Questions related to Analog
Dear scholars and researchers,
I am currently exploring the potential connections between theories of tourist destination image and communication theories. Would anyone be able to recommend authors or studies that have established an analogy or link between these two areas? Any guidance would be greatly appreciated. Thank you in advance for your assistance.
I used the analog ports of myDAQ to trigger the scanner mirror, now I want to synchronize the opening of the camera shutter with the movement of the scanner mirror, so I prefer to use the same myDAQ.
In my study, jellyroll is modelled as steel (crushable foam) which is
analogous to those used in 18,650 lithium-ion batteries.
Can someone provide me the material property of steel (crushable foam) volumetric hardening for Abaqus?
I propose a discussion on "Analogies between Plotinus and Indian Philosophy" - PDF-PowerPoint of the lecture held by me on 13th September 2023 at the 2nd International Conference "The Greek World and India: History, Culture and Trade from the Hellenistic period to Modern Times (4th c. BCE – 18th c. CE)", jointly organised by the Hellenic Institute of Byzantine and Post-Byzantine Studies in Venice and by the Jawaharlal Nehru University New Delhi, Venice, 12-13 September 2023. In my inquiry, I would like to expose some aspects of Plotinus’ thought which have, in my opinion, analogies with aspects of Indian Philosophy. I shall therefore concentrate my attention on Plotinus’ conception of the One, on the relations between One and multiplicity, on the separation of the individual from the One and on the return to the One. I shall then investigate the opposition expressed in the Upanishads between inauthentic reality and authentic reality, the initial position of the individual in the darkness and the return of the individual to the true dimension of reality. The individual’s ascent to the One in Plotinus and the liberation of the individual from the dimension of multiplicity will be a central theme of my exposition since it constitutes one of the analogies with some passages of the Upanishads in which the process of liberation of the individual from the ties of the average sense reality are described: the initial position of the individual as a position of decadence of the individual will be exposed by resorting to different passages of Plotinus’ Enneads. The opposition between knowledge and opinion, on the one hand, and between intellect and sense perception, on the other hand, will be investigated in order to see the similarities with passages from the Upanishads in which the opportunity of a progressive detachment from the sense dimension is insisted on. The common ground between Plotinus and the Upanishads proves to be the conception of philosophy as the revelation that the average way of living is inauthentic, that there is an authentic dimension of reality, that the individual ought to reach the authentic dimension of reality, and that a long process of training is needed for the individual to be able to reach the authentic dimension of reality. Furthermore, the description of the position of the One as an entity which is beyond all predicates can be analysed, in my opinion, with particular attention to the analogies which this subject can have with the descriptions of the nature of Brahman. The main texts on which I will base my inquiry will be Plotinus’ Enneads, on the one hand, and the Upanishads, on the other hand.
Briefly about this problem.
Russian astrophysicist, N.A. Kozyrev, in the middle of 20th century observing on radiation of stars’ mass, explained origin of energy through interaction between the stars’ mass and time     . Also he discovered the quantity of the energy output from the star depends from the stars’ mass and by relation to the next astronomical object.
If we look through the history of the scientific explanations of the energy output of stars, we will see clear that our conception on the subject is limited by our knowledge of the physics on that day.
Julius Robert von Mayer, German physician and physicist, in 1848 year suggested firstly hypothesis that the impact of meteorites kept it hot .
The second original hypothesis was suggested by Lord Kelvin and Hermann von Helmholtz. They explained the energy output through gravitational compression (Kelvin-Helmholtz mechanism)  .
The third one explains the output energy of stars as equivalent of mass and energy in result of nuclear reaction.
E = mc² (mass-energy equivalent)
The formula was suggested by Albert Einstein in 1905 .
The N.A. Kozyrev’s hypothesis is not the last one in this number, of course. Each of these hypotheses explains more fully our knowledge on the energy processes into astronomical objects.
The author in the beginning of 21-th century continued his own work on the N.A. Kozyrev’s hypothesis and would like to bring researchers attention to the analogy between the radioactive decay and the energy output of interaction mass and time, which described by N.A. Kozyrev, and by the analogy between Nuclear chain reaction and reaction of the energy output of time . The energy output formula is:
E = Tc5G-1 (time-energy equivalent)
c – the speed of light,
G – gravitational constant,
T – time.
Proportional coefficient between energy and time is K = c5G-1 =6,4•1051 J/c
Coefficient K has measurement in Watt and it shows energy of our current time. The energy of the time is more than energy of the Sun multiplied by 1025. Time provides energy for all nature. At that we observe circulations of energy, mass (matter), chemical and nuclear reactions… and it will never stop.
The equivalence of space and energy was also established.
 Козырев Н.А. Источники звездной энергии и теория внутреннего строения звезд // Известия Крымской астрофизической обсерватории. - 1948. - Т. 2. - С. 3 - 43.
 Козырев Н.А. Теория внутреннего строения звезд и источники звездной энергии // Известия Крымской астрофизической обсерватории. - 1951. - Т. 6. - С. 54 - 83.
 Козырев Н. А. О связи тектонических процессов Земли и Луны //
Изв. Гл. астрон. обсерв. в Пулкове. 1971. c 186. С. 81-87.
