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Anatomy - Science topic

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Questions related to Anatomy
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I'm looking for a program that will allow me to reconstruct nerve fascicles and intraneural anatomy of the radial and axillary nerves, based on stained nerve sections. What software do you recommend in terms of ease of use, availability, reliability, etc? Thank you!
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You can use
1. Blender
2. SketchUp
3. Z Brush
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I am looking for details in CXRs pertaining to the angle of rotation, missing lung portions (like the base and apex), under/over exposure, overlying anatomy (like Chin) and other details on the data quality. Are there any publicly available Chest X-ray collections that include these metadata?
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from here you can find datasets
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I am a hands on learner and it's hard to get the physiology in class because I can't touch it
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Hello,
I try to perform renal neve recording (efferent nerve and afferent renal nerve).
Please see attached 2 pictures. I performed left retroperitoneal approach. The left kidney exists at the left side of these pictures. Yellow lines show estimated nerves, and red lines show aorta and renal artery. )
I was taught to record at nerve A by my boss and actually I could record 'efferent' signal. So, this seems to the sympathetic nerve fiber. However, I couldn't record 'afferent renal nerve signal' at nerve A.
The researcher who performed 'afferent' renal nerve recording told me that he recorded at nerve B. However, nerve B is thin.In addition, lymph ducts run along renal artery. It's difficult for me to distinguish renal nerve (nerve B) from lymph ducts.
So, I have several questions:
1, What is nerve A? Is this also a renal nerve or a splanchnic nerve?
2, Which nerve should I record at, A or B?
3, What is a good method or a good clue to distinguish lymph duct from nerve?
(Does the lymph duct run along aorta?)
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Thank you for your reply.
I'll try my best!
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The potential for impacts compressing some part of the spinal dural sac to injure the spinal cord distant to the impact site through its fixation by, above all, the dent(icul)ate ligament has again and again be alerted to.
Beginning with Schmaus, Hans:Beiträge zur pathologischen Anatomie der Rückenmarkserschütterung.Arch Path Anat Physiol Klin Med, 122:326, 1890
No longer capable of investigating this point, I am looking for colleagues sharing my interest in this field of research.
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Reference values for intracranial pressure were − 5.9 to 8.3 mmHg in the upright position and 0.9 to 16.3 mmHg in the supine position. Reference values for lumbar cerebrospinal fluid pressure were 7.2 to 16.8 mmHg and 5.7 to 15.5 mmHg in the lateral recumbent position and supine position, respectively.
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This is an example of the type of section I'd be analyzing. They contain hair shafts that may be detected by the software. Have any of you done analyses using QuPath on this type of sample? What settings do you use to get around this issue.
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Yes of course
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non toxic alternative for formalin
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I would suggest you plastination see this article
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I have used Allen Mouse Brain Explorer for years and it was awesome but it no longer works on my Mac and its super depressing. Any recommendations for anatomy/ comparative anatomy atlases with advanced features or photos as apposed to illustrations ?
Many Thanks in advance
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I think grays anatomy is nice book for anatomy
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For a depot injection designed for absorption by macrophage action, which injection route would be optimal to have most drug introduced into the lung by the lymph vessel?
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Dear Dr Min Gui Jang . See the following useful RG link:
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Hey, Could you please spare 10 minutes and watch the related video of my prototype and answer the required questions?
I really appreciate your time.
Thank you
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I think this is a very well done program. I believe that adding in images and videos of a real dissected heart/organ will be helpful as well. This would give the students an animation that could help them visualize the function of the organ, as well as how it looks in vivo.
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HI All,
I'm doing a survey as part of an Audacious program (https://www.startupdunedin.nz/audacious), which essentially is a StartUp initiative at Otago University. I'm curious to understand what level of programming do biologists these days need during their day to day research.
For all the biologists out there here are some questions to start the discussion on this topic:
1) Have you done any programming till date? If so which language did you use and for what purpose?
2) How have to overcome programming limitations? For example, did you get the work done through bioinformaticians, or sought help from your programming friend, etc?
3) Have you used online biological databases for your research? If so, which one?
4) How much of artificial intelligence have you used in your research? Do you see AI potential in your current work?
If you have anything else to add, please feel free.
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with collaboration with University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
Our Lab EMBS's Publication In collaboration with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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I am doing a research on virtual reality simulation for endoscopic brain surgery. I need a medically accurate 3D model of a human head. It has to include all the veins, skull, muscles, nerves and brain anatomy. This simulation will be used to train students on the surgery. Where do I buy downloadable full anatomy 3D models?
