Science topic

Anaesthetics - Science topic

Agents that are capable of inducing a total or partial loss of sensation, especially tactile sensation and pain. They may act to induce general ANESTHESIA, in which an unconscious state is achieved, or may act locally to induce numbness or lack of sensation at a targeted site.
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Publications related to Anaesthetics (10,000)
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Article
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Background A well-known anesthetic, lidocaine is the most widely used local anesthetic. Local anesthetic systemic toxicity (LAST) is a life-threatening event with common and prominent presentations of central nervous system (CNS) toxicity and cardiovascular toxicity. The most frequent and prominent early warning signs and symptoms of LAST are centr...
Article
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Background Remimazolam is a novel, ultra-short-acting benzodiazepine used for general anesthesia. Because remimazolam is an emerging drug, the tolerance to remimazolam in benzodiazepine-taking patients has been unclear. Also, the efficacy of remimazolam in different races is not fully elucidated so far. Case presentation Here we experienced three...
Article
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Background Rapid sequence induction is a well-established anesthetic procedure used in patients with a high risk of gastric aspiration. Suxamethonium has been the drug of choice; however, it carries potential risks and sometimes fatal outcomes. The aim of our study was to compare rocuronium after pretreatment with dexmedetomidine, to suxamethonium...
Article
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Background Remimazolam was approved in Japan in January 2020. We report two cases of circulatory collapse due to suspected remimazolam anaphylaxis during anesthetic induction. Case presentation Case 1: A 74-year-old male was scheduled for debridement and skin grafting for a severe burn injury. We induced anesthesia with 4 mg of remimazolam and 20...
Article
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Background Lumbar erector spinae plane block (L-ESPB) is being used in fractured hip patients for the postoperative pain relief and as a sole anesthetic technique. Various clinical and cadaveric studies have differences of opinion about its mechanism of action and pathways of local anesthetic spread; however, the role of lumbar plexus (LP) in the m...
Chapter
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The primary purpose of the anaesthetic machine is to deliver oxygen, other gases and volatile agents (if used) safely to the patient-helping to maintain a suitable level of anaesthesia and analgesia for surgery. It is vital that any clinician checking and using an anaesthetic machine is familiar with the type of machine they are intending to use an...
Article
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Opioid free anaesthesia (OFA) is a technique where no intraoperative systemic, neuraxial or intracavitary opioid is administered with anaesthetic. Opioid free analgesia similarly avoids opioids in the perioperative period. Opioids in perioperative period which is associated with various adverse effects and poor surgical outcomes. Opioids in periope...
Preprint
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The functional organization of sensory cortices is modulated by both extrinsic events and intrinsic states. The present study aimed to assess the mouse auditory cortex (AC) responses under varying conditions of stimulus complexity and brain state. Using wide-field calcium imaging, our results suggest a complete outline of topographic maps of freque...
Article
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Background The use of cricoid compression to prevent insufflation remains controversial, and its use in children is limited. This study aimed to examine the effect of real-time ultrasound-guided esophageal compression on the prevention of gastric insufflation. Method This prospective observational study was conducted with fifty children aged < 2 y...
Article
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Knowledge shows a divergence of results between preclinical and clinical studies regarding anesthesia and postoperative progression of cancer. While laboratory and animal data from then 2000s onwards raised much enthusiasm in this field of research leading to several clinical investigations worldwide, data from randomized trials seem to have killed...
Article
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C-arm flat-panel detector computed tomographic (CT) imaging in the angiography suite increasingly plays an important part during interventional neuroradiological procedures. In addition to conventional angiographic imaging of blood vessels, flat detector CT (FD CT) imaging allows simultaneous 3D visualization of parenchymal and vascular structures...
Article
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Improving anesthesia administration for elderly population is of particular importance because they undergo considerably more surgical procedures and are at the most risk of suffering from anesthesia-related complications. Intraoperative brain monitors electroencephalogram (EEG) have proved useful in the general population, however, in elderly subj...
Article
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Processes and procedures in intensive care units and during anaesthetic delivery are centred around ensuring patient safety. This article aims to shed light on a rare possible mechanism for inadvertent iatrogenic hypoglycaemia as can affect critical care specialists or anaesthetists in the line of service delivery and recommendations have been sugg...
Article
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Background We describe a patient presenting with central retinal artery occlusion (CRAO) of the right eye after retrobulbar anesthesia with adrenaline for macular pucker surgery. Case presentation The patient, a 67-year-old Caucasian man, developed a CRAO postoperatively by the next-day control likely due to the retrobulbar injection of a combinat...