Н.А. Козырев, Природа звездной энергии на основе анализа наблюдательных данных, Избранные труды, Л.: изд-во Ленинградск. ун-та, 1991, 191-204. (1991)
 Козырев Н. А. Человек и Природа // Избранные труды. Л.: ЛГУ, 1991.
 Book: Hellemans, Alexander; Bryan Bunch (1988). The Timetables of Science. New York , New York : Simon and Schuster. p. 316. ISBN 0-671-62130-0.
 Book: Thomson, W. (1862). "On the Age of the Sun's Heat". Macmillan's Magazine 5: 388–393.
 Book: R. Pogge (2006-01-15). "The Kelvin-Helmholtz Mechanism". Lecture 12: As Long as the Sun Shines. Ohio State University . Retrieved 2009-11-05.
 Book: Hawking, S. W. (2001). The Universe in a Nutshell. Bantam Books. ISBN 0-553-80202-X.
 “Изобретательское Творчество”. Книга опубликована в городе Казани, из-во "Фолиантъ" на 210 c. C. 43, ISBN 5-94990-002-2
Does anyone know if the TopFluor PS (Phosphlatidyserine) analog when incorporated into a cell by liposome-mediated transfection process gets embedded into the actual membrane for visualization?
I need to do twisted pair cable measurements. I have differential signal generator and two channel osciloscope (Analog discovery 2) for measurements. Cable is around 300m length, but unknown impedance. I need to measure cable at 1kHz frequency. Please advice how to do cable attenuation measurements?
I am planning to generate differential sine signal, and measure input and output voltage of the cable with differential input scope.
1. But the issue is that do I need to load this cable?
2. If yes what impedance as impedance is unknown?
3. If load is required how can I separate how much loss will be on load and than what is cable loss?
Thank you in advance
Quantum gates are analogous to logic gates in classical computing but operate on qubits, manipulating their quantum states. Quantum circuits are sequences of quantum gates that perform specific quantum computations. By arranging gates in different ways, quantum algorithms can be implemented, enabling quantum computers to solve specific problems efficiently.
Or a tool used in various different kinds of arguments?
Or an equivalence class of arguments that use comparisons and similarities?
I refer to :
Bartha, P. (2013). Analogy and Analogical Reasoning. Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy. E. N. Zalta. Stanford, Stanford University: 1 - 69. URL = http://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2013/entries/reasoning-analogy
In his editions of epic poetry, M. L. West takes the position of printing the form τούνεκα for this causative subordinant, on the basis of Schulze apud Jacobsohn (1908: 485), who claims that the form does not come from a contraction with psilosis of τοῦ and ἕνεκα, but is analogous to the variation ὅ - τό and ὡς - τώς. The problem with this, I understand, is that it does not explain the vowel change and sacrifices the very obvious analogy οὕνεκα - τοὔνεκα, which would no doubt be perceived by the Illiadic poet (cf. 3.403-405). I am therefore inclined to print with the majority τοὔνεκα, but would like to know if there are any additional arguments to be taken into account.
En sus ediciones de poesía épica, M. L. West adopta la postura de imprimir la forma τούνεκα para este subordinante causal, sobre la base de Schulze apud Jacobsohn (1908: 485), que afirma que la forma no proviene de una contracción con psilosis de τοῦ y ἕνεκα, sino que es análoga a la variación ὅ - τό y ὡς - τώς. El problema con esto, entiendo, es que no explica el cambio de vocal y sacrifica la muy evidente analogía οὕνεκα - τοὔνεκα, que sin duda sería percibida por el poeta iliádico (cf. 3.403-405). Me inclino por eso a imprimir con la mayoría τοὔνεκα, pero quisiera saber si hay algún argumento adicional a tomar en cuenta.
A review of analogies used in high energy physics is a 2020 Ph.D dissertation by Gunnar Kreisel, Analogies in Physics — Analysis of an Unplanned Epistemic Strategy, Gottfried Wilhelm Leibniz Universitat Hannover.
Are there any books or articles for analogies in classical mechanics?
I have downloaded BAG code from GitHub - in the link below - and It worked successfully with cds_ff_mpt PDK.
I followed the instruction on the BAG website to setup new PDK. Unfortunately I am not able to run BAG successfully and I have the following error " Cannot create via". I believe it is related to layer map or there is something missing.
Any help is appreciated.
2) Setting up New PDK:
I'd like to model the hydraulic effect of the implementation of beaver dam analogs (BDA) in a stream using HEC-RAS. For that, I need to establish a relationship between the water level upstream the structure and the outflow downstream the structure (based on Darcy's law). The missing element here is the permeability coefficient (k) of the composite of sediments and organic materials that forms that kind of structure. I wonder if the evaluation of that coefficient has ever been made in the past for beaver dams or BDAs. Would it even be ok (for restoration purposes) to establish a mean value for that coefficient and use it widely in order not to repeat such measurement for each project?
... what shape would the corresponding space be?
Would the corresponding space be shaped like a bowl? Why or why not?
Is there an analog from the two dimensional disk to three dimensional space?
