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Animal Pathology - Science topic

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Questions related to Animal Pathology
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I am having bacterial strains in the agar plate. I want to extract these strains and store them in glycerol for long-term use. Is there any stepwise procedure for this process?
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This is the procedure I use for E. coli stocks:
- Take a freshly saturated culture in rich medium (2YT or LB) and spin 2 ml in a 2-ml microfuge tube for 2 min in a microcentrifuge.
- Discard 1 ml of the supernatant and use the remaining 1 ml to resuspend the pellet
- To the concentrated suspension, add 0.5 ml 60% (v/v) sterile glycerol and mix thoroughly by pipetting up and down.
-Transfer the mixture to a cryotube and store at -80 °C
I have kept such viable stocks for decades. When needed, scratch the surface of the frozen stock with a toothipck and use the scratched material to inoculate a fresh culture, without thawing the rest of the stock, which should be returned immediately to the -80°C freezer.
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If I want to transport the sterilized laboratory glassware and bacterial culture in petridshes from one lab to another lab of a short distance then what will be the complete best strategy to avoid the contamination??
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When transporting glassware from one place to another, I do not think that you can avoid contamination 100%, but as much as possible it can be reduced by wrapping these utensils with sterile cellophane and transporting them with the dishes in a sterilized container, knowing that it is better to transfer bacteria through transport media. In general, if you use special selective culture media, you do not need to worry, because such media will prevent the growth of any species other than the one you are investigating.
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A lot of factors can be related to litter quality such as, intestinal health, pododermatitis and growth performances. The question is how and if there was more factors which can be related to characteristics of litter.
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Moisture content , texture and pH of litter material are quality indices that will determine the suitability of such materials for chicken litter. Diseases such as coccidiosis, foot pad dermatitis, E.coli can be severe with chicks housed on poor litter materials.
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I want to isolate DNA and RNA from feline faecal samples in order to determine which pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites...) are present in the samples. The isolation will not be carried out until one week after collection, but immediate freezing is not possible (although 4°C fridge is available). Going through the literature, some recommend the use of RNAlater and some ethanol 95% for sample preservation, depending on which specific pathogen you want to isolate. The isolated DNA and RNA will be sent for NGS. Therefore, if you had to chose only one of both for this purpose, which one would you prefer?
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For DNA it would not matter but for RNA, I would definitely say RNAlater will be the better option.
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I want to isolate DNA and RNA from faecal and blood samples in order to determine which pathogens (viruses, bacteria, fungi, parasites...) are present in the samples. I currently have one PCR workstation with a HEPA filter. Nevertheless, in order to separate the DNA isolation process from the RNA one, I am planning to buy a new PCR workstation, but the price difference with or without HEPA filter is huge and would compromise the purchase of other necessary equipment. I know it would be great to get the one with HEPA filter, but is it indispensable? Please bear in mind that a UV-lamp would be included in the cabinet no matter which one I choose.
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Dear Pardinillia,
RNA extraction area should, as per your understanding too, be ideally separate from any other lab space and must be processed in aspectic conditions.
For DNA extraction, your use case doesn't require a HEPA filter based workstation. If you were to further use that DNA for culturing purposes then that would have become imperative.
Hope it helps
Happy sciencing!
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I have collected rats blood plasma, and serum & stored it at -4°C but the problem is that the serum and plasma have preserved more than 1 month.
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You can study mRNA expressions, they are quite stable.
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Thank you
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This paper may be useful:
Experimental mammary carcinogenesis - Rat models.
Alvarado A, Faustino-Rocha AI, Colaço B, Oliveira PA.
Life Sci. 2017 Mar 15;173:116-134. doi: 10.1016/j.lfs.2017.02.004. Epub 2017 Feb 8. Review.
Best regards,
Daniela
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On the basis of lymphomas in visceral organs in both the diseases.
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Tumours on mucosa of bursa are considered virtually pathognomic for LL, enlargement of feather follicles ( folliculitis) only in MD, Nerve enlargement is common in MD not in LL.
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I have stored the rat's organ at -80°C. How can I do the histopathology of the hippocampus of rats brain? Because at room temperature organ became melted & flexible.
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1. Defrost the hippocampus.
