Questions related to Aluminum Alloys
I want to do solution heat treatment of a specific series of aluminum alloys, so I Should follow the literature or decide according to the size of my Al alloy.
I have the concept of Creep-Resistant Aluminium Alloy in my PG academic subject. I need someone to clarify whether Creep-Resistant Aluminium Alloy differs from Wrought Aluminium Alloy.
Compared to most other Al alloys of the 6xxx series, 6016 contains a lot of Si. Given the low Mg content, it is much more Si than what can be used for the precipitation of beta double prime (~Mg5Si6; even when accounting for Si loss to coarse AlFeSi-type phases).
Hirth et al. (https://doi.org/10.1002/9781118787601.ch9) report that excess Si increases T4 strength, but the mechanisms are not entirely clear and the paper overall received little attention. Hirth et al. also report that excess Si appears to have little effect on yield strength after artificial ageing.
In my understanding, low T4 and high T6 strength are often desired (i.e., high hardening potential after forming). Then, adding so much excess Si appears counter-productive.
In my current work, I want to coat 2024 and 7075 Aluminum alloys with Ni-B. For the Ni ion, I use NiSO4.6H2O or NiCl2.H2O.
I use NaBH4 as a boron source.
When I immerse the alloys in the bath after preparing my solution, piece by piece blackening occurs. I add NaOH to adjust the pH setting. But I always run into this kind of problem. Can you help me urgently in this matter.
Pictures of the problem are attached.
I want to coat on aluminum alloy, but before I do the coating, I will do the zincating process to activate the aluminum and to ensure the adhesion of the product to the surface. In the research I have done, they briefly talk about the process of Zincate. How is this process done and which chemicals are preferred?
Thank you for helping.
I used friction stir processing to reinforce aluminum alloy with nanoparticles and I want to calculate the weight fraction of reinforcement material.
I am trying to find the mechanical hardness value for aluminum alloys AA 7075-T3 and AA 2011-O.
I searched on different material databases and also tried to find in literature. But still, I could not figure out. Any recommendation/guidance. Thanks in advance!
I'm looking into measuring crack growth rate using the DCPD method and was wondering if it is possible to use a "bench top power supply" and a multimeter with higher accuracy? Or do I need to have specialized equipment for DCPD measurement?
The materials I'm interested are iron alloys and aluminum alloys.
Compact tensions specimen thickness =< 13mm
Material flow during FSW varies from one zone to another in the SZ depending on the FSW tool profile and significant heating caused by tool material interaction. Similarly, the distribution of precipitates in the SZ is not similar. The appearance of precipitates is found mostly different in the advancing side, retreating side, top middle zone and bottom of the SZ. Hence, is there any significant correlation between the nature of precipitation with material flow during friction stir welding of materials?
A flow curve is important for the accuracy of finite element simulation. However, the stress and strain gained by the uniaxial tensile test are insufficient to characterize the flow curve of sheet metal due to the necking phenomenon. Merklein et al.  conducted the layer compression test to obtain the flow curve of the Aluminium alloy sheet. However, a Digital Image Correlation system was used in their study. How can we conduct this test without using the Digital Image Correlation system? Or is there any other test that can gain the flow curve of sheet metal at a large strain?
 MERKLEIN M, KUPPERT A. A method for the layer compression test considering the anisotropic material behavior [J]. Int J Mater Form, 2009, 2(S1): 483-6.
I am joining Mg to Al, and therefore I require etchants for each which do not have an effect on the other. For Al, I have used an etchant for 6061-T6 aluminum alloy but it is not working on 6061-O, which is odd. Below is the etching procedure I used for T6 (after fine polishing):
40 seconds: 2g NaOH in 10 ml water
20 seconds: 0.2g NaOH, 0.4g KMnO4, 10 ml water
Can you please suggest which chemical etchant would work for 6061-O, without affecting Mg?
I hope you are doing well
- AA6061-T6 or AA7075-T6 Al alloys fusion-welded plates contain the FZ (fusion zone) with a dendritic structure. I want the dendrites to be identified separately and in the form of grains (whether they can be called grains or not is another issue). The figure shows the dendritic structure in the FZ, but it isn't easy to separate dendrites from each other. (Figure shows the FZ in fusion welded AA7075 (not AA6061) etched with Keller).