Article
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Surgical castration of piglets is painful, but practiced routinely in commercial pig production. Procaine-based local anesthetics are used to mitigate piglet pain during castration in some countries. Yet, effects of the volume of anesthetic injected remain under-studied. The volume of drug administered may modulate the pain mitigating effect via va...
Article
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Surgical morbidity and mortality can be avoided or minimized by diligent preoperative evaluation, clinical condition optimization, effective control of anaesthetics and surgery, and adequate postoperative support. There are many available morbidity and mortality predictors (ASA, APACHE, SAPS II). The POSSUM Score uses both a pre-operative assessmen...
Article
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Purpose The introduction of the concept of thoracoscopy is over 100 years old, but the use of thoracoscopy as a therapeutic intervention in the pediatric population was first reported in 1976 and it is only until the last two decades that video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) gained popularity owing to the technical and anesthetic challenges...
Chapter
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Indications, Contraindications, Interactions, and Side-effects of Maggot Therapy - Maggot therapy is not regulated in most countries, but in those countries in which it is regulated, indications authorised by regulating bodies are the law of the land. Irrespective of particular jurisdictional limitations, this chapter describes when maggot therapy...
Article
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Aim: The purpose of this article is to reiterate the importance of transmylohyoid orotracheal intubation in panfacial fractures that require maxillomandibular fixation (MMF) followed by assessment of occlusion and the need to avoid tracheostomy. Maxillofacial injuries are very common following road traffic accidents. Many times, injured patients pr...
Article
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Objectives: Digital injuries are among the most common presentations to the emergency department. In order to sufficiently examine and manage these injuries, adequate, prompt, and predictable anesthesia is essential. In this trial, we aim to primarily compare the degree of pain and anesthesia onset time between the two-injection dorsal block techn...
Research
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Anterior cruciate ligament repairs are associated with immediate post-operative pain. In contrast to the femoral nerve block, the adductor canal block (ACB) is preferred to the femoral nerve block as it preserves quadriceps function while providing effective analgaesia. However, no evidence has confirmed that the adductor canal block provides super...
Article
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In recent years, people’s living standards are getting higher and higher, and life pressure is also increasing, and there are also many problems in eating habits. This is also the direct cause of colon cancer. The aim of this paper was to investigate whether anesthetic drugs could positively affect the proliferation and apoptosis of colon cancer ce...
Article
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Cluster headache (CH) is a primary headache characterized by severe pain that is strictly unilateral, with orbital, supraorbital, or temporal location, accompanied by ipsilateral autonomic manifestations. It has a considerable socioeconomic impact and impairs patients' quality of life. The present study aimed to report the case of a patient present...
Article
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Objective: The aim is to study the effect of intraoperative application of propofol and etomidate on the long-term prognosis of patients with gastric cancer at the same tumor stage. Methods: A total of 1018 patients who underwent radical gastric cancer surgery at the First Affiliated Hospital of Anhui Medical University from January 2010 to Dece...
Article
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Background: After abscess formation, an anal fistula is a common consequence, with crypto-glandular infection being the most commonly accepted causative cause. The goal of this study was to see how well closure of the inter-sphincteric fistula tract affects the outcome of trans-sphincteric fistula surgery. Methods: Patients with perianal trans-sphi...
Article
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Background Perioperative indwelling urinary catheterization remains common in patients undergoing total hip arthroplasty. This study sought to examine the effect of routine catheterization following total hip arthroplasty performed under spinal anesthesia on urinary complications. Methods A total of 991 consecutive patients who underwent primary t...
Article
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The integration between physiologically-based pharmacokinetics (PBPK) models and pharmacodynamics (PD) models makes it possible to describe the absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion processes of drugs, together with the concentration–response relationship, being a fundamental framework with wide applications in pharmacology. Neverthele...
Article
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Background: Spine surgery is challenging to anesthesiologist due to various factors. It is important to provide intraoperative hemodynamic stability, clear surgical field and a conscious, and pain free comfortable patient post-operative. Sevoflurane and desflurane provide rapid recovery. Dexmedetomidine provides sedation, stable, hemodynamics and a...
Article
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Low-middle income countries (LMICs) are currently experiencing an important population growth, leading to a substantial raise in the number of children living in those areas. As a consequence, the existing gap between the need for surgical and anesthetic care and the available therapeutic options will increase. To overcome this, an improvement in t...
Article
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Purpose This study was performed to assess the postoperative recovery outcomes in obese patients undergoing general anesthesia. Methods The eligible studies were identified from PubMed, EmBase, and the Cochrane library until December 2020. The standard mean differences (SMDs) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were used to calculate the role of d...