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There are some atlases at the OpenAnatomy site (https://www.openanatomy.org/atlas-pages/). There are free CTs and MRIs at The Cancer Imaging Archive (https://www.cancerimagingarchive.net/) and Embodi3D (https://www.embodi3d.com/). You might also check Sketchfab (https://sketchfab.com/feed).
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In different climate different plants can growing. To change the climate of a region slowly and gradually there I think changes occurs in the morphology, anatomy and gentics of a species. I means you are agree with me or not?
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Yes, I think that this is possible because plants are living organisms and it is natural that they will try to adapt to the climatic changes that surround them so that they can resist... For example, it may be possible for changes in the morphology to occur, such as changes in the shape of the leaves, which would enable them to withstand drought and heat. Several studies have been conducted to investigate this by exposing plants to interactive changes Kindly check the following RG link that may be useful:
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Dr.Muhammad Azhar Khan Department of Botany Hazara University Mansehra
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Does anyone know of a book or document that describes the anatomy of perineal patterns, including the other stages, of Meloidogyne in detail?
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Thank you Guillermo Perichi, I must confess sometimes I forget nemplex are there to help us.
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Hello All,
I am have gathered data across many published studies regarding the anatomy of a given anatomical structure. Ultimately, my goal is to suggest classifications (based on 3d differences in the anatomical presentation of the structure). I am just wondering if there were any suggestions regarding how to go about comparing these structures?
Happy to answer further questions and apologies if the answer here is rather obvious.
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Anna Kalisvaart Sorry for the poor response time. I should have clarified that these will all be length, width, thickness at midline and at origin/insertion points. Ultimately this will provide the rudimentary 3D structures that I hope to assess. We will be using summative data sourced from several papers and datasets that will include standard deviation. My apologies again for the delay.
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Hi everyone. I have a thin section of an epiphytic orchid root here and I have no clue what those purple blotches close to the bottom of the root are.
I'd highly appreciate it if there is anyone to guide me to a certain direction, to understand those cell structures.
Thanks in advance!
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From the image it is not possible to affirm. But it seems to me an artifact of the fixation method. Samples stored in alcohol may show cytoplasmic retraction and have amorphous structures in the cells. At that time, it would only be possible to affirm with analysis in a Transmission Electron Microscope. But in any case try histochemical tests with ruthenium red for mucilage, ferric chloride for phenolic compounds or sudan IV for lipids. If it is any compound stored in the vacuolo it will be identified through these tests. However, I still think they are cellular debris from the fixation method.
I hope it helped you.
Att
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Cadaver dissection are the best adopted and accepted teaching tool in anatomy teaching from the accident time till date.
Does the dissecting room still have a place in educating our under- and postgraduate students after pandemic? As the etiopathogenesis and the outcome is not yet know.
Cadevers, dissection. post pandemic
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Anatomy and Histology,
Embryology and molecular Genetics.
Dissection,
Hope to continue the same methods of teaching theory and practical classes broad sense and boldness, same and latest skills and techniques.
Be bold and skilled,
Mujeeb ur Rehman Sohoo,
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I have problem how to differentiate atrium and ventricle in congenital heart disease in baby 2 month, with situs solitus , dextroposition, with criss cross atrioventricular
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Yes we can see the opening of coronary sinus to RA in CT , that is diagnostic for right atrium, except in complete absence of CS. Chiari hardly seen by CT.
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I have been trying to learn how to dissect out the genital anatomy of snails for the purposes of taxonomy but I haven't been able to find any good advice or resources on this. I am identifying some succineids (and occasionally smaller things) and the morphology of the genital system seems to be very important. Can anyone provide guidance in this area for resources that are useful?
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David Bullis, In this diagram red coloured organs can be considered as the genital anatomy of the Achatina sp. (Land snail). They are hermaphroditic (bear both sex organs in an individual). When you are going to dissect them please be careful to separate them without damaging the overall genital connections - hermaphrodite duct and talon tend to be damaged easily.
Here is the dissecting procedure,
1. Preserve the collected sample in 70% Alcohol. (Wear gloves because they may be an intermediate host of platyhelminths parasites (Digenean).
2. Remove the shell using a bone cutter without damaging the animal.
3. Find the Pneumatophore (a small hole close to the head, see the photograph)
4.Cuts should be made as I mentioned in the diagram.
5.Open the body wall as shown in the diagram.
6. Identify the systems carefully.....
All the best!
Lahiru, UOR, Sri Lanka
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Hi all! My work team and I are looking for papers on muscular descriptions of the hindlimbs of birds (extant and extinct) that include the intrinsic muscles of digits. Any help will be more than welcome! Thanks!
