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Animal Nutrition - Science topic

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Is there any publication that contains this data?
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Hello!
Ascites in broiler chickens results from an imbalance between the amount of oxygen available and the amount needed to maintain rapid growth rates and high feeding efficiency. Ascites is influenced and/or caused by variables such growth rate, altitude (hypoxia), and ambient temperature because of the link to oxygen requirement.
Toxins from plants like Crotalaria or aflatoxin may harm the liver in chicken. Obstructive cholangiohepatitis, which is brought on by an infection with Clostridium perfringens, is the most typical cause of liver damage and ascites in broiler chickens. Ascites can result from hepatic amyloidosis in breeders as well as meat-type ducks.
For a more detailed explanation, please refer to this article:
Hargis, B. M. (2022, August 4). Ascites syndrome in poultry - poultry. MSD Veterinary Manual. from https://www.msdvetmanual.com/poultry/miscellaneous-conditions-of-poultry/ascites-syndrome-in-poultry
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How this system works, how to apply, what kind of terms should be provide to suit the system? Thank you
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This number is suitable for cattle comfortable temperature (generally 15 to 18℃), house feeding, light activity, no stress environment. When the temperature is below 12℃, the maintenance energy needs to increase by 1% for every 1℃ decrease. Net energy for weight gain (kj) of growing-finishing cattle = (2090+25.1W)X daily gain /1- (0.3x daily gain) [where W is body weight (kg)
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milk, baby formula has an expiration date beyond which it is unfit for human consumption. Manufacturers, who must discard millions of pounds of outdated formula annually
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Yes, harnessing that as an ingredient in formulation of animal fed is possible. You only have to follow the principles of feed formulation including purpose, nutrient requirement of animal, inclusion rates, among others. Very importantly you need to ensure the quality and safety of the that ingredient before its use.
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Hello,
I have run a western blot multiple times on the same samples and have gotten significant bands with a casein antibody in the wrong place. The molecular weight of b-casein is around 24 kDa, however my band is appearing around 125 kDa. I've tried to research if casein is often glycosylated or forms any dimers but I haven't had any success finding much. Can anyone help?
Here is the only thing I found so far that seems helpful.
"Modification of milk proteins by transglutaminase leads to their partial cross-linking and formation of high molecular weight polymers in the range of 55–200 kDa" from link:
Why would the beta-casein antibody detect milk proteins modified by transglutaminase?
Further, does this mean that casein is really in the samples. I assume yes since the band is strong.
Best,
Alexis
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Have you run a pure beta-casein control on your blots to make sure the antibody is able to detect it with sufficient sensitivity?
The 125 kDa band could just be a background band if there is either no casein on the blot or the antibody doesn't detect it.
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Can you give me some advise?
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You can check this study: Mao, S. Y., Huo, W. J., Zhu, W. Y. (2016). Microbiome–metabolome analysis reveals
unhealthy alterations in the composition and metabolism of ruminal microbiota with
increasing dietary grain in a goat model. Environmental Microbiology, 18(2), 525-541.
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What are the health or nutritional benefits of Garlic?
Can it boost immune system?
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There are a lot of benefit in eating Garlic, so in regards to the immune system, Garlic provides an important support to Immune functions by stimulating macrophages, lymphocytes, NK cells, and eosinophils activities, that's why Garlic is considered a natural antiseptic and antiviral agent. Garlic has also a remarkable antioxidants and anti-inflammatory properties.
Stay safe,
Sabri
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We have had a few cases of mandibular osteodystrophy in adult dromedary and want to be sure we are balancing their ration properly.  The basis of their diet is grass and home grown grass hay in Pennsylvania, USA supplemented with alpaca feed.  We would like to know the recommended levels of Ca, P, Na, Cl, Vit D (and other nutrients to make a concentrated feed that will balance the nutrients provided in the feed)
Thank You
Dr Zivotofsky
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There is a paper which is published in 2019 which have good information about the nutrient requirements of camels.
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Hi ,
I am doing a study on the valuation of quinoa and its co-products in fish feed, I would like to know how you eliminate saponin.
Thanks
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Hi,
We have a variety of Africa browse species for which we have forage nutrition data (NDF, ADF, mADF, ADL, CP, OM, ash). Boscia, Acacia, and Terminalia are just some of the species we've sampled.
We wish to estimate the energy and or digestibility of those samples, based on our nutritional data. Plenty of equations exist out there, however, such equations (e.g. Givens) are generally derived from grasses and not necessarily applicable to browse species.
If anyone knows of any browse specific equations or have any advice or ideas, it would be greatly appreciated.
Many thanks.
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Dear colleague:
Digestibility is not a great issue, in vitro gas production or nylon bag OM and N degradability techniques are very suitable. The estimation of ME is more complicate because, among others aspects, it can be influence by the called antinutritive factors, that, as tannins, could improve or affect ME.
Depending on the scientific problem you are working to solve, it will be the choice. Any way you can check:
best regards,
Redimio
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I am aiming to determine the ADC values of a commercial fish feed, but I do not have a steam pelleter or extruder available to me. Ideally, the pellets could be coated with some inert marker.
Does anyone know of a type of marker that can be used like this in Nile tilapia?
