Questions related to Animal Ecology
there are many studies which prove that the breeding success of raptor populations (or other animals) declines while the breeding densitiv increases. The most common explanation is the habitat heterogeneity hypothesis, saying that additional individuals have to use non optimal habitats when the carrying capacity ot the population is almost reached.
Is there any evidence that individuals from these populations tend to leave their birth areal and search for other habitats in greater distances? Or are raptor populations mainly regulated by their breeding success?
I was wondering if anybody could point me towards published estimates of how often and how much chimpanzees consume meat? I was also wondering if anybody had data on how many party members typically consume meat after a hunt (i.e., between how many individuals is a single carcass usually shared)? Information from multiple sites with different group sizes would be ideal! Thanks and all the best,
I've been collecting & planting seeds of butterfly host plants for the restoration program. And I need research references especially for tropical Southeast Asia native species (include all types of herbs, bush, or shrubs). I looking forward to having some recommendations from botanical experts.
Legumes and Ficus tree is strong candidate as reforestation starter and able to grow in harsh condition. Both are important agent for fixing soil quality.
But in term restore forest birds habitat, which one is can profide more ecological service? Which on is needed first? Ficus to support frugivores species or Legume as insect refugia to attract insectivores?
I am interested in products of less than 1 g in weight, for bats of about 10 grams. Thank you for your recomendations in advance.
(Im aware that telemetric transimtors of such weight exist, yet am currently looking into other options)
I have listed factors of each animal (mammals) species rescued during a dam inundation such as "can swim/unable to swim", "arboreal/terrestrial", "cryptic/none cryptic", frequency of capture: "common/rare" etc. What analysis can be done in order to determine the contributing factors and grouping of characteristics of the animals that influences it to be rescued? I've been suggested Principle Component Analysis (PCA) but I'm also exploring other options out there.
Any paper about the relation between butterfly lifecycle and temperature will be very helpful, please let me know
I am currently a freshman in college aiming to become an Ethologist. I am wondering what classes I should take freshman year to set me on that path. My ultimate goal is to study big cats (lions, tigers) on a wildlife preserve. Thank you!
I have noted dramatically change in color on the body of some marine fishes. For example, I saw a dramatically change from a "intense-yellow" color to "brown" color (normal color), just in one second. Is not a gradual change of color, is very quickly, similar like an octopuses. How could be explained this color change?
I was wondering if you know of any case in which breeder/floater ratio in birds is monitored over the years while observing changes in nest-site availability. Floaters in one of my focus populations are very abundant and I would like to discuss to what extent this could be an indicator of nest-site restriction.
I would like to calculate the overlap between the distributions of two sets of data (predator & prey). The prey set has got about 250 species, the predator set approximately 5000. For each species I have a shape file in .shp format. Has anyone got any suggestions how to calculate the overlap between the pairs?
In the past I've used the function 'pairwiseRangemaps' of the fuzzySim package, but it calculates the overlap between EACH pair (so > 27 million comparisons for a 5250 x 5250 matrix), making it impossible to run on any normal computer (even splitting the data set in dozens of smaller files and taking out the upper triangle would take weeks or months). I'm not interested in the overlap between prey species or between predator species, just between each prey and each predator.
Has anyone got a suggestion how to calculate this in R? I'm thinking of two vectors (one prey, one predator) and then calculating the overlap between just these.
I am working on ecological factors that determine the size of territory in electric fishes, and I would like to know if there is any background on the relationship between concentration of oxygen and territory in freshwater fishes
Here my focus is to measure proximity (of group members) of free-roaming animals while resting. I collected data using instantaneous scans and now want to see the effects of seasons, human habitat, group size, sexes, and dominance-ranks on proximity. Interestingly, I have observed different clusters in same groups (for example, XYZ rest together and ABS rest together). What would be best way to analyze the data? (unfortunately, I don't have data on relatedness of the individuals).
I'm trying to review Temminck's Ground Pangolin (Smutsia temminckii) movements for a research job. But I couldn't find any research paper on this theme. Thank You.
