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Hi everyone,
there are many studies which prove that the breeding success of raptor populations (or other animals) declines while the breeding densitiv increases. The most common explanation is the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, saying that additional individuals have to use non optimal habitats when the carrying capacity ot the population is almost reached.
Is there any evidence that individuals from these populations tend to leave their birth areal and search for other habitats in greater distances? Or are raptor populations mainly regulated by their breeding success?
Cheers Tim
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Además de las causas mencionadas, se dispersan por el principio de territorialidad, lo hemos estudiado en Geranoaetus polyosoma
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I was wondering if anybody could point me towards published estimates of how often and how much chimpanzees consume meat? I was also wondering if anybody had data on how many party members typically consume meat after a hunt (i.e., between how many individuals is a single carcass usually shared)? Information from multiple sites with different group sizes would be ideal! Thanks and all the best,
Jan
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The book of Nishida from 2012 is fantastic, with a lot of more references to the topic.
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For example, this could be repeated field sampling in ecological studies.
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Jennifer Parkhurst non AEC app ‘research’ is an example of gross familiarity and habituation leading to the death of two generations of K’gari wongari.
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I've been collecting & planting seeds of butterfly host plants for the restoration program. And I need research references especially for tropical Southeast Asia native species (include all types of herbs, bush, or shrubs). I looking forward to having some recommendations from botanical experts.
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Legumes and Ficus tree is strong candidate as reforestation starter and able to grow in harsh condition. Both are important agent for fixing soil quality.
But in term restore forest birds habitat, which one is can profide more ecological service? Which on is needed first? Ficus to support frugivores species or Legume as insect refugia to attract insectivores?
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Ficus...but Legumes can also play a great role in arid and Saharan areas.
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I am interested in products of less than 1 g in weight, for bats of about 10 grams. Thank you for your recomendations in advance.
(Im aware that telemetric transimtors of such weight exist, yet am currently looking into other options)
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Greetings,
I have listed factors of each animal (mammals) species rescued during a dam inundation such as "can swim/unable to swim", "arboreal/terrestrial", "cryptic/none cryptic", frequency of capture: "common/rare" etc. What analysis can be done in order to determine the contributing factors and grouping of characteristics of the animals that influences it to be rescued? I've been suggested Principle Component Analysis (PCA) but I'm also exploring other options out there.
Thank you.
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Hello Nur,
If your sample is only comprised of rescued animals, then you won't be able to pinpoint features/attributes that distinguish them from non-rescued animals (especially if the vital traits differ by species). At best, you could look for traits that appear in a high fraction of the rescued animals, and propose that these might be salient features for survival via rescue.
Good luck with your work.
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Earth have diverse group of insects, if a species of insect got extinct, how we can assess and identify them? What are the criteria’s to follow?
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Dear Kariyanna,
I believe that several other replies here have added useful information for attempting to define this. Though I had some entomology courses and instruct a bit of this in my zoology teachings, I work largely with mammals. Extinction can be difficult, if not impossible, to verify for many species, so a consensus, such as the IUCN description is a useful working application.
In graduate school, a fellow researcher worked on a possible population census of wolverines in the state of Oregon. Though it was assumed that wolverines exist in Oregon, none were definitively sighted for several years. The research was based upon trace evidence - burrows, hair, tracks, and alleged sightings or predation of this species.
I myself assisted a colleague on trace evidence and reports of the thylacine (Thylacinus cynocephalus) in Tasmania. Largely considered to be extinct, but with continued reports, some from reputable sources. Is it extinct? Most mammalogists would say yes, but I am still uncertain with some of the reports and a large amount of suitable habitat that is difficult to access. On the other hand, species such as the Great auk, the passenger pigeon, and Steller's sea cow have no doubt that they are extinct and no sightings have been reported for a century or more.
Here is one reference for insect sampling and potential declines: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7069279/
Regards,
Jeb Bevers
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Any paper about the relation between butterfly lifecycle and temperature will be very helpful, please let me know
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Dear Alex Naveen Alex I also suggest like Tharindu Ranasinghe follow the attached link below, you may get some related information
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I am currently a freshman in college aiming to become an Ethologist. I am wondering what classes I should take freshman year to set me on that path. My ultimate goal is to study big cats (lions, tigers) on a wildlife preserve. Thank you!
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A multi-disciplinary approach centered around the life sciences and math (quantitative analysis) are fundamental to ecology. You may find this tricky to find. If in doubt start with biology. Good luck, it is the road least travelled at the end of the day.
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I have noted dramatically change in color on the body of some marine fishes. For example, I saw a dramatically change from a "intense-yellow" color to "brown" color (normal color), just in one second. Is not a gradual change of color, is very quickly, similar like an octopuses. How could be explained this color change?
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Body coloration in many poikilothermic animals is plastic and can be adjusted at the individual level. Particularly in fish, this rapid change is called physiological color change and refers to synchronous movement of pigment organelles within pigmented cells in the skin called chromatophores (black melanophores containing melanin, yellow xantophores containing pteridine, red erythrophores containing carotenoids, and the more rare blue cyanophores containing an unknown cyan biochrome), as well as in changes in angles of light reflecting crystals in iridophores and leucophores . When aggregating the dark melanosomes of the melanophores, the skin not only becomes pale but also more transparent. Increased body transparency can also aid background matching.
The advantage of rapid color change is obvious, because it allows rapid adjustments and flexibility at the individual level depending of the situation. It is used for background matching as well as for communication and sexual display . Studies on pipefish have shown that the color ornaments of the females are shut off if a predator enters the mating area, clearly indicating the advantage of an adjustable body appearance and the risk of a colorful display .
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Hi all,
I was wondering if you know of any case in which breeder/floater ratio in birds is monitored over the years while observing changes in nest-site availability. Floaters in one of my focus populations are very abundant and I would like to discuss to what extent this could be an indicator of nest-site restriction.
Thank you,
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Hi Ulises and Michael et al. It is really unusual when raptor floaters can actually be counted in the field and compared with occupancy data. That's an interesting graph. Another example of temporal variation in territory quality and its effects on floater numbers may be the effect of jackrabbit cycles and drought on territory occupancy in golden eagles in the deserts of western North America. The idea is that some territories may become temporarily unsuitable for occupancy (no food), forcing the territory holders into the floater pool. Jim Watson et al. has an interesting recent paper that reflects a bit on that issue (Watson et al. 2020. The Journal of Wildlife Management 1–10). I think what you are both seeing what might be relatively stable populations with adults moving in and out of the floater pool depending on temporal variation in territory suitability, i.e., availability of a nest site or enough food within the territory to sustain its occupancy. In a study of a resident golden eagle population (PLoS One 2017), I radio-monitored 51 floaters over a long period and only two acquired territories. Breeder numbers were meanwhile stable.
