibody targeting tissue factor expression on bovine monocytes and I'm looking for the standard LPS-treatment to use as a positive control. What's your experience?
i work on fish virology and did an experimental infection of one species of iridoviridea family on some fish species and i have some different results and I have some questions about some of my histopathological results.
There are several citations that say stray dog overpopulation is positively related with the probability of acquiring rabies through dog bites. Despite this fact, it is hard to find any paper with some hard numbers about it.
Twenty eight goats have died on a newly established goat farm on a daily basis due to copper poisoning. No treatment is effective against this problem. The source of the copper is undetectable, every thing has been checked from feedstuffs to drinking water and soil. Still we are searching for the source in various locations and utensils. But daily one goat is dyeing with few hours diarrhea, nasal secretions, loss of appetite and falling on ground then death even after all supporting and shock treatment. All animals behave normally a few hours before illness. All animals are vaccinated against CCPP, Anthrax, and ETV. Clinical symptoms, post-mortum reports, morbidity rate and mortality pattern, failure of antibiotics effect and lab tests support the diagnosis of copper poisoning.