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You could use endogenous markers in feed such as Acid Insoluble Ash or Hydrolysis resistant organic matter.
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Hi all,
I will be quantifying amino acids from blood plasma via HPLC. I am planning to use leucine as internal standard. Is it already sufficient to profile all (20) amino acids or should I have more than one internal standard?
Thank you.
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As there are many HPLC methods for AA, it is rather important that you share with us which of the many procedures and methods you will use. For the very commonly used OPA/FMOC procedure, many choices for ISTD exist. Examples would include: sarcosine and/or norvaline.
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We know that bamboo shoots are highly nutritious, low in fat and calorie. Did you ever tasted bamboo shoots recipe? If yes in what form.
What is the name of the recipe in your native place or language?
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Yes, I can confirm that bamboo sprouts are tasty. I ate bamboo sprouts as a side dish in various dishes, most recently in broth with soy noodles.
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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identification protein source do you use in feed formulation for broiler  
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an update maybe maggot (insect meal).
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See above
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It depends on the kind of paper you want to publish.
Worlld poultry science journal is free journal nad publishes only review articles. Most Elsevier journals have free closed access journal.
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Methane production in ruminant had been reported to vary according to diet type and quality, its intake etc.
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for example A. Pelchen, K.J. Peters
"Methane emissions from sheep" Small Ruminant Res., 27 (1998), pp. 137–150. However make sure you understand the model assumptions and make sure the driving variables that you can measure are similar to the drivers of the models developed by others. For best results you need to make field measurements of methane fluxes from sheep and goats in your production system and use this data to select and anchor a model that best describes the results.
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Can any one help me to put nutritional plan to produce at least 12 liter milk / day (8% fat) for at least 280 day with Egyptian buffalo?
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You can use the NRC Softwer program and it will sucssed
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We have 6 steers that we are considering re-vamping the diet for. Currently we get TMR from a local dairy farm which requires sending a person for 1 day twice a week to pick it up. We would like to make our own but it would require being able to store corn silage on site. I don't know of an easy way to store and feed such small quantities of corn silage. We would be feeding out maybe 100lbs of corn silage per day. Commercial storage options aren't small enough - the silage would spoil too quickly. Maybe some of you have dealt with this issue in research trials - did you find an easy way to store and feed the silage to a small number of animals? Thank you.
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Dear all.
Please share the materials and views on canine and feline feeding. In recent times owners prefer to consult doctors more frequently regarding dog foods, quantity to be offered ingredients etc. And many myths are also associated like salt feeding sugar feeding even people dont like to offer milk to dogs. Please put some light and share your experiences in pet feeding.
Please suggest a balanced feedung schedule for dogs and cats.?
Thanks and regards
Partha
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@
Dogs should eat at least two meals each day, about 12 hours apart. But a breakfast, lunch, and dinner schedule is an equally great option. If more than 12 hours elapses between meals, the stomach can become hyperacidic causing nausea.
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In China, India and Indonesia, where the bulk of aquaculture, globally, is practiced, supplementary feeding is a major feeding practice. 
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The cost of fish feed ingredients are sky rocketing. The people making money are the feed manufacturers. Supplementary feeding practise is suitable in earthen pond.
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I have certain substances (complex macronutrients with minerals and vitamins) that would be registered as a supplement for avoiding stunting in humans. I have planned to make stunting offspring in the animal study but I have no idea with the procedure. Can I do that? what are the consideration and parameters so that it can be approved ethically?
thanks in advance for your answer
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Yes, I am agree with Respected Suzan Sami Ibraheim Faheim
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A lot of factors can be related to litter quality such as, intestinal health, pododermatitis and growth performances. The question is how and if there was more factors which can be related to characteristics of litter.
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Moisture content , texture and pH of litter material are quality indices that will determine the suitability of such materials for chicken litter. Diseases such as coccidiosis, foot pad dermatitis, E.coli can be severe with chicks housed on poor litter materials.
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Hi!
I would like to calculate the FCR for a diet-induced obesity experiment in rats. Since I have many nutrients/groups, I am calculating the food intake (FI) in kcal, not in grams of food. Has anybody ever calculated the FCR in kcal or knows a valid formula for it? I am not sure whether estimating the FCR as kcal/g of weight gain would be correct, since both the FI and the weight gain need to be in similar units. Some of the works I have been reading are not discerning between foods, and estimate the FCR as FI (g) / weight gain (g).
Many thanks in advance!
Fiona
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Following answers
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I recently read an article regarding the use of melatonin as a neuroprotective agent using acute ethanol exposure for 1 day and it had good results, I want to know if exists an article using functional food pre ethanol treatment
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Great question.
First, I would suggest this paradigm: Ethanol toxicity manifests primarily from ROS build up downstream of hepatic inability to process aldehyde fast enough. Protective agents would feature those most able to ramp up the ARE system. Nrf2 activators would figure highly. Sulforaphane is the canonical example. A wide range of polyphenols convey benefit, including anthocyanin.
Resveratrol and curcumin are examples that hit additional pathways involving autophagy and inflammatory reduction. Some of these compounds compete with alcohol and aldehyde to some degree for catabolism. AMPK stimulation is another pathway. Any senolytics, also, is likely to help.
