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Alcohol - Science topic

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I isolated RNA from the exosome using Total RNA Isolation Kit and stored it directly at -20 C. today I conversted it into cDNA and then ran the qPCR but I didn't get the amplification. I personally think that my RNA may have been degraded as it was stored at -20 C and I added mothing with it. However, various studies and Kits have said that RNA once isolated should firstly be kept in NUCLEASE FREE WATER or ALCOHOL. so kindly tell me as to how to store the RNA properly. and Nuclease free water will be good or the ALCOHOL??? Also, tell me the concentrations as well please.
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Hi Waqar,
in addition to Laura Leighton 's answer, did you check for the quality of your samples. Before and after the storage, you must check the quality first to be sure there is something, but mainly to know if the storage impacted it. it will also give you an idea on the quantity and therefore concentrations, useful for further analysis. there are many ways for checking, bioanalyzer is one of the oldest and best one.
all the best
fred
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For lithium carbonate preparation it‘s been saying that %70 alcohol saturated with lithium carbonate. But ı can’t dissolve it in distilled water or alcohol.
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Thank you Wolfgang!
Bircan, have you find any solution to your answer?
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I'm researching the antimicrobial effect of laurel extracts, which are made with different alcohol percentages (5%,60%, and 96%). I want to let the alcohol evaporate and replace it with something else so that the alcohol can't have any effect on the bacteria. When the alcohol has evaporated, non-polar compounds also remain, these cannot dissolve in, for example, water.
Does anyone have a solution for this?
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Sonication or evaporation with T control
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Triphenylphosphine reacts with hydroperoxide, reducing it into alcohol and forming tripehnylphosphine oxide. according to this reaction :
C18H15P + R-OOH --> C18H15PO + R-OH
Does any one know the reaction mechanism ?
Thank you in advance
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Thank you ! Yurii V Geletii
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Manual DNA Extraction from soil protocol
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Stanley Ngwa thank you so much
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When we do esterfication using alcohol with acid, i have a question for reactivity of two diols.
diethylene glycol and polyethylene glycol200.
Is there any difference of reactivity of two diols? (Ex. Electrophilicity of oxygen of hydroxyl)
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The molar mass of PEG is given by: Molar Mass = 44.05n + 18.02 g/mol, where n is the number of subunits.
44.05g/mole is the molar mass of 1 subunit of PEG.
A subunit of PEG contains two carbon atoms, four hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom.
For PEG-5000, the number of subunits is n = 113.
References:
1. Oesterhelt, F., Rief, M., Gaub, HE. Single-molecule force spectroscopy by AFM indicates the helical structure of polyethylene glycol) in water. New Journal of Physics. 1999;1(1):6.
Different samples of PEG have different molecular masses (or weights), as these samples contain different numbers of subunits of PEG.
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In GC-MS calculation,
[Area of GC chromatogram for IPA standard solution/ Molar Concentration of IPA in standard solution (mol/L] = [Area of GC Chromatogram of test solution / Molar Concentration of of IPA in test solution (mol/L]
How to convert the above formula to become
[Area of GC chromatogram for IPA standard solution/ Concentration of IPA in standard solution (ml/ml] = [Area of GC Chromatogram of test solution / Concentration of of IPA in test solution (ml/ml]
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Concentration is usually expressed by units of weight/units of volume. This is the most common expression we use in analytical chemistry. Choosing an alternative expression like unit of volume/unit of volume needs a good justification, i.e. why it is necessary to use ml/ml rather than mg/ml?
Converting mass to volume is easy if you know the density, because density is mass/volume. Simplest example is density of water at 4 C is 1 g/ml.
If you have methanol in water for example at 0.85 mg/ml, and you want to convert it to be expressed as ml methanol/ml water, then you can use methanol's density (972 mg/ml) to convert [0.85 mg/(972 mg/ml)] = 0.00087 ml methanol/ml water.
Similarly, you can use molecular weight of methanol (32.04 g/mol) to convert your results from mol/ml to g/ml first then using the density to convert g/ml to ml/ml.
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I am doing an acetylation reaction of a series of heavy alcohols, with high boiling points, with acetic acid, the conversion in most cases are at most 94%, I need to remove the rest of alcohol reagent, what should I do?
Because the alcohol’s boiling points are above 200 C , distillation in vacuum reduces the ester as well, so the yield diminishes.
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Dear Zahra Yasaei, essentially three techniques are promising in such separation :
- fractional distillation such azeotropic
- cappilary gas chromatography
- deep eutectic solvents
Please have a look at the following documents. My Regards
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In an epidemiological study (eg: the effect of alcohol on Hypertension), if the value of the odds ratio is less than 1 (eg:0.45) but it is statistically significant. Does it mean that consumption of alcohol is playing a protective role in hypertension? please let me know the correct interpretation of this kind of result.
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Do you actually mean the relationship between alcohol and hypertension? I think that is the most meaningful way of getting information for you.
If that is the case, then it means the association between variable n and variable m is 0.45. It does not really mean it is protective, however.
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Im gonna add veratryl alcohole to my culture medium. I think the autoclave destroys its structure. can every body propose me a method for its sterilization
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Hello, Filteration by Cutoff 0.2 can work too,
Good Luck!
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Hello All,
Can CO2 purging during Electrochemical reduction of CO2 removes produced alcohol from electrolyte, if so what are the proposed solution to solve this issue, knowing that this reaction can not be done without continously purging due to CO2 depletion.
Many thanks in advace
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What alcohol? Temperature? Design of the reactor? You need to plot the dependence of partial pressures of alcohol and water at a required temperature on the alcohol:water ratio. This is a time consuming job. Do your part of the job and then I would be willing to discuss your question
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I want to prepare a self-healing hydrogel with PVA and TA. Can you say me the protocol of synthesis?
