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Editor/Co-author of my Collected Essays (on behavioral science) Needed
I have approximately 1000 pages of essays on new, more-empirical perspectives for Psychology (esp. General Psychology and Developmental Psychology -- but relevant and important for Psychology in general). It is all about BEHAVIOR PATTERNS (and associated "environmental" aspects, these _OFTEN_ broadly conceived) and a science of finding the further behavior patterning therein, and a patterning of those patterns, etc.; AND THAT IS ALL : In other words, the writings outline the discoveries likely possible and necessary for a true and full behavioral science of BEHAVIOR PATTERNS ("just behaviors") PER SE ("behaviors" then seen, as must be the case, as aspects of Biology (adaptation) unto themselves); it is much related to classical ethology perspectives and research. RELATED TO ALL THIS: There is an expressed great hope for some technology being the "microscope" of Psychology for good/closer/better and/or NEW observations; there are likely sets of adaptive behavior patternings and associated environmental aspects within quite-possible, if not VERY likely, SETS of situations (with the important "environmental" aspects/circumstances there, BUT the KEY environmental aspects will also be across KEY related/in-some-ways-similar -- and memorable -- circumstances). This is how/where related behavior patterns COULD COME TO BE OBSERVED in situ, AND even seen as they develop : even the subtle behavior patterns, etc., therein, truly-seen and clearly seen and truly and fully discovered _and_ seeing some key adaptive "operations" thereof. AND there is some detailed phenomenology described that allow one to arrive at testable hypotheses and then also indicating how this same basic sort of essential observations shall also naturally PROVIDE the actual ability to test these testable/falsifiable hypotheses.
I am looking for a skilled reader and editor to read/edit my written works AND THEN put them together in a most sensible manner. This person must know the field of Psychology as a whole and must understand possibilities of ontogeny. Also she/he should have a healthy respect and very high regard for KEY foundational observations (always such AS CENTRAL). Know of the Memories (all the sorts, now rather well-researched) as providing for phenomenological EXPERIENCE ITSELF and for connections, as indicated above.
Any one "fitting this bill" AND WILLING, and otherwise ABLE, I would gladly have. Doing such substantial editing/proof-reading/rearranging/publishing is enough for me to see you as a co-author and therefore I would put you as second author on all the book's covers. After publication, you (given details we shall decide upon well ahead of time) shall have a good and fair portion of any money reaped.
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Good luck
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The Novel Object Recognition Test (NORT) is now among the most commonly used behavioral tests for rodents, It is used to evaluate cognition, particularly recognition memory in rodent models of CNS disorders (Ennaceur and delacour, 1988), relies on the innate preference and the natural tendency of rodents to spend more time exploring novel objects than familiar ones (Cohen and Stackman, 2015).
Our studies are about testing the enhancer potential of phytochemicals on memory impairment in Aged rats, and other models of impair cognition (e.g NMDA antagonists (MK-801) and muscarinic antagonists (scopolamine), for the purpose we would be so grateful
I would like to know :
How many times can we use this test during a treatment period of 14 days ? And will there be any effect of this repetition on the effectiveness and the results of this test?
Thank you in advance.
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Our study is based on two behavioral tests the Y-Maze test, which in it the spatial working memory was evaluated based on the percentage of correct alteration between the three arms (A, B and C), and the NOR test to analyze the nonspatial working memory in Scopolamine-induced memory impairment model. And other biochemical parameters such as dosing antioxidants enzymes, lipid peroxidation in both brain and serum ....
Is that enough !!! To confirm the anti-amnesic potential of a plant ?
Ansab Akhtar Thanks Sir for your valuable help. 🌹
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How long after the conditioning (control) rats remember the shock.
I know it depends on various factors (age of the animal, shock mA, etc.). What's the longest period you've come upon.
Thanks
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Hi everybody,
I am looking for the recent reports of memory span (the capacity of short term memory) in chimpanzees. Similar studies in other animals can also help.
I would be very grateful for any suggestion.
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Have you looked into the work from these following investigators?