Ethanol itself causes very few problems compared to aldehyde. Ethanol ---(alcohol dehydrogenase)--> Acetaldehyde ---> (acetaldehyde dehydrogenase) --> Acetate. Protective agents would be those that inhibit alcohol dehydrogenase while increasing the activity of acetaldehyde dehydrogenase.
General re polyphenols
Plenty of specific articles.
Here's many:
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Hi all, I will appreciate if you could direct me to a paper where I can find the stomach pH in crustaceans. I am sure it will vary between species, yet any data will be useful and much appreciated.
Thanks
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It is depend on what time of animal digestibility or other living activity but around neutral pH.
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Gut microbes ferment carbohydrates and produce SCFA among other products. They can also feed on bile acids.
Are they also able to use fatty acids and triglycerides as sources of energy?
Thank you to the expert scientists that can help this uneducated PhD who is too busy to dive into literature at the moment.
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Is milk thistle, a herb plant, used as an animal feed?
(Slybum marianum).
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Please take a look at this useful RG link.
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I am currently trying out different binders that works well with molasses and/or CMS. So far I've chosen 1-2% sodium bentonite, 1-2%sodium lignosulfonate, and 1-2% guar meal. I was wondering if there is anything else I should try and what concentration should I use?
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Usually, we use the forage, grain to feed pig, cattle, chicken, fish, etc. Then, because the feed pellet easy to transport and storage, more and more people start to produce feed pellet by the pellet mill. Different farmed animals need different nutritive, so the feed pellet produced by different raw material. To improve the quality of feed pellet, especially the aquatic feed, the use of feed pellet binder is becoming widely.  In recent years, because of the binder’s  important role in aquaculture industry, it gradually becomes a hot area of research, and now the binder can meet the need of various animal. Binder in the aquatic feed pellet is different form livestock feed pellet, binder in livestock is mainly used for improve the molding rate of pellet, reduce pellet dust and protect the environment, so the livestock feed pellet binder is not very important. However, the binder in aquatic feed pellet is much more important than it in the livestock feed pellet. The binder used in aquatic feed pellet is for extend scatter time, prevent the nutriment dissolve-loss in the water, ensure the normal feeding of fish and shrimp.  
What effect the stability of aquatic feed pellet?
  • The starch, crude fiber and moisture content of raw material. under the high temperature and high humidity conditions, starch will easy to gelatinization . Crude fiber has low-viscosity, which effect the hardness and molding rate of pellet. The moisture content of raw material effect the quality and output of pellet. Usually, before produce pellet, control the moisture content in the range of 12% to 13%, in the mixing process, add 2% to 3% of water will helpful to improve the stability and hardness of feed pellet.
  • The fineness of the crushing. The fineness of the crushing takes a great influence to the waterproof of feed pellet. If feed pellet is oversize, it will effect the starch, which on the surface of raw material, can’t gelatinized completely, then the feed pellet in the water will easy to scatter. 
What feature dose feed pellet binder should have?
  • Perfect adhesiveness. To ensure the complete nutritive value, reduce pellet dust and prevent feed pellet can’t broken transport, the binder should has the perfect degree of adhesion.
  • Easy to produce, have the feasibility of industrial production. It’s better that itself can be the nutrient for animals, none toxic, bad flavor and harmful effect to digestion, internal secretion, nervous physiology, muscle, grow and body color of the animals.
  • High chemical stability and heat stability, can not generate chemical reaction with else feed component. Hasn’t specially requirement to the processing of compound feeds.
How to choose feed pellet binder?
  • The nutritive value of binder. Most of binder are protein and sugar, can provide a certain of nutritive. Consider the impacts of binder on aquatic animals’ growth and survive, if there are too much starch, that will effect the growth of fish.
  • Use the binder properly. Enough temperature, moisture and time. Fresh raw material, good preserve conditions. Binder always appears self-cross linked reaction, and the higher the temperature the faster the reaction. In addition, the binder is easy to affected with damp, so it should be preserved to the dry and shade place.
  • Observe the interaction between binder and feed component, see that if the binder can destroy the nutrient composition.
  • Choose the suitable binder for different farmed animals. Different farmed animals has their own feeding habit, so you should according to the animals’ different feeding habit and the binder’s different performance to choose the suitable binder. Use binder certainly will increase cost, so that, when there isn’t economic benefit, it had better not use the feed pellet binder.
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Oils, particularly palm and coco oils, are essentially regarded in terms of quality based on its Free Fatty Acid (FFA) Value, Iodine Number, and Peroxides Value.
What is the relationship between these three parameters? Does it affect one another? How?
What are the factors that may cause the change of value of each parameter, specifically during storage in bulk tanks?
In animal nutrition, specially for chickens and swines, what are the effects of the quantity of each parameter present in an animal feed?
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During processes of vegetable oils degradation, FFA value is often increasing during hydrolysis of oil (ester in fact). In my opinion FFA value shouldn't have matter for Iodine Number value because amount of unsaturated bonds should be constant before and after hydrolysis (under mild conditions).
Iodine Number should decreasing during addition electrophiles or radicals to unsaturated bonds. Thus I think growing of Peroxide Value in aging oil have matter for its Iodine Number.