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I researched these pelvic limb muscles of birds for a thesis. My dissections were specifically of the pelvic limb of the Peregrine Falcon (F. peregrinus) and Goshawk (A. gentilis). I read all the literature that was available. A big problem for me was that in the older (before 1990) literature the same muscle could have one of several names and also the same name could apply to different muscles, all depending on who wrote the paper. Jim Vanden Berge and Gart Zweers addressed this by producing an accepted standard nomenclature for the Handbook of Avian Anatomy Nomina Anatomica Avium II, which in longer published but you can find it as a pdf on-line. Although it is about 30 years old, it is a fantastic book and covers all systems as well as muscles. I would recommend everyone to follow NAAII names.
If you want more - nharcourtbrown@gmail.com
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Each places has its own atmosphere (olfactory modality). For example : the olfactory perception in anatomy class is different from the olfactory perception in chemistry class. Although maybe we don't realize about that. Can delusion occur when the very intense olfactory memory has after discharge in our brain ?
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Thank you for your answer Mr. Mauro Luisetto
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Are functional maps in the cortex used by the brain to carry out computations or are they just a byproduct of wiring minimization?
A key element to answer this question is to know if, when neurons from a cortical map project their axons to the dendrite of a downstream neuron, they retain any spatial order proportional to their location in the map.
For example, in the cartoon below, the four neurons from a cortical map (in black) project their axons to a downstream neuron's dendrite (in green). The relative spatial position of the synapses (black circles) is proportional to the relative position of the neuron in the map.
I would be very grateful if you could point me to any relevant paper addressing this question, in particular in the cortex of the primate (e.g. axon tracing experiments).
Thanks!
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Neocortex pyramidal cells are the same with this polarized distribution. You can find Min Wang’s HCN paper in Monkey. Hippocampus circuit could be very clear nowadays. Non-pyramidal cell usually do not have this polarized HCN, but they could have polarized distribution of synaptic AMPA/NMDA/GABA receptor, like I mention in one paper previously. You can check neuron morphology, active properties of the membrane and synaptic mechanisms in your case to evaluate the total computation function.
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Hi people,
I am studying bat brains through endocranial casts and I cannot identify which structure could be present in sort of a canal located dorsally to the cribriform plate. It is like olfactory nerves exit the olfactory bulbs through the punctuated cribriform plate, while another thing exit the olfactory bulbs more dorsally, going over the cribriform plate. It's really bizarre because it's like a plate of space starting at the antero-dorsal top of the olfactory bulbs, and depending on the taxa it can variate in thickness (sometimes thinner at the center of the bulbs, sometimes the reverse).
I tried to search in the literature but I didn't find anything satisfying. I eliminated the possibility that these structures may be vomeronasal nerves (they originate at the dorsal top of the accessory olfactory bulb, so rather in the middle of the main olfactory bulb ; see Fig. 6 of for instance) or the terminal nerve (aka cranial nerve 0) that also runs more ventrally (see Fig. 7 of for instance).
Could anyone help me ? Even if you don't work on bats especially, but on other mammalian groups, any idea would be helpful.
Thanks a lot,
Jacob
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Hi Daniel,
Thanks for your answer, and for the references ! They are very interesting, beyond my question. I'll try to contact these authors.
That was a good idea, thank you ! ;)
Cheers
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What do you think about the balance between exploring widely different designs vs. local optimization at different levels of biology (genomics, transcriptomics, proteomics, anatomy, etc.)? Which levels are more or less modular or plastic?
In the endocrine system, for example, one feels that having tropic hormones (i.e., those controlling the release of other signaling hormones at other glands) may offer a finer and perhaps more robust regulation, compared to a being where all hormones were non-tropic. However, the anatomic location of elements in these networks is not trivial. For example, in the renin-angiotensin-aldosterone system, renin is produced in the kidney, and aldosterone eventually exerts its effects in the kidney as well. However, the intermediate step by angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) mainly occurs in the lungs, which could introduce a delay in the regulation.
Do we have good explanations for the sites of production and action of different hormones in the body? Are there common principles to be learned as optimized by evolution in this respect? Or are happenstances/contingent evolution stronger determinants?
Thank you for sharing your thoughts!
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There is a theory saying that emotions are controlled by the right side of the brain and logic is controlled by the other side. Is the brain really divided into two sides when it comes to controlling different aspects of human behaviour?
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Yes, scientifically its correct.
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curious what this spot on an t1 brain mri is ? Im not familiar enough with the anatomy to figure it out.
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It´s fat deposition within the calcified crista galli!
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As we know,the pulse propagates in wave form and the velocity of wave propagation depends on the propagation medium features. So,Is it possible to use the measurment of velocity of pulse propagation in the body to diagnose cardiovascular problems such as hypertension and hypotension?
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Is it obvious that VR can help medical education? Yes.
Then why are so many academic institutions resistant to implement this technology?