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Dear Erfan Behjat, please check this simple google search results, you will see the diverse possibilities on the preparation routes. My Regards
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I have measured Quercetin amount using spectrophotometer at 380nm.1mg/1ml ( Que: Absolute Alcohol). I done 5 serial dilution, ı found conc. 0,98. I am sharing with you the excel. Do you think is it correct?
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You are welcome
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What laboratory-grade permanent marker is your favorite and why? Which is the most resistant to: 1)Alcohol
2)Chemicals/solvents
3)Temperature
and is there one pen to best them all?
Only (ultra)fine-tip options need apply)
Tell me your experiences.
Thanks!
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Tried many and some are drying and some are expensive, some doesn't write well, finally not perfect but overall best after 8 different one I tried. This one is damn cheap too, only make sure you don't put finger or touch for 5-6 seconds after writing to avoid smear but then after that these are pretty stable and write well. you can check it out. https://amzn.to/3DNPiW3
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I am currently trying to measure a number of ichthyological specimens preserved in wet collections. I am generally using calipers but have found that my calipers are too short to collect standard length or head length in some very long-snouted species (i.e., gars), as well as unable to measure body girth.
To take these measurements I have been using a cheap 60 cm tape measurer, but what I have found is that when I tried measuring these specimens the alcohol was rapidly absorbed by the measuring tape and the entire tape measurer started falling apart. Something in the tape measurer was reacting to some chemical in the preservatives of the fishes and causing the adhesive to dissolve.
I know that other ichthyologists, as well as herpetologists, mammalogists, etc., often use tape measurers to take very long measurements on formalin-fixed specimens in alcohol. I was wondering if there was any specific brand of tape measurer that other scientists have found does not fall apart when exposed to alcohol?
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Which extracts will have more Phenolic, flavenoid and tannin content, either alcoholic or water soluble?
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There are phenolic compounds which have polar and non polar parts in the same compound so you can choose ethyl acetate for a better extraction. It is advised to use ethyl acetate when you want to extract phenolic compounds from liquid samples.
You can also make ethanol-water mixture for a better extraction as mentioned in these discussion and articles:
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I am currently working on electrospinning of polymers. I am looking for a solvent that can dissolve polysulfone or PVDF-HFP, but it is almost immiscible in water and alcohol. Also, I would prefer that the solvent is available on the market. Does anybody have a suggestion? 
Thank you
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Acetone dissolves PVDF-HFP properly with some heat
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I'm trying to separate isoamyl alcohol and optically active amyl alcohol from fusel oil. I have done a rigorous distillation to get maximum concentration in bottoms of block B3. Since the boiling point difference is very less , simple distillation won't work here (3-methyl -1-butanol is 131 deg_C and boiling point of 2-methyl-1-butanol is 128 deg_C) .
I thought of using crystallization process to separate them but it's not economically feasible process.
I have attached the simulation sheet and the results developed by Aspen.
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From what I can see, the default Aspen interaction parameters for VLE in this system probably don't work that well. Attached is a picture of a Pxy diagram @ T = 368.15K predicted using UNIFAC in Aspen. The green points are experimental data at 368.15K for this system from Thiede, S.; Horstmann, S.; Meisel, T.; Sinnema, J.; Gmehling, J. Ind. Eng. Chem. Res., 2010, 49`, 1844-1847. The agreement doesn't look all that good.
You might want to look into regressing your own interaction coefficients...distillation might look better than you're being led to believe.
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I want to know about the yield of water-soluble and alcohol soluble extract of the same herbal drug.
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With the isolation difficulties involved, it is better to go behind alcohol extraction
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I want to know about the yield of water soluble and alcohol soluble extract of the same herbal drug.
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Also check please the following useful RG link:
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Greetings all
I have been facing a problem with Technovit 9100. The polymerization never worked with me I have tried multiple times with the (stable and destabilized) basis solution in different conditions, however, I still end up with a liquid form which never hardens.
Tissue type:
  1. Human acetabular bone with soft tissue attached. Total size: 13*10 mm.
  2. Human femoral head. Total size 5*5 mm.
Protocol:
1) Dehydration on tissue rocker for (agitation): (50%, 70%, 80%, 95%, 95%) 1 hour each; (abs alcohol) overnight then (abs alcohol) for 1 hour. At room temperature
2) Intermedium on tissue rocker for (agitation): Xylin for (1 hour) then again Xylin for (1 hour). At room temperature
3) Pre-infiltration solution; Solution preparation: 100 ml of basis solution + ½ g Hardener 1.
  • Solution used on tissue rocker for (agitation): 1 Hour At room temperature
4) Infiltration solution; Solution preparation: 100 ml of basis solution + 1.5g Hardener 1 + 10g of powder.
  • Solution used for 24 Hour At 4C
5) Polymerization: Solution preparation:
  • Stock A (100ml): 16g of powder + 80ml basis solution (mix until dissolve) + 0.8g Hardener 1 then top up the solution until 100 ml is reached.
  • Stock B (100ml): 0.8 ml Hardener 2 + 0.4 ml Regulator + 100 ml basis solution
Finally, the polymerization solution is used in a ratio of 9 parts from stock A + 1 part of stock B mixed immediately before use.
We have tried a number of conditions to see if the polymerization will happen:
  • Solution with the tissue at (RT, 4C and - 15C) for 24H
  • Solution with the tissue at (RT, 4C and - 15C) for 72H
  • Solution without the tissue at (RT, 4C and - 15C) for 24H
However, all of that ended unsuccessfully.
I would really appreciate any insight or help to this matter
Sincerely
Abdulaziz
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have you find the solution to your problem? If not I can help you
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Hi everyone,
We use SpectraPor® Float-A-Lyzer® Dialysis Device with MWCO:8-10 kDa for doxorubicin release experiment. We didn't pretreat the membranes with alcohol and our cumulative release percentages were very low. What is the significance of the alcohol pretreatment and what does it exactly do to the membranes?
