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# Air Pollution Monitoring - Science topic

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I have measured concentrations of air pollutants emitted from a waste water tank.
I need to convert these concentrations from (mg/m3) to emission rates (g/s) to use in dispersion modeling.
I found several equations that need parameters I can't calculate such as flow rate (This parameter can be calculated for stack but I need to calculate it for a passive area source without any flow rate) .. pollutants emitted by aerosolization due to wind or evaporation.
How can I calculate the emission rates of pollutants from these tanks?
Not my field, but as you know you need some type of estimate of mass flow and possibly of diffusion rate. I hope a physicist can help!
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Dear Scholars,
Assume a mobile air pollution monitoring strategy using a network of sensors that move around the city, specifically a network of sensors that quantify PM2.5 at a height of 1.5 meters that lasts about 20 minutes. Clearly, using this strategy, we would lose temporal resolution to gain spatial resolution.
If we would like to perform spatial interpolation to "fill" the empty spaces, what would you recommend? What do you think about it? What would be your approximations?
Regards
The interpolation method to use would really depend on how many locations you have data for. The "go-to" spatial interpolation method would be kriging, but if we have <100 locations with data I would rather use inverse distance interpolation as <100 is not enough points for reliable kriging.
You can do it all in R using the 'sp' or 'sf' packages, or use a GIS.
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Dear Scholars,
Assume a mobile air pollution monitoring strategy using a network of sensors that move around the city, specifically a network of sensors that quantify PM2.5 at a height of 1.5 meters that lasts about 20 minutes. Clearly, using this strategy we would lose temporal resolution to gain spatial resolution.
If we would like to perform spatial interpolation to "fill" the empty spaces, what would you recommend? What do you think about it? What would be your approximations?
Regards
Hi,
If you expect some local variation and then a non-stationary behavior of your data, probably Empirical Bayesian Kriging will be the one. This is assuming you have a lot of data non left-skewed and you can asumme Gaussian distribution.
In any case, I recommend you to carry out a Cross Validation with a study of RMSE and AMSE, as you can see in Pellicone (2019; 10.1080/17445647.2019.1673840) or in Ferreiro-Lera (2022; 10.1080/17445647.2022.2101949).
I hope I have been helpful.
All the best,
Giovanni.
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I have read some paper shared the information regarding effect of outdoor organic carbon (OC) on our indoor environment or concentration of OC coming from outdoor environment to indoor environment. But it is possible to measure OC in an ambient environment which is coming from indoor cooking.
Kindly share your views on that and please tell me other alternatives to measure OC generated from street cooking (open cooking).
Thank you
Depends on the cooking fuel, its duration --GC-MS can detect it
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Does anyone know what is meant by the negative values in Sentinel-5p Aerosol index data. I'm working on air quality monitoring and very new to using Sentinel-5p products.
Positive values of Aerosol Index generally represent absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke) while small or negative values represent non-absorbing aerosols and clouds. GES DISC Glossary: Aerosol Index (nasa.gov) you can also refer to the
domunetation for more details: GES DISC Glossary: Aerosol Index (nasa.gov)
For SO2l, negative values represent over clean region or low pollutant emission. SO2 it is recommended not to filter these values except for outliers, i.e. for vertical columns lower than -0.001 mol/m^2. Again, please refer to the data user guide for better understanding and more details.
S5P-MPC-BIRA-PRF-O3-OFFL_v02.02.00_2.2_20210705 (esa.int)
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I'm suffering from condensation on Petri dishes that occurred after storing them in the fridge (as shown in the attached photos).
- I think it does not form pour media before reach to 45-50 °C (I leave media in the flask for sufficient time and too little condensation occurred).
- Also; I think it does not form storing media in the fridge before reach to room temperature (I leave prepared plates for 1.5 hours at least).
Why did that occur?
Can I leave Petri dishes at room temperature for 24 hours only till sampling time)?
Dear
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Due to destructive development approach, finally this generation reached to self-created suicidal gas chambers commonly identified as cities with severe air pollutants. This can be observed across the world specially in fastest growing big economies of the world like India and China. There are many dimensions and factors need to be investigated to find out the root-causes.
What are the
• Major air pollutants?
• It's Cause/Effects?
• Affordable solutions?
The improvement of air quality in cities is carried out, inter alia, by by replacing coal stoves with gas stoves, installations using solar or geothermal energy. In addition, a significant improvement in air quality may result from the development of electromobility and the connection of single-family and multi-family houses with their own stoves to the municipal heating network supplying hot water from a power plant located outside the city. In order to choose the right strategy and the best solutions to improve the air condition in the city, it is first necessary to conduct an analysis of the sources of the main air pollution emitters and, on the basis of the results of this analysis, to develop appropriate technological and organizational solutions to this problem for a specific agglomeration. Moreover, at the same time, the problem of low-quality, highly polluted air can and should be solved with the simultaneous reduction of greenhouse gas emissions, which are responsible for the accelerating process of global warming and unfavorable climate change.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Are there any standard analytical methods for CS2 detection at such high concentrations?