- What do you suggest as the etchant solution for the SEM investigation of the PMZ and FZ grain boundaries of the AA6061 fusion weld sample?
- If you have experience in this field, I would appreciate writing it here.
I measured the electrical conductivity of as-cast and cold-rolled DC aluminum 5182 (Al-Mg) and noticed increasing conductivity with deformation content. I expected to get the inverse trend and conductivity loss in the deformed sheets. Is there any idea to explain this behavior? What is the science behind this trend? I attached a graph illustrating the conductivity change with strain content for reference and would like to know the reason for this behavior.
Thank you in advance for your comments and suggestions.
I would like to observe the 3D morphology of Fe-rich intermetallics in Al wrought alloy, e.g. AlFeMnSi, using SEM. Does anyone have experience or idea about what the best procedure would be to expose the intermetallics by deep etching or extracting ideally without any special apparatus?
Thanking in advance!
The material is 7075 aluminum alloy, which is quenched by 470 ℃ / 24h homogenization treatment, followed by 30% cold rolling. The metallography is shown in the figure below. I want to know what caused it. Thank you.
Please if anyone can help me to know about the used methods. I know, the eddy current conductivity meter can be used, however, it is not available
In the case of Aluminum alloy, is it a common phenomenon to lose EBSD solution % significantly, when the same location is used many times? Does the electron bombarded region lose phase index after a certain number of runs? is there any method to recover the same location without damaging the microstructure and run EBSD again?
I would like to observe the grain structure, i.e., grain size, grain boundaries, etc. of aluminum under a light microscope. Since HF or Keller's etchant is not allowed to use in my lab, I am struggling in finding a proper etchant for that purpose. Please feel free to give suggestions and comments. Thank you!
Who of you knows literature in which the casting and/or rolling processes were simulated and compared with the properties actually achieved. This preferably for raw material with large dimensions and for aluminum alloys or titanium alloys.
As from literature it was seen that aluminium alloy Al5083 can only be strengthened by work hardening and micro-alloying. Similarly, I want to know what are the only possible processes through which AZ91 can be strengthened.
Moreover, If you suggest the process with the any limitations it would add supplementary to my work.
Hello can anyone help me to find out plastic properties that are inputed in Abaqus software for finite element simulation
In my literature studies, I saw that aluminum alloys are coated with Nickel-Boron. What I want is for it to be covered only with boron without the use of nickel. Is it possible to coat aluminum alloys with only boron-containing substances without substances such as nickel and tin?
During the DC casting process of aluminum alloys, the use of bone ash, which contains Ca, is widely used and in many cases overly used and thus creates the potential for significant Ca contamination when recycling the scrap over and over. What effect will this have to the oxide generation on the surface of the as-cast product?
What is contribution of friction to the heat and what is the contribution of strain energy to heat in FSW of Aluminum Alloys
In general, continuous dynamic recrystallization forms high angle grain boundaries for fully recrystallized grains in a severe plastic deformation process (e.g. friction stir processing) of aluminium alloy.
After Friction Stir Processing of this aluminium alloy, KAM and Grain Boundary maps are obtained by EBSD. It shows, the region of blue colored recrystallized grains in KAM map correspond to the region of grains having substructures (prominence of low-angle grain boundaries) in Grain Boundary map. However, the continuous dynamic recrystallization by a severe plastic deformation process should form recrystallized grains surrounded by high angle grain boundaries without any substructures. This recrystallization also could be predicted from KAM maps. What is the explanation for this apparent discrepancy between obtained grain boundary maps and KAM maps?
I need to purchase & Machining the FSW tool Material to Weld Aluminum Alloy & Copper. High-speed Steel or H13 or H11. Please leave your suggesions.
I am doing product development in which I am using the 6082 aluminum alloy and transferring load to the aluminum profile made with 6082 alloys, but when I am applying the load (about 500 kg cantilever load ) on profile and the load is moving in the horizontal direction, the profile is getting pressed.
Requesting please support me on this
I have often seen the excellent micrographs of using Barker's reagent (2% HBF4) to anodize etch metallographically polished aluminium alloy samples.
