Science topic

Alveolata - Science topic

A group of three related eukaryotic phyla whose members possess an alveolar membrane system, consisting of flattened membrane-bound sacs lying beneath the outer cell membrane.
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Publications related to Alveolata (826)
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Paramecium bursaria is a mixotrophic ciliate species, which is common in stagnant and slow-flowing, nutrient-rich waters. It is usually found living in symbiosis with zoochlorellae (green algae) of the genera Chlorella or Micractinium. We investigated P. bursaria isolates from around the world, some of which have already been extensively studied in...
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Micro/macro plastics are ubiquitous and are emerging agents causing many ecological problems in marine environments. Plastics carry various fouling organisms, including harmful microorganisms, that could potentially have ecological impacts on the marine environment and eventually human health. In this study, marine micro/macro plastics drifting at...
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The honeycomb worm Sabellaria alveolata is a gregarious tube-dwelling polychaete that builds remarkable biogenic reefs in marine coastal waters. Sabellaria alveolata reefs are considered valuable marine habitats requiring protection measures for their conservation, as they play a key role in the functioning of coastal ecosystems. Sabellarid reefs a...
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Resting cysts protect ciliates against adverse environmental conditions. The morphology and ultrastructure of resting cysts has been described in very few Oligotrichea, a group of mainly marine planktonic ciliates. The present study provides the first ultrastructural data for loricate choreotrichids, applying light and electron microscopy on the cy...
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Neospora caninum is an obligate intracellular protozoan parasite of the phylum Alveolata (subphylum Apicomplexa) which has not been studied extensively in a biochemical context. N. caninum is a primary cause of reproductive disorders causing mummification and abortion not only in cattle but also in other small ruminant species resulting in a substa...
Article
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Bioconstructions of Sabellaria alveolata (Polychaeta Sabellariidae) from southern Sicily (Central Mediterranean) were sampled and analysed through a multidisciplinary approach in order to unravel the construction pattern of arenaceous tubes and explore possible analogies existing between the worm tubes and the agglutinated tests of benthic foramini...
Cover Page
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Online classification catalogue that reflects the division of the eukaryotic domain (Eukaryota) into supergroups - kingdoms, subkingdoms, phyla, subphyla, some classes and helps to navigate the structure of groups in question. For each eukaryotic kingdom (Loukozoa, Amoebozoa, Opisthokonta, Discoba, Cryptista, Archeplastida, Rhizaria, Alveolata, Str...
Article
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Spliced-leader trans-splicing (SLTS) has been described in distantly related eukaryotes and acts to mark mRNAs with a short 5′ exon, giving different mRNAs identical 5′ sequence-signatures. The function of these systems is obscure. Perkinsozoa encompasses a diversity of parasitic protists that infect bivalves, toxic-tide dinoflagellates, fish and f...
Article
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Chilodonella uncinata is a facultatively parasitic ciliate, which can opportunistically parasitize on fish gills and fins, and sometimes even cause host mortality. Previous molecular studies of C. uncinata mainly focused on genetic diversity and molecular evolution. There are currently no transcriptome reports studying differences between free-livi...
Article
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Aim In coastal marine systems, biogenic reef‐building species have great importance for conservation as they provide habitat for a wide range of species, promoting biodiversity, ecosystem functioning and services. Biogenic reef persistence and recovery from perturbations depend on recolonization by new recruits. Characterizing larval dispersal amon...
Article
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Many species of plants have evolved structures called phytotelmata that store water and trap detritus and prey. These structures house diverse communities of organisms, the inquiline microbiome, that aids breakdown of litter and prey. The invertebrate and bacterial food webs in these systems are well characterized, but less is known about microbial...
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Although the diversity (~35 species) and worldwide distribution of goats (Ruminantia, Bovidae, Caprinae) are significant, studies on the diversity of symbiont ciliates in these mammals are scarce in comparison to other ruminants. The present work is a review and checklist of species based on taxonomic, morphologic, and ecologic studies of rumen cil...
