Science topic

Amphibians - Science topic

Vertebrates belonging to the class Amphibia such as frogs, toads, newts and salamanders that live in a semi-aquatic environment.
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Publications related to Amphibians (10,000)
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Article
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Fire is a natural agent with a paramount role in ecosystem functioning and biodiversity maintenance. Still, it can also act as a negative force against many ecosystems. Despite some knowledge of the interactions of fire and vegetation, there is no clear understanding of how different components of fire regimes (i.e., severity, history, or frequency...
Article
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While there is little doubt that the species is the lowest independent evolutionary unit, understanding the many different species concepts is a difficult task, even for university students. In the present study, we propose a didactic sequence that involves fieldwork, laboratory analyses, experimental cultures, and computational work in an integrat...
Article
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Background Ranaviruses (family Iridoviridae ) are promiscuous pathogens that can infect across species barriers in poikilotherms and can replicate in amphibian and fish cells and even in cultured mammalian cells. However, as nucleocytoplasmic large DNA viruses (NCLDVs), their replication and transcription mechanisms remain largely unknown. Here, we...
Article
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Craniofacial defects are one of the most frequent abnormalities at birth, but their experimental evaluation in animal models requires complex procedures. The aim of the present work is the comparison of different methodologies to identify dose- and stage-related craniofacial malformations in Xenopus laevis assay (R-FETAX, where the full cartilage e...
Article
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Several studies emphasized the function of the thyroid hormones in stem cell biology. These hormones act through the nuclear hormone receptor TRs, which are T3-modulated transcription factors. Pioneer work on T3-dependent amphibian metamorphosis showed that the crosstalk between the epithelium and the underlying mesenchyme is absolutely required fo...
Poster
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Background/Question/Methods The boreal chorus frog (Pseudacris maculata) is a threatened species in portions of Canada, mainly due to habitat loss and fragmentation. To mitigate the decline of Great Lakes, St. Lawrence, and Canadian Shield protected populations, captive breeding and reintroduction have been considered. We developed a collaborative,...
Article
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Ponds in agricultural landscapes are often used by amphibians as breeding habitat. However, the characteristics of agricultural ponds and especially the surrounding area are usually said to be suboptimal for many amphibian species. Using suboptimal habitats might allow a species' survival and reproduction, but can have negative consequences at the...
Article
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The construction of new roads opens access to native environments, resulting in changes to the landscape. These roads cause the death of native wildlife due to collisions with vehicles, which is the main cause of human-induced vertebrate death. This work aimed to investigate the spatial distribution of roadkills on the BR-163 highway, Mato Grosso,...
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Roadkills are a major threat to the wildlife in human-modified landscapes. Due to their ecology, relatively small size, and slow movement, amphibians and reptiles are particularly prone to roadkill. While standardized roadkill surveys provide valuable data for regional roadkill trends, such surveys are often resource-intensive and have limited geog...
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Mexico is one of the richest countries in amphibian species (420 spp.), with a high level of endemism (69%). The order Anura represents the most diverse and widespread of the three extant amphibian orders (257 spp.). The anurofauna of Mexico’s tropical dry forest ecosystem host a high proportion of the species and endemism registered in the country...
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Temporary ponds contribute to the maintenance of freshwater biodiversity. Biotic and abi�otic predictors are known to infuence community assembly patterns in ponds, but the magnitude of these efects on diferent facets of diversity remains poorly investigated. We evaluated the infuence of diferent ecological predictors (climatic and local environmen...
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42Sp50 is an isoform of the eukaryotic translation elongation factor 1 A (eEF1A) and is vital for fish ovarian development. Spotted scat (Scatophagus argus) is a popular marine cultured fish species in Southern Asia and China, and its artificial reproduction is complicated, with a relatively low success ratio in practice. In this study, the 42Sp50...
Article
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Common toads have been used since ancient times for remedies and thus constitute excellent biological material for pharmacological and natural product research. According to the results of a previous analysis of the therapeutic use of amphibians in Spain, we decided to carry out a histological study that provides a complementary view of their ethno...