I am specifically concerned with the extreme health risks associated with possible formation of HF, a well known deadly acid that should be treated with the utmost respect and calcium gluconate gel should be available incase there is skin contact.
To clarify, my lab does not allow such dangerous HF etchant to be used and hence I seek to confirm if Barker's is indeed much safer!
I am aware that strong HBF4 needs calcium gluconate gel (https://www.sigmaaldrich.com/GB/en/sds/sigald/207934 and https://www.ilo.org/dyn/icsc/showcard.display?p_version=2&p_card_id=1040), I believe this relates to the formation of HF through hydrolysis reaction (
Yet, some MSDS for strong HBF4 do not stipulate the need for calcium gluconate gel (https://www.fishersci.com/store/msds?partNumber=A188500&productDescription=FLUOBORIC+AC+48-50%25+P+500ML&vendorId=VN00033897&countryCode=US&language=en).
While MSDS specifically for Barker's also does not raise any need for calcium gluconate gel in the event of skin contact (http://nebula.wsimg.com/845f81c1a8e5c887672140d4378de4b6?AccessKeyId=628C908180FB63374807&disposition=0&alloworigin=1).
If anyone can clarify my safety concerns with Barker's and may lead me to the appropriate safety literature, I would be incredibly grateful!
I am looking for temperature-dependent material properties for aluminum alloys to compare different alloy grades. As for FEM modeling of welding, temperature-dependent properties are very useful. As JMatPro is excellent database software for steel, Nickel, and few other alloys. Is there any domain similar in the case of aluminum alloys? Please kindly suggest any valuable sources for database concern to aluminum alloys.
I have seen some journals mentioned stress relieving heat treatment for Al12Si alloy but the procedure is same as annealing/normalizing
Can anyone explain the procedure for stress relieving heat treatment and the difference between those?
I'm not looking for spesific alloys. The answer I am looking for is more general:
"3xx, 4xx for LPDC; 2xx, 5xx for HPDC"
I'd like to ask you to share me the source as well.
I want to add the zinc element to the fusion zone, during the welding of the aluminum alloy.
Now, I have a question; owing the low vaporization/boiling point of zinc, could be the adding of zinc to the fusion zone cause porosity in the weld metal of aluminum alloys?
Thank so much
which type of shot (balls) will be used in shot blasting of sheet made up of Composite((Aluminum alloy +boron carbide composite) or for (Aluminum alloy +silicon carbide composite)
I'm trying to choose the best lubricant for aluminum alloy which allow a good fine blanking product quality and furthermore, the best surface quality of the blanked pieces. I know that some of this lubricants, especially the alkaline ones (pH>8.5-9) have problems in creating signs on the aluminum surface of the sheet.
Is there some guide or paper speaking about this particular topic?
Thanks in advance
I got the alloy for certain age hardening experiments and did spectrochemical analysis on it. I got confused when I saw the composition as it is not similar to commercial age hardenable aluminium alloys. Can I go ahead with my experiment given the composition of the alloy?
I need to carry out molecular dynamics simulation on Aluminium alloy. For this i need the crystal structure that which could be further replicated to form a structure.
I need help. When taking a sample during the casting process for chemical analysis of aluminum alloy 6082 with a Si content of 1.20 - 1.30, I took four consecutive samples.
I did four emission spectroscopies on each sample. The Si content is quite unstable already on the same sample.
1. sample: 1.2905; 1.2934; 1.2491; 1.2268
2. sample: 1.2417; 1.2844; 1.2908; 1.2413
3. sample: 1.2602; 1.2401; 1.2180; 1.2433
4. sample: 1.3787; 1.3532; 1.3297; 1.3438
In the same charge, I cut the sample on an extrudet rod and the Si value was much higher than on the chemical samples taken during casting. (1.32).
The emission spectrometer is calibrated daily!
Does anyone have any solution?
I would like to anodize a piece made from Aluminum alloy 7075-T6. I want to reach a thickness of a film around 15-19 micrometers. So far I chose these parameters: 10% H2SO4, 5°C, 25 V, 2 A/dm^2 . Are these parameters correct to reach this thickness?