2. Immediately make an incision by the midline in the tissue with a scalpel.
3. Then put the sample in 10% formalin pH 7.2 to fix it for at least 2 hrs.
4. Perform the inclusion in paraffin and continue with the histopathology routine technique ...
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In the lab, this week, we were working with tissues from chicken with (possible) tuberculosis (the samples came ready for processing from another department of the Faculty). But we had some problems sectioning and staining them.
We did our common protocol for paraffin inclusion¹ (since we are starting to work with pathologic samples), and the tissue was still hard as it damaged the microtome blade. We stained the tissues that were possible to cut, but many fell off. Those that stayed, looks really bad, since they are scratched.
Does anyone has any recommendation for processing and sectioning granulomas?
And what about the missing sections during staining?
Thanks!
__________
¹Protocol: Alcohol 70° 1h; Alcohol 80° 1 h; Alcohol 96° 1 h; Absolute Alcohol 1 h x3; Xileno 1 h x3; Paraffin 1 h x2 (the samples stay in the last paraffin bath some additional hours, because the program finishes at middle of the night).
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Please share your experience if problem solved with above suggestions or not
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Please, I need picrosirius red staining protocol including using phosphomolybdic acid (PMA).
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Dear Dr. Jun Zhao, if it was my answer which helped you to get rid of cytoplasmic staining: you're welcome and thanks to Dolber PC, Spach MS.,1987 who found it worthwhile to write a scientific/technical article...Regards, W.M.
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Sirius Red Staining heart. I don't have a clear yellow color. I always get grayish yellow in many areas in one field and this affect analysis with image J is there is any suggestion ?
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To calculate fibrosis percent, you better use a filter of birefrigence. With this you can even calculate the area from different collagen types and thickness.
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Two individuals of an ectoparasite were recovered from the body of a Jungle Cat (Felis chaus) rescued from Kaziranga National Park, Assam, India. It would be great if someone can help in identifying the same with taxonomic keys or related links/papers. Please find attached the images of the ectoparasite.
Regards
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Hey Debabrata Phukon,
This specimens is neither a Heteroptera (Hemiptera), nor a Ricinidae (Phthiraptera).
It is indeed an Amblycera (Phthiraptera), but from the family Laemobothriidae (genus Eulaemobothrion, which is considered as subgenus in Johnson & Clayton and Price & Graham both cited above).
This is an obvious contamination, considering that no mammal species are known as regular host for Laemobothriidae, they are restricted to birds. Your finds is a typical result of a prey/predator contamination, the hosts which could be provided this specimens to your jungle cat was a member of: Gruiformes or Ciconiiformes.
My best wishes,
Michel
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Country, company?
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I would like to test cells for pathogens prior to injecting them into mice. I am aware of diagnostic laboratories offering this service, but they are quite expensive. Are there any commercially available kits to test for a range of pathogens? Thank you!
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Dear Isabel,
Companies will rip you off, do it yourself. It very much depends what pathogens you would like to detect in what kind of cells. Usually, the most sensitive and robust are PCR-based kits. For example, I had very good experience with this kit from Sigma: MP0035 for detecting Mycoplasm in ES cells. You may also find PCR assay-based protocols in the net. Then, you just need to order specific primers and standard PCR reagents, to detect pathogen's DNA. But the kits are already optimized, might save you some time (=money).
Cheers,
Lech
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Is there any water quality standards for animal drinking? My point is on captive animals at Zoo. If you think it as an absurd then comment here why? Do animals also need the one so? Do they also need to enjoy pathogen free /pollution free water? 
Greetings
Anila Ajayan
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This attachment has a lot of information on drinking water from forests and grasslands that might be helpful.  Their point is to seek out the best sources of water for drinking to save on treatment costs and know where the water comes from (the watershed) and that may help you determine what potential issues exist.  Forests are generally your best opportunity for natural pure water. 
I have not researched much the topic.  In a quick google search, I came up with a couple of items.  The best success I had briefly was searching on animal drinking water quality.  Whether zoos, pets, animal facilities, vet, research facilities, farms, etc., there should be some basic standards.  You have probably hit on something important and can champion the cause for proper drinking and living conditions for zoos.  These animals are essentially caged pets and we owe them as far as we can provide proper living conditions.
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Many pathogens may induce apoptosis in host cells for producing disease.