Article
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Canine ovariectomy is an elective surgery with a moderate level of pain. Despite its relative simplicity, it requires surgical pain management. This study aimed to collect all recent information about local and regional anaesthetic/analgesic techniques in a review of the literature describing the technique utilised. The various procedures described...
Chapter
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Anesthesiologists supervise and conduct the administration of various anaesthetic agents including volatile liquids and gases through various delivery systems to the patient for safe anaesthesia outcome. These gases and liquids can behave differently under different atmospheric conditions. Also, physics associated with delivery or safety instrument...
Article
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RESUMEN Se efectúa una breve revisión bibliográfica sobre el manejo anestésico de los pacientes con porfiria, con especial interés en las formas agudas de dicho grupo de enfermedades. Dichas formas clínicas repre-sentan un riesgo añadido de complicaciones perioperatorias y aumento de la morbi-mortalidad. Por ese motivo es importante reconocer el cu...
Article
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Perioperative management of patients with preexcitation may become quite challenging, especially if there is no time for adequate preoperative investigation and clinical optimisation, as in emergencies, or even worse, in undiagnosed cases. It is possible that the poorly controlled or unknown underlying electrophysiological abnormality will become u...
Chapter
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- Achondroplasia is the most common cause of pathological short stature. The pre anaesthetic assessment clinic is the ideal location for a holistic approach to pre-operative preparation. Obesity and Sleep Disordered Breathing are very common in children with achondroplasia. There is a high prevalence of spinal stenosis in children with achondropla...
Article
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In the last decades, several new and modern techniques have been developed for the continuous monitoring of vitals for patients undergoing surgery under general anesthesia. These complex methods are meant to come as an adjunct to classical monitoring protocols used in general anesthesia to increase patient safety. The main objectives of multimodal...
Article
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Informed consent is not necessarily a guarantee for a hospital or health service to avoid disputes between the health provider and the recipient of the health service. This can be caused by the disruption of communication that is less effective and efficient where an Anesthesia Co-Assistant is less clear in delivering the informed consent problem s...
Article
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The high success rate of dental treatment is dependent on the cooperation of pediatric patients during procedures. Dental treatment often causes pain, particularly in children. The factors in providing treatment to pediatric patients include the characteristics and location of the tooth, profoundness of the anesthesia including the type of local an...
Article
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Premature ejaculation is the most common male sexual dysfunction, with therapies including selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors, clomipramine, topical anesthetics, dapoxetine and tramadol. However, it is currently unknown how many men are receiving pharmacotherapy for premature ejaculation. Using the TriNetX Research network, a large multicenter...
Article
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Objective: To investigate the anesthesia effect of remifentanil combined with propofol for laparoscopic cholecystectomy and its impact on postoperative cognitive recovery. Methods: A total of 120 patients who underwent laparoscopic cholecystectomy in our hospital from February 2019 to June 2021 were recruited and assigned into either control gro...
Article
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Introducción. La ketamina es un anestésico de efecto rápido con propiedades hipnóticas. Además, podría mejorar potencialmente los síntomas afectivos en pacientes con trastorno depresivo refractario. Objetivo. Explorar la literatura científica disponible hasta el 10 de diciembre de 2021 sobre la eficacia y seguridad de la ketamina en pacientes con t...
Article
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Objective: To investigate the effect of a bilateral paravertebral block (PVB) on cognitive function in elderly patients undergoing radical gastrectomy for gastric cancer. Methods: Sixty patients (40 men and 20 women) aged 65-80 undergoing radical gastrectomy surgery under general anaesthesia were included and randomly assigned to either the PVB...
Article
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Purpose This study aims to characterize the neutron radiation field inside a scanning proton therapy treatment room including the impact of different pediatric patient sizes. Materials and Methods Working Group 9 of the European Radiation Dosimetry Group (EURADOS) has performed a comprehensive measurement campaign to measure neutron ambient dose e...
Article
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Objective: To discuss the results of the KETASER01 trial and the reasons for its failure, particularly in view of future studies. Methods: KETASER01 is a multicenter, randomized, controlled, open-label, sequentially designed, non-profit Italian study that aimed to assess the efficacy of ketamine compared with conventional anesthetics in the trea...
Article
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Purpose: To determine the in vivo elastic modulus of the human cornea using vibrational optical coherence tomography (VOCT). Methods: Vibrational analysis coupled with optical coherence tomography (OCT) was used to obtain the resonant frequency (RF) and elastic modulus of corneal structural components. VOCT corneal thickness values were measured...
Article
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This study explored the relationship between the glucose dose and insulin response from beta cells in vivo and in vitro in mice. Glucose was administered intravenously at different dose levels (from 0 to 0.75 g/kg) in anesthetized C57BL/6J mice, and the glucose and insulin concentrations were determined in samples taken after 50 min. Furthermore, f...
