Questions related to Amphibians
I would like to open a discussion regarding Benzocaine 20% oral administration and its potential as an effective and humane method for the euthanasia of small reptiles. Finding both practical and humane methods of euthanasia that can be used in the field is challenging but essential.
Benzocaine, similar to MS 222, is an accepted euthanasia agent for fish and amphibians under the AVMA GUIDELINES FOR THE EUTHANASIA OF ANIMALS: 2020 EDITION, it is effective and rapid. However, a paucity of literature is available on its efficacy in small reptiles. There appears to be several advantages and disadvantages to the Benzocaine oral administration method. But let's hear from you. Has this method ever been accepted by your ethics committee for small reptiles? And if so, what were some of the comments from the committee? For those that have applied this method, have you ever witnessed vomiting or regurgitation after administration? What were the dosages given, how was death confirmed and after how long? What are your institutions' preferred methods of euthanasia for small reptiles?
Ideally recorders that can be left out for weeks at a time, with frogs from tropical forests the target animals.
Pros and cons of passive acoustic recorders in the Neotropics.
Ideally for recorders to be left up for weeks at a time.
Frogs are the target animals.
Hey everyone, I was wondering if much research has been done on the affect of lunar cycle on the activity of amphibians. I am aware of Deeming's 2008 paper where capture of newts correlated with the lunar cycle. I am interested to know if any other such correlations have been found in species around the world.
I am looking for literature that deals with amphibians in urban areas. Are there studies on threshod values for toxological substances at which amphibians are no longer able to survive? Which species are more sensitive which are less? For example, at what concentration are acidification and contamination by heavy metals such as cadmium, copper, lead and zinc a problem? What about pharmaceuticals and pesticides? There are a lot of studies for non-urban areas, are the results transferable?
Studies in German are very welcome.
There is a review, but I think it‘s not sufficient for answering this specific question:
Toxicological Threats to Amphibians and Reptiles in Urban Environments (2008)
Maxine C. Croteau, Natacha Hogan, Jennifer C. Gibson, David Lean, and Vance L. Trudeau, In: J.C. Mitchell, R.E. Jung Brown, and B. Bartholomew (editors). Urban Herpetology. Herpetological Conservation 3: 197–209
Hi there! I am interested in understanding (or making myself more confused, whatever) the evolutionary pathways of coprophilic habit in dung-inhabiting fungi. Taking into account the dung of herbivore animals as a substrate to dung fungi growth, we have few "candidates" to be dung-producers with some requirements to early dung fungi (e.g. the amphibians Ichthyostega (I don't know if it was an herbivore or omnivorous, appearing about ca. 375 million y/a in Devonian, once the first tetrapod herbivores made their first appearance in the fossil record near the Permio-Carboniferous boundary, ca. 300 million y/a.). Terrestrial plants made their first appearance ca. 450 million y/a, with a well-accepted role of arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi in this process. So, my question is about if there is some study dealing with the evolutive process of dung-inhabiting fungi, presenting some consideration where and how, in the evolutive process, this ecologic habit firstly appears? Any considerations are welcome! Thank you!
If you want to help me with this question with more details (or more questions ¯\_(ツ)_/¯ ) or papers/books, feel free to also send me an email at: email@example.com.
I've tried the Qiagen RNeasy Mini kit on chicken blood samples but got no RNA.
Started with 1ml fresh whole blood collected on ETDA, after adding the 600ul lysis buffer the lysate was SOOO VISCOSE, and so hard to pipette even after trying to homogenate it with "Syringe & needle 20 guage co.9 mm"
Knowing that the whole blood of birds, reptiles, and amphibians contains large quantities of protein that must be separated from the nucleic acids to perform a successful extraction, But I don't know how ?!
- should I start with less quantity of blood or what should I do
- the pic shows the pellet size before I discard the supernatant & adding the lysis buffer
I prefer the recording of one, or a few individuals, not a large chorus.
It is for use in a playback experiment.
Kindly, name some reliable/popular field survey technique employed for amphibians (frogs) & terrestrial skinks (scincidae) in tropical forests. Thanks a ton.
Anomalous phenotype; polydactyly, adactyly, hyperregeneration, trematodes & mutations are observe in amphibians. Similarly, beside the the aforementioned reasons what are other associated phenomenon responsible & may suspected to influence such developments in terrestrial skinks (Scincidae) as well. Please suggest, thanks a ton.