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Our article published in peer-reviewed Journal "Communicative & Integrative Biology". A few major points discussed in the paper:
(1) Brain is not the source of consciousness.
(2) Consciousness is ubiquitous in all living organisms, starting from bacteria to human beings.
(3) The individual cells in the multicellular organisms are also individually cognitive entities.
(4) Proposals like “artificial life”, “artificial intelligence”, “sentient machines” and so on are only fairytales because no designer can produce an artifact with the properties like internal teleology (Naturzweck) and formative force (bildende Kraft).
(5) The material origin of life and objective evolution are only misconceptions that biologists must overcome.
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The abnormality was on the bifurcation of the uterine horns in female dromedary camel.
Genital tract of female camel  aged about 16 years, collected from slaughterhouse.
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 Agree 100% you must go for histopathological tests. consider also the potentials of viral infection. 
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I would like to check if my amphibian larvae have Anurofeca (Prototheca) in their feces, but the light-microscopic images I found in published papers are too poor quality to be used as reference for identification. My friend Google let me down, too. I'd be very glad for some sharp colour photos!
Cheers, Veronika
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Hi,
You could contact the group of the link and maybe they can help! At least thay have some interesting referencies.
Good luck!
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any type-2 diabetic researchers
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Depending on the dose, STZ causes partial or total ß-cell destruction and the resulting condition resembles type 1 diabetes, from the perspective of insulin insufficiency. Use of STZ is not appropriate for generating T2D animal model.
There are certain strains of diabetic rats available that can serve your purpose, for example Zucker fa/fa.
You can induce insulin resistance by using dexamethasone in water or via daily injections. Rats will become hyperglycemic in a dose-dependent fashion (up to a point) and will display many of the traits of T2D.
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We are caring endangered snakes for a conservation project. Recently 4 baby snakes form same mother have an enlarged heart. Now two snakes died and other two also have bad condition. As we know, the heart problem on snakes is sometime happened but our snakes eat well and bowel movements also good. Does anyone knows the reason and solution of this situation?
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 We got more information which the level of Leukocyte is normal. It probably means no infection by viral or bacterial. We are figuring out the cause of death to prevent additional problem. Thank you for all advises. 
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Morphology and Epidemiology
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Hi if you send me the photos I can help you.
Best regards
Vincenzo
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I want to know if anyone knows a software that can help me to estimate number of lesions or classify the pathology find on pictures (regular camera) taken from fresh lungs at the time of necropsy. I want to classify pathology by another method that is not empirical (human eyes).
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I need to strongly second the statements of Jean-Martin as regards this and emphasize that unless you do histopathological analysis of at least some of your gross lesions your results will be dubious at best. With proper experimental planning and knowledge of the disease distribution in the lung lobes (particularly possible in the case of widely disseminated or multifocal patterns) you can designate a lung lobe consistently for pathology.  You then tie it off and formalin fix it separately. This leaves the other lobes for use in other analyses. This is done regularly for ferrets and even mice so certainly might be done for rabbits.  Then you can do gross/histo correlates for every animal in your study. 
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I am interested in what programs and policies have proved effective in controlling Foot and Mouth Disease (FMD) in South American countries, and also in the analysis of resulting benefits, as for example export expansion.
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Thanks for responses, Carmen and Carlos.  These will both prove very useful.
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Here are images of a rainbow lorikeet (RBL) with a severely swollen head. It was noticed in the backyard of a carer when the local RBLs came to raid the food from her rehab birds. She caught it from behind and brought it to me for advice. It eats well and flies, etc but obviously to be caught using a towel means its survival chances are reduced and the severity of the lesions would obviously be compromising its ability to survive for much longer, especially if it is becoming more severe. The mostly bilaterally symmetrical lesions mainly affect the head but there are also lesions on the back. The affected skin feels rough but the lesion is spongy.
I have not seen anything like this. Any ideas?
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Yes we have seen burrowing mites causing similar lesions.  Some lesions often core out and you can crush the material between two slides and examine under the microscope to confirm the diagnosis.  We are just trying to find someone to help identify mites from something similar from Victoria.  Hope you are well Derek.  
Karrie
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I need to prepare the reagent for cultivation of milk samples
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Hotis Test for Mastitis
Hotis Test is supposed to be of a useful disgnostic procedure.
