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Aluminum Alloys - Science topic

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I want to do solution heat treatment of a specific series of aluminum alloys, so I Should follow the literature or decide according to the size of my Al alloy.
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Temperature and soaking time matters if the size ( product dimensions, especially the thickness) is too big.
A.V.Sethuraman
Foundry Consultant
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What is the most suitable heat treatment for Aluminum alloy 2024 or 6061 that improve strength and corrosion resistance for aircraft parts
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I agree with R. Sagayaraj
It is also recommended to use appropriate standards issued by relevant OEMs which give the exact method to use and at what temperatures to cool them. Different standards give different methods that should be used and even offer alternatives. Again, it depends on the thickness of the material to be heat treated.
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What are the suitable heat treatment for aluminum alloys to increase strength and hardness
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T6 and T5 heat treatment applications are applied to increase strength and hardness. The parameters you will apply vary according to the chemical composition of the alloy.
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I have the concept of Creep-Resistant Aluminium Alloy in my PG academic subject. I need someone to clarify whether Creep-Resistant Aluminium Alloy differs from Wrought Aluminium Alloy.
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1. The concentration of alloying components dissolved into solid solution enhances the creep resistance of metal alloy systems. Alloying substances prevent the dislocation slip and climb processes that cause creep by increasing the lattice strain in interstitial crystal sites.
2. The crystal structure, melting point, valence, and modulus of elasticity all affect the pace of uniform creep in the metal at high temperatures. The first three elements relate to dissemination.
3. 1. Stabilized nanoprecipitates contribute to much reduced creep rates: When the precipitation technique is changed for Al-Cu based alloys, the strengthening precipitates' thermal stability is increased at the ideal sizes for creep resistance at 300°C under relatively high tensile stresses. To be more specific, by purposefully combining three heat-treatment steps, we can produce a dispersion of θ ′-Al2Cu precipitates with a combination of high density, uniform size distribution, and efficient use of Sc sources to quickly collect Sc to the α-Al/θ′ interfaces and stabilise the ′-Al2Cu precipitates at desirable sizes to delay runaway coarsening. This work's mechanistic discovery is that two separate alloying elements may be strategically utilised to produce a coexisting and related( θ′-Al2Cu precipitates + Al3Sc particles) nanoprecipitate microstructure that performs better in terms of creep resistance Over earlier Al-Cu based alloys, these novel microstructures result in orders of magnitude lower creep rates. Our finding broadens the range of cast Al-Cu alloys, enabling their prospective application at service temperatures of up to 300 °C.
4. Turbine blades and jet engine operations employ a creep-resistant material called carbon fibre reinforced with titanium alloys. Being 50% harder than tungsten carbide, it is one of the toughest high performance creep resistant materials on the market.
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i've tried using keller's reagent to see the microstructure. But the results of the microstructure are not visible. What type of etching can be used to make the AA5251 microstructure visible?
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Hi Muhammad, you can observe the microstructure of this kind of alloy following the procedure: etching the sample in 10% NaOH solution at 60 C for 30 s, followed by immersion in 30% HNO3 and immersion in a 100 mL solution containing 4 g of KMnO₄ and 1 g of NaOH. I have used this and I got great images.
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Compared to most other Al alloys of the 6xxx series, 6016 contains a lot of Si. Given the low Mg content, it is much more Si than what can be used for the precipitation of beta double prime (~Mg5Si6; even when accounting for Si loss to coarse AlFeSi-type phases).
Hirth et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118787601.ch9) report that excess Si increases T4 strength, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear and the paper overall received little attention. Hirth et al. also report that excess Si appears to have little effect on yield strength after artificial ageing.
In my understanding, low T4 and high T6 strength are often desired (i.e., high hardening potential after forming). Then, adding so much excess Si appears counter-productive.
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Hello,
Please give a look at these papers.
They do consider very similar compositions. It looks like there is a low Mg/Si to keep high work hardening capacity and resulting formability.
Indeed it is amusing to have so many compositions developed many decades ago and left for us to dig into their nature. Especially it applies to 6xxx big family.
Hope it helps
Best wishes,
Pavel
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Can we follow the E23-18 for charpy impact test of aluminium alloys/MMC sheet of thickness 2mm ? Please suggest
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Dear Madhusudana Hc,
Yes, ASTM E23-18 is the standard test methods for notched bar impact testing of metallic materials. But the shape and dimensions of the samples must be in accordance with this standard.
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Looking for the most effective method/process.
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Hello ,
Electrical resistance change can be a simple way to show this . An aged and pure alloy will have different resistance .
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Hello,
In my current work, I want to coat 2024 and 7075 Aluminum alloys with Ni-B. For the Ni ion, I use NiSO4.6H2O or NiCl2.H2O.
I use NaBH4 as a boron source.
When I immerse the alloys in the bath after preparing my solution, piece by piece blackening occurs. I add NaOH to adjust the pH setting. But I always run into this kind of problem. Can you help me urgently in this matter.
Pictures of the problem are attached.
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Dear Ismail,
I don't know it. Electroplating of aluminum is a very complex task. I would have used a steel.
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Hello friends,
I want to coat on aluminum alloy, but before I do the coating, I will do the zincating process to activate the aluminum and to ensure the adhesion of the product to the surface. In the research I have done, they briefly talk about the process of Zincate. How is this process done and which chemicals are preferred?
Thank you for helping.
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Dear Mohammed Hussein j. H. Al'Atia , thank you very much for replying to my question. I have reviewed the article you have sent and it really contains explanatory information about my question.
Thank you again, I wish you good work.
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I used friction stir processing to reinforce aluminum alloy with nanoparticles and I want to calculate the weight fraction of reinforcement material.
