Science topic

American History - Science topic

For all who are interested in American history - from the Paleo-Indians to the Postracial society
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I'm in the first stages of an attempt to chronicle the history of Sharecropping in the U.S. for a school project and I've been unable to find anything definite about its presence in modern agriculture, if any.
Would definitely be curious (and appreciative!) of anything anyone has to contribute on the topic of Sharecropping, generally, as I am more or less stumped.
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Thank you for the recommendation. It will be of help. @Shahin
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Illinois just signed a new law mandating that LGBT figures that have made significant strides in humanity in the state's history be taught in schools. What do you guys think?
Teaching tolerance is very important in school, specially when it comes to LGBT tolerance
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We are all learning to re-think and re-examine history in many different fields. Whose history is taught? Who is excluded from history? If a group is excluded from history, we need to ask why. As groups that have been traditionally excluded from the mainstream of history such as women, Hispanics, blacks, and other groups of color, etc. are now being addressed, as research surfaces that questions heteronormativty, it is logical that LGBT persons who have contributed to historical accomplishments be recognized.
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From the Gilded Age to the Progressive Era.
What were the chief problems, and what new federal legislation was passed to meet those problems? What did these problems have to do with the rapid post-Civil War industrialization of the country? What roles did the American Civil War play in the emergence of the Gilded Age (1870-1890)? Why did the Gilded Age give rise to populism and wide-spread protests? And why did populism ultimately pass over into (1890-1920) progressivism? Does the sequence of reform legislation hold any possible lessons for contemporary politics? Who were the chief American populists and the leaders of the progressive movement? What did they accomplish and how did they do it?
Please document your contributions and answers so far as possible.
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One person's reform is another person's repression.
In the late 1950s the top tax rate in America was 90%, President Kennedy dropped this significantly, and what followed in the 1960s the American economy boomed. Is cutting the top tax rate a reform? Or does it just aid the richest Americans?
In 1919 the government made the sale of alcohol illegal. It was considered at the time to be part of the great reform and progressive movement. It led to the undying establishment of nation-wide organized crime that is still with us.
Why is no one discussing the great reform of putting an end to endless money-printing? Is that a reform that is needed? Or would that slow down the economy?
So what these reforms that people are hinting at? Can anyone spell them out?
Or is "reform" just a slogan .... and the less said about it, the more we can all imagine it is a good thing?
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Currently there is a tremendous debate in social networks around this issue, fueled by AMLO's request that the Vatican and the Spanish Crown apologize for the crimes committed during the Conquest.
The question is: did the colonizers killed millions of inhabitants of this continent or not (I exclude the millions who died from the diseases they brought, including the penultimate Inca, who died of smallpox without having seen a single Spaniard)? Then, if they were killed: was it genocide or not? There are those who use technical arguments to suggest that there were deaths, even many, but it was not genocide. Others say that you can not judge what was done then, with today's criteria; In all this, the centuries of exploitation of the resources of the continent with manpower, largely native, is not much discussed.
So here is the debate ...
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Since we judge the elimination by the Osmans on the Armenians as genocide, since we judge the war of the Germans vs the Herero tribe in 1904 in German Southwest Africa (today Namibia) as a genocide, then obviously the conquest in America was a genocide...technical argument
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I am looking for works that analyze US-American leadership during World War II and take into account things such as motivation, dealing with uncertainty and other aspects of leadership beyond strategical and tactical considerations. Books similar to Porter B. Williamson, Gen. Patton's Principles for Life and Leadership, MSC, 1988, I suppose.