I think you can use air server – thermal desorber – gas chromatography – sulfur chemiluminescence detector (AS-TD-GC-SCD). With this analytical method, samples can be collected directly to sample bags and TD auto-sampling method can be setup to collect different volume of sample from the sampling bag. For high concentration sample analysis, the system should be flushed properly after each analysis to avoid contamination.
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I am using PTFE Filter for PM-10 and PM-2.5; after I place my filter in a desiccator, it started bending. Filters are 47mm in dia.
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Several papers have performed comparitive study of monthly and seasonal analysis of pollution concentration. They presented their results by plotting data as shown in the figure attached. Which tool can be used for these type of plots? Please can you suggest some manual or tutorials? Furthermore, can we plot it in MATLAB? Is there any sample code?
As for a MATLAB solution, you may want to check out the 'm_map' toolbox:
With some tweaks and using 'm_contourf' function you should be able to plot these.
Also, to draw multiple plots in the same figure, you can use the built-in 'subplot' function.
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The primary purpose of the monitoring is to examine the ambient air quality of a particular area. I'm going to measure PM10 PM2.5 for 24 hrs. I have to select 3 locations in a 1-acre area. The land consists of uneven topography. I want to know whether I should select high elevated locations or low elevated locations or three locations from three different elevations. What is the best approach?
Obviously, according to EPA (United States Environmental Protection Agency), air quality and its pollution level are strongly correlated with elevation and topographical factors. Atmospheric pressures in places with surface elevations above 1200-1500 metres are about 12-18% lower than pressures at sea level. The basics of atmospheric science is that Atmospheric pressure decreases as the height of a surface above ground level increases because as the altitude increases, it results in the no. of air molecules reduced and subsequently the weight of the air also reduced. Hence, it depends on your device through which you examine the level of PM2.5 & PM10. As per my suggestion, you should calibrate the device readings from three different elevations at the same location and later validate them using comparing the values which are more accurate.
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Environmental pollutants and hazardous are major issues through which the modern world. Among all the environmental pollutants and hazardous materials how much contribution is from chemists (out of 100%) lets put rough estimate.
I think you mean to say the amount of emission by pharma sector. There is no study available but pharma industry is one of the major contributor of pollution. Pharma market is 28 per cent smaller yet 13 per cent more polluting than the automotive sector
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With the increasing electrification of the powertrain, the focus is shifting more and more towards non-exhaust emissions. What measures do you know of to reduce these sources of particulate matter (especially brakes and tires)? How effective are filter systems for capturing emitted particles, coating (brakes), alternative friction materials (brakes and tires), ...?
I appreciate the proposals received, but from my point of view, the source should be controlled first, and then thinking about how to get rid of the problem after it occurs. The source is the tire, the brakes, and the street itself with friction resulting in the intended dust. So, in my opinion, we need more research to find alternative materials that help reduce the emission of dust from them. This is an extensive work that includes chemical engineering and materials to experiment with high-strength materials while at the same time efficiently fulfilling their purpose .... This is the challenge.
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Decades of rising emissions continued to do what scientists have long warned they would: make the world hotter.
Indeed, the 2010s mark the decade when the impacts from climate change became unmistakable, at least for any objective-minded observer.
Carbon dioxide from fossil fuels, which makes up about 90% of total emissions from human activities, was relatively flat from 2013 through 2016.
However, Fossil-fuel emissions rose an estimated 0.6% to a record 37 billion metric tons in 2019, capping three straight years of growth.
Sea-level rise is accelerating!!
The planet got a lot hotter this decade!!
Most countries have done very little so far to displace the power plants, cars, factories, and buildings polluting the atmosphere with more emissions each year.
In your view, is the world doing enough on climate change?
I do not believe it is. Many people and companies are seeing the signs and disregarding them.
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Good day!
I am working with my research and needed to have a field sampling for gaseous pollutant, in this case CO. However, I am having a dilemma which kind of device i am going to use since I have a limited budget and time (at most 6 mos for field sampling). I was wondering if you have any recommendation for ambient CO device that is comparable, if not, having a wide scope of area like the Gaseous pollutant sensors used in Air Quality Monitoring Stations.
Thank you.
There are several cheap and fast devices that rely on the use of kits. you can go throw "https://www.testo.com/en-US/products/co-measuring-instrument"
thanks
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I have two air quality monitoring stations located next to each other next to a busy road. I do not have direct measurements of the urban background concentration. Is there a way to calculate the urban background concentration directly from the time series measurements?
Assuming we are talking about NO2, NOX or PM, you can use the DEFRA National Maps: https://uk-air.defra.gov.uk/data/laqm-background-home.