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Volume fraction = (Cross sectional area of the groove/Cross sectional area of the stir zone) * 100
Cross sectional area of the groove = (Width x Depth) for square or rectangular grooves
Cross sectional area of the groove = (Width x Depth) /2 for V shaped grooves
It is assumed that the particles are packed to full density in the groove.
once you know the volume, the weight can be calculated.
when the volume fraction is known you can know amount of reinforcement material by weight or volume.
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I am trying to find the mechanical hardness value for aluminum alloys AA 7075-T3 and AA 2011-O.
I searched on different material databases and also tried to find in literature. But still, I could not figure out. Any recommendation/guidance. Thanks in advance!
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CIF file for use in EBSD analysis.
Thanks in advance for those who will answer.
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I think this is the phase you're looking for.
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Hello All,
I'm looking into measuring crack growth rate using the DCPD method and was wondering if it is possible to use a "bench top power supply" and a multimeter with higher accuracy? Or do I need to have specialized equipment for DCPD measurement?
The materials I'm interested are iron alloys and aluminum alloys.
Compact tensions specimen thickness =< 13mm
Cheers,
Rashiga
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Hi, you don't need any special equipment. We don't use it in our lab either. But it is easier to buy a DCPD. On the other hand, you are a little proud when the system finally runs. :)
We use a nanovoltmeter and a PC with a self-written software in Labview.
You have to measure on your sample the voltage drop at your crack ("active signal") and the voltage at a spot without crack ("reference signal"). In addition, total voltage and total current.
We do the evaluation with Matlab. In the standards, you will find the corresponding formulas for the ratio of electrical voltage to crack length.
I recommend the insertion of striations during the crack propagation test for a better correlation of the crack length. A reference test may be necessary.
Regards,
Michael
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Material flow during FSW varies from one zone to another in the SZ depending on the FSW tool profile and significant heating caused by tool material interaction. Similarly, the distribution of precipitates in the SZ is not similar. The appearance of precipitates is found mostly different in the advancing side, retreating side, top middle zone and bottom of the SZ. Hence, is there any significant correlation between the nature of precipitation with material flow during friction stir welding of materials?
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Material flow does not have any role on the precipitates during welding of precipitation hardenable aluminum alloys (AA2XXX, AA6XXX and AA7XXX). More heat is generated on the advancing side than the retreating side. This is the reason for variation in the state of precipitates across the stir zone from advancing side to retreating side.
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A flow curve is important for the accuracy of finite element simulation. However, the stress and strain gained by the uniaxial tensile test are insufficient to characterize the flow curve of sheet metal due to the necking phenomenon. Merklein et al. [1] conducted the layer compression test to obtain the flow curve of the Aluminium alloy sheet. However, a Digital Image Correlation system was used in their study. How can we conduct this test without using the Digital Image Correlation system? Or is there any other test that can gain the flow curve of sheet metal at a large strain?
[1] MERKLEIN M, KUPPERT A. A method for the layer compression test considering the anisotropic material behavior [J]. Int J Mater Form, 2009, 2(S1): 483-6.
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You could follow the following paper on the test. Strain in two transverse directions need be measured. Assessment on the deformation homogeneity is important for the test.
An, Y.G., Vegter, H., Analytical and experimental study of frictional behavior in through-thickness compression test. Journal of Materials Processing Technology, 2005. 160: p.148–155.
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I am joining Mg to Al, and therefore I require etchants for each which do not have an effect on the other. For Al, I have used an etchant for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy but it is not working on 6061-O, which is odd. Below is the etching procedure I used for T6 (after fine polishing):
40 seconds: 2g NaOH in 10 ml water
20 seconds: 0.2g NaOH, 0.4g KMnO4, 10 ml water
Can you please suggest which chemical etchant would work for 6061-O, without affecting Mg?
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maybe this article helps you
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Hello everyone
I hope you are doing well
  • AA6061-T6 or AA7075-T6 Al alloys fusion-welded plates contain the FZ (fusion zone) with a dendritic structure. I want the dendrites to be identified separately and in the form of grains (whether they can be called grains or not is another issue). The figure shows the dendritic structure in the FZ, but it isn't easy to separate dendrites from each other. (Figure shows the FZ in fusion welded AA7075 (not AA6061) etched with Keller).
  • What do you suggest as the etchant solution for the SEM investigation of the PMZ and FZ grain boundaries of the AA6061 fusion weld sample?
  • If you have experience in this field, I would appreciate writing it here.
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You can try for modified Poulton’s reagent to etch this alloy. Use freshly prepared reagent for better results. The composition of modified Poulton’s reagent is as follows:-
50ml Poulton reagent + 25ml HNO3 +1ml HF+1ml H2O.
(Poulton reagent : 12mlHCl concentrated+6mlHNO3+1ml HF(48%)+1mlH2O).
time 5 to 10 s
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I measured the electrical conductivity of as-cast and cold-rolled DC aluminum 5182 (Al-Mg) and noticed increasing conductivity with deformation content. I expected to get the inverse trend and conductivity loss in the deformed sheets. Is there any idea to explain this behavior? What is the science behind this trend? I attached a graph illustrating the conductivity change with strain content for reference and would like to know the reason for this behavior.
Thank you in advance for your comments and suggestions.
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Kindly see the paper attached, specifically chapter 5.
Although this is is here calculated and explained for the case of copper, the same phenomenological theory can be used for aluminium also.
For calculating the different contributions from the microstructure on the increase of the electrical resistivity of aluminium you can simply use the analytical solutions of the so called Boltzmann transport equation for condution electrons.
