Science topic

Altitude - Science topic

A vertical distance measured from a known level on the surface of a planet or other celestial body.
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Publications related to Altitude (10,000)
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Grazing behaviour influences animal productivity and the conservation of grassland ecosystem services. We used GPS tracking and remote sensing (NDVI index) to monitor the grazing patterns of lactating cows on the ‘Malga Ombretta’ summer farm (1,957m asl) in the Dolomites, eastern Italian Alps, from 5th July to 5th August 2018. The pasture area (35...
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Designing the high-performance, high-subsonic airfoils suitable for different Reynolds number flow is the major challenge for high-altitude long-endurance drones and ultra-high altitude solar aircraft. To overcome the difficulties, this paper proposed a set of aerodynamic optimization design methods that combine the improved category shape function...
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ABSTRACT The paramo, plays an important role in our ecosystems as They balance the water resources and can retain substantial quantities of carbon. This research was carried out in the province of Tungurahua, specifically the Quero district. The aim is to develop a classification of the land use land cover (LULC) in the paramo using satellite image...
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Background The relationship between climate and radial growth of trees exhibits spatial variation due to environmental changes. Therefore, elucidation of how the growth–climate responses of trees vary in space is essential for understanding forest growth dynamics to facilitate scientific management with the ongoing global climate warming. To explor...
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Wave–particle interactions are fundamental processes in space plasma, and some plasma waves, including electrostatic solitary waves (ESWs), are recognised as broadband noises (BBNs) in the electric field spectral data. Spacecraft observations in recent decades have detected BBNs around the Moon, but the generation mechanism of the BBNs is not fully...
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Data from three all-sky cameras in Kiruna and Tjautjas (Sweden) were used to estimate the altitude of pulsating arc-like forms using optical tomography. The event under consideration occurred during the substorm recovery phase and comprised both periodic luminosity variation of the on/off type with repetition periods of 3–6 s (main pulsations) and...
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We introduce a new numerical model developed to assist with Data Interpretation and Numerical Analysis of ionospheric Missions and Observations (DINAMO). DINAMO derives the ionospheric electrostatic potential at low- and mid-latitudes from a two-dimensional dynamo equation and user-specified inputs for the state of the ionosphere and thermosphere (...
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Background Despite the efforts made in the last century to counteract the nutrient enrichment from diffuse and point-sources, the excess of nitrogen and phosphorous is among the main causes of degradation of European rivers. In this context, determining natural background concentrations of nutrients in rivers is crucial for a correct definition of...
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In recent years, multistatic specular meteor radars (SMRs) have been introduced to study the Mesosphere and Lower Thermosphere (MLT) dynamics with increasing spatial and temporal resolution. SMRs, compared to other ground-based observations, have the advantage of continuously measuring the region between 80 and 100 km independent of weather, season...
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This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effect of the deficit irrigation on some growth parameters, crop productivity and crop water productivity of broad bean crop (Nubaria 1) during winter seasons of (2018/2019) and (2019/2020) in Faculty of Agriculture farm (Latitude of 30 0 25 \ 10.9N and longitude of 30 0 32 \ 34.2 E, mean altitude 32 me...
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In this review we integrate the scientific literature and results-proven practice and outline a novel framework for understanding the training and development of elite long-distance performance. Herein, we describe how fundamental training characteristics and well-known training principles are applied. World-leading track runners (i.e., 5000 and 10...
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Background Humans have altered fire regimes across ecosystems due to climate change, land use change, and increasing ignition. Unprecedented shifts in fire regimes affect animals and contribute to habitat displacement, reduced movement, and increased mortality risk. Mitigating these effects require the identification of habitats that are susceptibl...
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Background Match analysis has evolved exponentially over the past decades in team sports resulting in a significant number of published systematic reviews and meta-analyses. An umbrella review of the available literature is needed to provide an integrated overview of current knowledge and contribute to more robust theoretical explanations of team p...