We are using Giving Up Densities to determine the perceived risk in voles.
This is a forced choice setting, with 3 different foraging patches, each with their own risk level.
Some individuals started to forage in the "dangerous" patches and store it in the "safe" patches, bringing them above their initial food levels.
How do I account for this in the statistics?
We are going to report proportions (food remaining/food initially), so that values should range between 0 and 1, however the latest individual stored so much food that it pushes the value to 1.2.
My idea was to either force a cut-off at 1, or to subtract the additional food, i.e. turn the 1.2 into 0.8.
Neither option seems perfect.
Thanks in advance!
In general, sex ratio is expressed as the ratio of males to females in a population, ie number of males/number of females (*100). However, when the number of females in (sub)population is 0 (zero), how to express the sex ratio?
I want to hear about experiences using traditional or relatively simple capture-recapture models to investigate effects of time-varying individual covariates (i.e. body size) on survival. An easy trick is to make the covariate categorical instead of continuous and examine effects of (size) states on survival (using multistate or multievent models), but if you want to investigate continuous size-survival relationships and how they change over time, what options do you have without needing to shift to more complex modelling tools?
Hello every body,
I have got a set of GPS data containing the hourly locations of 74 terrestrial animals during the study period. Currently, I am looking over disparate models of movement modelings like BBMM. I need to study the interaction and movement pattern of each individual animal.
In addition, I will use Python for the implementation of the model.
Which model do you recommend?
As part of our efforts to model shark distribution, derived from baited cameras, we have been applying a method of introducing a residual autocovariate (RAC) term in our Boosted Regression Trees (BRT, Elith et al 2008), to account for spatial autocorrelation (method of Crase 2012).
Now, we would like to make spatial predictions out-of-samples with our model. However, we do not know what value to set for the RAC. I was wondering if anyone could recommend a robust way of dealing with this, or perhaps any further literature on the topic?
We would be very grateful for any assistance you are able to provide!!
Crase, B., Liedloff, A. C., & Wintle, B. (2012). A new method for dealing with residual spatial autocorrelation in species distribution models. Ecography, (35), 879–888. http://doi.org/10.2307/23272446
Elith, J., Leathwick, J. R., & Hastie, T. (2008). A working guide to boosted regression trees. Journal of Animal Ecology, 77(4), 802–813. http://doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2656.2008.01390.x
Is there a way to use the dispersion statistics to assess aggregations in this regard?
Snail and earthworm are very sensitive to pesticides. If a farmer apply pesticides in resonable amount/dose, these two insects may be safe. It will be easy to monitor the health of an agriculture field and avoid indiscriminate use of pesticides.
I have records of my species of interest in a specific type of habitat (waterholes) during seasons and over the years. Can i use Occupancy modeling? I need all the help!
Understanding what drives the large-scale pattern of biodiversity is the vital part of macroecology and conservation. The basis of this study is obtaining high-quality data of abiotic /biotic variables. Nowadays, we are in the big-data era, there are a lot of resources for available data. However, the quality and resolution of these data are uneven which may let many novices feel confused. Therefore, we could discuss this topic here.
DON"T HESITATE TO POST RESOURCES of these HIGH QUALITY and OPEN ACCESS data that you know. Please also provide its time period and resolution.
I wrote a list of several resources on my website that I have knew until now for reference:
Here are some example:
WorldClim (v1, v2): http://www.worldclim.org/
- widely used in SDM
- [T] 1970~2000, [R] 30 arcsec
CHELSA (2017): http://chelsa-climate.org/
- a new dataset of climate
- [T] 1979~2013, [R] 30 arcsec
- historical/current/future and time series (very interesting)
- can select specific months and models
- multiple remote sensing data for biodiversity study (topography, habitat heterogeneity, consensus land cover, cloud cover climatology and freshwater environmental variables)
- topography ([R] 1km); habitat heterogeneity ([R] 30 arcsec); consensus land cover ([R] 30 arcsec); freshwater env. ([R] 1km)
I'm researching New England cottontail diet selection at the population level and am looking for an efficient way to run Manly's G-test. Any help would be greatly appreciated!