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There was some interesting work done and arrive range of areas. During World War II, and after looking at leadership and leadership capabilities. As was stated earlier, the great expansion of the military forces around the world by the nations that were involved in the conflict with a significant commitment personnel led to wartime promotions, some of which proved very successful and some of which did not. The Navy found that many of its submarine commanders who held those positions at the beginning of the war fell short on their capabilities and much of this was attributed to the type of training regimen that they had experienced in peacetime, a regimen that was constructed on a faulty attack philosophy that is primarily one of caution. The Army found similar lessons that many of their career officers with trained in the 1920s and 30s fell short as tactfully combat leaders the conflict erupted and were often replaced with a new generation of officers, some of the most significant were James Gavin,Matthew Ridgway, and more senior Gen. Bradley and Eisenhower, all of whom were advanced quickly. The Army Air Corps benefited from the advancement of young officers at the least of which was Curtis LeMay. Finally, the United States Marine Corps also recognized that combat leaders were those that were able to adapt quickly and function under extreme conditions. The if you look at some of the biographies that came out of conflict. Most hardened those leaders who emerged and succeeded under these difficult circumstances, they also give you an insight into the challenges they faced. One of the best biographies. I have read dealt with General 0P Smith of the United States Marine Corps, who commanded the First Marine Division in the difficult drive to North Korea. His leadership capability prevented the division from being destroyed by the Chinese in November and December 1950.
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There are a number of sources on the Internet indicating that the word Prohibition, meaning forced alcohol abstinence, was first used in 1853 in America, perhaps in Maine. All of the sources appear to refer to each other. Exactly where and when was the word Prohibition first used?
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The campaign towards the banning of alcohol started with the pronouncements of revivalist preachers like Lynman Beecher in the1820’s.  This was to some extent influenced by earlier campaigns by medicalists such Dr Benjamin Rush who legend has it invented the term ‘demon drink’.
The first state law designed to control consumption, rather than introduce full prohibition was the Massachusetts Law of 1838.  Maine introduced the first law in which the word ‘prohibition’ was used in 1846.  That must be fully available in state records. 
Nearly all of the 19th century temperance laws were declared unconstitutional and repealed.  That is presumably why the next attempt was by constitutional amendment and the introduction of the 18th Amendment in 1920.     
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Many thanks!
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Here are a couple of resources:
Richard J. Bonnie; Charles H. Whitebread II. Marijuana Conviction: A History of Marijuana Prohibition in the United States. 1999. Lindesmith Ctr. New York, NY
Pisanti S, Bifulco M. Modern History of Medical Cannabis: From Widespread Use to Prohibitionism and Back.Trends Pharmacol Sci. 2017 Jan 14. pii: S0165-6147(16)30184-5.
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hi, im looking for any document about psychoactive plants or roots here in america before 1521, if u have some text where i could find information i'll be grateful
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Much of the online information is unfortunately second or third hand distillations of more reliable information, or just plain junk. Books are still your most reliable source of good and thorough information about this topic. 
The best general, popular, and encyclopedic coverage as an introduction is: 
Richard Evans Schultes, Albert Hoffman, and Christian Rätsch, 1998 Plants of the Gods: Their Sacred, Healing. and Hallucinogenic Powers (Revised and Expanded Edition). Healing Arts Press, Rochester, Vermont.
You can search online under Richard Evans Schultes and find some stuff that is not complete garbage. He is the grand old man of hallucinogenic plant research (especially in the New World), the"father" of ethnobotany, a really nice guy, forrner Harvard professor, and someone who was very interested in serious scholarship about hallucinogens, their effects, and uses. 
If you are interested in a popular book covering psilocybin and other hallucinogenic mushrooms, try: 
Riedlinger, Thomas L (ed.), 1990. TheSacred Mushroom Seeker: Tributes to R. Gordon Wasson. Park Street Press, Rochester, Vermont. 
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The book was first published in 1831. Child was an abolitionist, a feminist, an opponent to American expansionism and an Indian rights activist. 
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What is your take on the argument of Theresa Schenck in "the Voice of the Crane Echos Afar" is? She says the Ojibway were originally the crane clan who in the contact era was located near the Sault - hence Ojibway being synonymous with Sault and Saulteax.
She argues the Ojibway nation was a historical response to territorial expansion, but that the identity of Anishinaabeg was widespread throughout many of the algonquian speakers? Essentially she is arguing the larger identity of the Ojibwa is historically emergent and derives from population shifts. 