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Formaldehyde (HCHO) and glyoxal (CHOCHO) are important oxidization intermediates of most volatile organic compounds (VOCs), but their vertical evolution in urban areas is not well understood. Vertical profiles of HCHO, CHOCHO, and nitrogen dioxide (NO2) were retrieved from ground-based Multi-Axis Differential Optical Absorption Spectroscopy (MAX-DO...
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Estimating wind energy plays an important role in energy science as it can be considered a crucial source of renewable and sustainable energy. In this study, five types of soft computing approaches were implemented to estimate the long-term mean monthly wind speed (W) at 50 weather stations in Iran. The applied models were artificial neural network...
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The accuracy of navigation information is essential for modern transport systems. Such information includes position, velocity and attitude. Because of the physical characteristics of the operational environments, integration of GNSS with inertial measurement units (IMU) is commonly used. However, conventional integrated algorithms suffer from low-...
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The application of the global navigation satellite system (GNSS) in aviation effectively meets the requirements of aircraft location-based services. However, the GNSS application in airborne surveys mostly follows the land survey method, which ignores the particularity of the airborne flight operations, such as the rapid change of altitude differen...
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Plant species growing on gypsum substrates, usually found in arid and semi-arid zones, create characteristic landscapes that can harbor highly specialized species, several of which are endemic. In the Cuatro Ciénegas basin (CCB) gypsum is abundant and creates patches of plant assemblages, but little is known about the floristic differences between...
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Background. Climate change puts pressure on the agroecosystems, and the cultivation of Coffea arabica may not be resilient under these conditions. Objective. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of climate change on coffee agroecosystem resilience. Methodology. Maxent software was applied to model current and future scenarios. Th...
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The main objective of this study was to determine the content, mobility, and the variability of concentration of zinc, lead, and cadmium in soils from the Gorce Mountains (south Poland), located over 100 km south-east from the potential industrial sources of contamination—zinc-lead sulfide ore mine and smelter in Bukowno, as well as hard coal mines...
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In the Jakupica Mts a plateau glacier was reconstructed (max. area ∼45 km², max thickness: ∼260 m). The study area comprises six formerly glaciated valleys, five of which were fed by the plateau glacier and one had an independent cirque when local glaciation reached its maximum ice extent (MIE). The equilibrium line altitude (ELA) of the most exten...
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There are a few regions in the world, where climate change impacts are more intense than other regions of the world, and Himalaya is the case. The Himalaya, one of the biodiversity hotspot regions and provider of ecosystem services to billion of people all across the world. Present study reviewed and synthesized climate change studies in the Himala...
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An automatic detection methodology for “legbreaker” Antipersonnel Landmines (APL) was developed based on digital image processing techniques and pattern recognition, applied to thermal images acquired by means of an Unmanned Aerial Vehicle (UAV) equipped with a thermal camera. The images were acquired from the inspection of a natural terrain with s...
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Diagnosing the vertical distributions of ozone formation sensitivities within the boundary layers is the prerequisite for formulating proper ozone control strategies. From 1 January 2020, to 20 August 2021, a multi‐function MAX‐DOAS instrument was set up in Guangzhou to detect the NO2 and HCHO vertical profiles. The ozone formation sensitivities in...
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Plain Language Summary The European Space Agency Swarm mission has been measuring the geomagnetic field since 2013. The geomagnetic field has a number of sources, from dynamo action in the Earth’s core to magnetospheric currents. We use data that have best estimates of all sources except the core removed, and they are reduced to a grid of points at...
Conference Paper
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Growth in the active Low Earth Orbit (LEO) satellite population will result in conjunctions involving two active satellites making up a larger portion of overall conjunction risk. Greater and more concentrated orbital density also increases the severity of collisions at densely populated altitudes. Prior work on LEO slotting has proposed methods to...
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There are a number of unusual tsunamis, which occur within the continents rather than in the oceans, named inland tsunamis. One of these rare occasions occurred in the morning of the Friday the 13th October 2000 in a volcanic glacial lake of the horseshoe shaped extinct El Altar volcano in central Ecuador. A detailed mapping of available air photos...