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Dear All,
this question is not relevant any more but I could not find a way of deleting it. Please, see instead my most recent question. Thank you. Cheers, JUAN
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Thank you for sharing your work! In order to be able to invite you to the group, please, fill this form:
and, please, send me a private e-mail (juan.masello@gmx.de) once you have completed it.
Looking forward to your participation! Cheers, JUAN
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I would like to calculate the overlap between the distributions of two sets of data (predator & prey). The prey set has got about 250 species, the predator set approximately 5000. For each species I have a shape file in .shp format. Has anyone got any suggestions how to calculate the overlap between the pairs?
In the past I've used the function 'pairwiseRangemaps' of the fuzzySim package, but it calculates the overlap between EACH pair (so > 27 million comparisons for a 5250 x 5250 matrix), making it impossible to run on any normal computer (even splitting the data set in dozens of smaller files and taking out the upper triangle would take weeks or months). I'm not interested in the overlap between prey species or between predator species, just between each prey and each predator.
Has anyone got a suggestion how to calculate this in R? I'm thinking of two vectors (one prey, one predator) and then calculating the overlap between just these.
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Hi!! There are many ways to do that, if you do not have many polygons, you can do it with a simple clip and the calculation of the areas in attribute table. Then with the area of the complete and clipped polygon you can calculate the percentage of overlap. If you have many polygons, there are many functions to explore as those recommended the colleagues above. Depending on the software you use, you should google overlay polygons ArcGis, or QGIS, or R..
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I am working on ecological factors that determine the size of territory in electric fishes, and I would like to know if there is any background on the relationship between concentration of oxygen and territory in freshwater fishes
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Hi Daniel,
This attached article by Julian et al. shows the oxygen consumption rate of some electric fish species. I hope it helps.
Best regards,
Nonato Mendes Jr.
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Here my focus is to measure proximity (of group members) of free-roaming animals while resting. I collected data using instantaneous scans and now want to see the effects of seasons, human habitat, group size, sexes, and dominance-ranks on proximity. Interestingly, I have observed different clusters in same groups (for example, XYZ rest together and ABS rest together). What would be best way to analyze the data? (unfortunately, I don't have data on relatedness of the individuals).
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You can use FAMD (Factor analysis of mixed data) to visualize and analyze the data, as your data contains both categorical and numerical observations. FAMD is an ordination method similar to PCA, and will be helpful in this scenario. The result will tell you how much each of the predictors are contributing towards the variance in the data.
If you only want to investigate which of the predictors are significant, you can us the suggestion made by Philip D DeWitt
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I'm trying to review Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii) movements for a research job. But I couldn't find any research paper on this theme. Thank You.
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Check
2. A conservation assessment of Smutsia temminckii
3. Ethnozoological Survey of Traditional Uses of Temminck’s Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii) in South Africa
4. IUCN Pangolin Specialist working group
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We are using Giving Up Densities to determine the perceived risk in voles.
This is a forced choice setting, with 3 different foraging patches, each with their own risk level.
Some individuals started to forage in the "dangerous" patches and store it in the "safe" patches, bringing them above their initial food levels.
How do I account for this in the statistics?
We are going to report proportions (food remaining/food initially), so that values should range between 0 and 1, however the latest individual stored so much food that it pushes the value to 1.2.
My idea was to either force a cut-off at 1, or to subtract the additional food, i.e. turn the 1.2 into 0.8.
Neither option seems perfect.
Thanks in advance!
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Thanks for the input Jacob Nabe-Nielsen ,
would a random factor of 2 for every sample really account for the problem? I could imagine this to work if the duration of the trials would not be equal.
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In general, sex ratio is expressed as the ratio of males to females in a population, ie number of males/number of females (*100). However, when the number of females in (sub)population is 0 (zero), how to express the sex ratio?
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In fact, the term "sex-ratio" is misleading, and the formula "males/females" should be avoided. Only a minority of authors use this formula.
Practically, most authors use the formula "males/(males+females)". This can be expressed as a probability (range: 0-1) or as a percentage (*100). It should be properly called "male proportion" but the (misleading) term "sex ratio" is traditional.
Best,
L
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I want to hear about experiences using traditional or relatively simple capture-recapture models to investigate effects of time-varying individual covariates (i.e. body size) on survival. An easy trick is to make the covariate categorical instead of continuous and examine effects of (size) states on survival (using multistate or multievent models), but if you want to investigate continuous size-survival relationships and how they change over time, what options do you have without needing to shift to more complex modelling tools?
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Hi Albert,
does this example fit to your question? They used a combination of state and time-varying covariate (serological measure). It allows for absence of measurement event if an individual is captured.
Another possibility is to use as many individual covariates as the number of occasion and to include it in your model in E-SURGE i+t*xind(1_t)
Hope it helps,
Guillaume
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Hello every body,
I have got a set of GPS data containing the hourly locations of 74 terrestrial animals during the study period. Currently, I am looking over disparate models of movement modelings like BBMM. I need to study the interaction and movement pattern of each individual animal.
In addition, I will use Python for the implementation of the model.
Which model do you recommend?
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Hi, it appears that no one has really answered your question, so I am going to take a stab at it and hopefully it helps. If you are using Esri products in the Geoprocessing tools there are the Spatial Analyst and Tracking Analyst extensions that are really helpful. You can build a model, through modeling building and test how it works. They do require some level of knowledge with ArcGIS and GIS. However, there are online tutorials for ArcGIS extensions, and YouTube videos, for free. I have seen in other forums people suggesting Hawths’ tool for spatial ecology, but I am not familiar with that software at all that I am aware of.
Tracking analysis
Spatial analysis
or if you read enough which most college students do check out the choices in YouTube videos
Spatial analysis YouTube
Tracking Analysis YouTube
Animal movement article with resources
Also: a book is out on explaining Modeling suitability, movement and interaction
I hope this helps, Good luck with your project.
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As part of our efforts to model shark distribution, derived from baited cameras, we have been applying a method of introducing a residual autocovariate (RAC) term in our Boosted Regression Trees (BRT, Elith et al 2008), to account for spatial autocorrelation (method of Crase 2012).
Now, we would like to make spatial predictions out-of-samples with our model. However, we do not know what value to set for the RAC.  I was wondering if anyone could recommend a robust way of dealing with this, or perhaps any further literature on the topic?
We would be very grateful for any assistance you are able to provide!!