Drs. Taubert and Parr (Emory University, Yerkes National Primate Research Center) have published several studies on recognition memory for faces in chimpanzees (2017, Anim Cogn, 20(2): 321-329).
Drs. Rosati & Hare (Duke University) have published on spatial memory in chimpanzees and bonobos (2012, Dev Sci, 15(6): 840-853).
Dr. Hopkins (Georgia State University, Yerkes National Primate Research Center) has published several studies about cognitive abilities in chimpanzees and bonobos, including referential communication (2014, Anim Cogn, 17(1):85-94).
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I have been working on fear conditioning memory for past 18 months on SD and wistar rats, the procedure goes like unconditioned shock (0.8 mA)  stimulus preceeded by tone. On day 2 scored for duration of freezing. But could not find significant freezing with animals.
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Freezing is a species-specific response to fear, which has been defined as “absence of movement except for respiration.” This may last for seconds to minutes depending on the strength of the aversive stimulus, the number of presentations, and the degree of learning achieved by the subject.
So if you do not see freezing and you are sure that conditioning protool was followed this could be due to 1) The strenght of the aversive stimulus, your animals could be conditioned already to the shock stimulus,or the aversive stimuli is insufficient to induce fear. 2).the number of presentations to this dose of footshock is insufficient to condition fear. 3) your animals are unable the condition to this stimulus.
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What kinds of buzzer is used for conducting the circular Barnes maze using mice? please tell me about specific model name or proper frequency and decibels. Thanks
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Hi !  Recommended use aversive noise of 85 dB as a motivator. You might be interested in this research:
Barnes CA, McNaughton BL.  An age comparison of the rates of acquisition and forgetting of spatial information in relation to long-term enhancement of hippocampal synapses. Behav Neurosci. 1985 Dec;99(6):1040-8. PMID: 3843538
Best Regards!
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i want to do western blotting on ventral and  dorsal hippocampus separately, but i have no idea about accurately separating them.
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We "roll out" the hippocampus from a freshly harvested brain and dissect off the bottom 2/5's as ventral hippocampus and the top 2/5's as dorsal hippocampus (we discard the middle 1/5). If you lay the hippocampus out flat on its medial side, you will see a hump rise up at the ventral end--we use this as a landmark for the ventral hippocampus. We've conducted western blots on the resultant  dissections and shown proper enrichment of protein in ventral vs. dorsal hippocampus that matches in situ or immuno results obtained in intact slices (e.g., PDE11A is enriched in our ventral vs. dorsal hippocampus samples). Hope this helps.
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i want to know is hamster's memory time better then mouse for invivo experiments? and does anybody know how to easily determine rearing activity in hamsters?
thanks
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Hi Syed,
I wonder if this question can really be answered. What is your reason for asking it? Is it a rather philosophical question for you?
Every animal has its own ecological niche and its very specific physiological characteristics.Thus, how (and why) would you evaluate and value the cognitive abilities of two different species in comparison?
Let's say you compare some mice and hamsters in a cognitive test typically used in the laboratory. The results would already depend on the strain you pick. Moreover, the test has likely been designed for mice. Thus it is optimized for mouse behavior. The result would probably tell you much more about how suitable the test is for your species than how smart the animals are.
The fact that you can train mice better to perform tests, is this really saying they are smarter?
If the question is, would you rather use hamsters or mice for cognitive test in the lab, this would be a different discussion (for the aforementioned reasons).
:) What do you think?
Laura
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When does this kind of memory begin? Can I talk about procedural memory in insects, for example?
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My answer is rather a question about your question. What is your definition of "procedural" memory. I assume it concerns the "how" to "do" it, whereas L. Squire started to define procedure memory in opposition to declarative memory. To end up with a dichotomy that would concern all types of "non declarative" memories, in fact a very broad and difficult concept.
Perhaps it would be easier to tell a bit more as to your project in considering procedural memory through the life span. And perhaps in being explicit on whether you consider forms of procedural memory as discrete ones (from which age they are spontaneously expressed) or in terms of efficacy (acquisition speed or long term retention)...