It seems pretty convincing to me, but not being Ojibwe, I don't really have much context to refute here. 
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http://collections.mnhs.org/MNHistoryMagazine/articles/56/v56i05p261_301-304.pdf contains a review by Timothy Cochrane, superintendent of Grand Portage National Monument
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Nemesio Salcedo was Commanding General of the Eastern Interior Provinces of Mexico (1802-1813). His brother, Juan Manuel de Salcedo, was the 11th and last Spanish governor of Louisiana (serving from 1801 to November 30, 1803, when Louisiana was handed back to the French). Juan Manuel's son, and Nemesio's nephew, Manuel Maria Salcedo, served as governor of the Spanish province of Texas from 1808, until he was executed, on 3 April 1813, the day after the Royal Spanish forces he had commanded in defense of Bexar (current San Antonio), the capital of Texas, were defeated by the insurgent Republican Army of the North led by Jose Bernardo Gutierrez de Lara. The decisions that Commandant-General Nemesio Salcedo made had a tremendous impact on the history of development of Texas, the western and southwestern portion of the United States, and a great portion of northern Mexico, too., for which he has not been properly recognized by past historians.
Some historians have even erroneously reported that General Salcedo died in Mexico in 1814 (when he finally received permission from the King to retire from his post in America), but I have found several archival sources (see examples attached) that prove he returned to Spain after his service in Mexico, where he was not only very-much-alive, but had been promoted to higher rank and was serving an honorable post as head of the deputation of his native villa of Bilbao in 1816, and two years later, in 1818 was having a new house built on the Old Plaza of the port city of San Sebastian, on the northern Basque seacoast, an architecturally-planned town reconstruction which was being re-built after having been totally destroyed in 1813, from the fires lit during the fighting between French and British forces. The house being built for him was at a location on the Old Plaza at the corner near the present Casino of San Sebastian (see attached photo), a location that will be passed by tens(maybe hundreds ?)-of-thousands of tourists during the upcoming year of 2016 as San Sebastian has been designated as the European Capital of Culture for 2016. Perhaps someone going to San Sebastian for one of the many special cultural events planned can find-out where this honorable old Basque gentleman's remains are buried and send me some information? And, even better, also find an image-from-life of him, and send me information or a copy?
With my best respects, and thanks ahead for any assistance or information,
Bob Skiles
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Hola Robertito  :-)
I had a feeling from your initial bio of Don Nemesio that you might have gone through everything Google has to offer on him already. Sorry I couldn't contribute anything new to the problem (Btw, I think the 1822 pencil record of the "guia" looks about right, but still a bit strange that there doesn't seem to be an official date anywhere in the document. It is also interesting to see other colonial militares listed, e.g. Juan O'Donoju). It seems curious, however, that the man has left such an undersized "photographic record," as it  were.
Although Ivo's connections may be your best bet to get at a portrait or other drawing, the San Hermenegildo Order could also be of use. I haven't been able to determine where its records are located, but since it is an active order maybe an inquiry with the Ministerio de Defensa might help. Come to think of it, given Salcedo's elevated military position, the Museo del Ejercito in Madrid/Toledo could be another opportunity, especially as its orgins go back to 1803.
Best of lack y plus ultra,
Miguelito
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Specifically among the Chumash/Tongva tribes.
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You're welcome! Glad I could be of help!
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I am new to this field of study.
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Google Cold War International History Project at the Woodrow Wilson Center, then look under Publications. The newsletter has autobiographical updates from time to time.
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The earliest document on US Army leadership doctrine I could find dates to 1948 (Department of the Army Pamphlet No. 22-1 "Leadership"; DAPAM22-1). Are there any manuals or other US Army documents informing combat leaders on how to fulfil their leadership responsibilities from before 1941? If not, are there any scholarly works analysing what leadership expectations were placed on US army officers during World War II?