The Lotka Volterra model is the basic model for predator-prey interactions. Is it also used for herbivore-plant interactions or is there a different, equivalently standard model for herbivore-plant interactions? And has there been research on using the Lotka Volterra model with an additional carrying capacity for the prey?
I am struggling to discuss the results of GAM model averaging for different variables and I have doubts if to remark the importance of all variables included within AICc<2 or only those with p<0.05. I would like to know if a predictor with low weight but present in one of eight candidate to best models (AICc<2) still not being significant should be considered a variable to be taken in consideration. Should I include the plots of all variables or only those significative? Thanks
I am planning for a morphological study on Saara hardwickii in the Aravallis in Western India. It has a semi-arid landscape with a fairly good population of the species. But capturing these species became a problem. I need to know some methods by which I can capture these species for morphological study and then release safely in their habitat.
I was searching materials for my MsC thesis about horsehair worms, when I found THESE:
Do some researches about the eating of adults horsehair worms by Mantoidea exist?
I am interested in comparing the overall body and head size of free-ranging mammals from different geographic locations. Since they are free-ranging, touching them or taking measurements with tapes are not feasible all the time.
I'd appreciate advice about acoustic recorders for undertaking surveys for a range of taxa, particularly birds, frogs and microbats (i.e. audible and ultrasonic). The units will be left in situ for days/weeks and will need to withstand a range of environmental conditions (e.g. deserts and wet tropics). I've previously used Song Meters. Is anything better.....that's not considerably more expensive? If not, which Songmeter model would be best? Thanks in advance.
It is well known that all plants have cells with porfyrins with magnesium, Mg (for light absorption?), whereas all animals have cells with porfyrins with iron, Fe (for oxygen uptake and transport?)
These trace metals are not in abundance on Earth's surface other places than where volcanoes and/or hydrothermal systems are active. Such geologic systems are capable of transporting trace metals in solution and finely diseminated in slurry form, directly from the mantle to the surface. This probably means that the life on Earth is not possible without volcanism and active hydrothermal systems.
In future space travel space ships will be isolated for months, this could make it easy for various kinds of pests to spread over the ships.
Ants are carnivore and could help to contain such pests, especially in regions that cannot be accessed easily (behind cover panels, ...). I think about Leptothorax spp., with small colony sizes.
Are there any studies about the behaviour of ants in space?
We just released a few bison into a grassland restoration unit of about 1,000 acres. We wanted to assess dung beetle community recovery in response to the animals. When we set out baited pitfall traps – it’s like we are sampling the inverse of what we expected. The traps in grasslands with no bison have lots of beetles. The units with the bison..., our traps are essentially empty. Our assumption is that there is too much “competition” in the pasture for our traps to attract much attention.
Does anyone have any suggestions about how we may still sample this insect community – perhaps a more passive way of sampling dung beetles?
Considering the high attractivity of aromatic baits used to capture euglossine bees, which may lure insects from long distances, I am looking for positive or negative evidence of this sampling method on euglossine populations. Specifically, which chemicals are more attractive and what distance do they act? Should there be a limit to the periodicity of sampling in order not to reduce bee populations?
In the jungle where domesticated chickens come from, there are many predators. In the morning, roosters crow which will attract potential predators (daily). This behavior, in this perspective, is disadvantageous because it will give the location of the rooster to predators and will eventually be eaten by one. Roosters that crow will then be selected by predatory pressures and so the remaining roosters should eventually be roosters that do not crow. However,crowing can still be observed in domesticated roosters. Why? How do the benefits of crowing outweigh its disadvantages?
I am currently working on a research paper about seed-dispersal mutualisms (specifically of ants and certain plant species) as a possible means of rainforest reforestation.