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This paper presents information on the distribution of ciliates in freshwater bodies and soils of the southern part of the Russian Far East. During the study, 307 species of ciliated protozoa were registered, 59 of which were identified only to the genus level. The greatest species richness was observed in biotopes of the southern part of Sakhalin...
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The loggerhead sea turtle is considered a keystone species with a major ecological role in Mediterranean marine environment. As is the case with other wild reptiles, their outer microbiome is rarely studied. Although there are several studies on sea turtle’s macro-epibionts and endo-microbiota, there has been little research on epibiotic microbiota...
Preprint
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Apicomplexan parasites have an immense impact on humanity, but their basic cellular processes are often poorly understood. The sites of endocytosis, the conservation of this process with other eukaryotes, and its functions across Apicomplexa are major unanswered questions. Yet endocytosis in Plasmodium is implicated in antimalarial drug failure. Us...
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Management of agricultural soil quality requires fast and cost-efficient methods to identify multiple stressors that can affect soil organisms and associated ecological processes. Here, we propose to use soil protists which have a great yet poorly explored potential for bioindication. They are ubiquitous, highly diverse, and respond to various stre...
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In the ciliate Tetrahymena thermophila , lysosome-related organelles called mucocysts accumulate at the cell periphery where they secrete their contents in response to extracellular events, a phenomenon called regulated exocytosis. The molecular bases underlying regulated exocytosis have been extensively described in animals but it is not clear whe...
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The transient impact of flooding on the community composition of marine picoeukaryotes (PEs, cell size ≤5 μm) in the East China Sea (ECS) was revealed in this study. In a summer without flooding (i.e., July 2009), photosynthetic picoeukaryotes (PPEs) were more abundant in the area covered by the Changjiang River diluted water (CDW, salinity ≤31) th...
Article
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Consortia of microbial community are involved in organic waste decomposition in municipal solid waste (MSW) landfill via competition, syntropy, and predation. Bacterial and archaeal community structure and function have been extensively studied in this process, whereas the eukaryotic community structure and function are largely unidentified. This g...
Preprint
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Loggerhead sea turtle is considered a keystone species with major ecological role in Mediterranean marine environment. As with other wild reptiles, their outer microbiome is rarely studied. Although there are several studies on sea turtle's macro-epibionts and endo-microbiota, there has been little research on epibiotic microbiota associated with s...
Article
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The purpose of this study was to survey the eukaryotic microbiome of two karst caves in the Valley and Ridge physiographic region of the Appalachian Mountains. Caves are known to harbour eukaryotic microbes but their very low densities and small cell size make them difficult to collect and identify. Microeukaryotes were surveyed using two methodolo...
Article
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Telonemia is a poorly known major phylum of flagellated eukaryotes with a unique combination of morphological traits. Phylogenomics recently revealed the phylogenetic position of telonemids as sister to SAR, one of the largest groups of eukaryotes, comprising Stramenopiles, Alveolata and Rhizaria. Due to this key evolutionary position, investigatio...
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This study assessed, for the first time, the bioaccumulation of trace metals in the tissues of Sabellaria alveolata (Annelida: Polychaeta) collected from the Essaouira protected coastal area (Atlantic coast of Morocco), and examined the relationships between metal contents and some physico-chemical parameters of seawater. The biogenic reefs of S. a...
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Tintinnid ciliates build loricae, whose structure, shape, and size still largely represent the basis for taxonomy and classification, although genetic analyses demonstrated their limited utility for inferring evolutionary relationships. The textures of the lorica walls, however, result from the chemical and physical properties of the forming materi...
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A recent ultrastructural study on the tintinnid ciliate Schmidingerella meunieri displayed unique types of somatic kinetids. The dikinetids (paired basal bodies) have besides kinetodesmal fibrils and transverse ribbons, some special features, i.e., overlapping postciliary ribbons and three extraordinary microtubular ribbons, which together form a c...
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Species of the ciliate genus Spirostomum Ehrenberg, 1834 are distributed worldwide and have a research history spanning more than two centuries. However, species delimitation and phylogenetic relationships within this genus are still uncertain due to the paucity of stable morphologic characters for species separation and the unavailability of accom...