Crase, B., Liedloff, A. C., & Wintle, B. (2012). A new method for dealing with residual spatial autocorrelation in species distribution models. Ecography, (35), 879–888. http://doi.org/10.2307/23272446
Elith, J., Leathwick, J. R., & Hastie, T. (2008). A working guide to boosted regression trees. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77(4), 802–813. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01390.x
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Hi Tom,
I would test for spatial autocorrelation in the residuals of your model, as Crase et al did. You could rerun the model with progressively higher values of the RAC parameter until the autocorrelation goes away. Do keep an eye on overall model performance as you do this.
- Chris
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Is there a way to use the dispersion statistics to assess aggregations in this regard?
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A species aggregation characteristics can be quantified a number of ways, with Taylor's equation, which relates variance to mean density, being one of the easiest to use. 
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Snail and earthworm are very sensitive to pesticides. If a farmer apply pesticides in resonable amount/dose, these two insects may be safe. It will be easy to monitor the health of an agriculture field and avoid indiscriminate use of pesticides.
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Earthworms and snails can be excellent indicators of the health of soils but they are just 2 organisms which are part of a much larger diversity within soil biota. They are part of a much bigger soil food web where mites, collembola, symphilans, and many other micro invertebrates contribute with their ecologies and metabolisms to support life in-and-above ground. Agricultural practices such as: soil tillage and the application of agrichemicals reduce abundance and diversity of soil life, making agriculture even more dependent on the same practices I have mentioned above and thus reducing farming to an extractive activity. Fostering soil life and the health of the soil community enhances the sustainability of farming systems, making agriculture regenerative and restorative.
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I have records of my species of interest in a specific type of habitat (waterholes) during seasons and over the years. Can i use Occupancy modeling? I need all the help!
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Federico Nave, you might be interested in this response to the Welsh et al. paper you shared, if you haven't seen it already:
Carlos A. Gaitán and I have been communicating, and while theoretically he could use occupancy models, the number of waterholes sampled is very small so estimates of occupancy (from any method) are going to have large standard errors.
Great advice that people are giving here though!
Cheers
Darryl
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Understanding what drives the large-scale pattern of biodiversity is the vital part of macroecology and conservation. The basis of this study is obtaining high-quality data of abiotic /biotic variables. Nowadays, we are in the big-data era, there are a lot of resources for available data. However, the quality and resolution of these data are uneven which may let many novices feel confused. Therefore, we could discuss this topic here.
DON"T HESITATE TO POST RESOURCES of these HIGH QUALITY and OPEN ACCESS data that you know. Please also provide its time period and resolution.
I wrote a list of several resources on my website that I have knew until now for reference:
Here are some example:
WorldClim (v1, v2): http://www.worldclim.org/
  • widely used in SDM
  • [T] 1970~2000, [R] 30 arcsec
  • historical/current/future
  • a new dataset of climate
  • [T] 1979~2013, [R] 30 arcsec
  • historical/current/future and time series (very interesting)
  • can select specific months and models 
  • multiple remote sensing data for biodiversity study (topography, habitat heterogeneity, consensus land cover, cloud cover climatology and freshwater environmental variables)
  • topography ([R] 1km); habitat heterogeneity ([R] 30 arcsec); consensus land cover ([R] 30 arcsec); freshwater env. ([R] 1km)
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This technical report has a lovely appendix listing a plethora, yes I said plethora, of available datasets you may be interested in.
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I'm researching New England cottontail diet selection at the population level and am looking for an efficient way to run Manly's G-test. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
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Wendy, I would like to ask you a question: Do you have a copy of the book ‘Resource selection by animals’ (Chapman, 1993), by B F J Manly et al.?
By the way, Manly had (or has) an active page here at RG.
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Wind turbines pose a threat to bees.
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I would also like to know if there are studies on the electromagnetic pollution generated by wind turbine farms on the magnetic detection of flowers by bees sensitives hairs ? It is pretty hard to imagine that there are no effects from these massive electromagnetic field generators on the very sensitives and delicate bees already to often high on pesticides.
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The Lotka Volterra model is the basic model for predator-prey interactions.  Is it also used for herbivore-plant interactions or is there a different, equivalently standard model for herbivore-plant interactions?  And has there been research on using the Lotka Volterra model with an additional carrying capacity for the prey?
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Instead of the LV model, you can use the Nicholson-Bailey model which is originally a host-parasite model but that works well for a plant-herbivore system as well. See for example https://math.la.asu.edu/~dieter/papers/herbivore.pdf
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I am struggling to discuss the results of GAM model averaging for different variables and I have doubts if to remark the importance of all variables included within AICc<2 or only those with p<0.05. I would like to know if a predictor with low weight but present in one of eight candidate to best models (AICc<2) still not being significant should be considered a variable to be taken in consideration. Should I include the plots of all variables or only those significative? Thanks
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Bruno
Have you used Delta AIC as a criterion for model selection? What kind of improvement in R-squared are you seeing when you add all the variables? Does adding the variables really make ecological sense to you or were they just potential predictors you added as after thoughts to your model? I'm not second guessing you because you know your data. I don't. I simply make this suggestion because I believe everyone speculates to infinity and beyond - to quote a cartoon character. Anyway, seems to me that what you want is the simplest out the eight possible models that fit your data. For example, if your R squared is say .68 with 4 variables and .74 with 8 is that really and improvement or is that just noise? If the AIC for doesn't change much (rule of thumbs vary I've seen 2, 3, or 10) maybe you might reconsider which model you are interested in. And if that doesn't help well, plotting the significant ones is probably the best approach to help you figure out what the heck is going on. I've played a little bit with this stuff but I'm no expert by any means. Just my two cents. Hope it helps.
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Recently we observed roosting tree changes by Flying fox colony within same forest patch time to time in Sri Lanka.
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Most reasons for roost-switching priorly identified have been listed in the answers above. Here are a few publications dealing with roost fidelity and -switching:
Selvarathinam (2013) Roost fidelity in the indian short-nosed fruit bat, Cynopterus sphinx, under field conditions http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/jspui/bitstream/10603/136784/9/09_chapter%204.pdf
Willis and Brigham (2004) Roost switching, roost sharing and social cohesion: forest-dwelling big brown bats, Eptesicus fuscus, conform to the fission–fusion model
Gopukumar et al (2002) Roosting patterns in a captive colony of short-nosed fruit bats
Storz et al (2000) Dispersion and site fidelity in a tent-roosting population of the short-nosed fruit bat http://www.bu.edu/cecb/files/2009/08/storzdispersion2000.pdf
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I am planning for a morphological study on Saara hardwickii in the Aravallis in Western India. It has a semi-arid landscape with a fairly good population of the species. But capturing these species became a problem. I need to know some methods by which I can capture these species for morphological study and then release safely in their habitat.