0.5cc of a sterile 0.5% aqueous solution of brom-cresol purple is added to 9.5cc of milk previously measured into a sterile test tube. The tube is inverted several times then incubated 24 hours at 370C.
When the dye and milk are first mixed, the color is purple. If streptococci are present the color changes during incubation from purple to green or yellow as a result of acid production. If the Strept. agalactiae is present small flakes or balls of growth canary yellow in color became deposited on the side of the tube.
The above may prove to be a useful test but must like other tests, supplement clinical examination. When possible the clinician should make a diagnosis with the assistance of laboratory tests but never should a laboratory test for mastitis be expected to replace the clinician. It can only be of
assistance-particularly a negative finding-when taken into consideration with the results of physical examination.
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....like intestine, cervic, pullmo etc.? And, can anyone suggest some references to help me learn about that? 
Thanks for response :)
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I think we cannot assume keloids appear "spontaneously", the most probable reason for these aparent idiopatic cases is minor trauma, mostly unnoticed by the patients
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I know that humans can sometimes crack their teeth if they are too careless with how they bite, and I was wondering if any animals, which often have much higher bite forces compared to a human, can also break their teeth in a similar manner. I would think that such breakages would also be less of an issue for some groups like reptiles, due to their polyphyodont teeth.
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There are two factors to consider: force that the jaw can generate and relative toughness of the tooth.
Tooth toughness is a combination of the architecture/material and the shape. Verily, in the physical world, a thin, pointy object is easier to forcibly denature than a thick, flat object of comparable makeup. Considering that the makeup and architecture (pulp, dentin, enamel) of teeth is relatively conserved along taxa, I would posit that the shape of the teeth is the more relevant factor to consider. Indeed, in humans, the canines and incisors are more frequently chipped/broken than molars [potential confounding factor: location in mouth].
Jaw force should be considered as a binary variable in multiple conditions. For example, "Force is in/sufficient for animal 1 (rat) in mouth position A (default closure) to break tooth 1 (right top incisor)", such that each unique set of variables only has one outcome. As your question regards one of possibility, not feasibility, a study of maximal force would be sufficient to satisfy the above query.
Tl;dr: Of course animals can break their own teeth with bite force! It would have to be very unintentional (malocclusion, seizure, etc.) or very intentional (youtube dare, etc.), but such action is very possible, especially for non-herbivores.
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I have prepared carp gill lamella using H&E and observed the number of vacuolated cell were increased following intoxication. I decided to identify whether that's really mucous cell or not.
I think AB-PAS is a good. Please let me know if you have any experience for staining of gill lamella to observe mucous cells.
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I have used H & E but also tried Pollack'sTrichrome stains and even Alcian Yellow. There is some research out there that suggests you can determine the type of mucin using stains - a fish researcher by the name of Pickering has done a lot of work on this - try this publication: http://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2FBF00218307
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I'm working on a disease causing fungus which only infects amphibians and I would like know which genes from this fungus are responsible for  disease. So to do this, how can I proceed? Any method or protocol to find out these genes?
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Maybe start with this paper
"A molecular perspective: biology of the emerging pathogen Batrachochytrium dendrobatidis"
By: Rosenblum, Erica Bree; Fisher, Matthew C.; James, Timothy Y.; et al.
DISEASES OF AQUATIC ORGANISMS Volume: 92 Issue: 2-3 Pages: 131-147 Published: NOV 25 2010
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I’d like to set up collaboration with those who have an access to human and/or canine prostates with cancer and might be interested in 1) exploring interstitial optical studies of prostates with cancer for diagnostic purposes and 2) using gold nanoparticles as contrast agents for prostate cancer detection. The goal is two-fold.
First, we want to establish a correlation between concentrations of major chromophores like Hb, HbO2 and H2O and a presence of PC, as well as measure optical absorption and scattering parameters of the organ on ex vivo excised prostates. Since those prostates will be excised anyway we’d like to perform optical measurements on them after excision before they go for some other destructive tests etc. Once this stage is completed and data make sense, we can proceed to a development of an endoscope for performing such measurements in vivo (illumination via rectum, detection via urethra). The approach would be similar to cystoscopy and will utilize a side-firing fiber (or its variation) as a detector and a cylindrical diffuser as the light source.