The LAQM TG16 guidance can be helpful if you want to know more about source apportionment.
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Dear All,
Does anyone have suggestion on cheaper but multi function portable air quality monitor which can measure at least (No2, PM2.5/PM10 , So2 and possibly CO) concentrations. It should be able to store monitored data at least for one full day so that I can transfer the data either in table or graphical format to my computer for analysis.
Small suggestion is of a great help!!
Thank you,
Try to find in China market
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Can someone suggest me any good equipment for Indoor Air Quality Monitoring other than Graywolf?
Or Any device that we can be use in indoor/outdoor both.
We did a comprehensive research on indoor air quality monitoring devices and we finally selected one called uHoo, as it monitors 9 different parameters and you can log the data and store it in the cloud.
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Hello. I want to have a presentation about "optical integrated circuits application in air pollution monitoring or fabrication of gas analyzers" . I want some papers or books about this subject. Can anyone help me?
Consider the option of using Laser detection through the implementation of resonance in determined frequencies for particles with diameters below 2.5 microns. There are several articles related to this info.
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I read some papers and projects for detect appropriate site for air pollution monitoring station. But I didn't found any standard to know the ideal number of stations needed for area. according to what??
Also CEMS from stacks. Is there standard for selecting factories, sectors? or the ideal case is connecting all factories to the national network??
There are no international guidance regarding the number of monitoring stations. I'd say that main factors that should influence the decision are the variability in terms of sources of emission, type of receptors and the extension of the area (and the budget obviously). As general rule I'd start from having Road-side stations near major roads passing through populated areas, Industrial stations next to industrial areas where the public can be exposed and at least one background station (or 1 for urban background and 1 for rural background if both type of landuses exist) far from main sources.
For what concern CEMS, requirements can vary from country to country. The UK guidance is very comprehensive and might be a good starting point: https://www.gov.uk/government/collections/monitoring-emissions-to-air-land-and-water-mcerts#emissions-to-air
Hope this helps,
Pier
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I would like to know the USEPA approved or accurate indoor air quality monitoring instrument.
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Can't separate between the objectives of the two work.
The ability of a plant to absorb pollutants is dependent on a number of factors (age of the plant, nature of pollutants,, concentration of pollutants in the microspace around the plant, soil and weather conditions) apart from the species' inherent potentials.
Therefore, a design to compare plants tolerance to pollution to pollution absorption may be somewhat difficult.
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I just want to the best indoor air quality monitoring device at present as your experiences.
The IAQ factors include volatile organic compounds (VOCs), carbon dioxide (CO2), relative humidity (RH), airborne fungi, airborne bacteria, endotoxin and so on. What parameter do you mean?
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Hi,
I'm currently looking for a portable gas measurement system to measure O3, NO2 and CO at the same time.
I already stumbled upon GrayWolf Sense and Aeroqual.
Can someone suggest other companies or devices?
Try The AQMesh API. The link was sent to me by Prof. Hassen KCHih. It think it would be helpful.
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I am conduction BTEX sampling on-board vehicles. I am using coconut charcoal 100/50 mg solvent extraction tubes to be analysed using GC-MS. There are different analytical methods which report different acceptable limits of breakthrough. I wanted to find out if there is a specific limit considered acceptable for use in academic writings.
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Does anyone know how frequently sand storms and dust storms that arise from middle east or north africa travel to Pakistan and North India? I was wondering, in view of the already worsening air pollution levels in North India, events such as dust and sand storms reaching the subcontinent may exacerbate the situation. How rare or common are such sand and dust storms being carried from their place of origin (usually middle east and north africa) and intermix with fog or haze intensified by smoke or other atmospheric pollutants in another far off location? Has there been any similar, possible mixing of phenomena (dust storm and smog) reported/documented/studied anywhere around the globe at any time, preferably that was also caught by polar or geostationary satellites?
I was looking at a true-color or natural color satellite image acquired on 29th Oct. 2017 by the Visible Infrared Imaging Radiometer Suite (VIIRS) on board the joint NASA/NOAA Suomi-National Polar orbiting Partnership (S-NPP) satellite around early afternoon. I've attached a screenshot of the image as well as provided the full link to access the satellite imagery. These satellite images have been stitched together to create a global mosaic. Unlike MODIS, VIIRS do not show any data gaps (except sun glints!). I found this satellite image particularly compelling because it clearly shows the sand storm picking up over northern Saudi Arabia and moving around Iraq, Iran, Caspian Sea towards Afghanistan with the movement of wind. I also think the Earth's rotation from west to east has a role to play in the movement and direction of the wind laden with sand and dust. But it seems difficult to understand their dynamics. The smog over North India and parts of Pakistan can be differentiated from the sand storm over middle east in this satellite image. In North India this is the time of the year when there are intentional crop fires due to the traditional slash-and-burn agriculture practice.
You may find the link below:
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How does the altitude affect the PM10 and PM2.5 levels?