Storage conditions are important. FFA value mostly depends on moisture presence, Peroxide Value depends on air presence and temperature. As I know most parameters depends on storage temperature. About animal nutriton I haven't any knowledge.
Best regards!
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Hello there
I want to know amount of chukar partridge's maintenance energy.
Is there anybody who knows that?
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Thank you dear Alrubaee
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I know that some nutritional deficiency, entric diseases or viral infections could result in pica in chickens, but what is the most probable reason if it was not related to nutrition? and what we can do for these chickens?
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Birds start eating materials which are not fit for consumption, such as feathers, litter material, threads, etc. It is less commonly found in modern poultry farm. Phosphorus deficiency, parasitic infestation, new litter material etc. may predispose the birds to pica. Good manage- mental care and balanced diet are recommended for the prevention of pica .
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I want to know the principle of testing for P solubility in citric acid for DCP which use as animal feed additive 
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Citric acid can be used to extract plant-available P in soil and acts in different ways. The acidity simulates root environment/rhizosphere and slightly solubilises the phosphorous complex; citric acid can make complex with bivalent /trivalent metal that insolubilized phosphor, therefore phosphor can be easily released.
For DCP use as animal feed additive, the analysis could be an idea of bioavailability.
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i am planning to do some research work on malnutrition model of rat, so i want to create a general malnutrition model on rat. for this can i develop the malnutrition model of rat by providing half the amount of normal diet given to the normal group of animal ?
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I guess 5 % will be very less. And using excel for preparation of desire ration may solve ur problem. Pearson sq is easy but people use excel so that more no of ingredients can be used simultaneously.
Again in order to get low protein diet we hv to change the proteinaceous ingredient in the diet and we hv to replace with some low calorie and protein ingredient. Otherwise ur energy content will be very high while reducing the protein which can attract criticism
So plan accordingly
Regards
Partha
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It is known that higher tannin concentrations can be harmful or even toxic to animals. What happens when the Tannin-protein bounds are being loosened in the abomasum due to low ph influence? The tannins will be released and thus getting back their activity potential in the duodenum and Ileum, damaging the mucosa ... or is the tannin level too low for creating serious gut problems?
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It depended on type of animals.
Wish you good luck.
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Hi, I'm doing my research about quail feed with micro-algae as feed additive(spirulina and chlorella). I'm using 7 day old quail as a subject until it become 35 day old. So, does anyone can help me with the reference of the correlation of growth in quail with fatty acid level in quail meat
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This link of article is very useful:
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which countries in europe are the exporting?
which countries in europe already consuming insects for human use?
which countries are already using insects for animal feed?
how much protein can be supplied by insects in broiler feed?
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Canada, South Africa.
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Tell me your views in this sense for both dairy and beef cattle.
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Yes .we fed diets that is concentrated.
Regards
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I am currently designing a project to determine the diet of Bell Miners, Manorina melanophrys, and I am wondering whether anyone can recommend the simplest and most effective way of sampling insectivorous bird diet. To make it complicated, they also feed on psyllid lerp, the sugary coating produced by a herbivorous insect.
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Hi
I agree with  Mr. James B Clapp
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Looking for association between Mg intake and various psychological factors.
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Hi
i agree with Mehdi
regards
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If we have the following fatty acid composition of C16:0, 80%, C18:0, 5%, C18:1, 10%, C18:2, 5%, in the form of triglycerides and in the form of free fatty acid.   Which form will give higher digestibility as an animal feed?.  
In other words, if we fed animals with free fatty acids instead of triglycerides, does this has a negative impact?.
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Thanks Dr. Vahid
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I am looking for a published data regarding the use of Corainder seeds in ruminant feed. Please share if someone has. Thanks.
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growing lambs 
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Is there any available artificial diet for rearing Riptortus pedestris? If yes, could anyone give me a feed formulation and the procedure details for rearing this bug?
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Because treated bio-solid amount appear to be a big problem, what is its effect on forages and fodder shrubs yield and on livestock (sheep and goat). Is their any references? Thanks.
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If biosolids doesn;t coatain any heavy metal and/or other harmful elements and if it is prepared through anaerobic fermentation after separation from waste water then it may use as organic manure for forage production.  
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Food and protozoal N and residual N are normally calculated while knowing the effect of different feeds on rumen fermentation patterns
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Dear Ravi
Please go through the reference cited by Zahira. It is very helpful. I have read it before and found it to guide me very precisely.
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I want to understand if the existence and diversity of the strains within GIT microbiota in monogastrics is affected by genetic factors?
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Thanks
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Dear sir,
this is really a great study pertaining to animal nutrition at farmers level. but my doubt is, which will be better improvement of roughage quality by processing or improvement of rumen parameters. i feel combination of both may be even better?. and is it applicable at farmers level.
what are the possible economics?
please keep us updated as this relates to grass root level research. all the best
Regards
Partha
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ok, the two approach are 0k. you can try making chemical treatment  to at least the 30% of the total straw -soaking straw in ashes + water solution - and  improving rumen enviroment with multinutritional blocks and/or use of multipourpose tree foliages. best regards,
Redimio
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I am studying about digestibility of animals by using chromic oxide (Cr2O3) as an indicator in their diet and feces. To find the amount chromium in the diet and feces samples by FAAS, The amount of Cr2O3 was approximately 2-5 mg/g. I prepared the samples using acid digestion as described by EPA 3050B (https://www.epa.gov/sites/production/files/2015-06/.../epa-3050b.pdf) in order to make Cr in the samples to be soluble form. After the samples were digested with conc.HNO3, 30%H2O2, and conc.HCl, respectively, I got pale green suspended particles in some digested sample solutions after they were cooled to room temperature. Is it usual for this method? What is the green particle? Did the Cr turn to be solid form?