It intrigues me that, the poisonous amphibian (frogs) evolutionary process might play pivotal role and especially genetically have to do with their morphological appearances in poisonous frogs alluring appearances than the regular frogs whether tropical forest or temperate. Any other specific reasons or detail classifications for such existance of differences in amphibians. Elaborate, please (Thank you).
I'm interning at a non-science conventional organization, where I'm conducting studies on a wetland that's inhabited by an endangered species of snake and a threatened species of frog. I'm trying to better understand how the flow of nutrients from the surrounding groundwater/run off sources effect the soil and surface water, which ultimately affects the development of amphibian development and habitat.
So, because it's an unconventional place to be doing these studies, their facilities aren't comprehensive. I am able to do water nitrate and phosphate tests using TNT kits, but I was wondering if there was any low cost/practical soil phosphate and nitrate testing methods? Whether it would give me a general/semi-accurate result. I had the idea of mixing DI water and the soil, then letting the particles settle and using the surface water to do a regular water analysis. Does anyone have any experience doing that?
Appreciate any help
Background: In my proposed study area, I have identified four pond types: 1) Ephemeral (dries at least once per year), 2) Matrix (part of pond dries dries, but other part remains permanent), and 3) Permanent (has not dried). I have four of each pond type, totaling 12 ponds total. I will be sampling for the presence of fish, amphibians, and reptiles eight times each year across three years. I would like to assess how pond type influences the occupancy of certain species and how the presence of fish influence the occupancy of certain species.
Question: Is four ponds per site type enough of a sample size?
In many conservatories around the world, as well as in many organic-farms, insecticidal soaps (potassium salts of fatty acids) are widely used to combat aphids, mealybugs, mites etc. They are considered safe to mammalians and are prioritized instead of chemicals.
Very little to no information can actually be found whether the soaps may be toxic to amphibians. Can anyone help us on this matter? An eductaed guess would tell me that the thin film created by the sopa on aquatic enviroment as well as, presumably, on the skin of the amphibians would cause significan damage.
Our team has been trying to locate and collect the pineal gland in the American bullfrog's brain (Lithobates catesbeianus) for some time now. However, we don't have a standardized protocol for that. Therefore we're not so sure that the tiny tissue we're collecting is actually the pineal gland. Does anyone have any protocols, pictures, or videos for pineal gland collection in amphibians? I really appreciate any help you can provide!
What are the parasitology guides that you are recommending to identify the helminth infections of wild animals? Especially helminth infections of amphibians.
Please mention links of guides/books which are available to refer online or titles of the books that you know.
I am doing species niche modeling of an amphibian species. I have 151 presence observations, after filttering points that were too close (< 1 km). I am using data presence from GBIF, iNaturalist, and presence data shared by colleagues. However, I am worried about sampling bias, because it is an opportunistic kind of approach. Therefore, I am trying to find a way to correct sampling bias to better our models.
I want to measure the metabolic rate and water loss in amphibians, usually frogs and salamanders, that have different life histories. And, I want to build a chamber that I can use for aquatic and terrestrial species or life stages. I want them to work for both because the idea is to take measurements in the field and the system itself is already large.
I am starting to work with physiology, so any advice for the chamber or how to measure metabolic rate is welcome. Thanks!
Does anyone have access of this paper/book chapter? Found this citation in the book Amphibians and Reptiles of Nepal. Based on the citation format, it looks to be a book chapter, and the language seems to be Uzbekistan (please correct me if I am wrong)?
Any help will be greatly appreciated!
Panfilov AM, Eremchenko VK. 1999. Novye dannye po karyiologii shesti vidov szinkov (Sauria: Scincidae) Evrasii. Nauka i Novye Tekhnologii, 1999(2), 61–67. Bishkek
Amphibians eggs are surrounded of a jelly coat constituted by one to several layers depending on the considered species. The composition of these layers depends on the considered layer and species. The functions of this layers are multiple. Indeed, the jelly coat is for instance known to be involved in fertilization, to avoid polyspermy, to act as a sperm chemoattractant and to play an important role of barrier against UV, infection and contaminants. But, the role of barrier against contaminants is not so clear. Indeed, the complex structure of the jelly coat provides to it an affinity to specific molecules. Therefore, certains molecules are stopped by the layers while others penetrate to the embryos.