In this phenom. electrical theory you simply add the different scattering contributions from the different microstructure features such as interfaces, dislocations, solutes etc.  and calculate their respective effects on the mean free path of the conduction electrons (please see all the equations in the paper that I attach).  From the underlying scattering coefficients that you can typically get quite readily from the literature and the distribution functions for the different microstructure ingredients (which you typically get from electron microscopy or x-ray diffraction etc.) (use a harmonic mean NOT an additive mean for the free path averaging) you can then for practically any type of microstructure (be it cast or deformed etc) etc calculate the changes in electrical resistivity and correlate it quite reliably with the corresponding underlying microstructures.
Typically you will find for Al alloys that it are particularly certain solid solution elements and second phases that have the highest effect on the change in electrical properties while dislocations and grain boundaries are typically less harmful in their inelastic scattering.  Good luck.
(PS I also attach a bit more material with examples)
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i want to buy AA6110 for research purposes. please suggest vendors.
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Hi Jitendra,
You may make an inquiry at Alfa Chemistry, they offer kinds of good-quality materials.
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Hi All,
I would like to observe the 3D morphology of Fe-rich intermetallics in Al wrought alloy, e.g. AlFeMnSi, using SEM. Does anyone have experience or idea about what the best procedure would be to expose the intermetallics by deep etching or extracting ideally without any special apparatus?
Thanking in advance!
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Dear Dr . Pavel Shurkin ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting paper:
-Evolution of Fe Bearing Intermetallics During DC Casting and Homogenization of an Al-Mg-Si Al Alloy
Kumar, S., Grant, P.S. & O’Reilly, K.A.Q.
Metall Mater Trans A 47, 3000–3014 (2016).
Good work and my best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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The material is 7075 aluminum alloy, which is quenched by 470 ℃ / 24h homogenization treatment, followed by 30% cold rolling. The metallography is shown in the figure below. I want to know what caused it. Thank you.
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cold rolling has a significant effect on increasing the yield strength and decreasing ductility of alloy for 7075 aluminium alloy
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Please if anyone can help me to know about the used methods. I know, the eddy current conductivity meter can be used, however, it is not available
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The following RG link is also very useful:
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In the case of Aluminum alloy, is it a common phenomenon to lose EBSD solution % significantly, when the same location is used many times? Does the electron bombarded region lose phase index after a certain number of runs? is there any method to recover the same location without damaging the microstructure and run EBSD again?
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It can happen to any EBSD investigated sample.
It is called carbon contamination, here is whole discussion about it:
You can recover the area by ion polishing with Ar ions. Other techniques like repolishing will always make changes to the scanned area. It is easier probably to reduce the carbon contamination than remove it later after each scan.
Another possibility is sample degradation due too beam damage but it is not the case Aluminum alloys.
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I would like to observe the grain structure, i.e., grain size, grain boundaries, etc. of aluminum under a light microscope. Since HF or Keller's etchant is not allowed to use in my lab, I am struggling in finding a proper etchant for that purpose. Please feel free to give suggestions and comments. Thank you!
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Dear Dr. Tianye Zheng ,
the most common etchants for aluminum are Kellers etch and Kroll's reagent, however, there are hundreds of more specific etchants. A good resouce for additional etchants can be found with the etchant database provided by PACE Technologies:
- Metallographic Aluminum Etchants
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Who of you knows literature in which the casting and/or rolling processes were simulated and compared with the properties actually achieved. This preferably for raw material with large dimensions and for aluminum alloys or titanium alloys.
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Around 15 years ago I utilised a software package called MagmaSoft. I am not sure if they still exist but the package simulated the casting process. You could design the models with risers, runners, etc state the molten metal flow rate, temperature, etc then it would simulate the process.
Actually, I have just looked and they are still about. If you check out the links below, you can see some of their publications and case studies, which will hopefully be of some use to you.
Best Regards
Martin
Publications:
Case Studies:
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Hello Researchers,
As from literature it was seen that aluminium alloy Al5083 can only be strengthened by work hardening and micro-alloying. Similarly, I want to know what are the only possible processes through which AZ91 can be strengthened.
Moreover, If you suggest the process with the any limitations it would add supplementary to my work.
Thank you
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perhaps the heat treatments on the material could be "calibrated" in synergy with the parameters relating to friction stir welding to optimize the final microstructure of the alloy…. certainly not an easy job !!!
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Hello can anyone help me to find out plastic properties that are inputed in Abaqus software for finite element simulation
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In my literature studies, I saw that aluminum alloys are coated with Nickel-Boron. What I want is for it to be covered only with boron without the use of nickel. Is it possible to coat aluminum alloys with only boron-containing substances without substances such as nickel and tin?
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Dear İsmail Gündüz many thanks for your kind response and explanation. Clearly sodium borohydride itself is unsuitable for coating metals or metal alloys with boron species. NaBH4 is a water-soluble salt which has highly reducing properties. However, sodium borohydride is often used as a reducing agent to prepare metal coatings and metal nanoparticles.
In your case I assume that for coating aluminum and aluminum alloys with boron compounds you should look for hard and resistive materials like metal borides and boron carbide etc. For some potentially useful articles about this topic please have a look at the following papers:
Heat treatments for electroless nickel–boron plating on aluminium alloys
and
IMPROVED ALUMINUM ALLOY-BORON CARBIDE COMPOSITE MATERIAL
One of the authors of the first article is an RG member. Thus you can easily contact him directly via RR at https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Fabienne-Delaunois and request the full text of the article from him.