We recently bought a new amplifier "Axoclamp 900A", for the Intracellular recording setup, previously we were using "axoclamp 2B". We also bought Pclamp11 software to work with the new amplifier. We use "Digidata 1440A", a digitizer in our electrophysiology rig. So, I have connected the I-clamp command(channel 1) and V-clamp command to the analog output ports of the digitizer. and the scaled output(channel 1) to the analog input port to the digitizer, along with this I have installed the Pclamp 11 software on the computer, for setting up the protocols for intracellular recordings, for example, AHP, FI, etc I did it with the episodic stimulation and putting parameters in the waveform.
The problem which I am facing is during the experiment we need to see the step on the monitor and as we move the electrode slowly in the slice we are able to detect small spikes and eventually the bigger once(due to which we know we are in the cell and now we can perform different protocols in our experiment. I am not able to detect any activity when I move the electrode into the slice, basically no signal. until we get that we can't do anything. I have set the gain to 100 in axocommander and the highpass filter to 300hz and lowpass on bypass mode.
We previously used Master-8 attached in our set up for stimulating the cells.
Using the model cell I am able to get an I-V curve.
When we measure voltage across a isolated diode, what will the voltmeter read?
1) 0 V but voltmeter shows a non zero value which is approximately equal to built-in voltage.
2) Built in voltage but if it's the case then why can't we use diode as a voltage source?
PS : I was taught in my bachelors that we get a 0V reading across diode which is the algebraic sum of built in voltage and the voltage across metal(wire)-semiconductor interface.
Dissolved saxitoxin and analogs may be conspicuous in the environment mainly during the end of the bloom phase of PSP producer organism, as far as I know, there is not many data on the concentration. Any data on it??
Specifically, let C(z) denote the field of rational functions over the field of complex numbers.
Is there an analog to the Schur lemma over this field?
Is there an analog to the Jordan Canonical Form over this field?
I wonder if there is an analog of the Henderson-Hasselbalch equation predicting a pH level of the solution based on two different weak acids?
Say, I want to mix Tris (pKa = 8.06) and Gly (pK2 = 9.78) in equimolar quantities. What pH levels of the solution would I get? Is there any way to predict it?
Thank you in advance!
I am looking for the gene of a specific protein in a sequenced genome of Manduca sexta. The Genome (JHU_Msex_v1.0) should be available online and the protein i am looking for is protein kinas A (PKA), the analogous gene in Drosophila would be DC0. M. sexta PKA was characterized before so i assume knowing this, that it should be possible to somehow find the gene homologous to DC0 or PRKACA (vertebrate homolog) in the M. sexta genome, however i dont know how. Can anyone help me ? what program i need ?
I had written two papers. One of the paper is on analog performance of GAA MOSFET and second one is on bio sensing performance of GAA MOSFET.
Both these papers are simulation based. I had sent them to various journals but unfortunately got rejected due to absence of any device physics( I am working on device physics in my current work-next paper).
I want to know if any Scopus or SCI based journal that can possibly accept these papers. I am really depressed since its been more than a year but its getting rejected. Any Scopus journal will also work but should be recognized.
Please, suggest me some journals seniors and respected people. Kindly help me.
DOMAIN- Electronics(VLSI) and MOSFET based Biosensors
I am a little bit curious about your favorite TM-score cutoff when you are comparing two protein structures. Is there some "consensus" analogical to a p-value of 0.05? But yeah, someone prefers to use a p-value of 0.01, or even 0.001 ... To be clear, I am preparing a publication accompanying also structural similarity searches and am not sure which TM-score cutoff to choose.
Definition: TM-score has the value in (0,1], where 1 indicates a perfect match between two structures.
So can I choose e.g. cutoff of 0.55 or 0.56, which gives me a meaningful number of results (similar proteins to my query PDB structure) that are interesting from the biological point of view? Because when I choose a slightly nicer threshold of 0.5, the number of results/structures rise exponentially :D
Thank you for your suggestion
I am currently working on setting up this EVAL-AD5940BIOZ (Bio-Electric Evaluation Board: https://www.analog.com/en/design-center/evaluation-hardware-and-software/evaluation-boards-kits/eval-ad5940bioz.html#eb-overview) for measuring the skin impedance value for my project. Due to the lack of proper documentation from the Analog devices team, I am facing difficulty in obtaining human's skin impedance data.
They have given documentation only for acquiring the data from their Z-Test board (which has various combinations of R, L, C parameters to mimick skin) but not for acquiring EDA data from human skin.
If anyone has experience with the setup, could you share your insights on it? It would be helpful to many researchers who are working in this domain.
P.S: I have tried asking for help in their forum but nothing worked for me as of now.
It is interesting to note that there are analogies between economy and a thermodynamic framework. I have only begun to delve into this inter-connection. It looks like the thermodynamic analogy has not served very far. I have visited some lectures by Prof. Steve Keen. He emphasizes the importance of energy conversion in producing surplus in an economy. Labor and Capital are only means to achieve work from given resources. He is also of the view that macroeconomics can be formulated without any microscopic foundations. So that sounds thermodynamic, as a self-consistent framework, although we have a statistical foundations for thermodynamics. But also I am wondering if financial crises may be described as sort of phase transitions. And how to describe a stable economy as a steady state system? Any opinions or suggestions for interesting ideas, or the state of research in this direction, are welcome.
I want to use the "Modern analog technique" for SST at different depths. I have Planktonic foraminifera data but I am confused about how to use the "Modern analog technique". If someone guides me it will be appreciated.