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Here we report new data describing the biodiversity of phytobenthic communities based on DNA-metabarcoding using the 18S rDNA marker and the Illumina MiSeq system. The study was initiated due to the blooming of filamentous algae (mainly of the genus Spirogyra) and cyanobacteria in the coastal zone of Lake Baikal under climate change and anthropogen...
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There are few researches concerning ciliates from “extreme” environments such as plateau salt lakes; nevertheless, such a faunistic survey is of great significance for understanding the diversity and biogeography of these microeukaryotes. In this study, two ciliates, namely, Hemiurosomoida tibetensis sp. nov. and Euplotes euryhalinus Valbonesi and...
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A new marine planktonic ciliate from Taiwan, Strombidium parasulcatum sp. n., is described based on live observations, protargol staining, and molecular data. Its morphological characters are similar to those of Strombidium sulcatum Claparède and Lachmann, 1859 sensu Song et al., 2000 but differ from S. sulcatum sensu Fauré-Fremiet, 1912 and sensu...
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Species of the ciliate genus Urotricha are key players in freshwater plankton communities. In the pelagial of lakes, about 20 urotrich species occur throughout an annual cycle, some of which play a pivotal role in aquatic food webs. For example, during the phytoplankton spring bloom, they consume a remarkable proportion of the algal production. In...
Article
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Long amplicon metabarcoding has opened the door for phylogenetic analysis of the largely unknown communities of microeukaryotes in soil. Here, we amplified and sequenced the ITS and LSU regions of the rDNA operon (around 1500 bp) from grassland soils using PacBio SMRT sequencing. We tested how three different methods for generation of operational t...
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Hyaloklossia Labbé, 1896 (Apicomplexa: Sarcocystidae) is a renal coccidium that infects anuran species. The genus consists of two species: H. lieberkuehni, recorded from Pelophylax kl. esculentus, Pelophylax ridibundus, and Rana temporaria in Europe; and H. kasumiensis, recorded from Pelophylax porosus porosus in Japan. However, there have been no...
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Background: Mitigating the effects of global warming has become the main challenge for humanity in recent decades. Livestock farming contributes to greenhouse gas emissions, with an important output of methane from enteric fermentation processes, mostly in ruminants. Because ruminal microbiota is directly involved in digestive fermentation process...
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The diversity of prokaryotic symbionts in Ciliophora and other protists is fascinatingly rich; they may even include some potentially pathogenic bacteria. In this review, we summarize currently available data on biodiversity and some morphological and biological peculiarities of prokaryotic symbionts mainly within the genera Paramecium and Euplotes...
Article
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In temperate coastal regions of Western Europe, the polychaete Sabellaria alveolata (Linné) builds large intertidal reefs of several hectares on soft-bottom substrates. These reefs are protected by the European Habitat Directive EEC/92/43 under the status of biogenic structures hosting a high biodiversity and providing ecological functions such as...
Article
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Diversity of microbial eukaryotes is estimated largely based on sequencing analysis of the hypervariable regions of 18S rRNA genes. But the use of different regions of 18S rRNA genes as molecular markers may generate bias in diversity estimation. Here, we compared the differences between the two most widely used markers, V4 and V9 regions of the 18...
Article
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Microbial eukaryotes are key components of the marine food web, but their distribution in deep-sea chemosynthetic ecosystems has not been well studied. Here, high-throughput sequencing of the 18S rRNA gene and network analysis were applied to investigate the diversity, distribution and potential relationships between microbial eukaryotes in samples...
Article
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The shallow-water reef building polychaete Sabellaria alveolata is recorded from a new locality in the southeastern corner of Sicily, off Portopalo di Capo Passero. Here, a particular habitat is formed on upper infralittoral rocky bottoms beaten by waves, with S. alveolata developing as veneer-like bioconstructions interspersed/covered with a dense...