Here a paper of chemical composition and source apportionment of PM10 in a city at 2,650 m:
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How does the placement of probe affect the readings
According to the Testo website, you put the probe into the exhaust pipe. Zero distance.
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I am using two instruments for measuring the outdoor air quality. One is aerosol spectrometer GRIMM and other is RDS (Respirable Dust Sampler).
Can anyone please give me an idea regarding the position of instrument in respect of its height from the ground floor?
Dear Anchal,
The CPCB does indeed specify a height of 3-10 m. This document, however, is essentially a guide for determining ambient concentrations for comparison to the air quality standards. These standards define maximum concentrations in the ambient air with no reference to specific effects on human health. This monitor placement height would be expected to measure higher concentrations than might exist at lower levels such as the breathing zone of 1.5 m. This result may be reasonable when the goal is to measure attainment with the air quality standards.
You must remember that there can be different goals for monitoring programs. You need to focus on the goals of your specific research.
I hope this helps you better understand the various replies to your question.
Best of luck,
Tim
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We normally monitor air quality by measuring pollutant gases such as CO,COT,SO2,NH3 and H2S by special instruments. But this is very costly. Remote sensing will be more economical and effective if we could measure these gases using satellite imagery.
The European Space Agency (ESA) will soon launch the next Sentinel satellite, Sentinel 5-P. This one is specifically geared towards atmospheric/air pollution monitoring. Launch is expected in September 2017 and data will be free.
The page has a little video that nicely shows what can be mapped.
Berst regards, Norman
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IoT based Air pollution monitoring sensors (O3, NOx, SO2, CO and PM1-10 microns)
FIGARO -sensors for all your air quality related sensors .
TSDPL-distributors for India . check the below link i am also using the same sensors though.
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Modelling pollutant dispersion in urban centers need street level meteorological data. Whereas much of the research in this field is carriedout using met data from stations far away from study area or with general meteorological details.
Are there any urban air pollutant studies conducted using street level met data by considering the canyon effects of buildings.
Both US EPA and the US Army (Dugway Proving Ground in Utah) have conducted extensive urban dispersion modelling studies with both real and modelled buildings.
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We intend to embark on a year study on air pollution in a major city - Akure, Nigeria. We would need air samplers for collection of PM. Can anybody loan, provide or direct us to possible areas where we can source for good ones?
We shall appreciate anyone who will assist.
Thanks
I will check . I appreciate your support
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I am attempting to predict future pollutant levels of particulate matter, carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide based upon overall meteorological patterns, traffic count, traffic speed, and location.
The dataset includes pollutant levels at 449 locations, updated around every 5 minutes for 2 months, as well as corresponding traffic data at these locations, and general weather data for the whole area.
Dear Mr. Sarker,
It is a very interesting problem which can be approached in different ways. In my opinion to predict air quality from overall meteorological patterns, traffic count, traffic speed you should create a weight based equation which combine the previous parameters according to their degree of influence e.g. 50% for traffic count, 25% for meteorological patterns...etc. It would be better if the previous collected parameters are classified then using ordinal numbers each is given a weight and summed. Then according to the measured carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrogen dioxide we can fit a nonlinear equation for each pollutant level. You can also use supervised ANN to find a solution too using the parameters of the meteorological patterns, traffic count...etc and the measured pollutants.
It is better to try to find if there is strong correlation between these parameters and measured pollutants. If there is no correlation for specific parameter then I would remove it to increase confidence and accuracy of the final prediction function.
You can check my publication for predicting physiochemical parameters using measured and calculated parameters. But, in these publications I am using one parameter only.
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I have two similar filter papers say PTFE type of different brands. How do I validate to prove either of the filter papers are in standards to use for the research work in sampling PM 2.5 air pollutants.
Hello ! EMR,
I am from Civil Engg. Dept., IIT Delhi. The filter I had analysed is not from the company you have mentioned. I have sent you a detailed mail on the given ID with photographs of dissolved filter.
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I am from India and I need So2, No2, Co2, Pm 2.5 & 10 sensors to build up a mobile air quality monitoring system. Where can I get them online, with low cost?  Links please.
Hi Joel,
The price of low-cost sensors depends on the basic techniques, reliability and operational cost. Try to formulate your own criteria of precision and uncertainty for the measurements. Be clear on what you want to do with the mobile measurement results. Are you going to compare them with legal limit values, or is your goal to make an inventory of local air pollution and at best compare measurements in time and space? Will you use meteorological parameters in combination with air pollutant measurements to localize possible sources? Think on how you want to gather the data. There are simple programs and relatively cheap hardware to handle your data and to present such mobile measurements.
So, be aware of these conditions before you decide to buy sensors. Use information on the evaluation of sensors, where you can check the outcome of tests with your ideas on reliability, precision etc. It’s very important that you look not only for lab tests, field tests are even more important, like Yovitza writes.