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I have only found descriptions, but no explanations
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Dear Steven, thank you very much for your article
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During the DC casting process of aluminum alloys, the use of bone ash, which contains Ca, is widely used and in many cases overly used and thus creates the potential for significant Ca contamination when recycling the scrap over and over. What effect will this have to the oxide generation on the surface of the as-cast product?
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Al A356
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@M.Amin Ezazi,
but it have to consider this temp. in kelvin not in celsius .
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What is contribution of friction to the heat and what is the contribution of strain energy to heat in FSW of Aluminum Alloys
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You could put it this way instead.. what is the contribution of plastic deformation to heat... strain leads to hardening the material...
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In general, continuous dynamic recrystallization forms high angle grain boundaries for fully recrystallized grains in a severe plastic deformation process (e.g. friction stir processing) of aluminium alloy.
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Dear Akash,
considering the process of FSW, a totally new micro structure ist created.
So, the number of high-angle grain boundaries will be different from the base material anyway.
In Conclusion, fully recrystallised grains cannot be detected looking at the amount of high angle grain boundaries but by the dislocation density inside the grains (see definitions of "re-crystallisation" in textbooks of Metal Physics).
Best regards - Torsten
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Thanks and regards
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  • 10.1016/j.jallcom.2005.04.204
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After Friction Stir Processing of this aluminium alloy, KAM and Grain Boundary maps are obtained by EBSD. It shows, the region of blue colored recrystallized grains in KAM map correspond to the region of grains having substructures (prominence of low-angle grain boundaries) in Grain Boundary map. However, the continuous dynamic recrystallization by a severe plastic deformation process should form recrystallized grains surrounded by high angle grain boundaries without any substructures. This recrystallization also could be predicted from KAM maps. What is the explanation for this apparent discrepancy between obtained grain boundary maps and KAM maps?
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Not necessarily the correct answer, but do not forget that your EBSD software typically has a discrete threshold to define a high-angle grain boundary, and an angular and spatial resolution that will influence the detection of low-angle boundaries. Depending upon the selected threshold value (if I recall correctly it is often set at an initial value of 15°) and the angular and spatial resolution, you might get very different maps. Although angular and spatial resolution are often not that easy to 'play' with (as they are often defined by the limits of your EBSD system, material preparation technique and desired scan size), changing the high-angle boundary threshold is often relatively straightforward. One of the things I used to do in the past, was to play with the threshold until the average optical and EBSD grain size corresponded (but generally after filtering and cleaning up of the EBSD data, so you need to know what your doing, and I am of course assuming it is possible to get an average grain size using optical microscopy which may not be possible for friction stir processed materials).
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I need to purchase & Machining the FSW tool Material to Weld Aluminum Alloy & Copper. High-speed Steel or H13 or H11. Please leave your suggesions.
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H13 is recommended for Al alloy and copper.
Follow the article below.
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I am doing product development in which I am using the 6082 aluminum alloy and transferring load to the aluminum profile made with 6082 alloys, but when I am applying the load (about 500 kg cantilever load ) on profile and the load is moving in the horizontal direction, the profile is getting pressed.
Requesting please support me on this
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6082 grade aluminium can be work hardened by rolling, drawing, pressing, and stamping.This reduces ductility and increases strength. 6082-T6 is supplied already age hardened. Age hardening is done by holding aluminium at 177°C for around 8 hrs and then air cooling. Do not quench aluminium in cold water as it may lose its strength and gain brittleness.
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I have often seen the excellent micrographs of using Barker's reagent (2% HBF4) to anodize etch metallographically polished aluminium alloy samples.
I am specifically concerned with the extreme health risks associated with possible formation of HF, a well known deadly acid that should be treated with the utmost respect and calcium gluconate gel should be available incase there is skin contact.
To clarify, my lab does not allow such dangerous HF etchant to be used and hence I seek to confirm if Barker's is indeed much safer!
I am aware that strong HBF4 needs calcium gluconate gel (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/GB/en/sds/sigald/207934 and https://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_version=2&p_card_id=1040), I believe this relates to the formation of HF through hydrolysis reaction ( ).
While MSDS specifically for Barker's also does not raise any need for calcium gluconate gel in the event of skin contact (http://nebula.wsimg.com/845f81c1a8e5c887672140d4378de4b6?AccessKeyId=628C908180FB63374807&disposition=0&alloworigin=1).
If anyone can clarify my safety concerns with Barker's and may lead me to the appropriate safety literature, I would be incredibly grateful!
Best regards,
Gary
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Yes, Dr Gary.... my own experience with the reagent is rather satisfactory, both in terms of its effectiveness and safety. At the beginning even we used to keep gluconate gel, but never used it.
Of course, it does not mean that you can take it for granted. There is no replacement of safety precautions and awareness. Be alert and use it confidently.
thank you.
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Dear all,
I am looking for temperature-dependent material properties for aluminum alloys to compare different alloy grades. As for FEM modeling of welding, temperature-dependent properties are very useful. As JMatPro is excellent database software for steel, Nickel, and few other alloys. Is there any domain similar in the case of aluminum alloys? Please kindly suggest any valuable sources for database concern to aluminum alloys.
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Dear Anoop,
I have attached the "ATLAS OF STRESS STRAIN CURVE" for you. It is a useful resource.
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I have seen some journals mentioned stress relieving heat treatment for Al12Si alloy but the procedure is same as annealing/normalizing
Can anyone explain the procedure for stress relieving heat treatment and the difference between those?
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Stress relieving can be considered as a category of annealing. In the stress relieving the work piece is heat treated at a lower temperature (below recrystallization or transformation temperature) and its sole purpose is to eliminate the internal residual stress generated by previous forming operations. No phase or microstructural change occurs in this process, only stresses are eliminated.