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In West Africa there is a park manager on the W national park trapping Nile monitor (Varanus niloticus) with Havahart trap too. He had a big succes
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Hy there,
I was searching materials for my MsC thesis about horsehair worms, when I found THESE:
Do some researches about the eating of adults horsehair worms by Mantoidea exist?
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Dear Mattia,
I'm not at all a specialist on horsehair worms but I never read anything on predation on horsehair worms. This is probably mainly because of their more or less "hidden" lifestyle and their slow movements and hard stick-like appearance (or at least they do not really look like a meal for predatory animals, but more like organic debris). They will however been eaten more or less by chance by fish (when in the water) or by predation on their host in which they live. The two examples you refer to fall into the latter category. I do not think you can consider this as predation of Mantoida. In these cases the mantis had the intention to catch an insect (in this case a cricket) and during the consumption of it's prey it considers everything within the cricket as part of it's meal. In other words: the mantis is not aware of the horsehair worm and as far he is concerned he is just eating a cricket, because the eating of the horsehair worm is not intentionally you cannot consider this as predation on horsehair worms.
I wish you success in your research on horsehair worms, it is a very interesting subject!
All the best,
Kevin
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I am interested in comparing the overall body and head size of free-ranging mammals from different geographic locations. Since they are free-ranging, touching them or taking measurements with tapes are not feasible all the time.
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Dear Debottam,
the software developed by Montani (2001) can be useful for your research. However you must take pictures from diffenrent angles.
Best,
Cristna
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I'd appreciate advice about acoustic recorders for undertaking surveys for a range of taxa, particularly birds, frogs and microbats (i.e. audible and ultrasonic). The units will be left in situ for days/weeks and will need to withstand a range of environmental conditions (e.g. deserts and wet tropics). I've previously used Song Meters. Is anything better.....that's not considerably more expensive? If not, which Songmeter model would be best? Thanks in advance.
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Hi, you can use the 4th generation Song Meter SM4 which is a compact, weatherproof, dual-channel acoustic recorder capable of capturing large amounts of data from wildlife such as birds, frogs and aquatic life.
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It is well known that all plants have cells with porfyrins with magnesium, Mg (for light absorption?), whereas all animals have cells with porfyrins with iron, Fe (for oxygen uptake and transport?)
These trace metals are not in abundance on Earth's surface other places than where volcanoes and/or hydrothermal systems are active. Such geologic systems are capable of transporting trace metals in solution and finely diseminated in slurry form, directly from the mantle to the surface. This probably means that the life on Earth is not possible without volcanism and active hydrothermal systems.
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Why have all plants porfyrins with magnesium, and all animals have porfyrins with iron or vanadium in their cells?
From the standpoint of evolutionary hierarchical thermodynamics and the principle of substance stability, we can give the following answer. In evolution, living beings are enriched with heavy elements. So the amount of nitrogen, phosphorus, sulfur increases during the transition from the plant world to the animal world. Similarly, thermodynamics explains the transition of plant porphyrins with magnesium to the porphrin of animals with iron, vanadium in their cells.
 
Have a look at please:
G. P. Gladyshev. Hierarchical thermodynamics and evolution of chemical and biological matter
and
2. Hierarchical Thermodynamics: Foundation of Extended Darwinism 
Imperial Journal of Interdisciplinary Research (IJIR) • February 2017
3. Life - A Complex Spontaneous Process Takes Place against the Background of Non-Spontaneous Processes Initiated by the Environment
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In future space travel space ships will be isolated for months, this could make it easy for various kinds of pests to spread over the ships.
Ants are carnivore and could help to contain such pests, especially in regions that cannot be accessed easily (behind cover panels, ...). I think about Leptothorax spp., with small colony sizes.
Are there any studies about the behaviour of ants in space?
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I think there was work on fish and rats in space that showed that if they were raised there they failed to develop the ability to right themselves in gravity. Given that they live in granular environments and these are very gravity dependent, making their homes might be tough!
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We just released a few bison into a grassland restoration unit of about 1,000 acres.  We wanted to assess dung beetle community recovery in response to the animals.  When we set out baited pitfall traps – it’s like we are sampling the inverse of what we expected.  The traps in grasslands with no bison have lots of beetles.  The units with the bison..., our traps are essentially empty.  Our assumption is that there is too much “competition” in the pasture for our traps to attract much attention.
Does anyone have any suggestions about how we may still sample this insect community – perhaps a more passive way of sampling dung beetles?
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Sometimes it is useful to add a second sampling method, and combine the results from both. So if you were to do transects (like in the "distance sampling" method) you would encounter also dung beetles busy working on the dung piles of the bisons.
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I want to study the inverse analysis Kaandorp to aply in one study of ants!
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Considering the high attractivity of aromatic baits used to capture euglossine bees, which may lure insects from long distances, I am looking for positive or negative evidence of this sampling method on euglossine populations. Specifically, which chemicals are more attractive and what distance do they act? Should there be a limit to the periodicity of sampling in order not to reduce bee populations?
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Males are quickly attracted to synthetic bait traps that stimulate floral fragrances primarily due to the fact that these are also the floral fragrances that female bees release in order to attract the males. A study conducted on Euglossine bee communities in the Atlantic Forest in Brazil used aromatic traps that contained contained methyl cinnamate, vanillin, eucalyptol, benzyl acetate, and methyl salicylate. A total of 1158 males were collected, verifying the fact that aromatic baits are very effective and allow for a faster specimen collection. Aromatic baits, however, can also pose problematic effects since during mating season, male bees may go for the bait traps instead of going for the females thus hindering reproduction. 
This information was taken from the attached links. You may refer to them to further help you with your study.
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In the jungle where domesticated chickens come from, there are many predators. In the morning, roosters crow which will attract potential predators (daily). This behavior, in this perspective, is disadvantageous because it will give the location of the rooster to predators and will eventually be eaten by one. Roosters that crow will then be selected by predatory pressures and so the remaining roosters should eventually be roosters that do not crow. However,crowing can still be observed in domesticated roosters. Why? How do the benefits of crowing outweigh its disadvantages? 
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Thank you Sarvade and Felix but why does crowing still exist in roosters when they should have been selected out, before domestication? Possible answer: crowing outweighs predatory disadvantages, follow-up question, how?
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I am currently working on a research paper about seed-dispersal mutualisms (specifically of ants and certain plant species) as a possible means of rainforest reforestation.
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I am working on nematodes. For a species serving as bio-indicator, are they highly tolerant or sensitive or both? In my case I got senstive and tolerant species but they are not widespread. Still I can call it a bio-indicator or not. Please suggest.