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The Combined Arms Research Library (CARL) Digital Library, available at http://cdm16040.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/, contains "Obsolete Military Manuals". The pdf at http://cdm16040.contentdm.oclc.org/cdm/singleitem/collection/p4013coll9/id/882/rec/2 dates from 1948 but on pp. 5-6 makes reference to numerous earlier material on military psychology and leadership, some of which from the late 1930s. Surely relevant, if it can somehow be tracked.
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Work: The effects of alterations to the original Godzilla (Gojira) on interpretations of the Japanese 'Other' to the film's American audiences.
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You can find interesting elements in Shuichi Kato. Mainly in the books:
Form, Style, Tradition: Reflections on Japanese Art and Society, Berkeley, University of California Press (1971)
Six Lives / Six Deaths: Portraits from Modern Japan by Robert Jay Lifton, Shuichi Kato, and Michael R. Reich, Yale University Press, New Haven (1979)
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I am studying the ways that Japanese and American history spoke of the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki in 1945. I read Japanese fairly well, but I'm struggling to find a large number of Japanese authors to talk about the atomic bombs. I wonder if someone in the group would have indications of books, authors and other types of sources that can help me.
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Hi, I recommend a look at 原爆文献大事典 (2004). It meticulously lists works in Japanese related to the atomic bombs, from 1945 to 2002.
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Including how the wild horse has become a symbol of freedom, and its role in frontier history. Open to all possible suggestions.
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Ferenc, that could be very useful indeed to use as a comparison against the American wild horse. Many thanks!
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Besides the most obvious ones: Hunger and Disease.
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@ András: I intendet this question mainly for the European settlers from the 16th century on, but if you know something about the viking colonisation also here answers are most welcome.
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The business operated in Manhattan from the Early National - post Civil War period and dealt in hardware and plate glass imports.  It was located on Maiden Lane (94 Maiden Lane but included at times adjacent buildings).
Besides the landmark study on the building and brief references to CVS Roosevelt in various secondary sources on the Roosevelt family, can anyone lead me to any primary sources? I am curious (and question the accuracy of the statement) about how secondary source claims that the company achieved a monopoly on the import of plate glass. I want to understand how the business operated. I know family members sometimes traveled to take orders but did they use jobbers, and how did they operate?
The company received most of their shipments from Liverpool but bought glass from France, England, and Germany. How did that work? Did they have a representative abroad? When plate glass arrived in New York, how was it transported and stored? Did they only order by the job or did they keep an inventory in their maiden lane warehouse? Was the plate glass stored on upper floors and the office on the ground floor? Different sources say the plate glass import part of the business was sold to the Briish firm in 1876 (date?). Which firm?  How did they advertise their wares?  Also, family members sometimes operated additional hardware import companies including one titled Roosevelt & Company. Were they rivals or connected?
Any sources (business or otherwise) about CVS Roosevelt (Cornelius V. S. Roosevelt, or Cornelius van Schaack -- sometimes spelled Schaick) would be most appreciated. He had a "mansion" on Union Square at Broadway and 14th St. until his death in 1871.  
He had a son and a grandson with the same name unfortunately.  Also any info on the business dealings of Theodore Roosevelt Sr (the presdient's father).
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Franklin Delano Roosevelt
When was FDR born?
Franklin Delano Roosevelt was born on January 30, 1882, at the family home, "Springwood," in Hyde Park, New York.
How did the Roosevelt and Delano families make their money?
The Roosevelt family was New York based and involved in commerce, banking and insurance, shipbuilding and seafaring, urban real estate and landholding. Although a lawyer by training, James Roosevelt's interests were in business where he was a respected figure in the field of finance, transportation (railroads), and philanthropy.
The Delanos were a New England seafaring and mercantile family. FDR's maternal grandfather, Warren Delano II, was in the China trade in which he made and lost several fortunes.
Was FDR an only child?
FDR was the only child of James Roosevelt and his second wife, Sara Delano. Franklin had an older half brother, James Roosevelt Roosevelt (1854-1927), born to his father and his first wife, Rebecca Howland, who died in 1876.