Just do an internet search on these terms and you will find a lot of background material from which you can learn which kind of sensors fit best your purposes.
Good luck,
Marcel
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In Delhi, quality of air went to alarmingly toxic after the functions of Deepavali (Divali) when crackers are used at most by the people. This created 'zero visibility' even in day up to several days.
People with affordable income started to use air purifiers. But what can those people do who are not financially able to afford that. Why such people should suffer.
Is it not better that people making pollution should pay?
Government can charge on the basis of exhausted gases, chemicals etc. in the environment after a certain level. The collections should be paid on the maintaining healthy environment.
How do you think on this issue?
Yes. Environmental harm fees/taxes should be strictly imposed so that industries/companies would make an effort to reduce the wastes they produce. They become more accountable to the their contribution to alarming rate of environmental pollution. The money/tax collected should be used for rehabilitation and conservation projects as to mitigate the effects of climate change
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My thesis is about Occurrence, toxicity and source apportionment of PAH in P.M2.5 in Qom metropolitan in IRAN. I need some information about the location of sampling sites. Does anybody have any standard methods related to this subject? For example distance or proximity to the roads, tree, building or ECT.
Should be Section 58.3 of the NAAQS document from the US-EPA. Some of the appendix info with siting specifications is available here: https://www.law.cornell.edu/cfr/text/40/part-58/appendix-E
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Dear researchers,
I am trying to extract traffic-related particulate matter collected from high volume impactor. The filters I used was Pallflex Emfab filters( Pure borosilicate glass microfibers glass cloth reinforced PTFE bonded). Published studies showed a lower extract rates when extraced PM from the filters.
Can anyone provide a high-efficiency protocol for extracting PM from the filters?
Many thanks!
Hi Dr. Matthew,
I will try your suggestions, many thanks!
Zhangfu
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Former PM10 was defined to be larger than 2.5µm and smaller than 10µm, now all smaller than 10µm?
The 10 micrometer is not the actual size, but an eqivalent aerodynamic size. A PM10 particle may have a physical dimension exceeding 10 micrometers. Definition: The aerodynamic diameter of an irregular particle is defined as the diameter of the spherical particle with a density of 1000 kg/m3 and the same settling velocity as the irregular particle.
According to the current definition, PM2.5 particles are a part of PM10.
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Emissions from the vehicle exhaust have been considered to be affected by the vehicle technology, driving pattern as well as road conditions. How do the traffic emissions in developed countries different from those in developing countries? And what does it mean to the policy makers?
It is believed that quality of gasoline or diesel is an important factor that affects traffic emissions.
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I have SO2 and NO2 values for stack in ppm. i want to convert it in mg/m3 and mg/Nm3.
if I am taking reading direct in mg/m3 from flue gas analyser (Testo 350) and then calculating manually ppm to mg/m3 but both are not coming same.
Kindly suggest me.
Regards
Anand Dev
Dear Anand Dev Gupta,
Br
Marek Maasikmets
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Has anyone here ever used the street box urban air monitor (by signal instruments), i need the procedure for operation and installation.
Dear
Chisomo Mussa
Please find this  article Pedestrian exposure to urban air pollution: exploratory results  I hope my this paper  is helpful for you.
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We are implementing WSN for 'Centralized Air Pollution Monitoring' for high pollution areas in our city. which platform (microcontroller/board) and wireless protocol we should use?
Thanks sir, we'll go through the suggestions.
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I am looking about the air pollutants doseage.There are two questions need to sort it out.
1. Could you please tell me how I can get the proportion by weight of particles that are inhalable by the test species (PM2.5, PM10, NO, CO)
2. the inhalable fraction (inclusion of this parameter is not essential provided that the aerosol has reasonable respirability for the intended species. PM2.5, PM10, NO, CO are they essential or not?
Okay. There are a number of ways to do in vivo PM studies. I realize that there are few studies of very small (i.e. "ultrafines"), but new techniques are being developed. Check out Buckley, et al. (2016): http://www.tandfonline.com/doi/abs/10.1080/02786826.2015.1124987. There have been numerous pharmacological studies (e.g. drug delivery to the lung) that can help. For example, you might be able to apply alveolar deposition models (see: Khajeh-Hosseini-Dalasm and Longest (2016): http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021850214001487.
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I am having Latitude, Longitude and pollution concentration data for 50 points. I want to plot the contour map on the google earth, how do I do that?
Dear Researcher
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I am doing analysis of PM10 collected on Quartz fiber filter.I am expecting organic compounds like n-alkanoic acids decanoic acid, dodecanoic acid etc...I have only one standard that is Heptadecanoic acid.Could i use this chemical for quantify all the acids by making calibration curve from this standard.
Hi Sarika,
I dont think so. I analysed monocarboxylic acids (C8 - C20) by GC-MS 5 years ago. I derivatized them into methyl esters by BF3/methanol and the peak area was different for different acids. The peak area of C16 was the biggest. However I dont have experiences with HPLC.