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Bioindicators may be either sensitive or tolerant category. But the sensitive bioindicator show the presence of toxicants or contaminants in water soil ecosystem beyond certain level above the normal range of  values. It gives us clue about the adverse change earlier than the tolerant class. The tolerants can tolerate certain level of contaminants and toxicants above the normal range. If they may be little, medium or very highly tolerant. As soon as we can detect the adverse condition it's better for adopting steps toward recovery or reclamation of the ecosystem. Study of the sequential appearance of appearance of   those graded species indicates gradual deterioration of water or soil quality. Another point to note that if tolerant species are dominant it means that the status is poor or polluted too much!
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I would like to survey an area in central Italy in order to have an idea on which species inhabit the surrounding woodlands and grasslands. I have read that transects (counting individuals in sight) and the use of fruit-baited traps are the most common and would like to know if there are any other.
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Walking transects and recording during the flight period once weekly. To calculate density, you can use strip transects and a program such as Distance. Transects may be fixed or randomly placed each time. But make sure butterflies are present first, otherwise you won't count any lol.
See: DOI: 10.1111/2041-210X.12053, Indexing butterfly abundance whilst accounting for missing counts and variability in seasonal pattern, Methods in Ecology and Evolution, Volume 4, Issue 7
July 2013
Pages 637–645
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I am looking for concentration of nitrogen in fecal matter of different waterbirds.
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Dear Sagar,
the paper below has been accepted for publication in Ecology and should be available soon. According to the abstract: " The dataset includes 10,534 observations from freshwater and marine animals of N and/or P excretion rates. These observations represent 491 species, including most aquatic phyla." Sounds interesting.
Kind regards,
Michał Filipiak
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Hi All,
I'm setting up an experiment following this design: a 10x10m arena divided in 4 quarters (with sticks delimiting all quarters), and would like to record videos of who (kangaroos marked with carved color collars and colour eartags) feed on the area, and for how long...
What do you think would be the best device to get such recordings? I was thinking of using camera traps (potentially one at each corner of the arena) but I'm thinking of the following limitations: battery life (cameras would stay on site for 8 to 16h), quality of the video (that would allow animal identification), and especially trigger/detection sensitivity, as I would need it to record continuously as long as an animal has its nose within the area, even if it doesn't move much...
Any suggestion?
Thanks a lot!
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If you look at some of my previous answers on this subject. I have used a small CCTV system where several cameras are connected to a single hard disk recorder (DVR). It can be run in the field from batteries but is not ultra portable (DIY hook-up). However a fairly basic CCTV such as the one I have used is based on video motion detect (i.e. it detects an on screen movement in the image, not a PIR sensor as with many trail cameras), you can have two (or more) cameras running and have one set to motion detect and another to record constantly.
The motion detect would enable you to count the number of times it was triggered by an animal (visits) and the constant record would enable you to obtain the full footage for however long the animal was present. Alternative just do constant record and then watch it to count visits and observe, although I think using the two in combination might be more useful.
Set up the cameras so that the area of interest is all within the field of view and you can also potentially mask the areas outside using the DVR software so that they do not trigger the motion detect. As a guide two cameras and a DVR should run constantly for several days on a couple of 12v leisure batteries (100Ah). The size of your area suggests you might need more than two cameras to ensure good coverage, but I'd suggest that a single wide angle camera set further back could do the motion detect and you could have several other cameras covering sections of the study area on constant record. DVR's tend to come in 4 camera and 8 camera versions and occasionally more. Logistically it's the batteries that are the big problem in terms of portability and practicality, if AC mains electricity is available then that problem is solved.
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Although some of the larger-beaked tits can act as predators on medium sized seeds, many (all?) tit species in East and Southeast Asia also eat soft, small-seeded fruits, such as figs. I presume a small seed is safe if it is swallowed intact by a tit, but has anyone checked their feces for intact seeds?
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Hi again.
Thanks for your response. I think you're right, probably they obtain from such fleshy fruits the pulp...
Best regards, and good luck in your research. 
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I'm an undergraduate who follows an Environmental Conservation and Management (B.Sc.) Special degree, in University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. I'm conducting a research on developing a Wildlife Movement Corridor, between two forest reserves, for an endemic (& highly threatened) monkey species to Sri Lanka. In this regard, I'm using Least Cost Path tool in ArcMap 10.2.2. 
To give each cell a resistance value, I consider 5 factors which affect the habitat suitability for the monkey viz. land-use, canopy cover percentage, feeding plant density and diversity, road density, human tolerance towards the occurrence of monkeys. I’m doing the analysis, integrating those variables at a resolution of 4 hectare (on a scale of 4ha grids).
Now I want to develop an equation to derive overall habitat suitability for each grid, combining the above 5 factors. Walker & Craighead, 2001 have deveIoped similar equation in their paper titled "Analyzing Wildlife Movement Corridor in Montana Using GIS". But i don’t understand how they have developed that equation.
If any body can give me an advice on developing a similar equation which is suitable for my study, it would be of great help to me.
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Have you seen sources about any habitat model (not the same as an HSI model) used for the given monkey species?
A habitat model is a starting place to determine available habitat for a species. Then one can develop a habitat suitability model, according to the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service's Habitat Evaluation Procedures (HEP). In using HEP, one first develops a habitat model to see what parameters are important to the given wildlife species. Then one uses those parameters in developing a habitat suitability model.
If you are not familiar with HEP you could see how it works and then search for a published habitat model or HSI model for your given species. If so you might find ideas for developing the equation(s) you seek.
See <https://www.fws.gov/policy/esm102.pdf> if you're interested.
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Euphorbia taifensis is a new species of Euphorbia   discovered in Saudi Arabia  in 2007, its fruits are eaten by Hamadryas baboon "Papio hamadryas" in case of severe hunger, it seems very unusual that the fruits are eaten by animals because the genus Euphorbia contains very irritant  diterpenens.
Is there in literature some similar cases?
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Their feeding on members of the genus seems to be quite well-established in the literature, going back some decades? 
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In August 2017 we will start a new part of our project to connect a hugh swarming site on maternity sites. For that, we will follow 3 female Myotis alcathoe, 3 Myotis brandtii and 15 females Bechsteins bats back from a Swarming site in Wallonia. We will be sure that we will find with this way colony sites of Bechsteins bats like in Dekeukeleire et al 2016, even that this method works for M nattereri and M daubentonii (Parsons & Jones, 2003 and Furmankiewicz, 2008.