When did FDR's father die?
James Roosevelt was born in 1828 and died on December 8, 1900 in New York City at the age of 72. Franklin was eighteen and a freshman at Harvard College.
When did FDR's mother die?
Sara Delano Roosevelt was born in 1854 and died on September 7, 1941 at the family home "Springwood," in Hyde Park, New York at the age of 87. Franklin died less than four years later.
Where did FDR go to school?
In September 1896, at age fourteen, Franklin entered Groton School, a small boarding school in Massachusetts which prepared sons of wealthy and prominent families for college. Before entering Groton, Franklin had a series of governesses and tutors.
What was FDR's first job?
In the autumn of 1907 Franklin became an apprentice lawyer with the Wall Street firm of Carter, Ledyard and Milburn. It was a typical arrangement at the time-no salary the first year and then a small one to start.
What was FDR's first public office?
FDR was elected New York State Senator from Dutchess, Columbia and Putnam counties in 1910 and re-elected for a second term in 1912. He served only a few months of the second term before President Woodrow Wilson appointed him Assistant Secretary of the Navy in 1913.
Was FDR ever in the military?
No. When the United States entered World War I in 1917, Franklin held the civilian post of Assistant Secretary of the Navy. He was eager to enlist, but President Wilson urged against it, citing his important service in the Navy Department.
During World War II, President Roosevelt served as Commander-in-Chief of the United States Armed Forces.
When did FDR run for the Vice-presidency?
In 1920 the Democratic Party nominated Ohio Governor James M. Cox for President and Franklin D. Roosevelt for Vice President. They were defeated by Republicans Warren G. Harding and Calvin Coolidge.
When was FDR elected Governor of New YorkState?
FDR was elected Governor of New York State in 1928 and 1930 for two two-year terms.
Who was Lucy Mercer?
Lucy Page Mercer, daughter of a well-connected Washington family living in reduced financial circumstances, was hired as Eleanor Roosevelt's social secretary in 1914 to assist with the heavy social responsibilities of the wife of a sub-cabinet secretary. In September 1918, Eleanor discovered love letters from Lucy to Franklin and Eleanor offered Franklin a divorce, which he declined for political reasons. In the end, Eleanor agreed to preserve the marriage and Franklin promised never to see Lucy again.
In 1920, Lucy Mercer married Winthrop Rutherfurd, a wealthy widower. Despite his promise to Eleanor, Franklin and Lucy continued to maintain contact. Lucy was present at the Little White House, Warm Springs, Georgia, when President Roosevelt died in 1945.
When did FDR die and what was the cause of his death?
President Roosevelt died of cerebral hemorrhage on April 12, 1945 at the Little White House, his cottage at Warm Springs, Georgia, the rehabilitation center for the treatment of polio that he founded.
What events and ceremonies occurred during FDR's funeral?
On the morning of April 13, 1945, the Presidents' casket was carried to the railroad station at Warm Springs, Georgia, accompanied by a procession of 2,000 soldiers from Fort Benning. Moving no faster than 35 miles per hour, the train passed through the Carolinas and Virginia, arriving in Washington, DC on April 14. All along the way sorrowful citizens turned out to pay their respects to the passing funeral train. President Truman, members of the immediate family, and high-ranking government officials met the funeral train at the Union Station.
Full military honors were rendered in the procession from the railroad station to the White House through the streets lined with units of the nation's armed forces and the grieving public. Behind the casket two flag bearers bore the American flag and the presidential standard. At the White House, the casket was placed in the East Room where the funeral services were conducted at 4:00 p.m. The Episcopal Funeral Service lasted twenty-three minutes.