As from my point of view, it is a good question, but there is a risk of confusion because different researchers may have a different understanding of this qualifier.
As you can guess, I consider that words (especially broad ones such as memory or procedure) are dangerously polysemic.
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Hi,
My question is about the head deflections / nose pokes of the mouse toward a given hole.
Many times, especially the first trials, mice visit a hole, and then explore around it, above the maze, even below the table, and finally make another head deflection or nose poke to the same hole, without moving its body location.
In this case, should I count 1 or 2 errors ? Is it the same methodology for the trials and the probe test ?
In addition: do you think that 100 s in average is a normal primary latency for control mice in their 1st trial (after familiarization) ? According to published papers, it seems very low...
Many thanks for your answers.
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Hi Ali,
"Multiple consecutive head-dips into a single hole were counted as a
single error." (from O'Leary and Brown, 2011).
Thank you very much, I knew the paper but I have missed this information...
Have a good day.
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Dear all,
We would like to test mice for their spatial memory with a test that is independent of any anxiety/fear component as well as locomotion. Any suggestions?
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Hi Stefano,
I've just noticed your question. If you mean that the performance should not be influenced by altered locomotion due to hyperactivity or coordination/gait problems, then you have several opportunities. My favorite is a test that we have developed for mice exactly with the purpose to analyze hippocampus-dependent spatial learning in a test that is not influenced by stress/anxiety and major motor functions. The unofficial name is Reeperbahn test, but we published it with the name "one-trial spatial learning test". It is very simple and works well in male mice as long as they do not have a massively altered social and sexual behavior. You do not need anything else than a modified open field arena, a camera and a tracking system. The test requires only two trials: one learning and one recall trial. The idea is to test whether the experimental mouse (e.g., a male) remember the location in an arena at which it experienced the presence of an unfamiliar female. The test works for testing both short-term and long-term memory as well as extinction and reversal learning. We published the test for the first time in 2010 (Meier et al., Hippocampus, 2010, 20:1027-1036.) but a complete description of it (as well as the validation of the role of the hippocampus) was published in 2013 (Fellini and Morellini F, J Neurosci, 2013. 33:1038-1043.). In the 2013 paper we also used this paradigm to test whether mice have episodic-like memories, something that had been shown before for other species but not yet for mice. The beauty of the test is also that the "spatial learning" occurs in one trial, a very important feature in terms of hippocampus function as well as "model" for human episodic memory.
Ciao,
Fabio
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How do you check the normal intelligence of laboratory animals like rat? What criteria is there and how are the normal healthy animals identified?
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yes, but it´s depend in what kind of study you are thinking to use de animal model, usually animal lab arrived with a health certificated from where they are coming as eg. Charles River. To check how intelligence can be rat for eg. there is many ways to do it, as Stephanie said. but you have to be sure that they are healty animals.
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Assess spatial memory performance for rat
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As the other responders noted, the Morris water task (technically not a maze) is the predominant task used to understand spatial memory in rats. However, there are many additional tasks and mazes that are still proliferate today. I'll add the T-maze/Y-maze to the list as David Tank's group at Princeton is doing some phenomenal work with virtual T-mazes right now.
Really, it comes down to what about spatial memory you want to address. Spatial memory - especially in behavioural neuroscience - is a very wide topic and many models have been developed to understand how it operates. One large distinction is between allocentric and egocentric memory systems. Allocentric spatial memory is generally thought to underlie landmark based navigation and has been localized primarily to the medial temporal lobes, especially to the signalling properties of place cells in the hippocampus. Egocentric spatial memory is generally thought to underlie path integration and has been localized to parts of the parietal cortex, although we have some new models that suggest grid cells located mainly in the entorhinal cortex are the basis of path integration abilities. This distinction between landmark-based spatial memory or egocentric spatial memory is a good starting point to try to focus your interest into the best task.
If you're interested in a more comprehensive, albeit accessible, summary of spatial tasks in behavioural neuroscience and what they've told us so far, check our Paul Dudchenko's book Why People Get Lost. It's about humans, but does a good job at summarizing the history of spatial memory using animal models.