I would like to explain my question with the following illustrative situation. In the water molecule, under suitable chemical conditions, it breaks into H+ and (OH)-. Similar way, Are they any other closely related simple molecule [water analog (similar)] present? The molecule may not be structurally similar. If possible, I kindly request you to explain? We preferably want to generate H+ or (OH)- through some simple molecule. Your valuable explanation, suggestion, and guidance will be very useful to our research works. Thank you very much in advance.
Hello everyone. I and my team are in the process of designing a retrospective cohort study. I am wondering if there is a need to register a retrospective cohort study (for transparency), and if so, are there any appropriate free databases (analogous to ClinicalTrials.gov) that would accept such a study. Thank you all!
I want to prepare 9 bisphenol analogues in methanol solution with a concentration of 1 mg/ml.
From those 1 mg/ml concentrations how can I prepare the concentration of 100 ng/ml?
I am using a PIR sensor to detect human presence in a closed space and need to collect the analog output data from the sensor. A lot of research papers I have read use the analog output data, but they do not entirely explain how to extract this information from the sensor.
Our answer is a consistent YES. A qubit (or quantum bit) is today the quantum mechanical analogue of a classical bit. In classical computing the information is supposed to be encoded in bits, where each bit can have the value zero or one. In quantum computing the information is, then, also encoded in qubits.
This is inconsistent in (1), in a most basic point, because even classically, information is no longer understood to be encoded in bits. Years ago, this was true 50 years ago, but failed.
Today, one uses SystemVerilog with tri-state chips, as opposed to Shannon's theory with binary states, and two-state chips as relays.
Information is encoded in three logical states, in 0, 1,and Z, where Z is an open circuit standing for indeterminacy, with a coherent semantics for interconnects.
The qubit view is inconsistent in (2), another basic way, because one needs to move from the macroscopic, from a classical Boolean analogy of relays or switches, valid for the Law of the Excluded Middle (LEM). Then, in a formless and classical “fluid” model for particles, information was seen in the double-slit experiment as GF(2^m), and now must change to a more complex microscopic structure, with a quantum tri-state+, not qubit in two-state. The photon (e.g., a particle) is now modeled by an algebraic approach with ternary object symmetry, modeled by GF(3^n).
Comparatively, the current two-state quantum theory of qubits is linked, however, to the classical two-state “bit”, following Boolean or classical logic laws, such as the LEM, which carry only two possible values, “0” and “1”. This emulates the workings of a relay circuit, and uses the formless “fluid” analogy of classical information, that can only be blocked (relay open), routed or replicated (relay closed). However, information can also be encoded, in analogy to network encoding as announced in 2000, and not covered by Shannon's theory.
What is your qualified opinion?
I am using a kind of new patch set up and it is included Multiclamp 700B, Digidate 1550B, Luigs & Neumann SM-10 manipulator and Pclamp 10.7 software. In addition to this, we have Leica up-right microscope and all.
I have made the following connections
Channel 1 to headstage 1 of amplifier back side
I have telegraphed the instruments for Analog IN# 0 and IN#1 for primary output 1 and secondary output 1
I made the amplifier and digitilizer connections as following
Command to Analog out # 0
Primary output 1 to Analog IN #0
Secondary output 1 to Analog IN #1
I have set the Lab bench setting for Analog IN#0 and IN#1 as well as for the Analog Out #0
In the Edit protocol also I made the input command for Channel #0 and Channel 1 and output tab for Channel #0
I have the whole cell command potential protocol for V-Clamp as well as the current clamp.
I have connected grounding wire from signal ground on the backside of the amplifier to the stage screw. Manipulator and digidata also I connected to some different screw of the stage. Then from the some other stage screw I connected the wire to the ground distribution bus in the faraday cage. I grounded the manipulator and microscope also to the ground distribution bus.
When I am connecting the model I am getting the appropriate response (like square shape for bath position, respective transient signal) in the clampex software and noise level are in the range of
Bath- 3.22 to 5.83 pA
patch 1.72 / 1.22 pA
Cell 3.83 to 4.67 pA
But when I am connecting the pipette and entering into the bath solution am getting more noise, OVLD button in the amplifier is on continuously and am not able to see the square shape also. I have attached the image for that.
I tried to change the bath and pipette solutions, I tried to chlorinate the electrode and optimized with various pipette resistance. But this problem exists.
When I disconnected everything and Connected only the amplifier during that time also when am exactly entering into the bath solution that create huge noise and OVLD button is on.
Could any of you please let me know where am doing the mistake?
Thank you so much in advance for your response.
Is there any relation existing between gate oxide capacitance and off-current in GAA- MOSFET?
I want to work on the following topics with the following specifications :
Channel Length = 30 nm , R Channel = 10 nm , Doping of source/drain ~ 1016-1020 , Channel Doping ~ 1010 - 1016
1. I want to work on Gate All Around MOSFET
2. I want to work on Gate All Around MOSFET biosensor
Which models must be included in the ATLAS script in first and second part? Kindly suggest if someone have worked on it.
With different models, result comes out to be different and in different papers, a variety of model have been used. So, I am bit confused.
I want to use Al2O3 or HfO2 as the gate oxide material for GAA MOSFET in the SILVACO TCAD script . How can I do that?