That evening the casket was removed from the White House and taken in a small procession of soldiers and police to the Union Station for the trip to Hyde Park, New York. Again mournful citizens turned out to witness the passing train. The morning of April 15 the funeral train arrived at a siding on the Hudson River four miles from the Roosevelt home. The casket was transferred to a gun carriage and driven to the Roosevelt estate along a route lined with soldiers, sailors and marines. The caisson was preceded by a military band and a battalion of West Point cadets and followed by limousines containing President Truman and the Roosevelt family. Full Military honors were rendered from the train to the burial site. Great numbers of ordinary Americans young and old traveled to Hyde Park to attend the funeral.
Interment was in the Rose Garden at the estate in Hyde Park. The rector of St. James Episcopal Church read the burial services, three volleys were fired over the grave and taps were sounded as the casket was lowered into its final resting place.
What lifelong hobby did FDR pursue?
Stamp collecting was one of FDR's lifelong hobbies. His interest began when he was eight years old and his mother passed her collection on to him. He enjoyed stamps, he said, because of their link with geography and history, not for their intrinsic value. While recovering from polio, he spent many bedridden hours arranging and annotating thousands of specimens. As President, there was scarcely a day when he did not spend some time with his collection.
At his death, his personal stamp collection numbered over 1,200,000 stamps, 80% of which was of little value-"scrap"" as the President called it. The collection was sold at public auction in accordance with his wishes and realized $228,000.00. The stamps he received officially from foreign governments were not sold, but are a part of the holdings of the Roosevelt Library.
What were FDR's "vital statistics"?
Born: January 30, 1882 at 9 pm, weighing 10 lbs
Height: 6'2"
Weight: Approximately 182 lbs.
Complexion: Fair to ruddy
Hair: Brown
Eyes: Grey-blue
Voice: Tenor
Shirt Size: 16 3/4 neck, 35 sleeve
Hat Size: 7 and 3/8
Shoes: Size 12
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A friend who also does gravestone research has asked me for help to identify the source of the title "Countess of Entilla" and the associated shield and crown emblem. There are two gravestones with this inscription located at Mt. Pleasant Cemetery, Bangor, Maine.  My genealogical research indicates neither woman was married.  One was born in "English Canada," the other in Maine.  I have confirmed through census records that one woman was a school teacher but have been unable to find much information at all about the second woman.  I suspect the title and crest are associated with a fraternal order and am putting the question out here.  Does anyone recognize the title or emblem?  If so, please aid us in identifying the source and meaning.  Thank you.
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I thought immediately to Entella, an ancient city of Sicily, during the Bronze Age and the Classical period. The name of the Municipality nowadays is Contessa Entellina, inhabited by Italo-albanian people. There's also a river in Liguria with the same name... 
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Any official record, estimates, or crónicas of a "correct" number of the American genocide.
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Sherburne Cook y Woodrow Borah documentan el colapso demográfico en la Nueva España a lo largo del siglo de la Conquista. No separan las muertes por causas (que incluyen las epidemias, la violencia, los estragos causados por el desquiciamiento de las estructuras sociales, entre otras). Fue una catástrofe, casi una apocalipsis. No tengo la cifra exacta en mi pobre memoria, pero un siglo después de la Conquista quedó menos de la décima parte de la cantidad precortesiana, a juzgar por los datos disponibles. Apunto sus tres principales libros:
Borah, Woodrow; Cook, Sherburne F., The population of central Mexico in 1548, an analysis of the Suma de visitas de pueblos, Berkeley/Los Ángeles, University of California Press, 1960.
Cook, Sherburne F.; Borah, Woodrow, The Indian population of central Mexico, 1531-1610, Berkeley/Los Ángeles, University of California Press, 1960.
Cook, Sherburne F.; Borah, Woodrow, El pasado de México: aspectos sociodemográficos, Juan José Utrilla, traductor, México, Fondo de Cultura Económica, 1989.
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Seeking sources in addition to Kimberly Smith's African American Environmental Thought.
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Try checking out some of DuBois own books, I would check out his _The Education of Black people_, _The Soul of Black Folks_, and maybe _The Negro_. Not sure who utilizes his thought but you might want to look at some of James Cone's stuff. Hope this helps.