Thanks!
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Dear Merve Kurt, ethanol is one among other chemicals know as 'permeability enhancers', they induce pores expansion which renders the release easier. In some cases other contribution comes from the modification (reduction) of the wettability of the membrane, hence the drug is less retained during its travel (release) by the membrane surface. My Regards
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Hello everyone
I want to convert methyl salicylate into salicylaldehyde, I want to find the safest and cheapest method. I know NaBH4 can convert aromatic ester into alcohol, but is it possible that NaBH4 can reduce ester to aldehyde?
DIBAL-H is very expensive for me
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Conversion of esters to aldehydes can be accomplished by reduction with diisobutyl aluminium hydride.
Stephen reduction involves the preparation of aldehydes. Nitriles react with anhydrous stannous chloride in presence of dry hydrogen chloride gas followed by their hydrolysis to form aldehydes. Rosenmund reduction is the catalytic hydrogenation of acid chlorides to aldehydes. Diisobutyl aluminium hydride is used to reduce α−βunsaturated esters to the corresponding allylic alcohols.
Best wishes
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I am piloting prenatal ethanol exposure in mice and I need a way to measure blood alcohol concentration.
What are the best enzymatic/colorimetric assays to use? Looking for something simple and inexpensive.
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Hi For an assignment I need to: critically evaluate executive function interventions for school children with FASD and social skills interventions for adolescents with FASD so as to recommend and gain funding to implement them. I'm struggling to find evidence to evaluate why one intervention is better than something else. Please can anyone help?
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Thank you, that's very helpful.
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  • Alcohol has effects, both short-term and long-term, on almost every single organ of your body.
  • Overall, the evidence suggests that there is no “safe limit” – in fact, the risk of damage to your health increases with each drink of alcohol consumed.
  • Alcohol use, especially heavy use, weakens the immune system and thus reduces the ability to cope with infectious diseases.
  • Alcohol, even in very small quantities, is known to cause certain types of cancer.
  • Alcohol alters your thoughts, judgment, decision-making, and behavior.
  • Alcohol, even in small amounts, is a risk to the unborn child at any time during pregnancy.
  • Alcohol increases the risk, frequency, and severity of perpetration of interpersonal violence such as intimate partner violence, sexual violence, youth violence, elder abuse, and violence against children.
  • Alcohol increases the risk of death and injury from road traffic injuries, drowning, and falls.
  • Heavy use of alcohol increases the risk of acute respiratory distress syndrome (ARDS), one of the most severe complications of COVID-19.
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The following study demonstrate that COVID-19 cases and deaths are higher in countries where alcohol consumptions are higher and vice versa.
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How to completely remove water from Isopropyl alcohol? I have isopropyl alcohol with 3% moisture. I need to remove water completely. Due to azeotrope with water, distillation not possible. I tried salt out process (addition of NaCl). But no effect on 3% water. However it works only on 70% IPA concentration increased to 80% only. Further removal of water not possible. Any other simple procedure for complete removal of water from IPA?
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In ancient times
1) I did some exploratory experiments using glycerol help eparate water from ethanol. I do not remember the results.
2) I used to a K-LTA (It is a comercial potassium exchanged Na-A (A zeolite -> now LTA). Some coleagues have been using this zeolite to dry solvents in laboratory scale. I think it is easy to buy in Sigma-Aldrich-Merck for example.
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Hello, I'm studying metal-catalyzed reactions between oleic acid + oleylamine (amidation) and oleic acid + oleyl alcohol (esterification). I have a general sense that, all conditions being equal, amidation should be faster, perhaps due to the basicity of the amine, but that seems sort of vague and I'm trying to get a full understanding of what I should expect. Any help would be much appreciated. Thanks!
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As reported by Nayim Sepay , these two reactions are pH-depended. Besides, the esterification of phenol is lower than that of alcohol because of the lower nucleophilicity of the hydroxyl group that results from the participation of oxygen lone pair with the aromatic resonance.
Regards,
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I work with bat's helminths taxonomy. The ideal is to work on fresh hosts, but some bats species are highly threatened and it's not possible to obtain fresh carcasses or other alternatives. For these cases, I'm thinking about recovering the parasites from bats in biological collections. However the helminths recovering is difficult because of the dehydration and stiffening of the viscera when stored in formaldehyde or alcohol solutions. I've been trying to store some samples in water for some hours or days, but the visceras didn't rehydrate at all. Does anyone have some tips?
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The process of fixation is irreversible - I agree to that.
But I am wondering, why you would like to rehydrate the viscera. Wouldn't it be easier to simply 'wash out' the helminths (I suspect that they are in the lumen of the intestines?), then make a cell block of the fluid and then look an it via microscope?
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Is anyone have an Idea to enhance the chitosan solubility in alcohol Such a 1-Propanol
I tried to use propanol/butanediol (2-1), and this mixture can be used up to 70% with pH under 4, but still, I need to enhance the stability up to 80%
I really appreciate any help you can provide.
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Hello.
I am trying to extract low molecular weight and high molecular weight glutenin subunits.
There are many protocols but some of them are similar. Of them, I found two protocols. Their difference is that one is using 1-propanol (Propan-1-ol) and the other is using 2-propanol (isopropyl alcohol) to extract glutenin.
What is difference to extract glutenin between 1-propanol and 2-propanol, and which one is better for extracting glutenin subunits?
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I'm construction mouse alcohol addiction model to study alcohol addiction and withdrawal symptoms, many papers said they used Intermittent Access to 20% Ethanol 2-Bottle Free-Choice (IA2BC) Drinking Procedure, which is to give mouse two bottles, one contains plain water, one contains 20% alcohol, after 24 hours, the alcohol bottle was replaced by water bottle for the next 24 hours. This pattern was repeated for 6-8 weeks.