A first pilot in 2009 gave no direct findings for M brandtii. By that, we are not sure this method will work for the Whiskered bat species M alcathoe and M brandtii. Are there maybe people that did already tries by this two species? We like to hear about this. 
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Dear Rene, have you had a chat with Ch. Dietz? 
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I am interested in the possibility of intoxications of hoofed game (and species like hares and mesopredators) from pesticides. We had some hints directing in this direction, but we lack “hard” facts.
I think, game animals are not really covered by the typical risk assessment for agricultural pesticides, and due to their different digestion systems and longer lifespan, adverse effects might readily occur but remain undetected.
If anybody does know someone working on this topic I would be very interested to get in contact.
Kindly
Oliver
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G'day Oliver,
There has been a few studies about residue analysis following baiting operations in large mammals, particularly feral pigs. This is mainly to assess secondary poisoning risk or to determine safe withholding periods prior to harvest. I know this is probably left of field of your request, but some of the methods etc. are of interest. Residues are typically low levels, but still detectable, with direct consumption of bait material containing large amounts of toxin. Looking for environmental/agricultural pesticides would probably be difficult and obviously would have to have a good idea about what toxins you are looking for, and metabolism, fate etc.  I'm happy to send you the link to these if they are of interest
cheers
Matt
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I am trying to gather striped hyena mortality data from across India. So If you have came across or know about mortality of striped hyena, Kindly share the information with me. Striped hyena is data deficient and data on hyena mortality is very limited. I just need the year, location and cause of the mortality. Thanks in advance.
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I have seen 6 during my tenure, what are the other details u want?
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In most species, the mating season includes only the months in which the actual mating takes place, excluding the pre-mating period or onset of the mating season. Animals often show increased mating-related activity but not mating during the pre-mating season for example surge in territory marking.  So, excluding the pre-mating period from the mating season would give misleading information about the behaviour associated with the mating activity.
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Dear Reuven Yosef and Luis Santillán
Thanks a lot for enlightening me.
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I have collected data for each season (e.g. Fall, Winter, etc.) for a full year of mark-recapture data on small mammals in Northcentral Texas at a tallgrass prairie. I trap in 3-night intervals and have two samples per replicate, with four site replicates in total from a 1,400-acre preserve. I collected quadrat samples randomly within the constraints of 60x60 m trapping plots, and measured percent coverage of vegetative categores like litter, grasses, forbs, etc. I also measured coverage at various heights ranging from ground level to 1-m. I would like to compile all of my data and determine which variables most strongly correlate and test for significance. I also have point count data for breeding birds during the summer along with the same vegetative variables and line-intercept data that I would like to add to the list of correlates to test for. 
I am having trouble determining the best approach to statistically analyze these data. Any pointers?
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Don't worry, the idea is the same. You just repeat values of variables as you need in your columns. It doesn't matter whether you have repeated measures on different units.
Cheers
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We are looking for examples of individuals that are prey when small but turn into predators of their former predators when large.
Thanks a lot in advance.
Arne Janssen
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Dear Arne Janssen
Pls. find the attached files
Ryuichi Matsuda, G. A. Kerkut ed.. 2013. Morphology and Evolution of the Insect Abdomen: With Special Reference to Developmental Patterns and Their Bearings upon Systematics Elsevier, Pp.544. ISBN1483187519, 9781483187518
André M. de Roos, Lennart Persson. 2013. Population and Community Ecology of Ontogenetic Development Princeton University Press,Pp.552. ISBN1400845610, 9781400845613
P. P. G. Bateson, Peter H. Klopfer. 2012. Ontogeny Springer Science & Business Media,Pp.520. ISBN1461575788, 9781461575788
Marco Pina, Nathalie Gontier. 2014. The Evolution of Social Communication in Primates: A Multidisciplinary Approach Springer, Pp. 326. ISBN3319026690, 9783319026695
Michael E. Pereira, Lynn A. Fairbanks. 2002. Juvenile Primates: Life History, Development and Behavior, with a New Foreword University of Chicago Press,Pp.428. ISBN0226656225, 9780226656229
Hoping this will be helpful
Regards
Prof. Houda Kawas
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Last monday the CONANP, a gubernamental institution in México, have released a familiy of (Canis Lupus baileyi) integrated by a couple of wolves and their five puppies. According with CONABIO another gubernamental institution in México, this specie has probably extincted in wildlife. 
¿Is there is a number that indicates the minimum number of individuals in order to preserve genetic variability? According with the population of Canis Lupus bailey, aproximately 28 individuals, I understand that this poblation is not enough to preserve the variability genetic., Is there a research that support that?
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Dear Isaac, interesting point that sometime is difficult to answer.
In your commnet I dont understand if the population of this subspecies (28) are in captivity? or in nature?
Many species have been in neckle bottle during thier evolution and letter had recovered thier population with a reduced genetic variability.
However is not the same to talk about species variability than subspecies variability. The level of genetic variation is different.  Have been the subspecie variability studied?
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Can traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant-animal mutualisms? Also, how does this specifically increase seed protection from predators?
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I agree with Peter! Your question should be broken down. You should firstly ask: Do fruit traits allow synchrony between seed presentation and potential partners? Also, I would avoid asking about 'pre-adaptations for evolution' because it is supposition, and at best, you can only make general non-provable statements about evolution! 
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I will appreciate information about big impact or hyperpredation event of a single animal invasive over other population, specially in islands or closed localities where can produced extirpation. Some cases reported in New Zealand  have been discussed but any way i would like to tracking all those event.
Cases of hyperpredation of a single predactor when predate, kill and consume exaggerated number of prey will be welcome.
Urban and wild species as cat, mongoose, dog, rats, fox, etc. almost always have been linked.
I am looking for information related with one single individual of invasive species. The effect of one exotic animal over a native population. EX. how many pray could consume one cat in one day? Cases of the effect of one cat or one carnivore in a island or other places. How many snails could consume one rat in a day....etc. Extremes cases of predation detecte by stomach content, etc
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Hola Rafael
I hope this paper is of use:
The tale of the lighthouse-keeper’s cat: Discovery and extinction of the Stephens Island wren (Traversia lyalli)     
("The Stephens Island wren Traversia lyalli is widely quoted as having been discovered and promptly exterminated from its only locality, Stephens Island, New Zealand, by a single lighthouse keeper’s cat.")
The paper problematises the recording of the case but hopefully will still be of some value.
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Specifically, as use on a harness for attaching a radiotransmitter to a bird, to provide a 'weak link' to the harness which will eventually break down. I can find resorption rates for in vivo sutures, but not for sutures which are not exposed to bodily fluids/tissues.
Thanks in advance.