Article
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The Calabrian Peninsula (Southern Italy) has acted as a glacial refugium and is now considered a hotspot for the genetic diversity of several species. Even if it hosts the highest diversity of many Italian endemic amphibian species, the distribution of some of these needs an update to address conservation measures. We took advantage of a vast datas...
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Pesticides are one of the main drivers of the worldwide amphibian decline. Their actual toxicity depends on a number of factors, like the species in focus or the developmental stage of exposed individuals. As ectothermic species, the metabolism of amphibians is influenced by ambient temperature. Therefore, temperature also affects metabolic rates a...
Article
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Classification of the genus Rhacophorus has been problematic. In particular there has been considerable controversy surrounding the phylogenetic relationships among Rhacophorus rhodopus, R. bipunctatus, and R. reinwardtii. To examine the relationship among these Rhacophorus species, we assembled the complete mitochondrial genome sequence of R. rhod...
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The importance of amphibians in the diet of the Otter Lutra lutra feeding in the Wigry National Park. Parki nar. Rez. Przyr. 40(3): 49-59. Astract: A decrease in the amount of rainfall, and a decrease in the area of wet forests, especially riparian forests and alders, has caused the disappearance of amphibians and increased their decline in Poland....
Article
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Quaternary climate fluctuations can affect speciation in regional biodiversity assembly in two non-mutually exclusive ways: a glacial species pump, where isolation in glacial refugia accelerates allopatric speciation, and adaptive radiation in underused adaptive zones during ice-free periods. We detected biogeographic and genetic signatures associa...
Preprint
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Some concepts/hypotheses have been proposed to explain the general rules behind the complexity of tumorigenesis. Characterization of the property of cancer cells and neural stem cells indicates that neural stemness underlies tumorigenicity and pluripotency, leading to the proposal that tumorigenesis represents a process of progressive loss of origi...
Article
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The epidermal differentiation complex (EDC) is a cluster of genes encoding components of the skin barrier in terrestrial vertebrates. EDC genes can be categorized as S100 fused-type protein (SFTP) genes such as filaggrin, which contain two coding exons, and single-coding-exon EDC (SEDC) genes such as loricrin. SFTPs are known to be present in amnio...
Article
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Amphibians and reptiles use caves in different lithologies and biomes. However, the ecological reasons for such behavior have so far not been investigated in a broad scale. We surveyed 945 Brazilian caves in three biomes (Caatinga, Cerrado, and the Amazon), from which 269 had frogs and reptiles. We classified species of amphibians (34) and reptiles...
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Aim Climate change is an increasingly important driver of biodiversity loss. The ectothermic nature of amphibians may make them particularly sensitive to changes in temperature and precipitation regimes, adding to declines from other threats. While active season environmental conditions can influence growth and survival, effects of variation in win...
Article
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Mountain systems offer excellent opportunities to understand β‐diversity patterns and the processes driving them. However, β‐diversity patterns and the underlying mechanisms that lead to dissimilarity in mountain amphibian communities across elevational gradients remain elusive. We aimed to evaluate how amphibian communities respond to environmenta...
Article
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Aim Phenotypic shifts are commonly observed when animals face insular habitat change and may reflect ongoing stresses on individuals. However, the generality and the driving processes of this ‘island rule’ remain equivocal, notably in amphibians. Here, we investigate both morphological and dietary shifts in a frog using a mosaic of human‐created is...
Article
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Introduced fish are a widespread ecological threat in originally fishless high mountain lakes. However, basic distribution data are largely missing for most high mountain regions. Using time‐consuming standard methods (e.g. Nordic standard fishing nets) to assess fish distribution and relative densities at a relevant spatial scale can be impractica...
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Due to their various properties as polymeric materials, plastics have been produced, used and ultimately discharged into the environment. Although some studies have shown their negative impacts on the marine environment, the effects of plastics on freshwater organisms are still poorly studied, while they could be widely in contact with this polluti...
Article
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Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the main prerequisites to protect amphibian biological systems and to support powerful administration choices. This research investigated the applicability of Shannon's entropy theory and correlation in obtaining the combination of the optimum inputs, and then the abstracted input variables were used to develop three...