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I'm not looking for spesific alloys. The answer I am looking for is more general:
For example:
"3xx, 4xx for LPDC; 2xx, 5xx for HPDC"
I'd like to ask you to share me the source as well.
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Hi. I hope the following article could help you:
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Hi all
I want to add the zinc element to the fusion zone, during the welding of the aluminum alloy.
Now, I have a question; owing the low vaporization/boiling point of zinc, could be the adding of zinc to the fusion zone cause porosity in the weld metal of aluminum alloys?
Thank so much
H.J. SHARAHI.
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Dear Dr. Barzanji
From your answer thank so much.
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which type of shot (balls) will be used in shot blasting of sheet made up of Composite((Aluminum alloy +boron carbide composite) or for (Aluminum alloy +silicon carbide composite)
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At the first, it's important to determine the Hardness value of material (your composite) and then, according your material and it's hardness choose the shot ball type.
For a sheet which is made by aluminum matrix composite, the deformation and distortion must be considered
What is your opinion about low carbon steel ball?
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I'm trying to choose the best lubricant for aluminum alloy which allow a good fine blanking product quality and furthermore, the best surface quality of the blanked pieces. I know that some of this lubricants, especially the alkaline ones (pH>8.5-9) have problems in creating signs on the aluminum surface of the sheet.
Is there some guide or paper speaking about this particular topic?
Thanks in advance
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Mr. Luca Serpella, I hope this research will help you solve your problem Greetings
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I got the alloy for certain age hardening experiments and did spectrochemical analysis on it. I got confused when I saw the composition as it is not similar to commercial age hardenable aluminium alloys. Can I go ahead with my experiment given the composition of the alloy?
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I suggest you to have a look at the following, interesting douments:
- The Effect of Processing Parameters and Alloy Composition on the Microstructure Formation and Quality of DC Cast Aluminium Alloys
By Majed M. R. Jaradeh
In Materials Processing Department of Material Science and Engineering School of Industrial Engineering and Management KTH-Royal Institute of Technology SE-10044 Stockholm, Sweden (2006)
- Effect of Si, Cu and processing parameters on Al-Si-Cu HPDC castings
Imane Outmani, Laurence Fouilland-Paille, Jérôme Isselin, Mohamed El Mansori
Journal of Materials Processing Technology,Elsevier, 249, pp.559-569 (2017)
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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I need to carry out molecular dynamics simulation on Aluminium alloy. For this i need the crystal structure that which could be further replicated to form a structure.
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The test need to cut the casting rods into specimen(A200 × 15mm) and test bars(A200 × 250mm), use the heating temperature of per 5 from 555 ~ 610 and select two holding time 4h and 6h. Then analyze the microstructure and the mechanical properties of the specimen(5mm).Because aluminum alloy is very sensitive to temperature, so when the metallographic microstructure and mechanical properties meet the requirements, we selected the good diffusion annealing heat treatment we have obtained before, and change the heating temperature ± 2 for different holding time 3h, 4h, 5h, 6h, 7h, 8h in order to obtain accurate diffusion annealing process.
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Hello,
I need help. When taking a sample during the casting process for chemical analysis of aluminum alloy 6082 with a Si content of 1.20 - 1.30, I took four consecutive samples.
I did four emission spectroscopies on each sample. The Si content is quite unstable already on the same sample.
1. sample: 1.2905; 1.2934; 1.2491; 1.2268
2. sample: 1.2417; 1.2844; 1.2908; 1.2413
3. sample: 1.2602; 1.2401; 1.2180; 1.2433
4. sample: 1.3787; 1.3532; 1.3297; 1.3438
In the same charge, I cut the sample on an extrudet rod and the Si value was much higher than on the chemical samples taken during casting. (1.32).
The emission spectrometer is calibrated daily!
Does anyone have any solution?
Thanks
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Dear Robert
Distribution of Si is not homogeneous in the Al matrix and depends on some experimental parameters. So, as Mehdi Akbarifar and Vadim Verlotski have said, it expects that different places don't have the same value of Si content.
to ensure, please see the distribution of Si phase in the microstructure of the 6082 Al alloy.
However, the sample 1 to sample 3, show almost same content of Si. Average value has been recommended to report.
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I would like to anodize a piece made from Aluminum alloy 7075-T6. I want to reach a thickness of a film around 15-19 micrometers. So far I chose these parameters: 10% H2SO4, 5°C, 25 V, 2 A/dm^2 . Are these parameters correct to reach this thickness?
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I suggest you to have a look at the following document where you might find an alternative:
-Anodizing
Revised by Milton F. Stevenson, Jr., Anoplate Corporation
ASM Handbook, Volume 5: Surface EngineeringC.M. Cotell, J.A. Sprague, and F.A. Smidt, Jr., editors, p 482-493DOI: 10.1361/asmhba0001281 (1994)
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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What are the methods to be followed for the corrosion behaviour at lab scale?
The process of hanging the sample can be a possible way. However, certain area exposure is not possible for small component (say for disc sample of having dia 8mm and 5mm thickness).
Suggest any other alternative way for immersion test of aluminium alloy.
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I suggest you to follow the regulation ASTM G 31 – 72 (Reapproved 1999) - Standard Practice forLaboratory Immersion Corrosion Testing of Metals.
Following the standard according to my needs (e.g. ambient temperature of a static fluid) I used, for exposure in free corrosion at different exposure times, on samples of Al alloys smaller than yours, simple beakers where I suspended the sample, inserted with an edge in a small rubber ring (minimizing the contact surface to reduce crevice corrosion phenomena) in turn tied to a fishing line held on the top of the beaker by a glass rod ...
If you need special details, let me know.