I would like to personally extend an offer to demonstrate hands on to any medical school interested and give a live demo opportunity to anyone in this sphere to learn about this technology.
I will travel anywhere in the world to promote this know how. It’s a rising tides float all boats equation. The VR community is in its diapers stage.
lets collaborate! Please see our progress on www.vral.ca and email me hmaresky@vral.ca
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COVID- 19
Respiratory infections can be transmitted through droplets of different sizes: when the droplet particles are >5-10 μm in diameter they are referred to as respiratory droplets, and when then are <5μm in diameter, they are referred to as droplet nuclei. According to current evidence, COVID-19 virus is primarily transmitted between people through respiratory droplets and contact routes.2-7 In an analysis of 75,465 COVID-19 cases in China, airborne transmission was not reported.
Droplet transmission occurs when a person is in in close contact (within 1 m) with someone who has respiratory symptoms (e.g., coughing or sneezing) and is therefore at risk of having his/her mucosae (mouth and nose) or conjunctiva (eyes) exposed to potentially infective respiratory droplets. Transmission may also occur through fomites in the immediate environment around the infected person. Therefore, transmission of the COVID-19 virus can occur by direct contact with infected people and indirect contact with surfaces in the immediate environment or with objects used on the infected person (e.g., stethoscope or thermometer). 
Airborne transmission is different from droplet transmission as it refers to the presence of microbes within droplet nuclei, which are generally considered to be particles <5μm in diameter, can remain in the air for long periods of time and be transmitted to others over distances greater than 1 m. 
In the context of COVID-19, airborne transmission may be possible in specific circumstances and settings in which procedures or support treatments that generate aerosols are performed; i.e., endotracheal intubation, bronchoscopy, open suctioning, administration of nebulized treatment, manual ventilation before intubation, turning the patient to the prone position, disconnecting the patient from the ventilator, non-invasive positive-pressure ventilation, tracheostomy, and cardiopulmonary resuscitation. 
There is some evidence that COVID-19 infection may lead to intestinal infection and be present in faeces. However, to date only one study has cultured the COVID-19 virus from a single stool specimen.  There have been no reports of faecal−oral transmission of the COVID-19 virus to date.
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I would like to introduce Augmented Reality (AR) as one of the ways to learn anatomy to our students, and I have been looking at some literature in this regard. I noted from several articles that different authors developed different AR apps for their research. I have found many of these Apps to be rather complex. Kindly advise on how I, someone with no computing background, could really come up with an App which we can use for teaching/learning anatomy. In particular, I am interested in an AR App which has several pedagogical affordances including interaction among learners and one that can be deployed on a smartphone.
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I used Vuforia under Unity environment.
You may start with the following interesting example
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Probiotics are live microorganisms that are intended to have health benefits when consumed or applied to the body. They can be found in yogurt and other fermented foods, dietary supplements, and beauty products.
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The virus is primarily spread between people during close contact, often via small droplets produced by coughing, sneezing, or talking. While these droplets are produced when breathing out, they usually fall to the ground or onto surfaces rather than remain in the air over long distances.People may also become infected by touching a contaminated surface and then touching their eyes, nose, or mouth. The virus can survive on surfaces for up to 72 hours. It is most contagious during the first three days after the onset of symptoms, although spread may be possible before symptoms appear and in later stages of the disease.
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Khem Raj Meena I agree with you. But everyone is scared again of the vaccination because of the numerous rumours around it
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A hospital-acquired infection (HAI), also known as a nosocomial infection, is an infection that is acquired in a hospital or other health care facility. To emphasize both hospital and nonhospital settings, it is sometimes instead called a health care–associated infection (HAI or HCAI).
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Please see the following RG link.
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For our study, we need anatomical MRI, CT, and sonographic images of human hands in order to run statistical analysis on them.  We would prefer to not need to make a database ourselves for the study, as MRI scan time can be extremely costly. For our study, optimal database image sets would: 
  • Regard living subjects
  • Contain height data associated with each subject
  • contain weight data associated with each subject
  • Contain the age division of each subject 
Could someone point me in the right direction?, Any and all help would be greatly appreciated.  Thankyou
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I am conducting research on the anatomy of the blood vessels by angiography. One of the literature mentions that they use latex injection. I use latex but the anatomy results are not good. What type of latex usually use for angiography in the animal?
Thank you
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Hi Nurul, you may use synthetic(water soluble), mixed with black indian ink. You mau also mix barium sulfatun (also water soluble) and by this mixture you can take Xray images an then dissect specimens to corrolate the images with anatomy.
The proportions may diffair because of the qualitty compounds, but is essential to wash the vascular system with just water, in order to remove the remaining blood of the arteries or veins.