Second, we would like to target PC biomarkers (like PSMA) in the gland, functionalize gold nanoparticles with appropriate surface agents, deliver Au NPs to the prostate with cancer and detect them with the same technique (illumination via rectum, detection via urethra). This project is more challenging on a number of reasons: 1) preparing Au NPs for targeting PMSA and still protected from RES that can be efficiently accumulated in the gland has never been done (most studies in vitro); 2) since such studies would require working with Au NPs and patients, FDA approval can be an issue. Doing these experiments in dogs would be almost ideal. However, there are conflicting reports on PSMA as a biomarker in canine prostate cancer (see below). Thus, if PSMA can indeed be used and targeted in canine PC, no human prostates would be involved and entire experiments can be performed on canine prostates.
Why not going with rats, for example? Because of the size of the prostate. We really want to go through cm’s of prostate tissue, and dog’s prostate is almost an ideal substitute for a human prostate (sizewise). On the other hand, we’d like to target realistic Au NPs concentrations in the prostate that can be achieved in such studies. So, I’d really like to get your thoughts and possibly practical suggestions on this aspect. I do believe that such molecular imaging of PC via optical detection of Au NPs may not only improve the early cancer detection but pave the way for Au NPs-mediated thermal therapies for focal cancer ablation (but this is a scientist talking:) The nature of this project would require a multidisciplinary team of oncology urologists, molecular biologists, chemists.
We can detect Au NPs in the prostate via urethra using optical radiance technique. Moreover, the sensitivity is much better than the sensitivity of the clinical CT (see the comparison in the publication and relevant references). We can see <=10^10 Au nanorods in the prostate. It means that with saturating of 1-10% of existing PSMA copies per cell ( close to 10^6 sites per cell), detecting 10^10 Au NPs would correspond to seeing ~10^5 malignant cells in the prostate. This number corresponds to the so-called angiogenic switch indicating very promising potential for early cancer detection.
More details on the method are provided in our recent publication (below). I encourage you to read it, and I’d be happy to discuss logistics and answer questions on this topic because there is no way to address all relevant issues in this posting.
Really looking forward for the feedback!
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Let converse.
Best,
Dragan
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Dear all,
We currently have a trouble with hydronephosis in 5-weeks male SD rats which being used for our experiments. The clinical results from pathologist stated that our rats (11 out of 15 rats) are unhealthy with hydronephosis, gastric mineralization and cardiomyopathy. SD rats are male and only 5 week old which is quite young and not expected to see hydronephosis.
Is this common physiologic dysfunction in these SD rats or just genetic disorder happening in our rats in Thailand? Any comments would be appreciated.
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Fichtner, J., Spielman, D., Herfkens, R., Boineau, F. G., Lewy, J. E., & Shortliffe, L. M. (1994). Ultrafast contrast enhanced magnetic resonance imaging of congenital hydronephrosis in a rat model. The Journal of Urology, 152(2 Pt 2), 682–687. 
It is on research gate.
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I have different farms with brown and white layers (LSL and LB), which show a yellowish and foamy diarrhea shortly after being placed on the production farm (18 weeks of life). We could find different germs, but never consistently one except Brachyspira in the ceca. But histology showed a mixed inflammation in the jejunum and ileum, not in the ceca. The chickens don´t die, they are vital, but have this enteric issue and very pale yolks. Has anybody had such a case?
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It may be a simple dysbacteriosis. Birds are naturally immunosuppressed around point-of lay, coupled with the stress due to a change of environment there may be issues with normal regulation of gut immunity or changes to composition of the microbiota. This may be a transient problem as they become settled. It may be worth trying a probiotic or even live yoghurt to help. We have used this for buresectomised animals and it prevents simple GI tract upsets.
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I need to know how to prepare primary chicken embryo fibroblast and how to avoid contamination? Also I need to know how many time passage the primary cells will remain active and proliferate?
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You can find all answers to your questions in this source “Protocols for the growth and maintenance of CEF cells in the laboratory. Curr. Protoc. Microbiol. 17:A.4I.1‐A.4I.8. © 2010 by John Wiley & Sons, Inc.”
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Intestinal disruption and toxin may leak into circulation?