In spite of this, most protocole for testing effect of toxicants on amphibians suggest to dejelly the eggs before the exposure. From my point of view, this recommendation lead to a loss of ecological relevance and I'm wondering if dejellying should not be reconsidered.
How about you ? Is there something that I don't see ?
Only supplier i've been able to find (bioMérieux) apparently only stock the tubed version (100) meaning an eight week wait to get much cheaper softpack swabs. Does anyone know of alternate suppliers in Australia or can suggest comparable product (MWE 100 or 113 appear most popular in the literature).
I´m looking for papers showing raw abundance data for different groups of animals, plants, and bacteria. I would be interested in studies on: mammals, birds, reptiles, amphibians, insects, fishes, annual plants and trees.
Any recommended paper will be of great use.
Thank you so much !
Looking at Plethodontid salamanders, they have a gular fold, a characteristic seen in reptiles often as the dewlap for threat displays, but I haven't found any explanation for it being in amphibians. What are some of the behavioral uses of gular folds in amphibians?
Consequently, we discussed the ability of ancestral tetrapods --originating in Sarcopterygian fishes-- having articulation in their wrists, making them the first animals to be able to do push ups which I then want to connect again to threat displays in reptiles. Are there any soft tissue samples of ancestral tetrapod gular folds? Would this be an ancestral characteristic?
Is there some sense to this, or am I over-extrapolating?
I am trying to model nutrient uptake and turnover from a long-term experiment. Currently I found a reference to a turnover rate for N used in Burton and Liken's classic study; however, when I asked the authors for the source of their estimate they (1) could not recall, and (2) did not provide a reference in the original paper.
We have been attempting to radio-track Litoria aurea, however, our site is intersected by a large electricity easement, therefore, we are struggling to pinpoint any signal over the static. Does anyone have any tips on how the interfering noise can be minimised or eliminated? Thank you.
I have found a protocol outlining how to count the number of leucocytes (attached file) but I am also hoping to look at the relative number of lymphocytes, monocytes, neutrophils, basophils and eosinophils in amphibian blood. Has anyone had experience with doing this successfully on a NC-3000?
For my research class this spring, I would like to study amphibians (specifically salamanders) if possible. My limiting factors are time (March 1-mid April) and that the research must be field-based (no capturing for lab studies). Would I be able to find breeding or migrating salamanders during this timeframe with reasonable effort?
Hello everyone. I represent a small group of students from Maastricht University in the Netherlands. We are currently working on a project regarding toe-tapping behavior in frogs and toads (see https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gl_A4UosQjw). We are collecting as much information as possible regarding it in order to try to shed some light on this very understudied phenomenon. If you've ever observed it and could spare a few minutes of your time to help us in our research, please fill out our questionnaire or share your knowledge with us. Any input is greatly appreciated.
Thank you for your time and happy herping.✌️
I am interested to hear about the concern of adult amphibian marking by elastomers (visible implant elastomer). I have seen an article that concludes that this technique is reliable, and others that conclude otherwise (e.g. "VIE tags, as individuals were correctly identified only 18.4% of the time" Brannelly et al. 2014).
Has anyone used them in thick skinned species, such as those of the genus Rhinella?
I have a relatively small budget but I would like to purchase a hydrophone that would enable me to call and describe the vocalisations of frogs underwater. The animals I hope to record are in glass 20 L glass enclosures
Hello, I am a caver and a biologist (just by passion, not professional). In summer 2018 I went caving to Magagascar in Namoroka Tsingy. I didn't ask for a collecting permit so I only took photos from the fauna.
I have some from amphibians inside the caves.
See joined file. Can you help me to determine those specimens ? Even only the family would be a great help.
Futhermore, I will go back to that area next july.
Is it usefull I take more pictures ? Is it usefull I collect some amphibians ? If yes, how can I have a collecting permit ?
Species: Lissotriton vulgaris (please confirm; photos attached)
Total Length: 10 cm
I found this smooth newt yesterday (18.12.2019, 21:30 local time) in the outskirts of Vienna (Austria) on a stone walkway in a garden.