Rastislav.... PM10 means particles less than 10 micrometers. PM is Particulate Matter.
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Which are free programs can calculate the air pollution from a separate stationary source emission into the atmospher? Model Gause, TAPM? Where can I see examples of calculation (with all input and output data). We developed our own model - we would like to compare the results.
SIRANE is an atmospheric dispersion model for urban air quality.
SIRANE was developed over 15 years by the group AIR - Atmosphere, Impact & Risk of the Laboratoire de Mécanique des Fluides et d'Acoustique of the Ecole Centrale de Lyon.
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i am using Respirable Dust Sampler for ambient air quality monitoring. I want to keep maintain my quality records like uncertainty, %RSD. Kindly send me detail about this, excel calculation sheet.
i welcome some valuable suggestions/query regarding this.
The attached US EPA publication "Quality Assurance Guidance Document 2.12: Monitoring PM2.5 in Ambient Air Using Designated Reference or Class I Equivalent Methods" may provide you with useful information about measuring fine particulates in ambient air.
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Can some one provide BSEN 481 standard method urgently.
Thank you Marcel Sir,
I hope all going well with you.
Can you provide me that old standard if you have and you suggest me any other method regarding the same.
Regards
Gupta A.D.
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Indoor air quality measurement techniques are expected
Activated charcoal is usually only used as sorbent for trapping the VOCs. You need a separation and detection system (thermal desorber plus GC-MS or GC-FID) for analysis. Depending on the species you want to measure, you can select commercial sorbents of different  strength, like carbotrap, carbograph, Tenax, etc. You can also use a combination of two or three sorbents. Conditioning the sorbents is very important for making good measurements.
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Who knows what can be the source of the newly detected by satellites high SO2 fluxes as shown in the attached file, distributed by SACS (BIRA)?.
Surprisingly enough, this SO2 plume has originated from the Etna Volcano, in Italy. The eruption on December 3rd was quite large and the SO2 plume rose as high as 7 or 8km while being constantly transported eastwards. There is no associated ash plume. Below you find an answer from Nicolas Theys, BIRA, Belgium.
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This SO2 plume is coming from Etna eruption on 3rd December : http://sacs.aeronomie.be/nrt/IasiOfl/2015/12.orb_V3/03/iasiB_dbt20151203dc_207_lr.gif
You can follow the transport of the plume on SACS day by day until it reaches China.
The eruption was one the most vigorous eruption of Etna since the last 2 decades and the SO2 plume was emitted quite high (7-8 km) in the atmosphere where it was then transported Eastward as it is often the case for Etna plumes.
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Pollutant parameters I m looking for
PM10
PM2.5
SOx
NOx
hourly data for New Delhi for periods Feb 2014 to Feb 2015
US embassies in India have PM2.5 archived data since 2013 for cities where they have their embassies including for Delhi. But I guess the stations are constrained in and around the vicinity of the embassies. I am not sure whether it is hourly or daily data. The data is in csv format. Another source is the DPCC. I am sure they have archived Air Quality data. However, it is a different matter all together whether they are willing to share historical data. In any case it might be worth contacting them. Links are attached.
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The reference height is where a flux of deposition is applied to a numerical air quality model at the lower boundary. Usually this is 10 meters above surface but would it be better to define this height according to each landuse ?
Hi,
Before deposition, compounds are horizontaly advected or in-situ created from chemical reactions. If you place several horizontal surfaces above ground level, deposition flux should be the same in a steady state whatever their altitude if you stay in a mixed layer (e.g. the boundary layer of the atmosphere) with no local production of the followed coumpound.  So in my opinion deposition flux is not very sensitive to the reference high in the boundary layer, except in the case of local intense production of the deposited compound. This is not true for concentration which increases with the altitude for a deposited species.
If "ground level" is not well defined, for example in a forest, you may experience a decrease of deposition fux below the canopy because part of the flux is intercepted by trees leaves.
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Total Suspended Particulate matter (TSPM) includes Suspended Particulate Matter or SPM (Aerodynamic diameter of 100 micrometer or less) and Respirable suspended Particulate Matter or RSPM (Aerodynamic diameter of 10 micrometer or less). So is it possible to have a sample in which SPM<RSPM? It may be noted that TSPM is always greater than RSPM and SPM.
Remember you are talking about units of concentration. Hence, you are dealing with mass of PM per unit volume of ambient air. So, lets say that a substantial portion of your TSPM is made up of particles of sizes 10 microns and smaller. Then, you will expect that there will actually be a large concentration of particulate mater of size 10 microns and less when you look individually at this one fraction of PM in the ambient air. So yes, it is possible.