Article
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PurposeProtists play important roles in soils by regulating organic matter decomposition, catalysing biogeochemical nutrient cycling processes and maintaining soil fertility and plant productivity, but they remain poorly characterized in the plant-soil system under long-term intensive agricultural management.Methods We investigated the impacts of m...
Article
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The phylum Perkinsozoa is known as an exclusively parasitic group within alveolates and is widely distributed in various aquatic environments from marine to freshwater environments. Nonetheless, their morphology, life cycle, the identity of the host, and physiological characteristics remain still poorly understood. During intensive sampling along t...
Article
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A complex interplay of biotic and abiotic factors underpins the distribution of species and operates across different levels of biological organization and life history stages. Understanding ecosystem engineer reproductive traits is critical for comprehending and managing the biodiversity-rich habitats they create. Little is known about how the rep...
Preprint
Full-text available
Long amplicon metabarcoding has opened the door for phylogenetic analysis of the largely unknown communites of microeukaryotes in soil. Here, we amplified and sequenced the ITS and LSU regions of the rDNA operon (around 1500 bp) from grassland soils using PacBio SMRT sequencing and evaluated the performance of three different methods for generation...
Article
Full-text available
Solar salterns are excellent artificial systems for examining species diversity and succession along salinity gradients. Here, the eukaryotic community in surface water of a Korean solar saltern (30 to 380 practical salinity units) was investigated from April 2019 to October 2020 using Illumina sequencing targeting the V4 and V9 regions of 18S rDNA...
Article
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The marine environment includes diverse microeukaryotic organisms that play important functional roles in the ecosystem. With molecular approaches, eukaryotic taxonomy has been improved, complementing classical analysis. In this study, DNA metabarcoding was performed to describe putative pathogenic eukaryotic microorganisms in sediment and marine w...
Article
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Sabellaria species are among the most important frame-builders in temperate, shallow marine areas. These polychaetes are suspension feeders able to build bioconstructions using sand and shell fragments cemented with a sticky mucous. Such feature makes these invertebrates “unusual bioconstructors”, as they do not produce calcium carbonate. Sabellari...
Article
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Synechococcus is a dominant genus of the coastal phytoplankton with an effective contribution to primary productivity. Here, the phylogenetic and phenogenetic composition of Synechococcus in the coastal Yellow Sea was addressed by sequencing marker gene methods. Meanwhile, its co-occurrence pattern with bacterial and eukaryotic microbes was further...
Article
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Chromerids are a group of alveolates, found in corals, that show peculiar morphological and genomic features. These organisms are evolutionary placed in-between symbiotic dinoflagellates and parasitic apicomplexans. There are two known species of chromerids: Chromera velia and Vitrella brassicaformis. Here, the biochemical composition of C. velia c...
Article
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Eleven morphospecies belonging to seven different genera (Coleps, Vorticella, Halteria, Spirostomum, Loxodes, Cyclidium, and Euplotes) of free-living ciliates were recorded for the first time in Cacalotenango fall in Guerrero state, Mexico. Coleps hirtus and Vorticella microstoma were the most abundant species in the samples.
Chapter
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Although many ciliates are free-living, more than 140 families of ciliates (Alveolata, Ciliophora) include symbiotic species of animals. Symbiosis, defined as an interaction between two species, is analyzed in this chapter to show a wide diversity of symbiotic systems in ciliates (epibiosis, commensalism, mutualism, and parasitism), providing some...
Article
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The morphology and phylogeny of two new sessilid species, Zoothamnium weishanicum n. sp. and Epicarchesium sinense n. sp., two insufficiently known species, Zoothamnium arbuscula Ehrenberg, 1831 and Zoothamnium hentscheli Kahl, 1935, and a well-known species, Carchesium polypinum (Linnaeus, 1767) Ehrenberg, 1838, collected from freshwater habitats...
Article
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Types and the corresponding rules in the International Code of Zoological Nomenclature are crucial for taxonomy and are meant to provide nomenclatural stability. In the case of neotypification, especially diligent taxonomic work is required to retain continuity. In the present communication, we first outline the main principles of typification and...