Can I use them directly with just changing the dielectric constant value in the material portion written in my script or do I have to define it explicitly somewhere else?
Can someone tell me about this or share the script?
It will be a great help.
In my design I require some transistors with high threshold voltage. At schematic level, what changes should I do so that I can get transistors with high threshold voltage.
I want to know that the junctionless GAA MOSFET is used for creating induced source and drain through charge plasma concept but can that junctionless bar of semiconductor be fully intrinsic or it has to be fully doped.
Do we used intrinsic junctionless bar or lightly doped bar for creating induced source and drain?
Can someone explain it in simple words?
Hi there, I am using an Analogue Signal Generator EXG 5171B from Keysight for my measurements. I simply need to supply the analog (Sinewave) to my DUT (Schottky diode) using this instrument to evaluate the rectification ability of my diodes at various frequencies and amplitude and determine the cut-off frequency of my Schottky diode.
Since my DUT impedance is not 50 ohm, the signal generator is not sending the same voltage (amplitude) that I set in the signal generator, I know this is due to the fact that the instrument output impedance by default is 50 ohm and it has to be changed to high Z which can ensure the same voltage (what I set in the ASG) goes to my DUT.
I don't know how to set this in my particular Signal Generator, if anyone knows, please help me to set this up?
Your valuable suggestions are much appreciated!
I found 3 drugs that can be used as PKA activator: forskolin, 8-Bromo-cAMP, 6-Bnz-cAMP. Forskolin activates cAMP and can activate PKA. The latter two are cAMP analogs that can activate PKA. I'm wondering if any of them is specific to PKA? I think the two cAMP analogs should activate more targets than PKA as it seems like their role is similar as activating cAMP?
If non of them is specific, shall I use forskolin since it's more widely used and I just need to apply a PKA inhibitor with forskolin to show the role of PKA in my study? Thanks.
My question is in relation to new trace fossils from Pleistocene-Holocene marino-marginal depositional environments with records of molluskan and crustacean burrows. In these outcrops the friable sediment, already partially cracked, makes impracticable the collection of most specimens, if any. However, the morphological details are faithful when compared with modern analogous or the same producer of these traces and their ichnotaxonomic importance is high. What are possible solutions to this issue?
A simple problem in heat transfer can be solved for getting temperature and heat flow by writing equations. For solving certain problems in heat transfer, some means has to be made use of to get the solution. How does electrical analogy principle helps to find heat flow in heat transfer problems?
Hello great researchers,
I am working on a project where the output signal is in microvolts which is too low to read by Arduino analog pins. Can someone guide me that how to amplify this microvolt signal without adding much noise.
An analog signal is mostly continuous. But there may be cases where it might not be continuous. Is it correct to say that a continuous signal with a definite range of values is what an analog signal is?
Suppose I am observing a person from space from a distance equal to light travels in a day (1 light day)... means I am getting information delayed by 1 day... Now I am travelling towards that person with speed of light and it will take a day to reach there... During this, that person must accelerate 2 times in time so that I will meet him at same point in space... scientist saying universe is accelerating... Are we heading towards same point in space? Or big crunch happening? Do they posses any analogy?
I want to design an Analog Lowpass Filter for 50/60 Hz signal in Simulink. Which block should be preferred? How to find out Passband Edge Frequency, Stopband Edge Frequency, Passband and Stopband Gain?
We are planning on building a new measurement device based on M-series NI PCI DAQ card, using ni-daqmx driver on a real time linux kernel such as RHEL for Red Hat. Any recommendations on tested software or development environment which is capable to read analog IN, compute and then send analog OUT? We are first timers in the real time area but are eager to learn, any suggestions, directions would be very much appreciated. Many thanks in advance for taking the time.
Hi. I am new to chromatic dispersion related work and have read how it affects the shape of optical pulses. I want to ask how does it work for analog continous wave laser signal? why all books only mention laser pulses and pulse broadening of digital signals. what about using analog CW laser and modulating analog IF signals on it. How will CD affect it through pulse broadening . . . secondly, books mention that CD is a linear process. Is it because the pulse broadening factor equation has only L (not L square?) because the GVD equation contains lambda square (square of wavelength or frequency). how is it a linear process then? thanks a lot
I must admit that my question sounds purposely a little provocative.
But I accidentally came across the circuit described below, which exclusively works in the linear part of its operational range (see the attached circuit). The first block represents an active inverting first-order lowpass filter, where the summation can be done directly at the input node of the used opamp. In this case, the second block must be implemented as a non-inverting integrator circuit (Hint: Both polarities can also be swapped, thereby allowing the convenient MILLER integrator).
The closed feedback loop then represents a second-order lowpass function with a high pole quality factor (e.g. Qp=10). Once triggered, this high-Q lowpass would react with a decaying oscillation - unless it receives new "kick impulses" at the „right“ time slot. Therefore, at each zero crossing of the lowpass output voltage v(out1) the comparator adds a voltage Vc to the feedback signal v(out2) for half a period with: Vc negative for v(out1)>0 and vice versa. (Now the analogy to the pendulum clock becomes obvious) .