What are the methods to be followed for the corrosion behaviour at lab scale?
The process of hanging the sample can be a possible way. However, certain area exposure is not possible for small component (say for disc sample of having dia 8mm and 5mm thickness).
Suggest any other alternative way for immersion test of aluminium alloy.
I am working on an element, CNC machined, from 7075-T6 aluminum alloy. I would like it to have this rainbow coating but as it is aluminum alloy I am worried about creating this very easy to crack and sensitive layer after putting TiO coating. Is there any reason not to use TiO PVD rainbow coating on 7075-T6 aluminum alloy or I should not be worried?
I am investigating heat pipes used in laptops and am having some trouble determining some of the materials used. from initial research I have determined copper zinc and copper nickel alloys as well as some aluminum alloys are used, however I cannot determine the specific alloys that could be used. can anyone provide some incite?
I am working on simulation of aluminum alloy A356 solidification. However, in real phenomena, it undoubtedly involves hydrogen porosity. However, all phase field models tell you about grain growth, but not on gas and shrinkage porosity. Are Phase-field methods incapable of simulating microstructure with defects?
During our experiments, we conducted multiple rotary degassing treatments with Ar and N2 purging gases on a 356 alloy with 200 ppm Sr. We found that the fading process of the added modifier is accelerated when nitrogen was used (The Sr concentration decreased and the thermal analysis results showed lower eutectic undercooling). Is it possible that nitrogen forms a compound with the strontium present in the melt? We found no thermodynamic data available for strontium nitrides with various stochiometry, so we could not calculate Gibbs energy of formation values at different temperatures.
There is process of leaser welding at particular area after casting,so need to achieve 0.6% porosity in casting to get uninterrupted welding at this area which is near to in gate in low pressure die casting process for aluminium alloy.
I studied a lot of research papers on FSW to join different aluminum alloy.
But i am confused on what basis the tool rotational speed selected like they says 800-1000 rpm and welding speed 20 m/min to 100 m/min.
How they are chosen we can not randomly choose these process parameters .
Anyone tell me the proper method of these selection or on what basic i choose the tool rpm and speed which is suitable for welding.
I hope to get answer soon as possible..
There are some data available about the relation of hardness and strength for wrought aluminium alloys. However, I need a relation or tabulated data for cast alloys, specially eutectic Al-Si for automotive pistons.
I am searching for a project in aluminum casting techniques and development of aluminum alloys.
It can be seen most of the Pole figures and Inverse pole figures obtained from EBSD have projections in    direction
I need to draw a comparison between the two for my study of their frictional factors. Motivation is towards its industrial applications mainly pertaining to fluid dynamics. Any leads would be really appreciated.
I have done EDX analysis of welded joint of AA6082 T6 and AA6061 T6. Oxygen and carbon is found in the spectra. What are the causes for the same? Is it error due to some problem in sample preparation or any traces of air during testing.
I am trying to simulate DC Casting of Aluminum Alloys in Comsol. I found an example related to Continuous Casting that it couples fluid flow, heat transfer and phase change during solidification of the liquid alloy. Is it possible to involve solid mechanics for the solidified shell that is computed from phase change model?
If it is not possible to do a fully-coupled model: Could you please tell me how can I set the model concerning only solid mechanics and heat transfer ? Is there a way in COMSOL to add in the presence of time, new layers of material while moving the boundary conditions (mold, water colling) silmutaneously, to simulate fluid flow ?
If i am using the demineralized water with the PH of the 5 to 6 & conductivity of 100-150 μs/cm to clean the aluminum alloy, can it cause a corrosion to aluminum?
Which acceleration voltage (kV) and probe current (nA) could give sharper kikuchi patterns for taking EBSD from Aluminum alloys?
I want to calculate the activation energy for dissolution of existing precipitates in aluminum alloy by using DSC experiment data.
I am investigating Al6061 related research right now, and I need to input mechanical parameters like density, specific heat and so on, these parameters should be inputted different values based on different temperature condition.
However, I could only find these values on room temperature condition. Is there anyway to find the values correspond to other temperature conditions in a free way?
I would like to make the Al5083 micro structure homogeneous before deforming. In which temperature should it be annealed?