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I'm looking for SEM images of tropical trees bark anatomy.
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Hi María,
I think this may interest you:
Ruffinatto, F., Crivellaro, A. (2019). "Atlas of Macroscopic Wood Identication". Cham: Springer.
I can send you privately.
Cheers, Vera
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It wasn't possible for me to do the injection preparations which would have answered the question to which other veins of the neck the cervical epidural veins primarily relate.
Did you make observations on this point?
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Occasionally, it is a single vein rather than a venous plexus.The venous plexus of hypoglossal canal also known as plexus venosus canalis nervi hypoglossi, circellus venosus hypoglossi and rete canalis hypoglossi is a small venous plexus around the hypoglossal nerve that connects with the occipital sinus, the inferior petrosal sinus and the internal jugular vein.
The cervical epidural veins are connected superiorly to the suboccipital plexus and to the anterior condyloid vein, which is in continuity with the inferior petrosal sinus. Laterally, the cervical epidural veins are connected to the vertebral plexus that surrounds the vertebral artery in the transverse foramen
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Is there a simple method or equipment to measure the concentration of formalin in anatomy dissecting room?
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I really got confused in different protocols
how can I use: Guinea Pig Spinal Cord (GPSC) and
Complete Freund’s Adjuvant (CFA) and
Mycobacterium tuberculosis
what is the real material?
how can I prepare them?
can i use Mycobacterium Tuberculosis H37 Ra, Complete Adjuvant in Oil ( DIFCO 231131)?
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Hello Omid,
I do not have lab experience but I did find an excellent source which describes in detail "active induction by immunization and passive induction through adoptive transfer" (Phelan, 2016). There are also visual aids and graphs as well as a list of references that might help you with your study. Since I am a medical administration student and personally have MS, I plan to take the time to read it as soon as I finish my current assignments. Thank you for alerting me to this type of study for MS and good luck!
Leese
Reference
Phelan, J. (2016, December 19). Generating EAE mouse models of multiple sclerosis. Retrieved from: https://www.taconic.com/taconic-insights/neuroscience/eae-mouse-models-of-multiple-sclerosis.html
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For a project I am working on, I need to gain an overview of the precise spatial location of nerves in pigs, starting with a literature search. My current approach to find references is based primarily on veterinary textbooks/publications, but I have not found anything that goes into enough detail to suit my purpose. I was wondering if anyone could recommend any citations that may help (anatomical/comparative studies, textbooks, etc).
Thank you!
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Hello Eva,
did you check the Nickel, Schummer, Seiferle.
It is a fantastic and very detailed anatomy book.
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Does anybody know about papers or studies regarding the inner structure and pneumatization of pterosaur vertebrae, determined via CT scanning? Taxa of interest are pterodactylidae, istiodactylidae, ornithocheiridae and basal members of azhdarchidae.
Thank you in advance!
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I mean sometime we have limited individuals concerned with any taxa, carrying risk to dissect or designated any type.. now a day few new techniques are available to scan even anatomy of any insect. its hopefully a best technique or methodology for future prospective if we work on this . suggestion are welcome.
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This is not exactly what you are looking for, but it is worth pointing out that when pinning fresh male specimens of some groups of larger Lepidoptera, it is possible to gently pull on the valves one at a time using fine forceps, so that the genitalia are almost fully exposed, showing most of the diagnostic features, and they can then be dried in that position - using pins to hold the valves apart if you wish. It is a delicate task, so practice on less valuable specimens first. I have used this extensively with Hesperiidae, but also with Noctuoidea, and it subsequently facilitates the rapid checking of genitalia for diagnostic features or individual variation without dissection. You can also do this with specimens when fresh before being dried for storage in envelopes; although the valves tend not to stay open much remains visible, making subsequent examination without spreading the specimen much easier.
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On-the-ground experience would suggest that sound/noise pollution and mercury contamination may be coincidental in artisanal and small-scale gold-mining stakeholders and their bodies. If so, does any literature make explicit this coincidence or explore it further?
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Based on my general understanding and opinion only, artisanal and small scale gold mining stake holders are exposed to both noise and mercury pollution at the same time. However, the impact of both kinds of pollution on their bodies depends directly on the techniques being used. For example, a low noise, low mercury way of mining gold would impact less than a high noise, high mercury technique. Note that the impacts are different, as the chemical effects of mercury poisoning are very different to the more physical and potentially psycological effects of noise pollution. Unfortunately, I do not know any literature that explores this coincidence explicitly.
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Is the teeth anatomy or size (( anterior teeth or molar ..ie)) have an influence on performance of detecting proximal caries?