Article
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Dissolved oxygen (DO) is one of the main prerequisites to protect amphibian biological systems and to support powerful administration choices. This research investigated the applicability of Shannon’s entropy theory and correlation in obtaining the combination of the optimum inputs, and then the abstracted input variables were used to develop three...
Article
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Hearing loss affects over 460 million people worldwide and is a major socioeconomic burden. Both genetic and environmental factors (i.e., noise overexposure, ototoxic drug treatment and ageing), promote the irreversible degeneration of cochlear hair cells and associated auditory neurons, leading to sensorineural hearing loss. In contrast to birds,...
Article
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Sexual dichromatism in animals is usually associated with mating displays and is linked to strong sexual selection. Among amphibians, it has mostly been reported in anurans and only in a few caudates. Here, we investigated sexual dichromatism in the only two extant species of the genus Salamandrina, testing for its possible role in intraspecific co...
Technical Report
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From June 26th to July 5th, a diverse team of 48 scientists and 11 students from 7 countries visited the Upper Neretva River to collect data aimed at characterising this pristine and highly threatened riverine ecosystem. They focused on describing aspects of river-associated biodiversity by combining their expertises on various aquatic and terrestr...
Article
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The IUCN Red List of Threatened Species is essential for practical and theoretical efforts to protect biodiversity. However, species classified as “Data Deficient” (DD) regularly mislead practitioners due to their uncertain extinction risk. Here we present machine learning-derived probabilities of being threatened by extinction for 7699 DD species,...
Poster
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Invasive Batrachochythrium dendrobatidis (Bd) has been detected in wild amphibians in central Europe in numerous cases. Ranaviruses have also been described, although less frequently. There are, however, still large gaps in our understanding of the influence of these pathogens on specific populations. The natterjack toad is an endangered species in...
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The current and cascading effects of global change challenges the interactions both between animal individuals (i.e. social and sexual behaviour) and the environment they inhabit. Amphibians are an ecologically diverse class with a wide range of social and sexual behaviours, making them a compelling model to understand the potential adaptations of...
Article
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Numerical discrimination is widespread in vertebrates, but this capacity varies enormously between the different species examined. The guppy (Poecilia reticulata), the only teleost examined following procedures that allow a comparison with the other vertebrates, outperforms amphibians, reptiles and many warm-blooded vertebrates, but it is unclear w...
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Animals often halt foraging in the presence of predator cues, an ecological phenomenon known as the foraging/predator avoidance tradeoff. Although some have proposed that anxiety may exist in animals exposed to predator cues, few studies have examined whether such interactions lead to anxiety-like behavior in animals other than laboratory rodents a...
Book
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Science Fiction and Anticipation: Utopias, Dystopias and Time Travel presents ten peer-reviewed chapters discussing themes related to time travel, utopias, and dystopias in science fiction novels published in America and Europe between the 18th and 20th century. These themes include social progress, freedom and human rights, technological advances,...
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Habitat fragmentation and infectious diseases threaten wildlife globally, but the interactions of these threats are poorly understood. For instance, while habitat fragmentation can impact genetic diversity at neutral loci, the impacts on disease-relevant loci are less well-studied. We examined the effects of habitat fragmentation in Brazil’s Atlant...
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Increasing urbanization degrades quantity, quality, and the functionality of spatial cohesion of natural areas essential to biodiversity and ecosystem functioning worldwide. The uncontrolled pace of building activity and the erosion of blue (i.e., aquatic) and green (i.e., terrestrial) landscape elements threaten existing habitat ranges and movabil...
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Rampant deforestation has caused the loss and fragmentation of natural habitats, which has precipitated a global biodiversity crisis. Research on how land-use change contributes to a loss of biodiversity is urgently needed, especially in ecosystems that have undergone rapid anthropogenic changes. We sought to investigate the extent to which habitat...
Article
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Despite being naturally fishless, the widespread introduction of trout and minnows is threatening the conservation of high mountain lakes all over the world. Previous studies have reported that amphibians quickly disappear after trout introduction, followed by many conspicuous invertebrates. Here, we have studied the effects of minnows versus trout...
Article
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Briefly considered extinct in the wild, the future of the Wyoming toad (Anaxyrus baxteri) continues to rely on captive breeding to supplement the wild population. Given its small natural geographic range and history of rapid population decline at least partly due to fungal disease, investigation of the diversity of key receptor families involved in...