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I am trying to measure how much oxygen a plant (urban trees) produces and I need a methodology to do it. Then I want to compare if the quantity of oxygen produced by the plants in a urban area is enough for the people that live in the urban area. Considering that this place has few trees and many cars. I am assuming the air quality is low due to pollution from cars.
I hope someone can help with some methodology, instruments or other similar works that have been done.
Thanks
Dear Jaime,
An adult man needs about 700 grams of oxygen per day (255 kg/year), corresponding to what provide a dozen trees in one year (from 15 to 30 kg per tree). Urban tree therefore produces a very small share of the large amounts of oxygen consumed in large cities, but the native oxygen produced by the leaves could play an important health role for the trees themselves, and their proximity, notably in the canopy.
With my best regards
Prof. Bachir ACHOUR
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How operatively to collect data on air pollution in the city using a mobile laboratory? Are there any special techniques for using drones for air pollution monitoring (at different heights, using a special flight path, etc.) along the road and near with stationary sources of pollution? What is the theory, successful examples?
Dear Vitalii,
depending on the pollutants, the speed of the drone/vehicle is also important (isocinetic sampling e. g. dust). At Karlsruhe, a local tram is/was used to collect pollution data. At Wuppertal, we used the Suspension-Railway to measure PM10 concentrations. A lot of publications about airborne-measurements by drones and aircrafts can be found here:
Yours
Ulrich
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Hi,
I'm using a lagrangian dispersion model to study the contribuition of urban traffic to concentrations of NOX. We need to compare model results with measurements, but of course the model does not include chemistry and cannot simulate the photochemical NOX.On the other hand we both have a regional scale model that can treat the full chemistry and we have access to several monitoring station data.
I'm currently studying the method described in  Saravanan A., et al, "A Method for Estimating Urban Background Concentrations in Support of Hybrid Air Pollution Modeling for Environmental Health Studies", Int. J. Environ. Res. Public Health 2014. but I can't seem to find a practical example of the method application.
Can someone suggest an alternative method with a reference in which we can see it actually applied to some cases?
thanks
Felicita
Yes Francesco,
I received it. Thank you very much!
Felicita
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I would like to measure ETS exposure inside homes.
Thank you Gillian and Karbassi for your feedback.  I will look into both of your ideas and recommendations.
Regards
Leah
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I tried searching about concentration response function but all I can get was on dose response function. Are they the same and are there any differences between these two?
Dose refers to an internal amount of a toxicant administered to an organism.  Concentration refers to the amount of a toxicant exposed to an organism.  For example in toxicological studies, if a substance is administered internally by gavage or by injection, it is a dose.  If the organism is "exposed" by the air route or aquatic route (for example) it is an exposure since one doesn't know for sure the actual internal dose.  In terms of dealing with the data, it is the same - you can generate a dose-response curve or a concentration-response curve.  I hope this helps and most basic toxicology texts explain this relationship.
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I need to interpret my data to find the source contribution of the traffic site from where i collected samples. In that regard, I need source profiles of a traffic site in india for using the USEPA CMB 8.2 Software.. Somebody do the needful please.
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I am interested in measuring NH3 continuously in ambient air with an adequate level of detection
Use an ammonia sensitive electrode. Lowest LOD will be reached with a gas electrode in which an ammonium-ion selective (NH4+)-membrane electrode is used instead of a pH-glass electrode used in commercially available ammonia electrodes. We used a stretched Teflon gas permeable membrane and an inner puffer solution of around pH4 to convert the ammonia gas into ammonium ions. This resulted in LOD’s in the lower ppb range. Those sensors were used by the US army to detect hidden soldiers in the Vietnam War.
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With so many new ones are coming out on the market, it's becoming harder to keep track. I do have experience with the Dylos DC1100, which I have mixed feelings about.
Harry, you are right. To hold the costs down, reliable gravimetric information can be also obtained using an internal filter holder (i.e. TSI DustTrak II, GRIMM, etc), which is not so expensive but very useful. In my opinion it is important to keep in mind that these optical instruments can give continuous (not always accurate) results. There is no need for many gravimetric measurements: once a mean calibration factor is determined for a specific environment and a specific PM fraction, the instrument can be used with greatly improved accuracy.
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I have been doing a data analysis for 4-5 years of PM10. I also downloaded UV Aerosol Index for the same period. Now I did a seasonal average and finds that UVAI is higher in summer followed by winter and almost similar in monsoon and post-monsoon. However my Pm10 average is highest during winter followed by post-monsoon, summer and monsoon. Can anyone please suggest what does it indicate. Also please recommend some best articles with this regards if possible.
Thanks,
Parth
Dear Parth,
Are you using the NASA GES DISC Aerosol Index or a national data set available in your country? As you will see from
that index "detects the presence of uv-absorbing aerosols such as dust and soot".
The proper interpretation of that index is explained later on as follows: "Positive values of Aerosol Index generally represent absorbing aerosols (dust and smoke) while small or negative values represent non-absorbing aerosols and clouds. The Index can be interpreted in terms of optical depth if the index of refraction, particle size distribution, and the height of the aerosol layer are known from other measurements."