I am working on nematodes. For a species serving as bio-indicator, are they highly tolerant or sensitive or both? In my case I got senstive and tolerant species but they are not widespread. Still I can call it a bio-indicator or not. Please suggest.
I would like to survey an area in central Italy in order to have an idea on which species inhabit the surrounding woodlands and grasslands. I have read that transects (counting individuals in sight) and the use of fruit-baited traps are the most common and would like to know if there are any other.
I'm setting up an experiment following this design: a 10x10m arena divided in 4 quarters (with sticks delimiting all quarters), and would like to record videos of who (kangaroos marked with carved color collars and colour eartags) feed on the area, and for how long...
What do you think would be the best device to get such recordings? I was thinking of using camera traps (potentially one at each corner of the arena) but I'm thinking of the following limitations: battery life (cameras would stay on site for 8 to 16h), quality of the video (that would allow animal identification), and especially trigger/detection sensitivity, as I would need it to record continuously as long as an animal has its nose within the area, even if it doesn't move much...
Thanks a lot!
Although some of the larger-beaked tits can act as predators on medium sized seeds, many (all?) tit species in East and Southeast Asia also eat soft, small-seeded fruits, such as figs. I presume a small seed is safe if it is swallowed intact by a tit, but has anyone checked their feces for intact seeds?
I'm an undergraduate who follows an Environmental Conservation and Management (B.Sc.) Special degree, in University of Kelaniya, Sri Lanka. I'm conducting a research on developing a Wildlife Movement Corridor, between two forest reserves, for an endemic (& highly threatened) monkey species to Sri Lanka. In this regard, I'm using Least Cost Path tool in ArcMap 10.2.2.
To give each cell a resistance value, I consider 5 factors which affect the habitat suitability for the monkey viz. land-use, canopy cover percentage, feeding plant density and diversity, road density, human tolerance towards the occurrence of monkeys. I’m doing the analysis, integrating those variables at a resolution of 4 hectare (on a scale of 4ha grids).
Now I want to develop an equation to derive overall habitat suitability for each grid, combining the above 5 factors. Walker & Craighead, 2001 have deveIoped similar equation in their paper titled "Analyzing Wildlife Movement Corridor in Montana Using GIS". But i don’t understand how they have developed that equation.
If any body can give me an advice on developing a similar equation which is suitable for my study, it would be of great help to me.
Euphorbia taifensis is a new species of Euphorbia discovered in Saudi Arabia in 2007, its fruits are eaten by Hamadryas baboon "Papio hamadryas" in case of severe hunger, it seems very unusual that the fruits are eaten by animals because the genus Euphorbia contains very irritant diterpenens.
Is there in literature some similar cases?
In August 2017 we will start a new part of our project to connect a hugh swarming site on maternity sites. For that, we will follow 3 female Myotis alcathoe, 3 Myotis brandtii and 15 females Bechsteins bats back from a Swarming site in Wallonia. We will be sure that we will find with this way colony sites of Bechsteins bats like in Dekeukeleire et al 2016, even that this method works for M nattereri and M daubentonii (Parsons & Jones, 2003 and Furmankiewicz, 2008.
A first pilot in 2009 gave no direct findings for M brandtii. By that, we are not sure this method will work for the Whiskered bat species M alcathoe and M brandtii. Are there maybe people that did already tries by this two species? We like to hear about this.
I am interested in the possibility of intoxications of hoofed game (and species like hares and mesopredators) from pesticides. We had some hints directing in this direction, but we lack “hard” facts.
I think, game animals are not really covered by the typical risk assessment for agricultural pesticides, and due to their different digestion systems and longer lifespan, adverse effects might readily occur but remain undetected.
If anybody does know someone working on this topic I would be very interested to get in contact.
I am trying to gather striped hyena mortality data from across India. So If you have came across or know about mortality of striped hyena, Kindly share the information with me. Striped hyena is data deficient and data on hyena mortality is very limited. I just need the year, location and cause of the mortality. Thanks in advance.