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Introducción: la anemia en los niños puede provocar deficiencias cognitivas y motoras que pueden conducir a dificultades en el rendimiento académico y la resistencia física, afectando a la salud y el bienestar. Objetivo: desarrollar y validar una escala de creencias sobre la adherencia al tratamiento con suplemento de hierro en madres de niños con...
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The research was conducted in Putalibazar, Bhirkot, and Waling municipality and Arjunchaupari rural municipality of Syangja district , Nepal in 2021 to assess the status of the primary nutrients (nitrogen, phosphorus, and potassium), pH, and soil organic matter of the cultivated mandarin orchards located at different altitudes. There were six treat...
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Forest fire not only seriously affects the stability of forest ecosystem, but also threatens the safety of human life and property. It is very important to evaluate and forecast the risk of forest fire. This paper takes Conghua District of Guangzhou City as the research area. Based on Landsat 8 OLI/TIRS data, Sentinel-1 data, nighttime light data,...
Conference Paper
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OBJECTIVES To determine the awareness of cosmic radiation and its hazards amongst air travelers and aviation workers in Mallam Aminu Kano International Airport, Kano. The study also sought to determine the respondents’ level of education and their awareness of the health hazards associated with cosmic radiation. METHOD A 12-item self-completion...
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Introduction Previous studies have shown variable within‐subject hemoglobin mass (Hbmass) responses to altitude training. We investigated whether Hbmass responses depend on individual variations in pre‐altitude Hbmass during repeated altitude sojourns. Methods Nine elite endurance athletes carried out 3–5 altitude sojourns over 17 ± 10 months (mea...
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As a promising method, unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) multispectral remote sensing (RS) has been extensively studied in precision agriculture. However, there are numerous problems to be solved in the data acquisition and processing, which limit its application. In this study, the Micro-MCA12 camera was used to obtain images at different altitudes. T...
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Distribution of landslide is controlled by various causative factors that have different impacts on the occurrence of landslide in different regions. Using one single model to build the hazard assessment is not enough to fully reflect the spatial differences of landslide controlling factors especially for large area. Landslide hazard assessment bas...
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As a key parameter of hydrological process modeling, the near-surface air temperature lapse rate reflects the vertical changes in air temperature characteristics in alpine basins but often lacks the support of sufficient ground observation data. This study estimated the lapse rate of the Lhasa River Basin (LRB) from the monthly air temperature data...
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The effects of tree shelters on the survival, height and diameter growth of three coniferous tree species – Scots pine ( Pinus sylvestris L.), Norway spruce ( Picea abies (L.) H. Karst.) and Silver fir ( Abies alba Mill.) were observed. The study was conducted in two experimental plantations, established in the spring of 2016 in the Training and Ex...
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Citation: Petkova K., Iliev N., Borisov M., Sattler M. 2022 Effect of tree shelters on the survival and growth of coniferous tree species in Central South Bulgaria, Silva Balcanica 23(1): 67-78. https://doi. Abstract The effects of tree shelters on the survival, height and diameter growth of three coniferous tree species -Scots pine (Pinus sylvestr...
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Marine stratocumuli are the most dominant cloud type by area coverage in the Southern Ocean (SO). They can be divided into different self-organized cellular morphological regimes known as open and closed mesoscale-cellular convective (MCC) clouds. Open and closed cells are the two most frequent types of organizational regimes in the SO. Using the l...
Preprint
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Venus is known for its extreme surface temperature and its sulfuric acid clouds. But the cloud layers on Venus have similar temperature and pressure conditions to those on the surface of Earth and are conjectured to be a possible habitat for microscopic life forms. We propose a mission concept to explore the clouds of Venus for up to 30 days to eva...
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Global climate change has profound effects on species, especially those in habitats already altered by humans. Tropical ectotherms are predicted to be at high risk from global temperature increases, particularly those adapted to cooler temperatures at higher altitudes. We investigated how one such species, the water anole (Anolis aquaticus), is aff...