The question is, can I use only one bottle that contains 10% alcohol as the only liquid source (as the concentration of 20% is too high)? Because using two-bottle free-choice is troublesome, more importantly, I'm not sure each mouse actually drinks alcohol, and even if it drinks, the amount may not be sufficient to induce any addiction or withdrawal behavior. Using one bottle can solve this problem, however, few articles claimed using only one bottle of alcohol.
And why many studies use two-bottle free choice and they claim this can induce depressive symptoms and anxiety after withdrawal. However, I didn't observe any anxiety symptoms after withdrawal using the open field test and elevated plus-maze in the last experiment.
Note: In my study, I performed cannular implantation on mice before behavior assay.
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Hi Kai, which strain of mice do you have? The drinking levels differ between strains. C57BL/6J are usually used in this paradigm with success.
I suggest you to read this review regarding the 2-bottle choice paradigm by Carnicella to understand better the output of the model.
Best wishes
Ana
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We often use 70% alcohol to dissolve plant extracts. Why it is well accepted as 70%? Does it contain some advantages over the other proportions (say 60%, 80%, or 90%) or it is just because 70% is widely accepted?
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The ethanol solvent polarity was influenced by the high concentration of water contained in ethanol. The more water contained in it, the higher its polarity compared to absolute ethanol (Tiwari et al., 2011). Solvents with high polarity had the ability to extract a class of compounds with a wider polarity. This allowed non-phenolic polar compounds such as carbohydrates and proteins to be dissolved during the extraction process which resulted in increased extraction yields (Do et al., 2014).
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Good morning, if I want to look under microscopy at the cellular structure of different roots belonging to differents plants, is it better to fix them with formaldehyde or alcohol?
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Using formaldehyde alone to fix plant sample is not advisable because it harden plant sample and make it brittle and so make it difficult to handle. FAA or 50% ethyl alcohol are preferable, even the percentage of alcohol and the volume of formaldehyde in the FAA also matter . A high percentage (concentration) of alcohol will make the sample hardened likewise high volume of formaldehyde will harden the sample.Usually a good composition of FAA can be as follows.
(1) 10mls of 40% formaldehyde
10mls of glacial acetic acid
80mls of 50% ethanol (ethyl alcohol)
(2) Just 50% ethyl alcohol will do a good job too.
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Taking the example of Au/Pd metal, the ECSA is calculated from the Au/Pd-reduction curve carried out in 0.1M HCLO4/H2SO4 as per many reports in the literature (ref. below). When the ECSA is divided to the current obtained from the alcohol oxidation/H+ reduction by the modified electrode, the oxidation current becomes high (with a low ECSA number) and the oxidation current becomes low (when the ECSA is high). So, in this process how to infer which is a better electrocatalyst?
Eg. In this paper the ECSA is very low (0.0016 cc) with a high current density for hydrogen reduction.
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As for the current of the voltammetric curves, the mass transfer on the electrode interferce may be important as well. The surface topography was suggested to be evaluated. We have observed the similar phenomenon in our recent publication (DOI:10.1109/JSEN.2021.3122326).
In this paper, the graphene modified electrode exhibts larger surface area than the electrode with gold nanoparticles. While the electrode with gold nanoparticles as the outermost layer shows better catalytic activity and selectivity.
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I'm trying to make a solution for haptoglobin measurement using this product. My method gives me the following directions:
0.6g o-dianisidine, 13g sodium phosphate monobasic and 0.5g EDTA dissolved in 1l deionised water, pH adjusted to 4.1.
I know that o-dianisidine is only slightly soluble in water (60mg/l) but possibly more soluble under acidic conditions however it still did not totally dissolve when at pH 4.1
If I dissolved in alcohol, approx (50ml) does anyone know if the addition of the alcohol to my buffer will affect the assay result ?
Anyone have experience with this colorimetric assay for haptoglobin? solving the same amount in
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Hey, I tried to mix 60mg o-diansidine with 0.3ml acetic acid first, and then dilute it in 29.7ml ddH2O. It worked quite well. maybe you can also try it:)
Good luck!
Qian
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I have one group of alcohol users and have to see the effectiveness of my interventions on their alcohol use (quit or not quit). I apply Pre-post quasi experiment while repeated (at least 2) followups in post interventional phase.
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You can use repeated measures of t-test to check the significant difference between multiple conditions of the same group.
Although, since it is not an experimental design the result will not confirm the efficacy/ effectiveness of the intervention even if there are statistically significant differences. If you can include a control group, and if both the experimental and control group has baseline homogeneity, it is possible to test the efficacy of the intervention with comparison between both groups.
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I'm doing dna extraction for bacterial pellets.
I added 40ul proteinase k and 180ul ATL buffer on the pellets first then put the sample in shaker incubater at 56°c for 45 min.
Then adding 170ul AL buffer (then put in 70°c for 10 min.)
Then Adding alcohol and completing using the spin column ..can anyone tell me what maybe the thing I've done wrong? Thank u
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I usually run the DNA for 20-30 min and sometimes 15 min to just have a look on the integrity of the DNA.
I also made a change for my protocol to try to prevent dna degradation.I added a lyzozyme step first and also extended the incubation time of protinease K to 4 hours as i was given an advice that maybe the problem in not completing lysis step..so the result on the gel was better I think
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hi, I will dehydrate alcohol with h2so4 for the synthesis of alkene.
however, I have no idea what kind of solvent I can use.
H2O solvent looks adaptable for solving alchol and h2so4, but I think alkene(product) will not dissolve in H2O.
Also, when I use EtOH, I think it will react with h2so4.
Is it ok to use H2O even though product doesn't dissolve?