In most species, the mating season includes only the months in which the actual mating takes place, excluding the pre-mating period or onset of the mating season. Animals often show increased mating-related activity but not mating during the pre-mating season for example surge in territory marking. So, excluding the pre-mating period from the mating season would give misleading information about the behaviour associated with the mating activity.
I have collected data for each season (e.g. Fall, Winter, etc.) for a full year of mark-recapture data on small mammals in Northcentral Texas at a tallgrass prairie. I trap in 3-night intervals and have two samples per replicate, with four site replicates in total from a 1,400-acre preserve. I collected quadrat samples randomly within the constraints of 60x60 m trapping plots, and measured percent coverage of vegetative categores like litter, grasses, forbs, etc. I also measured coverage at various heights ranging from ground level to 1-m. I would like to compile all of my data and determine which variables most strongly correlate and test for significance. I also have point count data for breeding birds during the summer along with the same vegetative variables and line-intercept data that I would like to add to the list of correlates to test for.
I am having trouble determining the best approach to statistically analyze these data. Any pointers?
Last monday the CONANP, a gubernamental institution in México, have released a familiy of (Canis Lupus baileyi) integrated by a couple of wolves and their five puppies. According with CONABIO another gubernamental institution in México, this specie has probably extincted in wildlife.
¿Is there is a number that indicates the minimum number of individuals in order to preserve genetic variability? According with the population of Canis Lupus bailey, aproximately 28 individuals, I understand that this poblation is not enough to preserve the variability genetic., Is there a research that support that?
Can traits allowing synchrony between seed presentation and effective partners constitute a crucial pre-adaptation for the evolution of plant-animal mutualisms? Also, how does this specifically increase seed protection from predators?
I will appreciate information about big impact or hyperpredation event of a single animal invasive over other population, specially in islands or closed localities where can produced extirpation. Some cases reported in New Zealand have been discussed but any way i would like to tracking all those event.
Cases of hyperpredation of a single predactor when predate, kill and consume exaggerated number of prey will be welcome.
Urban and wild species as cat, mongoose, dog, rats, fox, etc. almost always have been linked.
I am looking for information related with one single individual of invasive species. The effect of one exotic animal over a native population. EX. how many pray could consume one cat in one day? Cases of the effect of one cat or one carnivore in a island or other places. How many snails could consume one rat in a day....etc. Extremes cases of predation detecte by stomach content, etc
Specifically, as use on a harness for attaching a radiotransmitter to a bird, to provide a 'weak link' to the harness which will eventually break down. I can find resorption rates for in vivo sutures, but not for sutures which are not exposed to bodily fluids/tissues.
Thanks in advance.
Could somebody provide approximate dates of start of autumn migration by Siberian passerine species occurring as vagrants in Europe? Few days ago I already asked this, but my question apparently somehow disappeared.
I need to assess the occupation habitat of amphibians in a small reserve. I have monitored two transects of 1km each.
How to distinguish between the scats of Cats ( Leopard, clouded leopards, jungle cat, marbled cat, leopard cat), civets (small and large indian civets) and canids (Dhole, golden jackel)?
I am looking at the distribution of meadow butterflies in South West England, and I have surveyed 93 sites two or three times each, looking for all meadow butterfly species present. I am using occupancy modelling (following the classic guidelines by Mackenzie et al), to try and account for incomplete detection (i.e. sometimes not seeing butterflies that were actually present), but some species I only saw at a handful of sites (e.g. 3), and I can't quite gather whether this means I do not have enough information to model occupancy for those species (i.e. either occupancy or detection is too low). What is the cut-off point for the minimum number of occupied sites and/or total number of times a species was detected that still allows occupancy modelling?
Two African lizards, Lygodactylus picturatus PASTEUR, 1964 and L. luteopicturatus (PETERS, 1870), are often kept as vivarium reptiles in Europe. As both taxa are similar in body size, shape and colouration, they are sometimes wrongly identified in the pet trade (especially the name L. picturatus is often used for L. luteopicturatus). Can anyone provide me good morphological characters which would be helpful in correct identification of these geckos? Or maybe based on any new (molecular?) data these names are just synonyms???