Demonstration example: Lowpass: H(s)= -10/(1+0.01*s), Integrator: H(s)=+1/0.001*s, Closed-loop function (2nd order): Ao=1, pole frequncy 160 Hz, Qp=10 Comparator output: Vc=(+-)1V.
The result is a sinusoidal output signal (frequency fo=160 Hz) with very good quality: Amplitude Vmax(out,2)=12.5 V (supply voltages 20V). It is to be mentioned that the observed frequency and amplitude are in full accordance with theoretical considerations (calculation). The frequency is set by the time constants of low pass and integrator. The oscillation amplitude can be varied over a large range (without changing the frequency) by the comparator voltage Vc, but it also depends on the lowpass gain Ao and the closed-loop quality factor Qp (which determines the decaying time constant).
Final comment: I think, the shown circuit belongs to the class of oscillators which are stabilized by „restoring initial conditions“ (see IEE papers from Filanovski) - however, this circuit is much simpler in design compared to other related oscillator configurations.
Final question: Does the output signal contain any intentional systematic non-linearities? Sorry - but I couldn`t manage to make the figure smaller.
In a semiconductor device that we are working on, we are observing that if we input an ac signal, the frequency of the signal can be doubled and tripled with some good efficiency. I have been wondering about the possible applications of such a harmonic generator. Since circuits is not really my forte, I would like to learn more about the potential of such a result. I have read that Phase-locked loops (PLL) have a good application for harmonic generation. What are the other applications where we can possibly try out this harmonic generation ability? And what would be the required quality of these harmonics if they are to be useful? Thanks in advance!
I am trying to implement controller for a single phase stand alone inverter in analog domain. Please help me how to model the PWM block while designing controller on paper??
Iam trying to implement PR controller in analog domain. Please let me know if any corrections or suggestions. And also is it possible to implement this transfer function using only one opamp??
Please help me if you have any better analog structure for the implementation of PR controller
I am facing a sweet dilemma with the interpretation of my newly discovered enigmatic term 'admittance'. I was an Electrical Engineering Major during my undergrad and currently pursuing my PhD in Planetary Geophysics.
In recent times I was reviewing a handful amount of Geophysics paper for my research, where I came across the term 'admittance'. So, what I have learned is that,
In Geophysics, An admittance value determines how much of a gravity anomaly will be created by a unit of topography. For example, a typical admittance value is 50 mgal/km… this means that a 3-km-tall plateau might be expected to generate a 150 mgal gravity anomaly.
While, In Electrical Engineering, An admittance is a measure of how easily an electric circuit or device will allow a current to flow when a voltage is applied to one of its terminals.
So, I am wondering how this two definitions relate to each other. Is there any analogy between those two definitions used in two seemingly disparate fields? Any ideas?
Thank you all.
Take, for example, such a concept as a minimum flow, that is, a gradient vector field, the level surfaces of which are the minimum surfaces. Then the globally minimal flow, evolving to an absolutely minimal state, could be compared with a quantum vacuum, and the locally minimal flow could be compared with fields and particles. At the same time, it is clear that it is necessary to correctly choose the space in which this minimum flow moves.
Suggest methods used for extraction of thiazole analog derivatives from marine, plant, animals, and microbes.
National Instruments provides vast variety of DAQ options which are based on LabVIEW, however they are way too expensive when it comes to opting option with high analog output channels (like 4). Can you please recommend a company/products which are less expensive with almost same features?
In the name of God
I would like to thank the doctors, nurses, medical staff and those who are with the people during these difficult days.
Anti-Pandemic COVID-19 :
How can the quantum resonance degradation process be used indefinitely to disinfect the environment and anti-pandemic COVID-19 ?
In this article I'm going to simply and without complex mathematical and physical techniques in anti pandemic Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19)
(Coronavirus 2019 disinfection Unlimited) to discuss quantum methods. I hope I can come up with a comprehensive plan to prevent the 2019 Coronavirus pandemic from spreading And provide good tools for doctors and people to protect doctors and people from the virus . And in the end, we will discuss this question. If this method of quantum resonance destruction process is used, what will be the end of the 2019 Quaid story? And what are the non-medical applications of this technology in the industrial and non-industrial industries? And what is the process of destroying the Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) resonance by quantum method?
Anti-Pandemic CoronaVirus 2019 (COVID-19) by Quantum : In this method, it is based on bioresonance function. Bioresonance therapy is a medical treatment approach in which electromagnetic waves can be used to diagnose and treat human and animal diseases. But here we are looking for unlimited disinfection of everything from objects and objects and (the environment including all surfaces and water and soil and air) any living thing regardless of the time and place and the distance and temperature of the environment without the need to touch or use We are without the need chemicals or any without the need kind of substance. But here we are looking for (destruction of Coronavirus 2019) unlimited disinfection of everything (internal and external) of objects and objects and (the environment includes all surfaces and water and soil and air and food) every living thing apart from the issue of time and We are the place and the distance and the temperature of the environment without the need to touch or without the use of chemicals or any kind of material. And without any change in the nature of what we disinfect with this method. And we're just deleting the Coronavirus 2019. Of course, with the lowest cost compared to other methods, we will reduce the cost by at least 90% and permanently disinfect the Coronavirus 2019 and the minimum manpower required, and very quickly we will disinfect a large area or a country in about a few minutes.