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What is the best way to measure fecal ETEC shedding in pigs after ETEC challenge from time-effective and result accurate standpoint?
How do I collect and store samples, eg, can I collect fresh fecals on the floor or has to be directly from rectum? Can I store the fecals at -20? 
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from rectum.
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I'm interested with dairy cattle and working on lactation curves 
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Milkfat can vary widely between breeds, diet, stage of lactation/ volume of milk produced, with diet being the variable that management can influence. When working with lactation curves, it usually makes the most sense to calculate and chart with 4% FCM (Fat Corrected Milk). Milkfat variations by country are mostly due to the diet at the locale. Although breed popularity still has a country by country bias, worldwide availability of top genetics is gradually diluting this variable. 
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i wan to know if the farming system have any effect on the worm load in sheep and goats. i want to know if the farming system have any direct link with albendazole resistance in small ruminants
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Effects of farm management systems on worm load in sheep and goats:
Good Management
Internal parasite control starts with good management and common sense. Sheep should not be fed on the ground (unless the ground is frozen). Feeders which cannot easily be contaminated with feces should be favored for grain, hay, and minerals. Water should be clean and free from fecal matter. Pastures and pens should not be overstocked. When new sheep are acquired, they should be isolated from the rest of the flock for at least 30 days and aggressively dewormed to prevent the introduction of drug-resistant worms.
Use of Clean or Safe Pastures
Clean or safe pastures are pastures which are not contaminated with the worm larvae that affect sheep. Examples of clean pastures include pastures that have not been grazed by sheep or goats for the past 6 to 12 months; pastures which have been grazed by horses or cattle; pasture fields in which a hay or silage crop has been removed; pasture fields which have been rotated with field crops; and pastures than have been recently established or renovated by tillage. While burning a pasture will remove worm larvae, there are no pasture treatments that will effectively eliminate or reduce worm larvae.
Pasture Rest and Rotation
It is a common misconception that rotational grazing helps to control internal parasites in sheep. Intensive rotational grazing may actually contribute to parasitic problems. This is because rotating large groups of ewes and lambs through small paddocks concentrates livestock and infective parasite larvae onto the same small area.
Researchers in the Netherlands found that it takes three months of rest for an infected pasture to return to a low level of infectivity. Researchers at Langston University (Oklahoma) determined that a 65-day rest period was sufficient (for goats). Rotational grazing is an effective management tool for managing parasites, but only if pasture rest periods are long enough (i.e. 60 days or more). On the other hand, better nutrition provided by rotational grazing may offset the effects of higher parasite loads on the pasture.
Grazing Strategies
Approximately 80 percent of the worm larvae can be found in the first two inches of grass. Therefore, sheep grazing taller forages will have fewer parasite problems. Sheep should not be allowed to graze forages shorter than 2 inches in height. Sheep that browse also have fewer parasite problems. Another grazing strategy is to wait until the dew has lifted from the grass or grass has dried after a rain. Dry conditions force parasites to stay at the base of the plants where they are less likely to be consumed by the livestock.
Multi-species Grazing
Sheep (and goats) are generally not affected by the same internal parasites as cattle and horses. Consequently, pastures grazed by cattle and horses are safe(r) for sheep (and goats) and conversely. Sheep can be co-grazed with cattle and/or horses. A leader-follower system can be utilized or pastures can be alternated between sheep and cattle and/or horses. 
There are numerous other benefits to multi-species grazing. Each species has different grazing behavior that complements one another. For example, sheep prefer to eat weeds and short, tender grasses and clover, while cattle prefer to eat taller grasses. Cattle may offer some protection from predators.
Alternative Forages
Some pasture plants have anthelmintic properties, such as those containing condensed tannins. Research has shown that sheep grazing tannin-rich forages have lower fecal egg counts than animals grazing traditional grass pastures. The tannins may also decrease the hatch rate of worm eggs and larval development in feces. 
Forage species which contain high levels of condensed tannins include sericea lespedeza, birdsfoot trefoil, and chicory. Sericea lespedeza is a warm, season legume. Birdsfoot trefoil is a long-lived perennial legume. Chicory is a low-growing, leafy perennial. Generally speaking, trees and shrubs contain higher levels of tannins than pasture grasses, and tropical legumes contain more condensed tannins than temperate legumes.
Healthy Soil
Earthworms have been shown to ingest worm eggs and larvae, either killing them or carrying them below the soil surface. Certain types of fungi will trap and kill parasitic larvae. Dung beetles ingest and disperse manure, thus keeping eggs and larvae from developing. Anything that is done to maintain soil health and promote these types of organisms will aid in parasite control. Scientists are examining the possibility of feeding nematophagous fungi to livestock to kill larvae in manure piles.