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Invasion vía the intestinal epithelium. Probable intracellular transport to liver and local inflammatory response rather than any secreted toxin. If numbers rise greatly in liver then septicaemia and toxic shock due to response to LPS/flagella etc.?
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I've found two groups of articles that state different conclusions.
According to Aggarwal S, Ricklis RM, Williams SA, Denmeade SR, "Comparative study of PSMA expression in the prostate of mouse, dog, monkey, and human," (Prostate. 2006 Jun 15;66(9):903-10), "PSMA is not expressed in any significant amount in the prostates of mouse, beagle dog, or macaque monkeys in this study but is expressed in high levels by human prostate. These non-human species, therefore, are not suitable toxicologic models to assess prostate damage from PSMA-activated intraprostatic prodrug/protoxin therapies."
However, in the more recent article of Schmidt S, Fracasso G, Colombatti M, Naim HY, "Cloning and characterization of canine prostate-specific membrane antigen," (Prostate. 2013 May;73(6):642-50) it's stated that "We demonstrate that canine PSMA reveals similar characteristics to human PSMA rendering this protein useful as a translational model for investigations of prostate cancer as well as a suitable antigen for targeted therapy studies in dogs."
Another recent article below appears to support PSMA as well:
Lisa Y Wu, Jacqueline M Johnson, Jessica K Simmons, Desiree E Mendes, Jonathan J Geruntho, Tiancheng Liu, Wessel P Dirksen, Thomas J Rosol, William C Davis, Clifford E Berkman, "Biochemical characterization of prostate-specific membrane antigen from canine prostate carcinoma cells," (Prostate, 74:451-457 (2014))
So, can somebody clarify if PSMA can be indeed a useful biomarker to target in the PC canine model? Thanks!
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PSA in dogs would provide an excellent translational model for targeted therapies for human prostate cancer. Human prostate cancer is currently treated with some measure of success with surgery and/or various modes of radiation. Both therapies have significant local side effects that significantly decrease the QOL of patients. by damge to surrounding tissues, rectum, bladder and sexual functionalities.
PSA as a biomarker in man is confusing and terrifying for patients waiting for the result. PSA is not specufic for cancer and goes up and down like spring weather.
Canine PSA could provide a useful target for trageted therapy such as radiolabeled immunoglobulin labeled therapy. Specific murine monoclonal Ig reactive with canine PSA, painted over frozen or formalin preserved canine prostate cancer containing tissues and stained with regular immunofloresence reagents would tell you whether dogs can be treated with RIT and at the same time provide a good model for selecting less toxic, more effective targeted therapies for human patients with prostate cancer.
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Two brucella species in one animal.
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Dr. Ahraf, DNA of both B. abortus and B. melitensis were detected by multiples real-time PCR in 7 organs collected from cows suffered from brucellosis and from one serum samples of aborted sheep. The Ct value of all samples were very close to positive control. Unfortunately, amount of DNA was not enough to run AMOS and Ladder PCR. So that I asked if some one isolated 2 spp from the same animals or it may be one vaccinal and one field strain. As I am also found but it is not strange , 2 B. abortus strains were isolated from one animal.One RB51 and B. A. abortus bv1.
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I couldn't find much (or anything) on reports of spectrally resolved optical properties (absorption and scattering) of thermally coagulated muscle tissue. So, please share your knowledge on the topic. Human, bovine, porcine, canine - anything would be useful. Any group of muscles will do. Single-wavelength measurements will be useful as well.
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The thesis is very useful. Thank you Mehra.
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I am planning to use a BALB/C mice for inducing humoral or immunogenic responses. In literature it is reported that the authors used female mice for this kind of experiments, and this same procedure is reported in all articles that I read. What is the scientific reason for this? The ethical committee need this justification before they approve my proposal.
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I thought you might be interested in this article...
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Two rabbits died with the following post mortem findings:
Frothy discharge from nose, Haemorrhagic Tracheitis, Pulmonary oedema, Consolidation of lungs,Diffuse and patchy necrosis of liver, Pin point haemorrhages in heart, Pericardial effusion, Peritoneal effusion, Petechiae in kidney, Haemorrhage in urinary bladder, Haemorrhagic enteritis
Organ culture revealed highly mucoid pink coloured colonies on Mac Conkey agar. On gram staining, Gram negative bacilli were observed. So P. multocida is ruled out and colony morphology suggests Klebsiella. I want to go for further characterization of the bacterium. But is Klebsiella that pathogenic and prevalent in rabbits?