According to quantum physics, every living or non-living thing emits its own electromagnetic waves.
Quantum : In physics, a quantum (plural quanta) is the minimum amount of any physical entity (physical property) involved in an interaction. The fundamental notion that a physical property can be "quantized" is referred to as "the hypothesis of quantization". This means that the magnitude of the physical property can take on only discrete values consisting of integer multiples of one quantum.
Question: Why does every living thing or non-living thing emit electromagnetic waves? The answer is below in the questions section
Here are some basic questions.
1-Why does every living thing or non-living thing emit electromagnetic waves? To answer this question with an example, let's assume that a non-living entity, such as a salt molecule, is made up of a combination of the atoms of chlorine and sodium. And the atomic number of chlorine is 17 and the atomic number of sodium is 11. The atom of an atom is made up of smaller particles called protons, neutrons, and electrons. The protons and neutrons are inside the nucleus, and the electrons are negatively charged and their lines of force are inward. The electrons have two revolutions, one around themselves and the other around the nucleus in their orbit. In this case, the lines of force applied by the nucleus enter the electron in a radial direction in all directions. The motion of an electron in its orbit around the nucleus can be considered the equivalent of an electric current, and we know that an electric current causes a magnetic field. Given that the electron also revolves around itself, and if we assume that the electric charge of each electron is distributed at its surface. The result is an electric current that also generates a magnetic field from the electric current. And these electric fields (force lines: the property that each electric charge (electrons and protons) create around itself) and the perpendicular magnetic fields, which oscillate with time and space and move in a certain direction, cause electromagnetic waves. Are in the atoms of the elements. In living things, when we look at their atoms, we find the source of electromagnetic waves. The same electrons and protons and how they interact with each other are caused by the creation of electromagnetic waves.
In physics, resonance describes the phenomena of amplification that occurs when the frequency of a periodically applied force is in harmonic proportionto a natural frequency of the system on which it acts. When an oscillating force is applied at a resonant frequency of a dynamical system, the system will oscillate at a higher amplitude than when the same force is applied at other, non-resonant frequencies.
Frequencies at which the response amplitude is a relative maximum are also known as resonant frequencies or resonance frequencies of the system. Small periodic forces that are near a resonant frequency of the system have the ability to produce large amplitude oscillations in the system due to the storage of vibrational energy.
Resonance phenomena occur with all types of vibrations or waves : there is mechanic resonance, acoustic resonance , electromagnetic resonance, nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR), electron spin resonance (ESR) and resonance of quantum wave functions. Resonant systems can be used to generate vibrations of a specific frequency (e.g., musical instruments), or pick out specific frequencies from a complex vibration containing many frequencies .
The term resonance (from Latin resonantia, 'echo', from resonare, 'resound') originated from the field of acoustics, particularly the sympathetic resonance observed in musical instruments, e.g., when one string starts to vibrate and produce sound after a different one is struck. Another example, electrical resonance, occurs in a circuit with capacitors and inductors because the collapsing magnetic field of the inductor generates an electric current in its windings that charges the capacitor, and then the discharging capacitor provides an electric current that builds the magnetic field in the inductor. Once the circuit is charged, the oscillation is self-sustaining, and there is no external periodic driving action.[clarification needed] This is analogous to a mechanical pendulum, where mechanical energy is converted back and forth between kinetic and potential, and both systems are forms of simple harmonic oscillators.
Resonance occurs when a system is able to store and easily transfer energy between two or more different storage modes (such as kinetic energy and potential energy in the case of a simple pendulum). However, there are some losses from cycle to cycle, called damping. When damping is small, the resonant frequency is approximately equal to the natural frequency of the system, which is a frequency of unforced vibrations. Some systems have multiple, distinct, resonant frequencies.
Resonance Frequency: Every living or inanimate being (anything - its size doesn't matter, but the type of material or constituent material its is important) has its own natural frequency. In general, the resonant frequency is the same as the normal system frequency or its . If a resonant frequency or a resonant frequency is applied to it from an external source, it will cause the maximum range of fluctuations and will cause its destruction.
its : (Any living or non-living being (anything - its size does not matter, but the type of material or its constituent materials is important).
Bioresonance therapy is a medical treatment approach in which electromagnetic waves can be used to diagnose and treat human diseases.
In 1925, an American scientist named Dr. Raymond Royal Ryeff discovered that all living cells had their own vibrations, and that these vibrations were related to the biorhythm of their lives, and that the vibrations of each cell, like a fingerprint, were unique to that cell. The researcher also found that the vibrations of a healthy cell differ from those of a diseased cell, and that the difference depends on the type of disease and the cause of the disease. Subsequent research has shown that bacteria, viruses, fungi and parasites have their own unique vibrations, and this is where bioresonance science came into being. In this regard, the researchers tried to record these vibrations by designing special devices and processing them by computer. After a few years, the science was widely practiced by German and Russian scientists, and is now used by doctors in reputable hospitals and clinics around the world to diagnose and even treat disease.
We know that ultraviolet (u.v) lamps are used for disinfection. For surfaces and to the extent that the radiation penetrates that object or fluid (eg water), it kills bacteria and viruses and disinfects the environment. Of course, this radiation is harmful to the human body and causes skin cancer, which is why it is used at the time. The environment must be isolated from the rest of the environment, or it must be such that the ultraviolet light does not reach the people.