Thank you for later reply for all.
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Dear Lee Jieun, I support Prof. Frank T. Edelmann in his answer by the following free access documents. My Regards
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I am experiencing low 260/230 values after using Qiagen's DNeasy PowerSoil Pro Kit. I have been getting values anywhere from around 0.11 to 1.10. After speaking with a Qiagen rep, she recommended that I lower the soil sample to 100 mg of soil, and keep a heated lysis step (heat soil sample plus C1 at 65 °C and vortex every 5 min for a total of 30 min) at the beginning of the protocol, before the PowerLyzer24 step. After trying this, I got a concentration of 23.4 ng/uL, 260/280 was 1.75, and 260/230 was 0.64, so still nowhere near 2.0-2.2. The second sample was 8.6 ng/uL, 260/280 was 1.81, and 260/230 was 0.24. I am not sure why I am having such a high salt concentration. 
The rep suggests that I perform an isopropanol precipitation step, but I would like to know what others have done in this instance. 
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Hi, I am working with several kits for soil DNA extraction. In general, they use guanidinium salts. You can check the spectrum on Nanodrop. If you have a strong absorbance (> than 1 or stronger) around 220-230 nm and the absorbance pick of DNA is not so clear this could indicate guanidium contamination. I have seen this problem with several kits. 260/230 ratios are low ~0.5-0.8. You can have some interferences on PCR for these DNA extractions, but you can use BSA during PCR. For metagenomics you need to purify your samples. Normally sequencing platforms use purification by magnetic beads.
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I am looking for a decanol molecule (or similarly-sized alcohol) implemented in the CHARMM36 force field for Gromacs.
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Alternatively to what suggested by Nicola, you can use Charmm-gui. Draw the molecule in the ligand modeler and proceed to next steps. Charmm-gui will output the necessary files to run gromacs.
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I added jaggery and fermented it in water. I would like to know the quantification of alcohol. What are the methods that can be used for the quantification?
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You can check quantity of alcohol by HPLC and its purity by GC method.
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I want to check the effect of nanoparticle on bacterial ultrastructure by TEM analysis. For this I will be washing cells with PBS and then fix it in 2% gluteraldehyde overnight at 4 degree centigrade . The subsequent step is fixation of the bacterial pellet using 1% osmium tetroxide (not available with us) is to be done by another institute after 2—4 days followed by dehydration using alcohol. In that case can i dispatch the sample after discarding the gluteraldehyde from the vial or shall I keep the sample back in PBS after gluteraldehyde fixation and then dispatch. Please give your valuable suggestions. Thank you.
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Keep your samples in the glutaraldehyde fixative. The glutaraldehyde should be diluted in PBS. Keep the samples at 4 degrees C until you can ship the samples to your collaborators. Ship the samples on ice in a styrofoam shipper. Do NOT ship the samples with dry ice, if the samples freeze they are no longer of any use to you. Once your collaborators receive the samples they can continue with the processing; washing the glut out, osmification, dehydration etc.
I routinely get samples from other researchers this way, sometimes with delays of a couple of weeks. The morphological results are usually excellent.
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I have limited amount of ethanol and ample amount of methanol, I was wondering if it can be used to make gradients of alcohol for Histology processing(staining). I know methanol is not preferred because it is toxic in nature. but is the toxicity going to effect the formalin fixed tissue ? Is it going to effect antibody binding if i perform immunohistochemistry/IF on the sections. ?
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Interesting question. I think, you mention the main concerns why methanol is often not preferred over ethanol. I found this on one website: "Methanol This reagent is a good ethanol substitute but is rarely used because it is volatile, flammable and costly. Methanol tends to harden tissues more than ethanol and is a poor lipid solvent." https://tissuesampling.weebly.com/processing.html.
[see also "Methanol is very rarely used in routine processing due to its flammability, volatility, and cost.[3]" from https://jprsolutions.info/files/final-file-5da2c9a0c9f2a9.26858550.pdf
I am not sure methanol is really more expensive than histology grade ethanol, or denatured alcohol for histology ("Anhydrous reagent grade alcohol is a denatured form of ethyl alcohol, approved for sale under U.S. regulations (90 parts ethyl alcohol, 5 parts methyl alcohol, and 5 parts isopropyl alcohol). It is a preferred mixture for dehydrationg tissue samples prior to embedding in histology.") contains methano). I guess addition of methanol is mainly to make the alcohol useless for human consumption.
Based on all this, it seems feasible to switch to methanol for histology purposes. I am sure it will change the hardness of the tissue compared to ethanol but I have not tried, and I do not know whether it makes the tissue harder and more brittle or the opposite.
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I prepared a 24:1 mixture of chloroform and isoamyl alcohol to make 100 ml solution. So I added the 24 ml chloroform and 1ml isoamyl alcohol and together to them added the vol 75ml with dd water. What can be the reson for the two layers formed and troubleshooting for it !!
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Hi,
you should not add any water to the preparation. The two phases are formed by the organic (chloroform) and aqueous (water) liquids. Thus use only 24ml chloroform and 1ml isoamyl alcohol.
Best,
Norman
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I want to connect the cysteine carboxyl group to OH of alcohol suggest me some reaction conditions?
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Dear Harsha, thank you for sharing this interesting technical question with the RG community. It certainly depends on the nature of the alcohol which wou want to use. For example, please have a look at the following interesting article in which a simple method for the esterification of various amino acids with methanol is reported:
A Convenient Synthesis of Amino Acid Methyl Esters
This paper is freely available as public full text (please see attached pdf file).
Good luck with your research work!
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I'm trying to react poly(vinyl alcohol) with functionalized Carbon nanotubes. What's the best way to test to make sure that the ester bond has been formed, and the CNTs have bonded with the PVA?