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Sometime the pathological gross lesion present in organs not produced from single organism but from more than organism. May be some pathological lesion related to another bacteria or viruses. For examples in Camels there are different pathological lesions were recorded in apparently healthy camels and no bacteria were isolated from the lungs which mean may be another agents may be present either parasitic, viral, or toxic agents.
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If somebody can provide numbers for in vitro and in vivo, it would be great!
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We have some numbers now on concentrations of Hb, HbO2 and H2O in a canine prostate ex vivo. We could only compare our data with those for a human prostate since we couldn't find similar data for a canine prostate.
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Camel pox is one of the commonest viral diseases among dromedary
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I do not know if it happens to Bactrian. I have contact with some friends who are working on Bactrian camel but they never told me about camel pox in Bactrian.
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I'd like to trial an antibody targeting tissue factor expression on bovine monocytes and I'm looking for the standard LPS-treatment to use as a positive control. What's your experience?
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Klebsiella doesn't work so well on bovine macrophages. Use E.coli LPS, i.e O111:B4 (you can buy that from Sigma), or if you want to spend mor money, use the ultra-pur LPS from Invivogen. Bovine cells are quite responsive to LPS, don't use more than 1ug/ml, and you get a really nice response on mRNA level 30min after exposure onwards, with most secreted factors being out of the cell around 2h. So, anything up to 6h for an "acute" response will do nicely, but 24h is fine as well. After that, cells tend to die. Hope that helps? If not, find my email in pubmed on contact me directly
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In communal farming areas there is high kid mortality rate.
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In general, the more information you can gather, the better. So, definitively everything related to parity/birth. If possible, include also herd-managment (food intake, what kind of food etc).
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Is there any data available indicating tick infestation and reduced reproduction in domestic animals or in any animal species?
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The infestation of poultry with Argas persicus follows with reduction of egg production (Adene & Dipeolu, 1975, Bull. Animal Health Production in Africa, 23: 333-335). I don't know studies concerning reduction in animal reproduction after tick infestation, such studies mainly deal with loss of blood, emaciation and mortality. Try and see an interesting paper by Patterson et al., 2013, PLoS ONE, 8(2).
Best regards.
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I mean in testes tissue itself, not in its cremastic muscle.
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I think that MAria dos Anjos, at UTAD had one case in dogs (?)
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I'd appreciate any references on the subject. Range: 650-900 nm
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Otto,
Thanks for the reference. I've attempted to collect references that deal with optical properties of porcine muscle tissues in order to compare with our own measurements. The request for the community feedback was in case I've missed something (which is almost always a case!) or anybody could provide some recent data.
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i work on fish virology and did an experimental infection of one species of iridoviridea family on some fish species and i have some different results and I have some questions about some of my histopathological results.
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You should ask more explicit questions. Otherwise, nobody will answer...
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There are several citations that say stray dog overpopulation is positively related with the probability of acquiring rabies through dog bites. Despite this fact, it is hard to find any paper with some hard numbers about it.
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High stray dog density will results in elevation of rabies prevalence in a locality because contact time between rabies infected dog and other animals(other stray dog, cattle, sheep, equines...... etc) increased so that the disease transmitted between animals and circulate in the locality particularly in dog mating season (Autumn and Spring) during which stray dogs aggregate in groups for mating
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Twenty eight goats have died on a newly established goat farm on a daily basis due to copper poisoning. No treatment is effective against this problem. The source of the copper is undetectable, every thing has been checked from feedstuffs to drinking water and soil. Still we are searching for the source in various locations and utensils. But daily one goat is dyeing with few hours diarrhea, nasal secretions, loss of appetite and falling on ground then death even after all supporting and shock treatment. All animals behave normally a few hours before illness. All animals are vaccinated against CCPP, Anthrax, and ETV. Clinical symptoms, post-mortum reports, morbidity rate and mortality pattern, failure of antibiotics effect and lab tests support the diagnosis of copper poisoning.
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The use of intravenous injection of thiomolybdates, especialy the tetrathiomolybdate, is very fast and very effective.
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I mean experimental rats used in biomedical research