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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After the dissolution and aging of the precipitated phase, I would like to ask you what phase this is?
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Dear Dr. Zhao Kuangyin ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following papers:
-Characterization of Material Properties of 2xxx Series Al-Alloys by Non Destructive Testing Techniques
Tariq, F., Naz, N., Baloch, R.A. et al.
J. Nondestruct. Eval., 31, 17–33 (2012)
-Evolution of microstructure and precipitates in 2xxx aluminum alloy after severe plastic deformation
B. Adamczyk-Cieslak, J. Zdunek, and J. Mizera
IOP Conf. Series: Materials Science and Engineering, 123, 012019 (2016)
-Precipitates in aluminium alloys
Sigmund Jarle Andersen, Calin Daniel Marioara, Jesper Friis, Sigurd Wenner, Randi Holmestad
Advances in Physics, X 3(1):790-813 (2018)
-Investigation of the Precipitation Behavior in Aluminum Based Alloys
By Muna Saeed Khushaim – PhD Dissertation (2015)
Materials Science and Engineering - King Abdullah University of Science and Technology - Thuwal, Kingdom of Saudi Arabia
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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Aluminium Alloys (AA 6082 or AA 2024) etching.
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Dear Dr. Metin Zeyveli ,
personally for Aluminum alloys, such as etching solution, I generally use Keller's solution, as suggested by Dr. Priyaranjan Samal , but in the following technical notes you can also try valid alternatives and specific characteristics.
-Metallographic Aluminum Etchants by Pace Technologies
-Metallographic preparation of aluminium and aluminium alloys by Struers
-Etching In Metallography by Kemet
My best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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I am working on an element, CNC machined, from 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. I would like it to have this rainbow coating but as it is aluminum alloy I am worried about creating this very easy to crack and sensitive layer after putting TiO coating. Is there any reason not to use TiO PVD rainbow coating on 7075-T6 aluminum alloy or I should not be worried?
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Dear Weronika Sadurska ,
Coating the AA7075-T6 with TiO by the PVD method is not impossible. The resulting coating adheres well to the lip but there are negative side effects on the lip. One of the problems is the ongoing recrystallization of AA7075-T6, which leads to a decrease in mechanical properties (hardness and mechanical strength at the expense of greater ductility). This results in a softer base with a harder coating. Examination of higher wear resistance shows that it is lower due to the soft base. In addition, due to the long mode of application of TiO coating, the structure collapses. This is also a negative effect.
Best regards, Emil Yankov
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I am investigating heat pipes used in laptops and am having some trouble determining some of the materials used. from initial research I have determined copper zinc and copper nickel alloys as well as some aluminum alloys are used, however I cannot determine the specific alloys that could be used. can anyone provide some incite?
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Dear Kyle Tokarz there are some useful articles on this topic available right here on RG. Please see e.g. this article entitled "Heat Pipes for Computer Cooling Applications":
This paper is available as public full text on RG. Also please find attached a potentially useful article entitled "Materials used in Heat Pipe".
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I am working on simulation of aluminum alloy A356 solidification. However, in real phenomena, it undoubtedly involves hydrogen porosity. However, all phase field models tell you about grain growth, but not on gas and shrinkage porosity. Are Phase-field methods incapable of simulating microstructure with defects?
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I cannot comment about the applicability of these methods to.simulate the solidification of aluminum castings. However, I would.like to caution you that pores are extrinsic defects, caused by entrainment damage. Without any entrainment damage, pores, whether shrinkage or hydrogen, cannot nucleate even heterogenously. Therefore the entrainment damage needs to be known for simulation. This is extremely complex and damages are additives, i.e., ingots come usually with extreme levels of damage and there is more damage in the production system as well. Therefore it is quite a challenge to simulate pore formation, except in badly damaged castings, where you can assume that pores will form when a certain level of hydrogen or negative pressure level is reached.
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I have to weld Al 5052 O and Al 5154 O of 20mm thickness forged blocks. These blocks are to be used in radiation environment. Can anyone throw light on how to do it and what are the precautions to be taken care of?
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Dear Sumit Kumar,
I don't know if it will be useful for you, but I have found the following indications on the weldability and problems of Al 5XXX series alloys:
Good weldability of the alloys as the reduction of the mechanical characteristics in the thermally altered zone is limited. This series combines excellent weldability with high resistance to especially marine corrosion. Warning: 5XXX with a magnesium content greater than 3% cannot be exposed above 120 °C because there is precipitation of phase β (Mg5Al8) which causes stress corrosion phenomena. There are problems of hot cracks for contents from 1% to 3% of magnesium; the damage can be limited by choosing the appropriate filler materials (5356, 5183, 5556) that contain a percentage of titanium having the ability to refine the grain. 4043 is also used but there is a drop in resistance compared to the base material.
Good work and my best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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During our experiments, we conducted multiple rotary degassing treatments with Ar and N2 purging gases on a 356 alloy with 200 ppm Sr. We found that the fading process of the added modifier is accelerated when nitrogen was used (The Sr concentration decreased and the thermal analysis results showed lower eutectic undercooling). Is it possible that nitrogen forms a compound with the strontium present in the melt? We found no thermodynamic data available for strontium nitrides with various stochiometry, so we could not calculate Gibbs energy of formation values at different temperatures.
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The FactSage databases contain at least information about Sr3N2, but in liquid aluminum, the program predicted, that the formation of AlN is more likely compared to the formation of Sr3N2.
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kindly provide support
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Dear Dr. Py De could you please clarify the process.
You can check the attached paper, it may help you with AA6061
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please share a relevant literature.
Thank you.