Nutritional Management
Supplemental feeding should not be overlooked as a means to control parasites. Sheep and lambs on a higher plane of nutrition mount a better immune response to internal parasites than animals whose nutritional status is compromised. Animals on low protein diets are more susceptible to infection because they produce less IgA (immunoglobulin). Higher levels of protein have been shown to improve the pregnant ewe's immune response to parasites after lambing. Lambs receiving protein supplementation usually have reduced fecal egg counts.
Zero Grazing
Keeping sheep and/or lambs in confinement or dry lot (i.e. "zero grazing") is a means of reducing parasitism and preventing reinfection. Under a zero grazing situation, sheep and/or lambs do not have access to vegetation for grazing. They are housed in a bedded barn, dirt lot, or facility with slatted floors. Feed should be fed off the ground in feeders. Watering containers should be kept free from fecal matter. Slatted floors offer the best protection against internal parasites because sheep generally do not come into contact with their feces.
Genetics
Genetics is probably the best long term strategy for controlling internal parasites in sheep. Some sheep breeds are naturally more resistant and resilient to internal parasites. They include the Florida (or Gulf Coast) Native and hair sheep breeds with tropical origins: St. Croix, Barbados Blackbelly (and its derivatives), and Katahdin. Grazing resistant breeds of sheep with susceptible breeds, may act to “sweep” pastures and reduce contamination to susceptible animals.
Regardless of the breed raised, producers can breed sheep which are more resistant to parasites by culling ewes that are persistently affected by parasites and favoring parasite resistant ewes and rams in their selection programs. Both fecal egg counts and FAMACHA© scores can be used to identify sheep with resistant and susceptible genetics. 
In New Zealand, it is possible to select rams that shed 60 to 70 percent fewer parasite eggs than historical averages. In the US, the National Sheep Improvement program (via Australia's LambPlan) provides EBVs for parasite resistance (fecal egg counts) in Katahdin sheep. EBVs can be calculated for other breeds once fecal egg count data is submitted to NSIP.
Scientists are currently looking for genetic markers for worm resistance so that a DNA test could be used to show producers which of their animals are resistant to internal parasites.
Proper Anthelmintic Use
Anthelmintics are still an important part of parasite control. However, they must be used properly to ensure effectiveness of treatment and slow down the rate by which worms develop drug resistance. To start with, the weights of sheep and lambs must be known or approximated accurately in order to calculate the proper dosage of medicine. Underdosing results in the survival of worms which are resistant to the anthelmintic used. Underdosing is one of the major causes of increasing anthelmintic resistance.
Flocks should be divided into groups for deworming or drenching equipment should be calibrated for the heaviest animals in the group. Oral drenching is the recommended method of treatment for sheep. Oral medications should be delivered over the tongue. If the medicine is deposited into the mouth to stimulate the closure of the esophageal groove and bypass the rumen.
If an anthelmintic is more slowly absorbed in the gut, drug levels are prolonged and the treatment may be more effective. Thus, fasting sheep for up to 24 hours may improve efficacy of dewormers, especially when using benzimidazoles and ivermectin. However, water should not be restricted.
To prevent the introduction of drug-resistant worms, you should deworm newly purchased animals with drugs from at least two of the three anthelmintic families. Moxidectin should be favored over ivermectin due to its superior potency. Levamisole should probably be the other choice, since widespread resistance is believed to exist in the benzimidazole group of dewormers. After deworming, the animal(s) should be released onto a wormy pasture to help dilute any "super-resistant" worms that may remain in his system.
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The cyanogenic glycosides from different strains of sweet and bitter cassava tubers will be extracted and quantified. Graded doses of the extract would be added to the fly diet to assess their potential toxicity.
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In our lab we use both. Yes, it will be ok in short term but it wouldn't protective enough in long term usage, because the medium needs nipagin (Methylparaben) as a fungicide.
You can also try instant Drosophila medium if possible, which contains both prop. acid and nipagin.
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animal science
animal nutrition
biochemist
chemical engineer
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Assuming that methylesters wil be split to liberate the fatty acids, which seems a reasonable assumption as esters can be split rather easily, there is no reason to assume that the fate of the fatty acids in the intestine (and the body) will be any different than when feeding free fatty acids.
Young animals will be more susceptible to high fat levels in the diet, so that might be an important limitation. The attached file gives some (older) information on e.g. feeding values of fats in poultry
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I've been reading a few things about adding salt to the grass silage, however, I was unsure if this addition will increase the cow's propensity for milk fever. I ask this because by adding Na (which is a cation) we are increasing the DCAB and elevated DCAB is supposedly related to the occurrence of milk fever.
I found that the grass silage has around 0.29% Na in DM and that in order to have a low risk of milk fever the Na content should be 17% in DM.
What can you say about this?
Thank you
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But adding salt to silage will surely affect the quality of silage as well. As you know that salt is also have moisture absorption capacity .By adding salt will reduce the moisture level of grass then the recommended level that can affect silage fermentation process/quality .Think for it as well am i right.
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I have more deers than I need in my pens and I have to measure the food intake, as exactly as possible.