Article
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Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) is an infectious disease caused by severe acute respiratory syndrome virus coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2) which mainly affects lungs with common symptoms of fever, cough and shortness of breath. COVID-19 is an ongoing global pandemic causing a serious health problem. Computerized Tomography (CT) has an important role...
Article
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Purpose of Review This article reviews PTPS demographics, diagnosis, pathophysiology, surgical and anesthetic techniques, and their role in preventing PTPS along with updated treatment options. Recent Findings Post-thoracotomy pain syndrome (PTPS) can be incapacitating. The neuropathic type pain of PTPS is along the incision site and persists at l...
Article
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Background A balanced anaesthetic protocol is a common concept in modern veterinary anaesthesia and aims to maintain good intraoperative cardiopulmonary function. In horses, alpha-2-agonists produce sedation and analgesia and have been shown to reduce inhalational anaesthetic requirements when administered intravenously. Furthermore, these drugs ca...
Article
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The purpose of this document is to provide a unique white paper on the use of different anesthetic drugs within primary care clinics and the key clinical pearls for ensuring patient safety in this setting. This paper is designed to be a convenient guide that can be placed in work rooms for residents and medical school trainees to improve their lear...
Article
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Background In 2021, there is an increased global trend for sending sentinel lymph node biopsy (SLNB) specimens for permanent section (PS) without intraoperative frozen sections (FS). This pilot study conducted in Thailand determines the re-operation rate for SLNB without FS. Method We retrospectively reviewed 239 SLNB cases without FS at King Chul...
Article
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Cancer is one of the leading causes of death worldwide. There are only limited treatment strategies that can be applied to treat cancer, including surgical resection, chemotherapy, and radiotherapy, but these have only limited effectiveness. Developing a new drug for cancer therapy is protracted, costly, and inefficient. Recently, drug repurposing...
Article
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Aim of the study was to compare the dynamic lungcompliance (DLC) before and after cardio-pulmonary bypass in sheep anesthetized using isoflurane. Six healthy sheep subjected to right ventricular outflow tract substitution with valved conduit were the animals for study. There was a reduction in the DLC soon after the bypass procedure and a more redu...
Article
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Abstract Delirium after surgery or Postoperative delirium (POD) is an underdiagnosed entity, despite its severity and high incidence. Patients with delirium require a longer hospital stay and present more postoperative complications, which also increases hospital costs. Given its importance and the lack of specific treatment, multifactorial prevent...
Article
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Background Some individuals with subclinical myasthenia gravis (MG) are positive for serum anti-acetylcholine receptor antibodies, without neurological symptoms. There are no anesthetic management guidelines for subclinical MG. We report the anesthetic management of a patient with subclinical MG who underwent a thymectomy. Case presentation A 57-y...
Article
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Purpose Attention is an essential component of cognitive function that may be impaired after surgery with anaesthesia. Propofol intravenous anaesthesia and sevoflurane inhalational anaesthesia are frequently used in gynaecological surgery. However, which type of anaesthetic has fewer cognitive effects postoperatively remains unclear. We compared th...
Article
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Takotsubo syndrome is a well-characterized cause of acute yet reversible heart failure associated with periods of intense emotional stress, often mimicking on presentation an acute coronary syndrome. Animal models of Takotsubo syndrome have been developed, either through the application of a stressor, or administration of exogenous catecholamine. W...
Article
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Introduction Distal femoral replacement (DFR) and open reduction and internal fixation (ORIF) are surgical options for comminuted distal femur fractures. Comparative outcomes of these techniques are limited. The aims of this study were to compare implant survivorship, perioperative factors, and clinical outcomes of DFR vs. ORIF for comminuted dista...
Article
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Purposes To estimate and identify predictors of craniomandibular disorders (CMDs) in severe COVID-19 survivors after prolonged intubation ≥ 1 week (SCOVIDS-PI). Methods This retrospective study enrolled two cohorts of SCOVIDS-PIs with vs. without CMD during a one-year period. The predictor variables were demographic, dental, anesthetic, and labora...
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A distinct population of dopamine neurons in the substantia nigra pars lateralis (SNL) have a unique projection to the most caudolateral (tail) region of the striatum. Here, using two electrochemical techniques to measure basal dopamine and electrically evoked dopamine release in anesthetized rats, we characterized this pathway, and compared it wit...
Article
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Background Fasting is usually recommended in patients undergoing cataract surgery under topical anesthesia. However, starving before surgery may increase preoperative anxiety and affect surgical outcomes. It is not known which fasting or non-fasting strategy is best for cataract surgery. The aim of this study was to compare non-fasting and fasting...