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There is process of leaser welding at particular area after casting,so need to achieve 0.6% porosity in casting to get uninterrupted welding at this area which is near to in gate in low pressure die casting process for aluminium alloy.
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All the operating parameters have to be followed:
i. Degassificatio :n Add sufficient volume of degasification tablets
ii. Maintain correct melting temperature
iii. Removing slags very frequently.
iv. Time to pour
v. Outside whether conditions
vi. Relook the design of runner and riser.
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I studied a lot of research papers on FSW to join different aluminum alloy.
But i am confused on what basis the tool rotational speed selected like they says 800-1000 rpm and welding speed 20 m/min to 100 m/min.
How they are chosen we can not randomly choose these process parameters .
Anyone tell me the proper method of these selection or on what basic i choose the tool rpm and speed which is suitable for welding.
I hope to get answer soon as possible..
Thanks
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Dear Ankit Jaglan
The selection of optimum process parameters in case of FSW requires careful trials and run by varying one parameter at a time by keeping other parameters remain constant.
For initial start just go with the Lower range of parameters then subsequently go for higher one. on the basis of weld cross section results that on what range of parameters you got defect free welds then accordingly select the process window for experimentation.
I hope this answer is useful to you.
Regards
Tanvir singh
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There are some data available about the relation of hardness and strength for wrought aluminium alloys. However, I need a relation or tabulated data for cast alloys, specially eutectic Al-Si for automotive pistons.
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Dear Milad
I agree with Nelaturi V Raghavaiah ,
Ali Moharami
and Ebenezer Jacob Dhas D.S.
the hardness is related to surface properties of a material, however, the tensile strength is attributed to whole of a material.
For example, the presence of porosity as well as microstructural heterogeneity can weaken the tensile properties dramatically.
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I am searching for a project in aluminum casting techniques and development of aluminum alloys.
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Dear Dr. Vishesh Dharaiya ,
I suggest you to have a look at the following document by the Advanced Casting Research Center (ACRC), a collaboration of companies to fund and promote research addressing the global foundry industry. ACRC brings fundamental understanding to existing processes, develops new methods, and addresses management–technology interface issues with industrial partners. ACRC helps the industry resolve technical issues by bringing members, WPI faculty, and staff together to discuss and brainstorm solutions.
By consulting the part of the document “Metalcasting Industry Research”,Inter Metalcast 13, 987–995 (2019), relating to Current ACRC-Funded Projects, available at: https://link.springer.com/article/10.1007%2Fs40962-019-00365-6
you can find the foundations of the most important future projects in aluminum casting techniques and development of aluminum alloys.
Best regards, Pierluigi Traverso
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It can be seen most of the Pole figures and Inverse pole figures obtained from EBSD have projections in [001] [101] [111] direction
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These [001], [011], and [111] are the three directions in crystal reference system. For cubic materials, under a rolling deformation, the three directions in sample reference system are rolling direction (RD), transverse direction (TD), and normal direction (ND). These directions are not only conventional that is accepted globally but also cubic materials possess 4-fold, 2-fold, and 3-fold symmetry in these three directions, respectively. Anyway, pole figure shows the crystallographic orientations in sample reference system, whereas, inverse pole figure displays the same in crystal reference system. An inverse pole figure is nothing but 1 of the 24 parts showing identical crystals.
If you really want to know about texture read some books, e.g. Engler Randle, Prof. Satyam Suwas's books.
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I need to draw a comparison between the two for my study of their frictional factors. Motivation is towards its industrial applications mainly pertaining to fluid dynamics. Any leads would be really appreciated.
Thank you!
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Dear Jaydev,
Alloy 6082 is known as a structural alloy. 6082 is in the 6XXX series of aluminium alloy grades and have a higher amount of silicon. Aluminium alloy 6082 is a medium strength alloy with excellent corrosion resistance. It has the highest strength of the 6000 series alloys. In the T6 peak aged temper, alloy 6082 machines well and produces tight coils of swarf when chip breakers are used. Applications 6082 is typically used in highly stressed applications, Trusses, Bridges, Cranes, Transport applications, Ore skips Beer barrels and Milk churns. Alloy 6082 T6 is typically supplied as Plate and Sheet. 6082 has very good weldability and machinability, but strength is lowered in the weld zone. When welded to itself, alloy 4043 wire is recommended. If welding 6082 to 7005, then the wire used should be alloy 5356.Friction stir weld (FSW) of 6082 is quite popular. Maximum 1 % Mn content is there with 6082 with high hardness value 90HB.
Generally, plate is available in heat treated condition T6(T6 - Solution heat treated and artificially aged or peak aged maximum strength but losses in corrosion property compared to over aged condition of aluminum alloy) and T651(further, solution heat treated, stress relieved by stretching then artificially aged to attain corrosion).
M247, known super alloys or high performance alloys consist of many elements in a variety of combinations to achieve a desired result. The alloy MAR-M 247 is a cast polycrystalline nickel-base superalloy developed by Martin Marietta Corporation processed by hot isostatic pressing (HIP) was subjected to symmetrical cyclic loading. This can exist at the high temperature and high cycle fatigue.
Refer this site for M247
Refer this site for 6082.
file:///C:/Users/3020/Cookies/Desktop/Downloads/Aalco-Metals-Ltd_Aluminium-2. Alloy-6082-T6T651-Plate_148.pdf(strength and property detail can se taken as a reference)
Ashish
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I have done EDX analysis of welded joint of AA6082 T6 and AA6061 T6. Oxygen and carbon is found in the spectra. What are the causes for the same? Is it error due to some problem in sample preparation or any traces of air during testing.