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Hi Andrew
No, definitely not through the birds' skin. Just to secure the harness straps together. So they'd be completely dry (apart from being rained on after birds are released) :).
We don't actually use these attachment methods in our own research but another researcher who is looking at using harnesses on a different species has asked.
Thanks
A
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Could somebody provide approximate dates of start of autumn migration by Siberian passerine species occurring as vagrants in Europe? Few days ago I already asked this, but my question apparently somehow disappeared.
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I would recommend googling for Beidaihe migration information as that is a major flyway for siberian birds. I would guess birds are moving a week or two earlier before they reach there.
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I need to assess the occupation habitat of amphibians in a small reserve. I have monitored two transects of 1km each.
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Dear Diego,
First for amphibians - I would not consider 1km as small scale!
The exact methodology depends on the species and the habitat,  
My advice is to link up with  Amphibian Survival Alliance and the IUCN SSC Amphibian Specialist Group ASG.  They have a sub-committee on survey and monitoring at the following site:
They will also be able to assist in methods of assessment and collection that reduce impact to the populations
Kind regards
Prof Chris Gordon
Director. Institute for Environment and Sanitation Studies
College of Basic and Applied Sciences
University of Ghana, Legon, Accra, GHANA
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How to distinguish between the scats of Cats ( Leopard, clouded leopards, jungle cat, marbled cat, leopard cat), civets (small and large indian civets)  and canids (Dhole, golden jackel)?
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the most secure way would be DNA Barcoding but this is quite expensive and not always easy to do if the scats aren´t fresh. The other way is to measure the scats (especially the diameter) and compare it with a book ( for african mammals for example Scatalog by Kevin Murray). Then you can wash them until you only have hairs left (most of them will be prey hairs). You then have to separate different types of hair and determine them under a microscope using reference hairs. They all have a different medulla and cuticula structure. I´ve done this for Leopard, Hyaena and Jackals in Namibia.
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For example if a horse crushes a snake. 
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If the interaction appears unintentional (i.e. the horse accidentally steps on the snake, killing it), it might be appropriate to refer to it as an example of amensalism in that the interaction strongly negatively impacts the snake with little perceived cost or benefit to the horse. The same might apply for the crashing impact on mollusks in Cuba mentioned above. On the other hand, if horses frequently step on snakes on the off-chance that the snake could be venemous, the interaction could be beneficial to the horse. 
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I am looking at the distribution of meadow butterflies in South West England, and I have surveyed 93 sites two or three times each, looking for all meadow butterfly species present.  I am using occupancy modelling (following the classic guidelines by Mackenzie et al), to try and account for incomplete detection (i.e. sometimes not seeing butterflies that were actually present), but some species I only saw at a handful of sites (e.g. 3), and I can't quite gather whether this means I do not have enough information to model occupancy for those species (i.e. either occupancy or detection is too low).  What is the cut-off point for the minimum number of occupied sites and/or total number of times a species was detected that still allows occupancy modelling?
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Hi Emma,  I think 1) your sample size of 93 sites is likely larger than most occupancy studies.  I'm a bit confused on your sampling design though.  Sounds like you have 2 or 3 primary surveys at each site.  Within a primary survey, did you have 'secondary surveys'...i.e. Each primary survey was actually 3 separate days of walking transects, multiple separate transects across an area, etc? If so, you might be able to use this information in the models you develop.  
T = 2 is small, but  Mackenzie showed (see figure 1 in paper below) in his simulations it's viable...expect high standard errors in your estimates, esp if your detection and occupancy are low.  MacKenzie, D.I., Nichols, J.D., Lachman, G.B., Droege, S., Royle, J.A., and Langtimm, C.A., 2002, Estimating site occupancy rates when detection probabilities are less than one: Ecology, v. 83, no. 8, p. 2248-2255.  Mackenzie's book also shows (page 101) that you can deal with missing data...some sites had 2 others 3.  
If you have not, check out phidot.org.  You can d/l a >1000 page book on mark-recap theory...it covers the principles associated with occupancy modelling and has an occupancy example.  There is also an excellent forum, but don't ask questions until you've read the manual...trust me.  Most of this will revolve around the use of program MARK, which you can use to model your data...there is an R version as well.  
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I have found different ways of measuring body size, but not sure which is more correct. Do you have any recommendation?
thank you
regards
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additionally we try to meassure the content of fat in the bone marrow. This gives some insight in the condition of the individuals and may give hints on the condition of a population (only in adult animals)
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Two African lizards, Lygodactylus picturatus PASTEUR, 1964 and L. luteopicturatus (PETERS, 1870), are often kept as vivarium reptiles in Europe. As both taxa are similar in body size, shape and colouration, they are sometimes wrongly identified in the pet trade (especially the name L. picturatus is often used for L. luteopicturatus). Can anyone provide me good morphological characters which would be helpful in correct identification of these geckos? Or maybe based on any new (molecular?) data these names are just synonyms??? 
Thank you in advance for your help and answers.
Best regards,
Radomir
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Perhaps this paper (in German) has the answer:
Röll, B. (2004). Lygodactylus luteopicturatus Pasteur, 1965 [1964]: ein Synonym von Lygodactylus picturatus (Peters, 1870)(Sauria, Gekkonidae). Sauria, Berlin, 25(1), 33-37.
Best regards!
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I am interested in learning the status of the following species with regards to the hairiness of the bottom side of their hind feet. The references I cite below are silent on this issue (for these species) which leads me to believe that they are all naked-footed. However, I would greatly appreciate it if someone who is familiar with these species could confirm this for me/correct me on this issue.
Lophuromys xena
Lophuromys flavopunctatus
Lophuromys brevicaudus
Lophuromys melanonyx
Lophuromys chrysopus
Lophuromys sikapusi
Lophuromys woosnami
Uranomys ruddi
Lophiomys imhausi
Refs:
Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013; Mammals of Sub-Saharan Africa, Monadjem et al, 2015; Kingdon Field Guide to African mammals, Kingdon 2015; Walker’s Mammals of the World, Nowak 1999; The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion, Skinner and Chimimba,  2005.
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Dear Haya Rashed,
Welcome. I am waiting to read the result of your study. 
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Eusocial taxa are often praised because of its individuals' insurmountable effort to sustain the procedures of its respective colonies. Because of this, it has been coined as the peak of social relations. The question would be, are species not destined evolutionary stable as to rise above and be in its highest organizational form? are those taxa not having these kind of relationship will eventually lead to this? and most of all, what have humans done to subjectify the lives of animals according to their own perspective?