Environmental data (at time of observation):
Air temp: 2°C
Humidity: not measured, very likely 100%RH: foggy and very wet since sunset (no rain)
Weather during the day: 9°C and sunny around noon/in the early afternoon, no wind, no rain
In the same garden, newts have been found in previous years in springtime (in a water meter shaft 1.5 to 2 m below ground level). There is a pond in one of the neighboring gardens; the urban housing area is located within 1 km of Donau-Auen National Park.
According to Jablonski (2013) and Kaczmarek et al. (2018), winter activity in the species is unusual in this part of Europe. For this reason, I include here as much information as possible. The environmental conditions were similar to those reported in both papers.
The animal was not moving when I found and subsequently observed it for 10 min. Upon touching it (to remove from walkway), it moved its limbs lethargically. Due to a further drop in temperature (to ca. 0.5°C), I took it in overnight.
What is the best procedure to maximize its chances of survival? Where should I release it today (open/vegetated area in the garden)? Which time of day (weather forecast: 5°C in the morning, 13°C at noon, 10°C in the evening)?
- Jablonski D (2013) Unusual observation of the winter activity of Lissotriton vulgaris from south-western Slovakia. Folia faunistica Slovaca 18: 301-302.
- Kaczmarek JM, Piasecka M, Kaczmarski M (2018) Winter activity of the smooth newt Lissotriton vulgaris in Central Europe. The Herpetological Bulletin 144: 31-32.
We wish to quantify the amount of pesticides presence of pesticides in different landscapes to assess if they have an impact on amphibian communities.
I am working on a biogeographic study, in which to assess the latitudinal diversity gradient of amphibians in the Malay Peninsula. Thus, I’m required to examine the effects of utilizing different distribution data such as IUCN range maps, GBIF, modeled distribution, and a combination of those data, in mapping species richness in the Malay Peninsula.
My question is, what kind of statistical analysis that is suitable to compare the performances of these different distribution data in mapping species richness?
Briefly, I need a cost and time effective method - which completely exludes the possibility of contamination between samples - in order to get ranaviral DNA from the liver of EtOH stored tadpoles.
Criterions are the following:
- For DNA extraction I will use Wizard® Genomic DNA Purification Kit Protocol (Promega).
- I don't have bead beater or tissue lyser machine just an Eppendorf thermomixer.
- Large sample size (approx. 500 samples).
Many thanks in advance.
I plan to measure AChE esterase on amphibians and I read that Butyrylcholinesterase can interfere in the measurement.
If I measure the transformation of Acetylcholine iodide, what am I measuring? Acetylcholinesterase activity or both acetyl- and butyrylcholinesterase activities ? Should I measure AChE activity with a BChE inhibitor for stating that I'm measuring AChE?
For me, I should but I've read a lot of articles that don't mention any use of the inhibitors, so I'm a bit confused.
I am assessing Amphibian diversity in selected wetlands in Kampala, Uganda. I am using the Urban-rural design. I purposively selected three wetlands that run from the City to the outskirts. For each wetland stretch I randomly chose three sites to represent urban and rural categories. For each site I recorded amphibian species, habitat and micro-habitats in which they were. Therefore, am trying to analyze whether amphibians prefer certain habitats or micro-habitats to others. Thank you. I will be grateful for your guidance.
I am studying Ethiopian amphibians now and I need the software to analyse the phylogenetic relation ship of amphibians.
I observed remarkable sperm morphology diversity and chromosomal dysploidy in the spermatogonial cells of an Ichthyophis and Gegeneophis caecilian (legless amphibian) collected from dung pits from Western Ghats. Inputs from you people is of great help in drafting the discussion part of my manuscript on the impact of dung on caecilian amphibians.
Hello, I am trying to generate primary cell cultures from different tissues of adult zebrafish (including gills, skin and muscle). I have tried several methods for cleaning the whole fish (hypochlorite, ethanol) and the tissues pieces after dissection and before digestion. Nevertheless, after plating I can see not only cells but also bacteria. I have tried different antibiotic combinations including penicillin/streptomycin, gentamicin and primocin but I still get a high amount of bacterial contamination. Any tips on how to improve this? is this normal?
P.S- No many publications mention the contamination of primary cultures with the own fish's bacteria. I have only found this one from 1976 - THE USE OF ANTIBIOTICS IN THE PREPARATION OF AMPHIBIAN CELL CUL TURES FROM HIGHLY CONTAMINATED MATERIAL,
I would like to ask if you have any information about aberrant caecilians/impact of agrochemicals on caecilian amphibians. Any suggestion or links would be highly appreciated.