Thanks
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Dear Matthew,
many thanks for posting this very interesting technical question on RG. Functionalized carbon anotubes (CNTs) continue to be an exciting object of research particularly with respect to bioapplications. Personally I'm not an expert in polymer chemistry, but I assume that poly(vinyl alcohol) will not easily react directly with functionalized carbon nanotubes under formation of ester-bonded species. However, this would be a suitable approach to make PVA/CNT nanocomposites. In this context, please have a look at the following relevant article:
Synthesis and characterization of carbon nanotubes/poly vinyl alcohol nanocomposite membranes for dehydration of isopropanol
In order to achieve "real" ester linkages in the product, it is advisable to perform a carbodiimide-activated esterification reaction. This has been described in detail in the following useful article:
Soluble functionalized carbon nanotube/poly(vinyl alcohol) nanocomposite as the electrode for glucose sensing
Unfortunately this article (like the first one) is not freely available as public full text on RG. However, the corresponding author has an RG profile (https://www.researchgate.net/profile/Vijay-Varadan-2) so that there is a good chance that you can request the full text directly from him via RG.
I hope this helps. Good luck with your research work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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My compound is only soluble in MeOH, This is LAH reduction reaction from ester to alcohol, after reaction completion, LAH is quenched by water and MeOH, the compound is extracted with soxhlet extraction but I got more white solid. even I tried this extraction with MeOH stirring at reflux temp and filtered, got the same white solid.
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Respected sir,
you can try with saturated aqueous solution of Rochelle's salt (sodium potassium tartrate). Rochelle's salt is an excellent ligand for aluminium and breaks the aluminium emulsion. The procedure is simple. Cool your finished reduction down to 0 degrees C, or lower depending on the situation (cooled it with acetone/dry ice).quench excess reducing agent with ethyl acetate or acetone. Add a water solution of rochelle's salt ( 3-5 mol equiv rochelle, and calculate the amount of water from there). Let the temperature rise to r.t. and stirr for 30 minutes or longer if necessary.extract ur mixture using EA or ether and evaporated it. Hope u get better results.
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I can't seem to find exact information online, just that it is soluble in alcohol and benzene. These solvents are not appropriate for my planned use.
Thank you
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did u find the answer of this question?
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Moderate intake of alcohol: good or bad for your health?..... Men? .....Women?
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El alcohol provoca ciertos daños a la salud. Si la persona tiene autocontrola y solo toma un trago creo q puede ser beneficioso.
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I want to extract DNA without phenol and not replacing it with other chemical. And want to use only chloroform and IAA
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In the phenol-chloroform DNA extraction method, Isoamyl alcohol helps in reducing foaming between interphase. It prevents the emulsification of a solution. The liquid phase contains DNA and the organic phase contains lipid, proteins and other impurities. https://geneticeducation.co.in/phenol-chloroform-dna-extraction-basics-preparation-of-chemicals-and-protocol/
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Hello
I am currently making high Mw of polyglycidol by using an anionic polymerization. The monomer is EEGE (2,3-epoxy-1-(1-ethoxyethoxy)propane) and the initiator is an aliphatic alcohol. So I have tried to start the polymerization by adding KH or potassium naphthalenide.
When I make low Mw (4-6k) of polyglycidols, I only have a monomodal peak.on GPC with a narrow PDI (1.1). However, the issue is that I got two portions of polyglycidols, one is 11K and the other is 5k based on GPC results. Any idea that why would this polymerization generate two portions?
Thank you.
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Dear Ying-Hua Fu, the fact of having two fractions means more probably that transfer reactions are having significant role. Please check the attached file and the references theirin. My Regards
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In all labs I saw, I found that ethanol is used for sterilization of hands etc. in experiments with microorganisms. Why is isopropyl alcohol not used while it is relatively cheaper? Is it harmful for skin upon frequent use?
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The World Health Organisation recommends the use of disinfectants on hard surfaces and hand sanitizers. The formulations that offer the best results are alcohol-based disinfectants. We use Ethanol and Isopropanol (IPA) in our hand sanitizer formulations. These two alcohols are equally effective when it comes to killing bacteria, but to understand the differences between them kindly check:
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My drugs are insoluble in water and 5% alcohol, 5% DMSO as well. It fully dissolves in ethyl acetate however it is toxic for cells.
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You can use DMSO
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Kindly suggest which one among Acetone, Ethanol and Isopropyl Alcohol is advisable as pre-cleaning agent of substrates (e.g., silicon wafer, target materials etc.).
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Acetone will work fine. The whole point of using isopropyl is that it evaporates quickly, leaving no residue. Acetone is used in every lab for cleaning glassware for the same reason.
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I'm trying to prepare a basic alcohol solution (mixture of ammonium hydroxide & isopropanol) but having difficulty as it is not conventional dilution using water. Any assistance is dearly appreciated.
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56.6 wt% ammonium hydroxide approximately equals 28 wt% NH3.
We can retrieve densities of ammonia (aq. sol.) from (e.g.) Table 2-32, in: R.H. Perry, D.W. Green, J.O. Maloney (Eds.), "Perry's Chemical Engineers’ Handbook", 7th ed., McGraw-Hill, 1997.
For ammonia (aq. sol.) of label concentration 28 wt% as NH3 (approximate) at 20 ºC; ρ = 0.898 g/cm3. The molecular mass of NH3 is 17.03 g/mol. Hence, the molarity in terms of NH3 would be: 0.28(g NH3 / g aq. sol.)·0.898(g aq. sol. / cm3)·(1000 cm3/dm3)/(17.03 g NH3/mol NH3) = 14.8 M as NH3 (approximate).