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you could use the recognition collars or identifiable marks of the animals; you should also install cameras to monitor the activities of animals.
If you want to control the activities of each one individually, a solution could be the use of collars that allow access to separate feeders, certainly after excluding animals unnecessary.
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I am preparing a project of enrichment of captive Sun bear. There are two sun bears staying together in the zoo, both of them are 3 years old, one is female, another one is male. The female one sucks its hand all the time. I am wondering whether the feed is enough for them or not ( about pellet feed 1 kg per day for them, and some furits).  I could not find the review paper about feed nutrition standards and feed intake of Sun bear. Is there any one could give me some suggestion? Thank you.
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Hello every body
I have several articles about it. I think that there is a difference. Is this true? Please help me to understand it.
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No. The methods of extracting fat-soluble vitamins in milk, meat and fish is the same, however, the methods of extraction fat itself from the samples are different. More accuracy in the extration of fat means more accurate measurement of the vitamins. It should be mentiond that for fat-soluble vitamins that are protocols which are not dependent on the source of fat.
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Considering a basal diet, which are the nutritional requirements (% protein, fat carbohydrate and fiber) for zebrafish. 
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Dear Erick,
please find attached a number of reviews which represent all you need to know about zebrafish (as teleost paradigm) nutrition. The latest (Verri et al., 2016) is particularly useful to understand the fundamental impact and interplay of short peptides (oligopeptides) on nutritional pathways.
I hope you would please to receive this kind of input.
Moreover, never forget other "more practical" lab issues for zebrafish nutritional requirements, e.g. administration of "fresh" sources in addition to pre-made diets.
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got the answer
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Hello!
We can advise you to study the activities of pancreatic enzymes (amylase, lipase, proteases) in the duodenal digesta since it was established that the pancreas can effectively adapt itself to the feed quality; supplementation of a diet with an additive will affect secretory function of the pancreas and corresponding intestinal enzyme activities.
Sincerely,
Dr. V. Vertiprakhov e-mail: Vertiprakhov63@mail.ru
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Does it make sense taking into account that humans need DHA and EPA and cows scarcely convert C18:3n3 into them?
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You may want to check Valorex, French company using extruded linseed
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I have body weight gain data. I need to estimate methionine requirement on the basis of maximum body weight gain obtained from this data. I need to use linear broken and quadratic broken line model to estimate methionine requirement.
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After plotting and looking data scattering you may consider several regression models to define the requirement, such as broken line, quadratic, quadratic and broken line plateau intercept, 95% of quadratic, or a blend of them.
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I have several containers of missing sector orb weaver juveniles and I want to keep them alive obviously. How do I feed them besides chopping up insects and sprinkling it over them?
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Try to get some Drosophila flies. Most of the genetic labs use them in the classroom. They are easy to rear, and spiders love them!
Cheers,
Camilo
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We are doing an experiment where mice must eat a highly preferred food, which has been manipulated to have an unpleasant taste. We planned to use quinine but it may not arrive in time for our experiment.
Is there something else we can put on their food which will a) have no smell (so the mice will still be motivated to approach and try the food), but b) taste unpleasant to a mouse? Oh, and perhaps I should add, c) it should not kill the mice.
Thanks in advance for any ideas!
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You could try with some local native bitter plants. An example is Solanum Ligustrinun  Lood , plant relatted to potato family.
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I need to feed the rat with powder high fat diet. We used to mix the powder high fat diet with coconut oil and make the powder diet into small balls. But, the rats are not eating these balls properly as compare with pellet. Is there any simple method for intragastric administration of powdered materials to rats?
Thanking you in advance for your valuable suggestions.
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One of the best ways to ensure that the rats consume the high fat powder is to incorporate it into the pellet feed. Adjustments can be made in the relative composition of the pellet to make the high fat powder an integral part.I know from experience that coconut-oil based food may not appeal to rats. In the alternative, consider using vegetable oil; either way, remember to make corrections for the added calories. All the best.
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Drinking water, acid secretion and digestion process are inter-related. I am interested to know, when and in what quantity one should drink water. In monogastrics and ruminants what should be the rules for optimization of digestion and assimilation process. If food changes to meat based item what changed we should do and so also for fibre and concentrate ratio in ruminants. Can anyone help me on this aspect
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My experimental observations with both monogastrics and ruminants indicate that access to water is very important, but this varies with the dry matter content of the food or feed consumed. Dry foods/feeds must be accompanied by access to water; otherwise, food/feed intake declines quickly. High moisture diets do not require access to water immediately, but may stimulate need for water afterward, depending on their composition. Cattle grazing lush, spring pastures do not need much water, but cattle grazing dry pastures or consuming hay need much more. Similarly, monogastrics will reduce food/feed intake if their water is restricted. If one looks at the GI tract, it is "wet" and absorbs and recycles excess water. In ruminants, digestibility of the feed is increased with slow passage and decreased with fast passage. Passage is affected more by % of fiber in the diet and especially by % of undigestible fiber than it is with water. Nevertheless, if the total feed intake has a moisture level of less than 40% or so, then water becomes critical. I believe the best approach is to allow voluntary water intake whenever the animal (including humans) senses that they need more water. Drink up!
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Are these variables appropriate?