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The Chapada dos Veadeiros National Park is a conservation unit established to preserve the highest savannahs of Central Brazil and their unique biodiversity. Eriocaulaceae are a relevant and conspicuous family in such high savannahs, but its diversity is poorly known, documented solely in general lists or in isolated efforts aimed at small groups....
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The brachistochrone (shortest-time) curve is the path connecting two points that enables the shortest travel time. This work explores the “brachistochrone path” of fire spread connecting two points at the same altitude and with a fixed path length. The starting and ending points are connected by both thermally thin fuels (thin wires) and thermally...
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Effector genes, together with climatic and other environmental factors, play multifaceted roles in the development of plant diseases. Understanding the role of environmental factors, particularly climate conditions affecting the evolution of effector genes, is important for predicting the long-term value of the genes in controlling agricultural dis...
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An analysis of the rainfall distribution with altitude in the western region of El Salvador is made, utilizing several stations along a topographic profile. It is found that rainfall increases with altitude, reaching a maximum value in the top half of the mountain slopes. The rainfall maximum in the southern slope of Volcan Santa Ana is larger than...
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Differences in interaction specializations between nectarivorous birds and plants across continents serve as common examples of evolutionary trajectory specificity. While New World hummingbird-plant networks have been extensively studied and are considered highly specialized, knowledge on the network specialization of their Old World counterparts,...
Preprint
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Mounting evidence of chemical disequilibria in the Venusian atmosphere has heightened interest in the search for life within the planet's cloud decks. Balloon systems are currently considered to be the superior class of aerial platform for extended atmospheric sampling within the clouds, providing the highest ratio of science return to risk. Balloo...
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Tracer-aided hydrological models integrating water isotope modules into the simulation of runoff generation are useful tools to reduce uncertainty of hydrological modeling in cold basins that are featured by complex runoff processes and multiple runoff components. However, there is little guidance on the strategy of field water sampling for isotope...
Preprint
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COMMENT TO A NEJM 2022 paper: Low-Dose Subcutaneous or Intravenous Monoclonal Antibody to Prevent Malaria. ----------------------- Most of the Plasmodium-carrying Anopheles spp. (henceforward mosquitoes) increase in individuals’ number during the wet season and decrease during the dry season. It has been demonstrated that female pregnant mosquito...
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Frostbite is a tissue injury secondary to freezing that can currently be categorized using two schemes (Cauchy and clinical scheme). However, we present a fourth-degree frostbite case with overlapping features between both classifications, generating difficulty in categorizing it using either. We wanted to raise awareness of such an atypical presen...
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Repeated evolution can provide insight into the mechanisms that facilitate adaptation to novel or changing environments. Here we study adaptation to altitude in two tropical butterflies, Heliconius erato and H. melpomene , which have repeatedly and independently adapted to montane habitats on either side of the Andes. We sequenced 518 whole genomes...
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The “Bee-eater special interest group” within the German Ornithologists’ Society (DO-G) exists since 2013. Its goal is to document the population dynamics and range expansion of the species in Germany by monitoring the breeding population as comprehensively as possible. As of 31.12.2020, 31,271 broods have been recorded, most of them with the exact...
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Com a intensificação das atividades antrópicas em decorrência da demanda global por insumos oriundos da produção agrícola, os recursos naturais vêm sofrendo sérios impactos refletindo, sobretudo, na degradação da cobertura vegetal primária. Assim, muitos estudos têm buscado avaliar esses impactos nos atributos físicos do solo. Portanto, o objetivo...
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This paper introduces four advanced intelligent algorithms, namely kernel logistic regression, fuzzy unordered rule induction algorithm, systematically developed forest of multiple decision trees and random forest (RF), to perform the landslide susceptibility mapping in Jian’ge County, China, as well as well study of the connection between landslid...
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The northern Tien Shan Mountains are one of the most hazardous areas in Kyrgyzstan due to frequent glacial lake outburst floods (GLOFs). The current status of glacial lakes in this region has not been reported in recent years. Therefore, this study investigates the variations of glacial lakes in the Kyrgyz and Teskey ranges using Sentinel-2 and Pla...