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Hi,
The macro- and micro-anatomy of the different functional types of teeth, as well as:
- the presence or absence of occlusion issues
- teeth position in the oral cavity vis-a-vis the dentist (i.e. degree of easy access, tooth's visibility percentage)
- the size of interproximal spaces
- any irregularities in surface enamel
- the variable color of tooth enamel
- the position of patient's body during dental procedures (i.e. sitting angle)
influence the detection of proximal caries.
Relevant references and methods on how to solve the problem (in various languages):
Plus a bonus - am interesting survey, published recently in the Journal of the German Society of Dentistry and Oral Medicine, on how and why dentists deal with proximal caries:
I hope that helps with your research :)
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The phenomenon of respiratory sinus arrhythmia is well known. But, I don't know (I am an engineer) the exact receptors, feedback mechanisms, cerebral control centres, etc. involved in this process. Also, experiments have shown that varieties of controlled deep breathing (pranayama) bring down the blood pressure (I have experienced this personally also, having become free of my hypertensive medications for the past 3 years, after having been dependent on them earlier for over 9 years. I want to understand the complete physiological mechanism. I shall be grateful to anyone, who can point me to relevant books, journal papers, review papers, etc.
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Hi there,
As a person who teaches theoretical and clinical anatomy, I can recommend the following articles:
Articles alone, however, will not be sufficient. For concise, correct and optimal results in your research efforts, check out:
or alternatively:
I hope that helps :)
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Micro- and macro anatomy of reproductive system in guinea pig.
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Dear Valeria, i appreciate for your help. Thank you so much...
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In medical schools, how much anatomy should we teach? What are the boundaries and guidelines that help us in drawing a line? Is teaching anatomy about quantity or quality of what we want students to comprehend?
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My experience as a tutor in cadaver courses about minimally invasive procedures in plastic and aesthetic surgery convinced me that, if anatomy is directly connected with practical clinical and technical aspects, is easily learned and enter in the physicians' baggage of knowledge. If anatomy is practical, it becomes an "instrument" used daily by doctor. I'm agree with dr. Ternyik that anatomy has to be integrated with clinics. Unfortunately now in Italy anatomy is a big exam to pass before starting to study the clinics.
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I took pictures of some neurons I want to reconstruct using ImageJ; however, they are not in the same x and y plane. I can built a z-stack without problems, but of course, they do not appear aligned. I was told to install these two plugins so that I can solve such problem
but now, when I import a sequence of images and try to convert them into a RGB-stack (as demanded by the plugin), I obtain instead a series of 8-bit images and can't go further.
Does anybody have experienced such problem with these plugins?, does anybody know any other plugin or method to align a z-stack in order to reconstruct cells? Is there any other software I can use to make reconstructions? Any suggestions?
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for people that currently face same kind of problems (aligning stacks) ..
Maybe TrakEM2 plugin in Fiji might help..
As explained here:
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Kindly let me know some important aspects of case report, particularly in the context of anatomy.
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To report a case that means you will add something new to which is written previously e.g to add a new feature to certain disease that is already observed in your case .
At the level of anotomy you can report for example any difference in a position or location of a certain structure in the human body due to some anatomical variation in the human body.
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there is a work on the anatomy of Abeta. researchers found that Abeta is hollow, like a tube, suggesting an object for information processing, as are MT..
PS
if interested I will find the research (if you already don't know it)
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Miller Y, et Al. 2010 pnas....
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What is the best way to learn anatomy?
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In traditional Chinese culture, relationship between gallbladder and liver is understood as "Gan Dan Xiang Zhao" which means sincere treatment with each other.
How do you understand in physiology, anatomy and molecular mechanism?
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When food enters the small intestine, a series of hormonal and nerve signals triggers the gallbladder to contract and the sphincter of Oddi to relax and open. Bile then flows from the gallbladder into the small intestine to mix with food contents and perform its digestive functions.
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We are currently experiencing challenges recruiting in rural New Hampshire, USA. (Town population = 6,800 people)
We have used several strategies including working with local clinicians to refer potential participants, flyers, blood pressure screenings to promote research, online postings on our university's homepage, and brief presentations in large anatomy and physiology classes.
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cupcakes.....lots of cupcakes! :)
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I want to look at all the various brain regions and also the ascending and descending tracts from the brain, and make sense of the information flow.
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Brain Explorer 2, from the Allen Institute. Allows you to navigate a 3D mouse brain, as well as apply cutting planes in three orthogonal axes. Individual brain regions can be turned on/off, colored, made transparent. Different additional atlas types can be displayed as well. I don't know whether they have other species available besides mouse?
Unfortunately, as far as I know it still does not let you identify stereotaxic coordinates.
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What is you take on this statement ?