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I believe that the acquisition of the "criteria" that lead to the characteristics that pertain to eusociality (one of which is protection of young due to overlapping generations) is partly influenced by the current traits of the species in question (for example, coral reef shrimp live in great numbers in a sponge and as such and they also possess a mechanism for defense/attack which is their major chela—thus, these species characteristics line up to result in eusociality in terms of protection of young). Of course, if these shrimp somehow evolved or came to not possess this chela, the older shrimp would not be able to protect the juveniles from invading species, and there would most likely be no eusociality present.
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In this case, I was wondering about how an endangered species of deer endemic to the Philippines, Rusa alfredi, acquired a novel papillomavirus despite being in conservation areas due to its low populations. Is it possibly due to a mutation? 
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Dear Viviane, I am no specialist but the papillomavirus is transmited by sexual relation or by secretion  from genitals. The other mucosa areas of the body like eyes could support the virus too. The papillomavirus has many different type of virus in humans.
Some time the virus are in animal blood  but not express until some determined conditions like inmune depressed are present.
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Could somebody help find weight values for the following species or general body size descriptions for the following species: Meriones chengi, Psammmomys vexillaris, Acomys nesiotes and Acomys cilicicus?
I have searched through the following references with no luck so far:
The Contemporary Land Mammals of Egypt, Osborn and Helmy, 1982; Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013; Mammals of Sub-Saharan Africa, Monadjem et al, 2015; The Complete Book of the Southern African Mammals, Mills and Hes, 1997; Mammals of China, Smith and Xie, 2013; Mammals of China and Mongolia, Allen 1938-1940; Rodents in Desert Environments (Prakash and Ghosh, 1975); Rodent Societies, an Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective, Wolff and Sherman, 2007;  Ndiaye et al, 2011; Freudenthal et al., 2013; al-Hajeri 2015; PanTheria; AnAge.
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Hi Haya,
after some googling there can be found at least:
Page 346 in Mammals of Africa, Volumes 1-6
Psammomys vexillaris
Hi HB: 122 (115-130) mm, n = 7
T: 106 (80-120) mm, n = 7
HF: 31 (30-35) mm, n = 7
E: 11 (10-12) mm, n = 7
WT: n.d
GLS: 34.8 (33.0-37.0) mm, n = 7
GWS: 21.5 (19.6-23. 1) mm, n = 5
M1-M3: 5.7 (5.2-5.9) mm, n = 7
Page 139 in Mammals of China
Meriones chengi
HB 131-150; T 88-117; HF 31-34; E 17;GLS 36—38
The two Acomys were harder to find. Maybe somebody has actual measurements to share.
Cheers,
-Kari
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Hello all,
I'm interested in attaching a small audio recorder to large mammal radiocollars and having them record continuously for 1 month.
Minimum specifications:
1. Would need to store 750 hours on audio and run on a single charge. Ideally, it would have a sampling frequency of 22kHz (but this isn't essential and battery life trumps sampling frequency).
2. Combined recorder and battery weight < 150 grams
3. Recorder and battery price < $250
Does anyone know of any recorders that fit the bill straight out of the box, or that could be modified by someone with little electronics experience?
A previous study on chipmunks used a spy microphone (http://ts-market.com/products/models/1258/) for their project. That would also work here if there was a way to change the power input to something that would last 1 month (storage on the device is enough for 1200 hours).
Having said that, the unit cost of the above device would probably exceed my budget so if anyone is aware of something cheaper that would be great.
Thanks in advance for your help.
Kas
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as mentioned before there are two problems, storage and batteries. Among small digital recorders the best one is the SONY PCM-M10, unfortunately now discontinued but still available in US. Its power consumption is among the lowest: 60-70mAh, that means >30 days continuous recording with 6 or 8 D size batteries (max 18Ah at 1.5V), that brings weight and size high. As an option you could use Lithium D size batteries, expensive but with double power than alkaline (up to 19Ah at 3.6V).
As for the storage the M10 is one of the very few that is declared max 32GB but can record on a Sandisk Ultra 128GB microSDXC formatted by a PC in FAT32 mode. The max microSD size now available is 200GB but I never tested it in the SONY. Huge size available; however, to record 30 days you necessarily need to switch to MP3-320K with a bandwidth of 15 kHz, that is more than with 22k PCM sampling.
In 22kHz PCM stereo (few recorders can record in mono !) you need 228GB/month that would be possible with a standard 256GB SDXC card (these are also available up to 512GB now). But recorders are larger and more power hungry.
Solutions based on microcomputers need too much power. In any case the first feature you must check is power consumption. A recorder that would partially fit your needs is the Tascam DR22WL, it records in mono and thus 1 month could fit in a 128GB microSDXC card. Unfortunately it requires near to two times the power required by the SONY M10. If you solve the battery problem the WL 22 is the good solution.
Another option to be deeply tested before going on is to use the ZOOM H1. Smaller and lighter than the SONY, It is declared to max 32GB microSD however it can record on larger memories as the SONY (to be tested on specific memory brands and to be tested for power requirements).
Eventually write me privately for alternative options.
Gianni
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I am working on terrestrial species, Pheasant in tropical areas. Most of them tend to be high abundance in flat rather than steep terrain. These species eat mainly on insects, fruits, seeds, etc. I would like to find references about differences of physical environment or biodiversity (that can provide food for species such as insects,...) between flat and steep habitats so that I can explain for my results. I hope to have help from all of you who are familiar with this topic. Thanks so much for your help.
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Perhaps you must check extructural niche explotation. The capacity or avalability to fly in diferent complexity of habitat must be a factor. Predator detection in open areas is other factor.
Perhaps this reference could help.
Callaway, E. 2016. When chickens go wild. Nature 529: 270-273.
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Dear all,
For our current study of Amphibiocystidium in Palmate Newts in the Netherlands we need to weigh the animals. Spring scales are a tad bit inaccurate and we do not have the budget for more accurate digital scales. As an intermediate solution we are using so called weighing spoons (see photo). For a study in Midwife Toads (where I assisted in) I have used these before. They are a bit sensitive for wind and need to be on a level surface but other than that they seem quite usefull. 
I am interested in your experiences with these scales in term of battery life in the field, accuracy and so forth. In the picture I have used one of my Triturus carnifex to do some testing.
Many thanks! 
Tariq
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Hi Tariq
I have no experience particularly with "spoons" but I have used miniature top loading scales that I assume would have similar accuracy.  These are low budget and use button batteries that I have found to last months in the field.  I have used them for small mammals with masses up to around 50g, and have calibrated them against lab balances, finding them to be accurate enough for the data sets I have been working with.
Considering they are more robust and less trouble than small spring balances, I think they should be fine for your task.
Well that's my limited opinion, 
Kind regards