Forage species composition and biomass using remote sensing techniques.
Chemical composition (including lipids and tannins) of forages and supplements, forage: concentrate ratio, additives
Animal characteristics, including species, number, age, starting weight, weight gain, daily feed int
Excreted total nitrogen (NH4+, urine N, faecal N) and excreted volatile solids
Rumen pH and rumen microbes (quantity)
Environmental conditions, particularly, temperature and relative humidity
Methane and nitrous oxide fluxes from herds of ruminants using infra-red gas analysers
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Hi J.K.,
Types of input variables depend on the level of modeling you are planning to undertake. Is it ‘animal level’, ‘farm level’ or ‘regional level’ modeling you are aiming for?
Another important factor is what model do you plan to use (trying to adapt an existing model or to develop a new one)?
In general, you have listed some of the most important variables required for modeling greenhouse gas emissions from ruminants, but the level of details (input variables) required may depend on the factors I mentioned above.
-Susantha   
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It is not fresh pit, Re-inoculation is done
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It could be because of function of Azolla eubacteria and some chemicals (especially KOH) in the water. To get rid of that maybe use of DD water could be helpful.
For better understanding take a look @ attached file.
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I'm looking to administer estriol over a long period of time (like more than a year). Multiple pellet implantations is not really feasible because it would be really bad for the mice. Also IP injections daily for more than a year would be tiring for me and stressful for the mice. So basically I'm curious if there is a way to continuously give the mice estriol through food or water. 
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Another feature is oral bio-availability vs implant bio-availability of hormones.
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In ruminants concentrates, oils inclusion is lower that in monogastrics' ones, where low durability and pasty textures can be found due to high inclusion of fats. 
In a 8% oil inclusion (monogastrics), the partial substitution of oil for calcium salts of PFAD has shown to be benefitial. However, in ruminants concrentrates (i.e. 1,5% fat) there would be any possitive effect? Could you please provide with data in this sense (either with calcium soaps of fatty acids or hydrogenated fats)?
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Calcium soap in low and high roughage rations:2. Effect on growth performance, Carcass characteristics and meat quality of growing finishing bulls. the full text in researchgate the author taha elbedawy and other publications in the subject
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I have read numerous papers designed to determine the digestibility of whole proteins (ie fishmeal) using both external and inert markers such as chromic oxide and acid insoluble ash. However, no method that can be used to determine digestibility of amino acid supplements that are crystalline in structure. The diets will be fed to slow feeding aquatic organisms. The obvious concern here is the solubility of crystalline structures in water, and there are worries of supplemented crystalline amino acids leaching from the diet and faeces, which may skew results of digestibility. In this context could acid Insoluble ash be used as an inert marker? Are there any other methodologies to perhaps use?
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In vitro digestibility of water-soluble and water-insoluble protein fractions of some common fish larval feeds and feed ingredients
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I have prepared a ketogenic diet consisting of 70% fat.. I am facing problem in administering it in animals ad libitum because of its paste like consistency. Can anyone really help me solve this problem??
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If you warm the diet to a liquid state and mix it with a carrier of some sort, such as straw, the animals may consume it. They might even consume the liquid alone before it gels.
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I am using XRF (Rigaku NEX-CG) to quantify nutritional elements in complex animal feed materials. In theory the Empirical approach to calibration (preparing your own standards by spiking a blank matrix) should be more accurate than the Matching Library approach (using wet chemistry data from real samples to adjust the sensitivity of the on-board XRF calibration). In your experience is this the case in practice? Is an Empirical calibration actually more accurate or not?
Secondly, has anyone had success in creating a single Matching Library for a range of different sample matrices? How have you defined the range of samples matrices which are included (similar ash contents? similar major constituents...)? How similar do these matrices need to be to fit within the one method? Any thoughts gratefully received.
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Hi Kevin,
we all know that quantitatative XRF is a challenging task.
To my opinion the empirical approach to calibration by preparing ones own known reference is the more trustfull procedure. In the case you have carefully prepared the reference with respect to geometry and x-ray attenuation & scatter you then know what you have measured. In the case of the 'matching library approach' you do not really know what is going on there and how much the library entries match to your sample system.
With respect to the second part of your question I have got no experience, sorry.
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in below link they mentioned in page 468 under the subtitle" the JECFA REVIEW"
the oral lethal dose of MSG in mouse and rat was between 10-20g/kg body weight and in this context , the palatable dose of MSG in humans approximately 60 mg/kg body weight?
please , i want to know how that approximation was done?
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I agree with Paul Engel. The methodology known as "allometric scaling" may be employed to estimate the human pharmacokinetics of a drug from pharmacokinetic measurements made in a set of smaller mammals. In this case, however, two different properties are being compared: toxicity and palatability, so there is no way to make any such calculation.
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I noticed big ambiguity in literature regarding AMEn content of Jowar poultry. Hence please suggest me exact AMEn value that could be taken poultry ration formulation.  
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thanks Mr. C.A (kees) kan and Mr. Ranveer Batsa, for sharing information. 
Mr Ranveer Batsa!! I do agree with the views of C.A (kees) kan but you mentioned ME as 3.2 what is the units for it? If it is MJ/kg, i feel it is too low.