The concentration of the obtained ammonia sol. should, in principle, be taken as approximate, namely for quantitative analytical purposes. It is convenient to dilute that solution by some appropriate dilution factor (f) and then titrate the obtained solution with standardized strong mineral acid aq. solution, to accurately determine its molarity. Alternatively, a known excess of standardized strong mineral acid aq. sol. can be added, which excess is then back-titrated with standardized strong base aq. sol., to find the stoichiometric amount of acid previously consumed by the ammonia solution.
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I am able to synthesise silica microparticles in small scale which are perfect in shape and homogenous. But when I am trying it in pilot scale, particles are getting spheroid in shape, and non-homogenous. What can be the possible reason why there is a difficulty in upscaling?
Also I would like to know, if we use any alcohol with low concentration or recycled alcohol. Is there any chance for which this might affect the shape and homogeneity of the particles.
Any leads is highly appreciated.
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Dear Leo Vleugels Sir, Thank you so much for the explaination. And for the particle synthesis I am using Water Oil emulsion method, with controlled temperature and stirring speed I am able to reproduce in small scale.
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During graphene production, i have seen papers adding alcohol to wash the prepared graphene. what impurities are they removing? or is it for oxide removal? or metal removal?
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Dear all, alcohols are generally used for dehydration, i.e., removing of water, but it may also remove any other components, such as unreacted precursors and by products. My Regards
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I've just tried to prepare several tertiary alcohol from benzoate with Grignard reagent. And I noticed that those benzoate bearing an unsubstituted amine show great difference in yield when amine group was on different site.(4 equiv. of EtMgBr added into a solution of aminobenzoate in anhydrous THF at -70oC or 0oC )
2-aminobenzoate gives excellent yield(>90% in most cases) but 3-aminobenzoate gives poor yield(less than 20% or even messy). Only those protected or substituted 3-aminobenzoate worked efficiently with Grignard reagent.
Is there any literature explaining this difference? Or someone is interested by this phenomenon?
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Dear Rengwei, thank you for asking this very interesting technical question. I think that Kohei Torikai already provided a good and plausible informatiom why the yields of tertiary alcohols were lower in the case of the 3-aminobenzoate reactions. One way to circumvent this problem could be the protection of the –NH2 functional group by acetylation. This has been described by Palomo et al. in the artcile entitled "Enantioselective Synthesis of Quaternary D4- and D5- Dehydroprolines Based on a Two-Step Formal [3+2] Cycloaddition of a-Aryl and a-Alkyl Isocyano(thio)acetates with Vinyl Ketones":
The paper has not been posted as public full text on RG, but the Supplementary Information is freely accessible. Please find attached a pdf file. As can be seen in the attched reaction Scheme, the 2 step-reaction of the N-acetylated 3-aminobenzoate with methyl magnesium bromide followed by de-acetylation (described on page S14) provided the tertiary alscohol in fairly good yield.
Good luck with your work and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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I've been looking around to find something to tell me what will dissolve 1-octodecene? But I've not found anything real conclusive.
I did find something that said it was soluble in Alcohol, Ketones, et. all. What I'm interested in knowing is just how soluble is 1-ODE in 2-propanol, or Ketones.
I don't really have access to said chemical or otherwise I'd check myself.
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Dear Charles, thank you for this interesting technical question. In this context please have a look at the useful link cited below. It is stated there that 1-octadecene is soluble in alcohol, acetone, ether, and petroleum (insoluble in water). I assume that the term alcohol includes isopropanol. I hope this helps.
In this context please note that at higher temperatures 1-octadecene can spontaneously polymerize:
The Trouble with 1-Octadecene; Polymerization During Nanocrystal Synthesis
Good luck with your research and best wishes, Frank Edelmann
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Anybody know this.
How to find arsenic in food (wine or alcohol) samples by SPE operation. need to some pretreatment before analysis?
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Rida Shakir Nagarajan Krishnan Just a comment to observe regarding activated charcoal: It is "activated" by incubating at high temeperature with a number of metals, amongst which could be As, so what looks like a "clean" wine has just been dosed with any number of metals (V, Cr, Al, Fe and a few more that I can't recall).
While red wine can interefere with interpretations of some visual tests (SO2, Sugar analysis etc), ICP and AAS analysis are very unlikely to be affected in this way.
In my routine ICPMS work, the colour of the wine makes very little difference to it's analysis, as the sample is heated to >5000K in the plasma. Any organic compounds that contribute to the colour are completely destroyed. Plenty of other matrix effects occur, but wine colour is not one of them.
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Hello, does anybody know any references and/or methods of protecting selectively a primary alcohol with ether (e.g. CH3, Bn, or DHP) in a molecule that also has unprotected phenol?
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Answering my own question, few methods exist:
Tetrahedron Lett. 2007, 48, 7000–7003
New J. Chem., 2000, 24, 63-64
J. Org. Chem. 1997, 62, 25, 8952–8954
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Texturing the surface of silicon wafers for photovoltaic applications using alkaline solutions gives pyramids of different heights . What is the reason for this? and are pyramids of great heights the best or random?
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Dear Abdallah,
I remember I read somewhere that the optimal pyramids' height should turn around 5 micrometers.
Best wishes.
Lyes BENHARRAT.
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For an application concerning rewritable paper and photonic crystals, I am looking for a commercially available polymer that can act as a polymer matrix surrounding the self-assembled photonic crystal, which will swell upon contact with a hydrophilic/hydrophobic ionic liquid, thereby shifting the structural color displayed by the system.
I have tried PEGDA, but this results in a film that is too brittle for further use. Initial testing also included chitosan, poly-vinyl alcohol and cellulose but these either didn't form a transparent film or were swollen uncontrollably upon contact with H2O.
For my search, I tried staying within the hydrogels, but I am open to other options.