Article
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The regulation of seasonality has been an area of interest for decades, yet global climate change has created extra urgency in the quest to understand how sensory circuits and neuroendocrine control systems interact to generate flexibility in biological timekeeping. The capacity of temperature to alter endogenous or photoperiod-regulated neuroendoc...
Article
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Context Land use change modifies landscapes’ original compositions and configurations, which can have a positive, negative, or neutral effect on species diversity. The direction and magnitude of the effect depends on how each species responds to these conditions and can change depending on the scale in which it is evaluated. Objectives We evaluate...
Article
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Purpose With the increased use of simulation-based training using animal models for the education of surgical and anaesthetic techniques, an increased understanding of the anatomy of such models and how they compare to humans is required. The transversus abdominis plane block is a regional anaesthetic technique that requires an understanding of the...
Article
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Amphibian conservation efforts have never been more imperative than they are now, such as by preserving genetic material through establishing cell lines. This study describes a successful protocol for culture of cells from three tissues (whole limb, tongue, toe clip) taken from five individuals of the Asian Common Toad (Duttaphrynus melanostictus)...
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Parapharyngodon spp. are nematodes parasites of amphibian and reptiles worldwide distributed. Of 55 valid species, only 11 are known for the Neotropical realm, and six were found parasitizing hylid frogs in the world. In the present work, we describe a new species of Parapharyngodon from the large intestine of Osteocephalus taurinus from Reserva de...
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Due to their limited geographic distributions and specialized ecologies, cave species are often highly endemic and can be especially vulnerable to habitat degradation within and surrounding the cave systems they inhabit. We investigated the evolutionary history of the West Virginia Spring Salamander (Gyrinophilus subterraneus), estimated the popula...
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The invasive species are of global concern, and the Invasive American Bullfrog (IAB; Lithobates catesbeianus) is one of the worst invasive amphibian species worldwide. Like other countries, South Korea is also facing challenges from IAB. Although many studies indicated impacts of IAB on native anurans in Korea, the actual risk at the specific level...
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The Malabar Starling Sturnia blythii is a widespread endemic bird of the Western Ghats of India. In this study, we tried to understand the provisioning behaviour of this species and the preferred resource choice for its offspring. We found a conspicuous omission of caterpillars and the addition of amphibians in their provisioning diet. We also noti...
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The island of Newfoundland has no native amphibian taxa, although six species of Anura (i.e., frogs and toads) have been introduced since European colonisation, four of which have established self-sustaining populations. Here, we document Eastern Red-backed Salamander (Plethodon cinereus) on Newfoundland for the first time, in what appears to be a...
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Aim: As anuran reproduction is generally linked to the availability of water, frogs and toads are particularly sensitive to climate. We tested the effect of climate on anuran reproductive phenology and daily activity by analysing temporal patterns of reproductive behaviour based on citizen-collected observations. Location: Brazil. Methods: We obtai...
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The Amphibians and Reptiles of the Los Chimalapas Region, Isthmus of Tehuantepec, Oaxaca, Mexico: Composition, Distributional Categorization, Conservation Status, and Biodiversity Significance Please read, download and share https://biologiaysociedad.uanl.mx/.../b/article/view/73/63
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Abstract Biological invasions by amphibian and reptile species (i.e. herpetofauna) are numerous and widespread, having caused severe impacts on ecosystems, the economy and human health. However, there remains no synthesised assessment of the economic costs of these invasions. Therefore, using the most comprehensive database on the economic costs of...
Article
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Contagious yawning, or the reflexive tendency to yawn following the detection of yawning in others, is well-documented among humans and a growing number of social vertebrates. While the most common form of yawn contagion occurs between conspecifics, some non-human animals in captivity have been reported to yawn in response to yawns from human handl...
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The amyloid-antimicrobial link hypothesis is based on antimicrobial properties found in human amyloids involved in neurodegenerative and systemic diseases, along with amyloidal structural properties found in antimicrobial peptides (AMPs). Supporting this hypothesis, we here determined the fibril structure of two AMPs from amphibians, uperin 3.5 and...