Thank you in advance for your help and answers.
When you know that the species is migratory and the terrain is difficult, how the methodology can be improved while surveying ungulates?
I am interested in learning the status of the following species with regards to the hairiness of the bottom side of their hind feet. The references I cite below are silent on this issue (for these species) which leads me to believe that they are all naked-footed. However, I would greatly appreciate it if someone who is familiar with these species could confirm this for me/correct me on this issue.
Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013; Mammals of Sub-Saharan Africa, Monadjem et al, 2015; Kingdon Field Guide to African mammals, Kingdon 2015; Walker’s Mammals of the World, Nowak 1999; The Mammals of the Southern African Subregion, Skinner and Chimimba, 2005.
Eusocial taxa are often praised because of its individuals' insurmountable effort to sustain the procedures of its respective colonies. Because of this, it has been coined as the peak of social relations. The question would be, are species not destined evolutionary stable as to rise above and be in its highest organizational form? are those taxa not having these kind of relationship will eventually lead to this? and most of all, what have humans done to subjectify the lives of animals according to their own perspective?
In this case, I was wondering about how an endangered species of deer endemic to the Philippines, Rusa alfredi, acquired a novel papillomavirus despite being in conservation areas due to its low populations. Is it possibly due to a mutation?
Could somebody help find weight values for the following species or general body size descriptions for the following species: Meriones chengi, Psammmomys vexillaris, Acomys nesiotes and Acomys cilicicus?
I have searched through the following references with no luck so far:
The Contemporary Land Mammals of Egypt, Osborn and Helmy, 1982; Mammals of Africa, Kingdon et al, 2013; Mammals of Sub-Saharan Africa, Monadjem et al, 2015; The Complete Book of the Southern African Mammals, Mills and Hes, 1997; Mammals of China, Smith and Xie, 2013; Mammals of China and Mongolia, Allen 1938-1940; Rodents in Desert Environments (Prakash and Ghosh, 1975); Rodent Societies, an Ecological and Evolutionary Perspective, Wolff and Sherman, 2007; Ndiaye et al, 2011; Freudenthal et al., 2013; al-Hajeri 2015; PanTheria; AnAge.
I'm interested in attaching a small audio recorder to large mammal radiocollars and having them record continuously for 1 month.
1. Would need to store 750 hours on audio and run on a single charge. Ideally, it would have a sampling frequency of 22kHz (but this isn't essential and battery life trumps sampling frequency).
2. Combined recorder and battery weight < 150 grams
3. Recorder and battery price < $250
Does anyone know of any recorders that fit the bill straight out of the box, or that could be modified by someone with little electronics experience?
A previous study on chipmunks used a spy microphone (http://ts-market.com/products/models/1258/) for their project. That would also work here if there was a way to change the power input to something that would last 1 month (storage on the device is enough for 1200 hours).
Having said that, the unit cost of the above device would probably exceed my budget so if anyone is aware of something cheaper that would be great.
Thanks in advance for your help.
I am working on terrestrial species, Pheasant in tropical areas. Most of them tend to be high abundance in flat rather than steep terrain. These species eat mainly on insects, fruits, seeds, etc. I would like to find references about differences of physical environment or biodiversity (that can provide food for species such as insects,...) between flat and steep habitats so that I can explain for my results. I hope to have help from all of you who are familiar with this topic. Thanks so much for your help.
For our current study of Amphibiocystidium in Palmate Newts in the Netherlands we need to weigh the animals. Spring scales are a tad bit inaccurate and we do not have the budget for more accurate digital scales. As an intermediate solution we are using so called weighing spoons (see photo). For a study in Midwife Toads (where I assisted in) I have used these before. They are a bit sensitive for wind and need to be on a level surface but other than that they seem quite usefull.
I am interested in your experiences with these scales in term of battery life in the field, accuracy and so forth. In the picture I have used one of my Triturus carnifex to do some testing.