With kind regards
As you may know there are several compilations of classic papers in Ecology (e. g. Foudations of Ecology). I am trying to find such a volume or classic papers about morphological abnormalities in Neotropical frogs.
Please share your opinion and/or any sources. Thanks
I'm currently doing a PhD in Switzerland. Swiss legislation on the euthanasia of laboratory animals just changed. Now, euthanasia of amphibian's larvae have to be done using liquid nitrogen. My problem is that I have then to measure molecular biomarkers and I don't know if it's possible after such a euthanasia method. Does anyone already tried it, maybe on fish?
One could conclude from this article that results from most amphibian monitoring programs aren't useful due to lack of statistical power and extreme temporal variability in results. Do you agree? Would resources spent on monitoring better serve conservation in other ways?
I'm working on the osteology of fossil anuran amphibians. Please let me know has the radioulna some diagnostic characters in these animals (i.e. is it possible to determine this bone up to species/genus level etc.)? I will be very thankful for your comments.
I am interested in the phylogeny of vertebrates, i.e. the phylogenetic relationship among fishes, amphibians, reptiles, mammals and birds. I find a cool article published in 2003 (see below), and want to know the recent advances in this field.
Could you provide any more recent information on the phylogeny of vertebrates?
AxelMeyer, RafaelZardoya. Recent advances in the (molecular) phylogeny of vertebrates. Annual Review of Ecology, Evolution, and Systematics. 2003, 34: 311-338.
I am searching for ways to promote lizard and amphibian capacities as a profit from the restauration of their habitat in private gardens.
Therefore I need evidence of these actions
do you know a local example of common toad (Bufo bufo) or fire salamander (Salamandra salamandra) population extinction (or close to extinction) probably due to road mortality ? so far I found this paper: Cooke, A. (2011) 'The role of road traffic in the near extinction of Common Toads (Bufo bufo) in Ramsey and Bury', NatCambridgesh, 53, pp. 45-50.
I have work on sonotaxonmy and biomechanical based on ambhibian .Some tillte knowledge any other lizard but some query after research .
Could you guide me/suggest an article that helps in preparing chromosomes from long preserved tissues of Beetles, Geckos, Amphibians etc.,
Amphibian conservation demands that less specimens are collected for parasitological investigations. Is there a means of detecting species of helminth parasites within a host without having to sacrifice the host? How can we make parasitological investigations of amphibians more sustainable?
I sequenced one mitochondrial genome of frog and found three control regions. It is very interesting that three different tRNAs are existed in three different control regions, respectively. I failed to find some references with similar phenomenon. Do anyone know some references or would you like to tell me the paper?
I found some references, which own one control region with one tRNA in it. Most researchers used the TDRL model to explain this phenomenon.
Do you have any good suggestion to explain it?
Hello ResearchGate community,
Our lab has recently adopted GBS SNP data to gain a better insight into population dynamics of endangered non-model species in Australia (mainly amphibians, geckos and marsupials).
For most projects, after gaining a first insight into current population structure, we would like to understand whether the observed structure is a result of recent or ancient splits. As most of us are relatively new to the world of GBS and SNP data, we would really appreciate if you could point us to the best methodologies for doing so.
Any help is much appreciated.
In literature, we may frequently face with the term "stream breeding/spring breeding" amphibian. There is likewise the term of "stream dwelling/spring dwelling" amphibian. I need to know which taxonomic groups are stream dwelling and which one are spring dwelling.
Any idea would be appreciated.
I have got five species of adult trematodes and three species of metacercariae from a single individual frog. How can it bee linked to its ecology/ecological parasitology?
At the same time many species of frogs from the same habitat are free from parasitic infection.
I have had enough experience in Parasitology (especially trematodology) but very poor in ecological parasitology. Seeking expert advices/opinions/comments from eminent scientists/researchers on the above.
I have a dataset on the migration pattern of amphibians, including the angle at which the movements were initiated, and the distance covered.
I am interested in finding out if the angle described by the movements (i.e. directionality) is related to landscape features. To do so I need to use circular statistics as binary encoding "towards" and "away" from key features is not precise enough.
Would you be able to recommend a methodology to do so, and/or a (free) software that can be used for such an analysis.