In this method, we want to calculate the resonant frequency of the coronavirus 2019 or obtain it by the experiment method. Then we modulate the resonance frequency with the modulator, then with an antenna transmitter, we emit electromagnetic waves (radio transmitter antenna - mobile transmitter antenna - satellites - and mobile radio transmitters, etc.). According to previous explanations, as we said, the resonance frequency (intensification frequency) is the same as the natural frequency of the coronavirus 2019. And when we release this frequency. It will destroy Coronavirus 2019 . Due to the aggravation of the in Coronavirus 2019 , the Corona virus 2019 will be eliminate . In this case, the ambient air, water, soil, and surfaces will be disinfected until the waves arrive. And given that we only emit a corona resonant frequency of the virus. Only Coronavirus 2019 will be eliminated. Other bacteria and viruses will have no effect and will not have any side effects on the human body or any living thing. Of course, we can add many virus and bacterial resonant frequencies to our system. Of course, it should be considered. In concrete or metal buildings, the electromagnetic waves from the transmitter will be weak and an internal transmitter must be used.
Some applications of the quantum degradation process method are unlimited. This system can be used as a commercial device in the near future in industrial and non-industrial industries as follows:
1- Agriculture: Minimizes the need for agricultural pesticides and chemical fertilizers. Eliminate the (insects and with harmful kettles and fungi and vermin such as mice and locusts, etc.) (Question: How can the crisis of several billion locusts be solved in this way forever? In this method, what happens to the locust to destroy it? I will answer this question in the second part. Thank you for your patience.
2- In houses, cities and food warehouses, beetles, mosquitoes, mice, etc. can be destroyed without the need for chemicals.
3- In houses, cities, etc., viruses, bacteria, fungi, and all other harmful and non-living organisms can be completely destroyed by this system.
4- In livestock and poultry breeding and breeding by killing bacteria and viruses and fungi and parasites and everything that is harmful to living or non-living organisms with these devices can lead to maximum production and reduce side costs. And it used the least amount of disinfectant and medicine, and the final product was a completely organic product with the highest quality.
5- Aquatic animal: In Aquatic animal , with this device, the living and non-living organisms of harmful Aquatic animal (fish, shrimp, etc.) can be destroyed.
6- Tourism and travel: As a shield, the dispatcher can be installed in machines or even if telephone phones are installed. And these devices should be adjusted to protect humans from harmful organisms or anything on it, depending on the environment and harmful organisms.
The applications of the quantum degradation process method are innumerable, whether industrial or non-industrial. In the second part, we will discuss some of these other applications
And in the end, we will discuss this: If this method of quantum resonance destruction is used, what will be the end of the COVID-19 story?
1- In a short period of time, the 2019 pandemic will end in a maximum of 1 month, and we will no longer see coronavirus 2019 as a pandemic.
2- Social distance is minimized, which means that the economies of countries can be reopened soon without any problems.
3- The most important thing we get is the time needed to get an effective vaccine and effective medicine. Reducing the costs that the Coronavirus 2019 pandemic will bring to countries' economies. Minimal casualties and another important point in the future If we are faced with these diseases and pandemics, we can use this method as a quick anti-pandemic response.
4- In the end, we can say that life goes back to the period before Coronavirus 2019. With the least cost and time
Please note the following:
1- The full article in Persian and English includes more details and video as a Word file. And in the project section, it is available in my profile.
2- If the English article is incomprehensible, please refer to the Persian article.
3- If you agree with this article, please share so we can get this system up and running faster.
4- Real or legal persons who wish to cooperate with me in this regard. Patent and build and set up Please email me
5- Companies that want to invest in this project, please email me.
6- Information is updated in Telegram channel and Instagram channel
7- Improper use of the above content is prohibited.
8- It is allowed to publish with or without a link.
9- I ask the readers of this article to send a review, even if they do not have the scientific ability, to send it to those who have the scientific ability. And if the article is approved, send it to your friends and groups so that, God willing, it can be done faster with an experienced team.
10- I am waiting for your constructive criticisms and suggestions, dear ones, to complete this article. Contact us. email@example.com
11- Direct communication with me: firstname.lastname@example.org
12- I ask all engineers, specialists and institutions to cooperate. Please support this article if you wish. email@example.com
13- If there is a mistake in the article, please let me know . firstname.lastname@example.org
I am an engineer, there is no impasse for me. Either I will find a way
or I will build a way.
With thanks for your attention
- Previously I used 8-channel 10 bit MCP3008 ADC converter for 8 different analog sensors
- This time I am looking for an ADC that contains maximum numbers of channel for interfacing the maximum numbers of analog sensors, which are available and could be used for raspberry pi 3 Model B+ platform
I'm interested on monitoring ATP binding to a protein of interest using fluorescent ATP analogs, such as TNP or MANT-ATP. Do you have any experience with them? Which one is the best option for this purpose? I've read that TNP-ATP only emits fluorescence upon binding to the protein, but I don't know if there is any other difference that would make TNP a better choice than MANT.
Thank you all in advance.
I need to get start learning create chaotic signal by using Field Programming Analog Array (FPAA).
So i need a document or tutorial that can i start with it.