FFR estimation using CTangiography is a reliable and efficacious noninvasiveimaging modality, as it demonstrates high accuracy in the determination of anatomy and lesion-specific ischemia, which justifies the performance of additional randomized controlled trials to evaluate the clinical benefits of FFRCT guided coronary revascularization.
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The technology is rapidly becoming established, and certain centres already do referrals using FFR CT. It is of relevance to thoroughly test the measurements and calculations involved to impart further robustness or otherwise to FFR.
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I have the following question:
is there any complete study concerning evaporation rate of formaldehyde solution? I refer to 4% or 40% (even higher) concentration approx formaldehyde solution. I am mainly insterested in any astudy relative to preloaded formaldehyde containers used in hospitals and clinics and delivereed to anatomy pathology services.
Thank you very much.
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Dear Alejandro Martinez-Conde - thank you for your kind explanation of the situation. We (at least some of us) know that problem (especially in Hospitals: surgery&Surgical Pathology, Clinical Pathology in Histology Labs.
Yes - you are right - there always will be emission of vapour to the room and persons when a container or bottle is opened to place an organ or tissue specimens into the/a container which is transferred to a pathology lab. That evaporation might depend from temperature (storage prior to opening) but also - perhaps this one not to underestimate - on air (atmospheric) pressure (I mean that there could happen a build up of pressure differences depending on the actual moment of filling and tight closing - higher temp in room and different = lower air pressure when opening).
Factors which are of paramount importance in relation to evaporation are:
  • temperature (increasing evaporation on rising temp)
  • surface area (the larger the higher)
  • density of solution in question (the higher - the lower evap.), - and - if applicable -
  • velocity of wind (or - as in your case - air draught by active in-house ventilation or passive vent due to architecture of the building and its corridors & rooms).
So I appreciate your mentioning and pointing to the
Evaporation Calculator
( by Office of Response and Restoration, National Ocean Service, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration revised in 2003),
wherein all the parameters as mentioned above can be found.
Interesting to find the following additional information - when entering Formaldehyde in the field "Chemical":
(QUOTE:)
"Formaldehyde solution is formed commercially by diluting formaldehyde gas in aqueous solution--typically to about 37%, with 10-15% methanol to help prevent polymerization. Evaporating formaldehyde solution releases formaldehyde gas. TEMP./PRESS. LIMITS: The calculator estimates evaporation rates from formaldehyde solutions of roughly 1 to 40 percent, at temperatures from roughly 5 to 70 deg. C. CAVEATS: Formaldehyde solution is very heat-sensitive, and is a moderately strong reducing agent. When exposed to air, it slowly oxidizes to formic acid, which is less volatile. At low temperatures, formaldehyde converts to trioxymethylene, which precipitates out of solution; this also reduces the volatility of the solution. At higher temperatures, more polymeric paraformaldehyde is formed." (END of QUOTE).
Last but not least:
IMHO, a particular cirumstance regarding formaldehyde (gas) properties (which not often is mentioned appropriately) is the fact that it is heavier than air....(cf. - sorry, only in GERMAN - :)
which means that a particular amount - if not most part - of the gas under calm/windless situations will be falling downwards....
So: take care of or for the dogs lurking around (or even underdogs) (:-)) ....
Best wishes and regards and may your study become succesful.
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I am trying to make anatomical cuts of seeds of neotropical species. For this, I use a general protocol for plant tissues with some modifications. However, when I make the cuts in the microtome the paraffin sheets breake down.
Does anyone know of any specific protocol about fixation and embedding of plant seeds to obtain successful anatomical cuts or can someone give me some advices in this regard?
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Jose Miguel Rojas-Villa , did you try embedding into resins? Instead of paraffin you may use hard resins such a epon hard, durcupan, araldite or LR White hard. They are used for electron microscopy but when you cut semithin sections (500-1000um), you can observe them in light microscope as well.
The sample need to be properly infiltrated with resin.
Lenka
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I would like to isolate hipocampus and amygdala in rat. what is the best way that I can do it with the least tissue contamination?
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Please refer to these links, you will find them helpful to study well the dissection of different parts of brain of rodents....Good luck
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Hi greetings and good day. Hope as a tutor of dental anatomy this work may be useful for your project
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Hello, the work is interesting, but why call it: Oral Biology Channel? if it is a work with a focus on dental anatomy.
It would be interesting for you to review: Curriculum Guidelines for Oral Biology. Journal of Dental Education 48: 5 (1984), or visit the following address: https://dentistry.stonybrookmedicine.edu/aaob/guidelines
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I am trying to find a reliable guide/printout/sheet that show the entire anatomical and osteological layouts of the Yellow Bullhead (Ameiurus natalis). I have found texts on Ameiurus nebulosus, but very much like to obtain the information for the Yellow Bullhead.