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Dear Sachin Jambhale,
the problem you report is quite common and may originate from the material itself, from the environment and other surrounding (even the microscope itself, see ttps://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/doi/pdf/10.1002/sca.1996.4950180402) as well from the sample preparation and storage:
1) carbon contamination- the source of carbon can be from any contact with organic upon preparation or even from the air. Any organic contamination tends to form hydrocarbon under the electron beam on the sample surface, the amount of which can increase within the measurement you perform. It is very common effect in SEM and/or in (S)TEM. The most important is to clean properly the sample (plasma cleaning etc.).
2) oxygen - for many alloys, especially Al alloys it is very difficult to avoid it, since Al will passivate at the first possible contact with oxygen, unless one use a protective gas environment or very high vacuum, which is very difficult to realize (because the sample can not see oxygen at any moment between preparation and investigation) otherwise, just accept it is there and in the case you want to quantify the EDX data, keep it in mind and make corresponding corrections (especially important for TEM samples, for which material surface to volume ration gets significant).
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I am trying to simulate DC Casting of Aluminum Alloys in Comsol. I found an example related to Continuous Casting that it couples fluid flow, heat transfer and phase change during solidification of the liquid alloy. Is it possible to involve solid mechanics for the solidified shell that is computed from phase change model?
If it is not possible to do a fully-coupled model: Could you please tell me how can I set the model concerning only solid mechanics and heat transfer ? Is there a way in COMSOL to add in the presence of time, new layers of material while moving the boundary conditions (mold, water colling) silmutaneously, to simulate fluid flow ?
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As Dr. Rudolf Hellmuth said, it is possible and complex.
You have to go for coupled field analysis. First you need to run the Heat transfer analysis and you can capture the fluid flow behavior too. Then the temperature gradient has to be given to Structural analysis to avail the mechanical stresses. Boundary conditions plays a major role in both the cases.
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If i am using the demineralized water with the PH of the 5 to 6 & conductivity of 100-150 μs/cm to clean the aluminum alloy, can it cause a corrosion to aluminum?
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pH of DM water on aluminum finishing lines is usually in range of 5.5-5.7. The water with this pH can't cause corrosion. Most of aluminum alloys, except 7XXX and 2XXX can stay in DM water with this pH range for long time. It is a normal case on big multi-processes aluminum finishing lines to use the bathes with DM water as a buffer. However, it is important to control chlorine concentration in the bath. It should not exceed 100 ppm.
On other side, conductivity of your water is relative high for DM water. Usually, it should not be higher than 100 μs/cm for general industry and 50 for aerospace finishing. DM water with electrical conductivity 100-150 μs/cm might attack 7XXX alloys, for example 7075 or 7175.
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Which acceleration voltage (kV) and probe current (nA) could give sharper kikuchi patterns for taking EBSD from Aluminum alloys?
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Usually the higher voltage and probe current you use, the stronger the EBSD patterns you obtain, since there are more signals (more backscattered electrons). 10-20 kV and 1-10 nA are often used. But the selection of acceleration voltage (kV) and probe current (nA) highly depends on your purpose, if you want to get high resolution, you should use low voltage and low current (smaller interaction volume); if you just want to quickly scan a sample with large grains to obtain the macro-level texture, you should use high voltage and high current.
Besides, as Dr. Grzegorz Cios said, high quality sample preparation is very important and is the prerequisite for obtaining nice EBSD patterns. Grzegorz Cios
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I want to calculate the activation energy for dissolution of existing precipitates in aluminum alloy by using DSC experiment data.
Thank you.
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Greeting,
The establishment of the precipitation/dissolution energy in aluminum alloy is mainly intended for metastable precipitates which, I assume, is what you want to study. The method is mainly about statistics and data analysis. I kindly suggest you to refer to this article: https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S1002007115000209, which, I hope, will answer your interrogations.
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I am investigating Al6061 related research right now, and I need to input mechanical parameters like density, specific heat and so on, these parameters should be inputted different values based on different temperature condition.
However, I could only find these values on room temperature condition. Is there anyway to find the values correspond to other temperature conditions in a free way?
Thank you.
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Thanks for both of your help. I found it. In the thesis named: Tuning Johnson-Cook Material Model Parameters for Impact of High, I could find Al6061 elastic modulus, Poisson's ratio, thermal conductivity, thermal expansion and specific heat at different temperature conditions.
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I would like to make the Al5083 micro structure homogeneous before deforming. In which temperature should it be annealed?
Thanks.
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Dear Dr. Amir Torabi,
on Al 5083 alloy, a homogeneous ultrafine grained microstructure of an average size of 300 nm with well defined grain boundaries could be achieved with an effective rolling strain of only 2.3 followed by short annealing at 300°C for 6 min.
For more details, please see the paper:
Microstructural Studies of Al 5083 Alloy Deformed through Cryorolling
Dharmendra Singh, Palukuri Nageswararao Rao, Jayaganthan Rengaswamy
Advanced Materials Research 585:376-380 (2012)
The annealing behavior of a modified 5083 aluminum alloy was studied in the temperature range of 125–375°C with different holding times. The results shown that the annealing temperature was more sensitive to the mechanical and corrosion resistance properties compared with the annealing holding time. The mechanical and corrosion resistance properties depend on annealing treatment due to different dislocation configuration in the matrix and the second phase interface, annealing temperature and time have been optimized for both of those properties improvement.
For more details, please see the paper:
Annealing behavior of a modified 5083 aluminum alloy
Shuangping Lin, Zuoren Nie, Hui Huang, Bolong Li
Materials and Design 31(3):1607-1612 (2010)
Best regards, Pierluigi Traverso.
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I have tried Keller's, HF, Poulton's and modified Poulton's but nothing turned out in favour.