Thank you in advance,
I'd appreciate advice about acoustic recorders for undertaking surveys for a range of taxa, particularly birds, frogs and microbats (i.e. audible and ultrasonic). The units will be left in situ for days/weeks and will need to withstand a range of environmental conditions (e.g. deserts and wet tropics). I've previously used Song Meters. Is anything better.....that's not considerably more expensive? If not, which Songmeter model would be best? Thanks in advance.
We are working on Amphibians in Cameroon especially the giant frog and other critically endangered species living around Littoral and South west region of Cameroon. We want to know if I can have some partners to promote the conservation of this species who is captured and eaten by many communities as their protein source. We collect information on the diversity of this species, phenotypical and genotypical identification, habitat, mode of feeding, treats, sensitization and training of communities adjacent to areas where Amphibians are found.
For more information, visit our website www.abirsd.org, or contact: firstname.lastname@example.org / email@example.com
I am looking for experts suggestions, which have experience on thess species groups distributions, therefore capable to point out species from high andean and paramos ecosystems that might also be point of interest to develop niche models.
With these models we expect to assess, through high resolution climate information, changes of distribution under climate change scenarios.
I hope i made myself clear.
Hi. I am searching for literature about mutation rates in mitochondrial genes (besides those for ND2 from Crawford 2003), particulary for amphibians. Does somebody has references about it that could recommend me?
Thanks in advance
It is already well known that the world wide amphibian dying has its reason for one part in the baby birth control pill, where the one active substance from it comes into the enviroment over the urin if there is no biological clarification stage- and this makes after a message from a big pharma industry not only amphibian barren, unfortunately all animals- therefore this could be one of several reasons for world wide bee dying too? I asked a professor for plants and just got a short answer, that they found already antibiotica in plants, therefore it is probably that there is more from active substances from pills in plants all over the world- here a link for it in water:
I am studying two insular populations of an amphibian species. These insular populations are located in continental islands, which got separated from the mainland following the sea level rise during the Holocene (approximately at 8-10 kya).
I am using an ABC framework to test which demographic scenarios are most supported. Broadly, I am testing two competing scenarios; (1) a scenario of genetic isolation following sea level rise (i.e. vicariance). This scenario implies that these populations already inhabited these islands before their formation due to sea level rise; and (2) a posteriori colonization of these islands from the mainland by few individuals. I am assessing this in DIYABC 2.1 with microsatellite data.
However, I am also interested in testing a third scenario: (3) vicariance but continuous gene flow from the mainland after the formation of islands. DIYABC does not mode explicitly model gene flow, although admixture events can be created. The issue with these admixture events is that they require the creation of an additional population resultant from the admixture of two existing populations.
To better illustrate what I want to model, please find attached a pdf representing, in a simplistic way, the demographic scenarios. Consider the insular populations N1 and N2 and the mainland population N3. There are three scenarios represented, but the scenario "Vicariance + gene flow" is the one that I cannot include in DIYABC. In the figure I just represented gene flow from mainland (N3) to one insular population (N2).
Do you know if there is a clever way to model this in DIYABC? If not, which software do you recommend to accomplish this using microsatellite data?
Thank you very much for your help.
I work with amphibians and I can only find antibodies for my gene generated against mammalian sequences. I have contacted as many companies as possible and there is no epitope that is a perfect match for my gene. Will an antibody recognize a protein that isn't a perfect match?
I have fixed and obtained frozen sections of salamander embryos for fluorescence microscopy. The sections are 8um thick and the embryo used for the attached images was kidney bean shaped (sorry not super familiar with the development; helping someone else with this project), maybe stage #24 according to this chart: http://www.virginiaherpetologicalsociety.com/amphibians/amphibian-development/amphibian-development.htm
In the attached images, I only rehydrated the section and stained it with Hoechst. I then mounted using a glycerol-tris-n-propyl gallate mounting medium. Unfortunately, there is a lot of autofluorescence in both the TRITC and FITC channels and it's pretty bright. I didn't see nearly as much autofluorescence when I mounted in PBS alone, but I was hoping for a more permanent mounting medium. My experimental sample will require viewing the TRITC and DAPI channels so I really need to minimize this autofluorescence.
So my question is, what is the stuff autofluorescing and why does the glycerol make it worse? I would guess that it is yolk and did run across some info about it being autofluorescent but it would be nice to be certain.