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Got it. Thanks
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Anatomy of Albino rat Liver.
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There are four major lobes (left, right, median, caudate) and eight segments in Albino rat liver.
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I'm thinking that in more distal parts of the colon, such as sigmoid colon, portal irrigation is not as present as in upper segments. Any ideas on that? Papers containing anatomical references for portal circulation would be helpful.
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Yes it is. This is via rectal venous plexuses (external - internal - perimuscular) with their communications, to superior rectal vein - inferior mesenteric vein - splenic vein - portal vein.
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How do I obtain the full-text of Olatunji, O.A. and Bakare, O.A. (1993). Taxonomic value of the Petiole Anatomy in the genus Sida Linn. (Malvaceae) in Nigeria, Feddes Repertorium 104 (1993) 1-2, 35-39?
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you can use this http://sci-hub.tw/
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In telecommunications, a transmission system is a system which transmits a signal from one place to another. The signal can be an electrical, optical or radio signal.
Can we consider some of the human body systems as transmission systems and then model it using telecommunications' concepts for better understanding?
If we do, can someone please provides some examples of these systems and determines their basic elements(message, transmitter, medium and receiver)?
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Dear Mahdi,
This question is an interesting one as it invokes the analogy between the electrical communication systems and the signal transmission in the human body.
Any communications system consists of information sources, transmitters, transmission medium receiver and communication destination.
At first i would like to speak about the signal transmission medium in the human body. The main medium of the transmission in the human body is the water.
Water is a dipolar material and serves as a solvent for the substances supplied to the human body. It solves the slats including sodium chloride and forms an electrolyte capable to conduct electricity by its positive sodium ions and negative chlor ions. So, the electricity conduction is an ionic conduction. The generation of electrical signals is by electrochemical effect.
The system responsible for the sensation is the nervous systems where it generates the electrical signals in form of electrical pulses and transfer it from the a part of the body to the brain or from the brain to an intended part of the body. The brain is responsible for processing, taking actions and storing the signal in its memory cells. Th humans tried to mimic the function of the nervous system by introducing the so called Neural network.
The information is generated by sensors at skin of the human body. It is generated also by the ears and eyes. All of these sensors work as transducers converting the nonelectrical signals int electrical signals conducted by the Nerves to the central spinal cord then to the brain and back from the brain to the different organs to control them.
So the brain can be considered a source an destination of the information. It also stores and process the information to take decisions.
Signals also are generated by the transducers and some of them work as a destination. The communication system can be considered wire line one transmitting base band signals directly through conducting wires.
Best wishes
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I need to evaluate an ontology matching tool how can i get a copy of the reference alignments of the oaei anatomy track.
Thanks in advance.
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You need a professional to follow because a professional can guide you well
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it is imperatives to get a good quality 4 bessel DSA STUDY is presiquite. preoperative delineation of nidus.venous drainage pattern superficial or deep or mixed need to be examined. Further topographic location of feeding arteries and relation to adjacent eloquent brain areas and relation with previous cavity of old bleed and gliosis and detailed anatomical study is must and every neurosurgeons are kindly requested to get acquinted with anatomy and detailed radiological findibgs including presence of venous sac and flow related aneurysm needs to considered in detail
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The tools are as good and effective as they need to be but the skill is required.
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I am currently researching greenhouse plant fungal resistance, and realised that an in depth knowledge of petal structure would be helpful - specifically about epidermal layers. All sources I have found are about pigmentation.
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There are some sort of videos on the youtube, I guess have seen last month.
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I am conducting an undergraduate research on genes responsible for Kranz anatomy and I am particularly interested in the case of Eleocharis vivipara or such plants where C4 induced by environmental factors can be seen. Where can I obtain the sequences/ expression profiles of such species?
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Abhijeet Singh Thanks a lot, sir. But, unfortunately, I was not able to find the sequences I am interested in (Scarecrow and other Kranz anatomy related genes)
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I recently dove into what happens physiologically to the body when inner speech is taking place. Apparently, the larynx is making tiny muscular movements when that little voice inside of your head is talking. In cases of damage to the larynx, would inner speech also be damaged?
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Dear Olivia,
Inner speech will not be damaged. When inner speech takes place, our larynx prepares itself to produce sounds by performing tiny muscular movements. Inner speech is connected with our brains' thinking and language processing capacity.
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Does anyone know how/if its possible to measure erythro-9-(2-hydroxy-3-nonyl)adenine (EHNA) in living humans?
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آسف السؤال ليس من اختصاصي
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I am creating e-learning modules for teaching specialised topics in science & medicine that require learners to browse 3D models of anatomy and perform classification tasks by clicking on parts of the model. I am looking for existing technologies that offer such features.
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