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Dear Wouter Vander Ghinst thank you for asking this interesting technical question. As an inorganic chemist I'm far from being a proven expert in this field. However, I can suggest to you the following potentially useful references which might help you in your analysis:
Ionic liquid modulation of swelling and LCST behavior of N-isopropylacrylamide polymer gels
and
Ionic conduction of slide-ring gel swollen with ionic liquids
The first article is freely available as public full text on RG
Good luck with your research! 👍
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My project seeks to identify a link between Alzheimer's disease and gingivitis caused by excessive alcohol consumption leading to a proliferation of oral anaerobic bacteria such as P.gingivalis. Micro-tearing of gum areas lead to bactaremia and subsequent blood brain barrier invasion by P. gingivalis. Failure to clear P. gingivalis and related virulence factors from inside the brain results in inflammatory states leading to Alzheimer's disease (AD).
I need a mouse model to cover alcohol induced oral anaerobic bacterial proliferation and which models the physical characteristics of AD, and periodontal disease.
I thought maybe to use BALB/c disease free mice and see what happens to their brain when exposed to P. gingivalis +virulence factors and alcohol. But there needs to be a model for periodontal disease also and mice which have a tendency to develop amyloid plaques in their brains...
Anyone have any brainwaves about this, or is working in the area?
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Look, you probably won't find a mouse model for both Alzheimers and periodontal disease (do mice even get gingivitis? they only live 2 years). I also challenge your objective since you are determined to FIND a connection rather than investigate if there is a connection between alcohol intake, gum health, & brain health in mice.
You should start by hitting the literature and seeing if mice are ever used as a model for periodontal disease.
Also, I really doubt you could find an "alcohol induced oral anaerobic bacterial proliferation" mouse. You could either expose mice to P. gingivitis bacteria or not, and +/- oral alcohol.
Looks like someone is already looking at the connection between alcohol and periodontal health in a rat model.
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Dear everyone
I will process a biological material (polychaetes) to perform SEM. I am in doubt if after dehydration in alcohol the specimens can be stored in absolute alcohol for later drying at a critical point , and how long can I store the material for?
Best regard
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Hi. I hope the following article could help you:
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I have seen that people suggest cleaning the pipette before doing the qPCR experiment. We use 0.2% NaOH + 0.4% SDS solution to clean bench to remove RNAase. So, to clean the pipette I first used NaOH solution and then alcohol. As I am using this procedure to clean my pipette, I have found that my negative control is contaminated by my cDNA during the qPCR experiment. I think this is because of my pipette cleaning procedure. Because recently I have found that after using NaOH solution and alcohol to clean the pipette, the anterior side of the pipette stays wet for a long time. Even sometimes I have seen to drips a little bit of liquid (Maybe NaOH solution). I also want to mention that I usually spray the NaOH solution and alcohol directly in the pipette and then wipe it with tissue.
Recently, I used another labmates pipette set to see if my NTC problem dissolves. I have found after using his set of the pipette, I have not found any product in NTC.
I want your kind suggestions and comment on this issue and also please mention how to clean the pipette correctly and what not to do. Thanks a lot in advance.
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soak a tissue with 10% bleach and clean the outside of the pipet do not enter fluids into the shaft of the pipet. Use filtertips to prevent contamination from aerosoles.
Best is to have a "clean" space where you handle your mastermix, primers, probes and another space where you handle your RNA/DNA of your samples. If possible have 1 pipet set for each space.
UV light is bad for the plastics of your pipet and will shorten the lifetime. UV is only effective close to the light and not on the shadow side of the pipet and neither on the inside.
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Viruses are known not to be killed by alcohol, soaps and antibiotics
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More research is needed in this area
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I have read that in electrosparying, the electrical conductivity of solvent is an important parameter to be considered. But I'm wondering how organic solvent like ethylene glycol lone could be electrical conductive? Is it due to the ionization of alcohol group? Thanks.
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After you prepared solution of polymer with solvent you can start for characterization of electrical conductivity of solution by electrical conductivity probe instrument to the polymer and their solvent to make sure your solution fit to be in electro spraying.
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I recently read a data where it was said that 48% of minors in Spain consume alcohol. This data is worrying, since a large part of these minors do so with the consent of their families. In my opinion, this is largely due to our culture, where it is practically necessary to consume alcohol to have fun. To this is added the normalization within families, where alcohol is lived daily and practically inherited from children.
Currently there are many initiatives that try to alleviate this advance of the age where alcohol is started, on many occasions with great success. But, don't you think that to a large extent it doesn't matter that this be solved? There are many economic interests behind, as with many addictions, and this can cause that not all the necessary resources are put in to solve this problem. What is your opinion?
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Agree with the views of Arpit Parmar and Lucia Vallés
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Fish specimens fixed in formalin are stored in 70% Isopropyl alcohol and 1% Glycerin solution. After some time, a fat layer was observed on the surface of the container. But when they were stored in formalin this never occurred. What might cause this effect?
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I am looking at Alcohol scores (IV) measured against learning and recall for 4 conditions (DV's). I'm unsure if a multivariate regression/ MANOVA would be the correct analysis. Can someone help me with this?
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Hello Mel,
In general, choice of a method would be governed by your specific research question, the nature and quantification of your variables, and your data collection methods.
However, assuming that all your scores are metric, the omnibus test of whether a relationship exists between the lone IV and the "best" linear combination of the DVs will be exactly the same via:
1. Ordinary least squares regression, using DVs as your predictors and your IV as the dependent variable;
2. MANOVA, using your continuous IV as a covariate and your DVs as the dependent variables; Note that this is the same as a multivariate regression; or
3. Canonical correlation, using your IV as one variable "set" and the DVs as the other variable "set;"
You choose; it won't make any difference in evaluating whether a relationship exists.
Good luck with your work.
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Poly vinyl alcohol (PVA) has a melting temperature of 200 C. Coating of PVA-HA for metallic substrate needs to be treated at 400 C for densification. Is this this temperature (400 C) affect the coating structure?
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