Hence this index primarily reports on the absorbing properties of the aerosols in the UV spectral domain. It does not, per se or alone, say anything about the size distribution of the airborne particles, though such information may be derived if multiple other variables are fully specified.
On the other hand, PM10 (and PM2.5) values are indicators of the number of airborne particles of 10 (2.5) micrometers in size or less
irrespective of their chemical composition, and thus of their possible impact in absorbing UV radiation.
There may be a weak link between these two indicators, but it is certainly non trivial. The main question is why did you pick these two indicators or try to relate them a priori? Do you expect a relation? If so, which one and why? What is your hypothesis or starting point?
Cheers, Michel.
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I'm studying the propagation and dissipation of the dust cloud produced due to demolition. I wonder if there are some guidelines about at the total amount of dust produced by demolition process. Thanks
Hello, many years ago we have studied dust pollution due to quarrying activity. Most of the data are in this paper: Das, DB, Bhargave, A, Kushwaha, R, Gupta, AB, Pandit, MK (1998) Quarrying induced particulate air pollution in Jaipur City, western India, Journal of Nepal Geological Society, 18, pp.369-378.
You may download it from my list of publication but if there is any problem please email at d.b.das@lboro.ac.uk, I wil email you a copy..
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I am getting single peak (12:00-3:00pm) for Aecetylene and propene in the diurnal plot.
Acetylene and isopropene have been mostly reported as emission products from traffic with higher levels around noon, or at times with corresponding higher traffic volumes. Check out some articles of Agnes Borbon, http://www.lisa.univ-paris12.fr/fr/component/comprofiler/userprofile/aborbon or via researchgate.
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We have four FIDs + electrometers EL 980 for on-line concentration measuring. There is a problem, that the zero baseline on FID1 is shifting and in some time (ca. minutes to hour) it reaches the maximum value, but without any sample input. After applying the autozero function, the baseline moves down on some value, but in some time it starts to shift again. Is this a problem of the FID itself or the electrometer module?
Full agree with Peter Apps. If you don't have any documentation to FID, following remarks could help:
We have experience with fast FID (FFID) HFR400 from Cambustion performing in open-circuit wind-tunnel that the best range flame temperature for non-problematic concentration measurements as well as for calibration is from 280 up to 350°C. Below the range the improper calibration occurs, above the range the sealing and tubes suffer and need to be changed frequently.
Another important note is that the flame temperature should be maintained at certain level during measurements, hence between the calibration points. This temp. level is dependent on proper set-up of the FID's working gas pressures (hydrogen and air) and vacuum pump.
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I have XAD resin (beads form diameter 400 um) and can not find the smaller one from the supplier. but I need ones with size of 50-100um.
How can I make them to get a evenly distributed particle size (50-100um).
It seems grounding manually and sieving is not that a best way because it will lose some of the XAD.
Any better idea?
thanks.
Dear sir
Look, if the resin is hard enough to be ball milled, try the smallest size of ball mill in case of large amounts needed.  In case of small amounts, try the kitchen blender.
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I found that PM2.5 and Satellite AOD are very well correlated at specific range of surface low pressure (996-1010 hPa) - My question is that why AOD and PM2.5 has high correlation (R = 0.86) during surface low pressure - I want to know the reason of this high correlation - Can anyone please explain the reason of this good correlation?
Thanks & regards,
Bilal
Could you please clarify the source of data that you are using? Which satellite data, and PM2.5 data and what are their temporal/spatial resolution?
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Specifically, I am interested in: Sensitivity and Selectivity, comparison with reference method for SO2 measurements, recovery period needed after each gas exposure, or equivalent, recommended frequencies of measurements for urban pollution monitoring.
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Refining methods of air pollutants in the rubber industry need to improve? Which pollutants and by what method?
This is a broad question so I hope that this response helps!
Specific answers to your question are hard to identify because you do not identify the exact part/process of the 'rubber industry' you are referring to. In general terms, I suggest a process orientated analysis based on a 'walk through' of the process from start to finish so from raw materials received on site to product being despatched and taking account of process orientated releases and fugitive emissions.
Not knowing from what position you are starting I could be missing the point but I personally would seek knowledge of the industry and a simple starting point could be to use UK Department of Environment (which is very elderly now) which are still available at https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/department-of-environment-industry-profiles. These could give you an overview of the process.
Then I would use UK regulator's guidance to see what should be monitored and how. These documents are also available as a reference for example http://www.defra.gov.uk/industrial-emissions/files/6_28-Final-June-2014.pdf
With this background information in place it is possible to define the process and the points of emission including the nature of the pollutant, volume, etc. Clearly what you then measure is a balance of the nature of the process and the purpose of the assessment i.e. environmental impact, process verification or health impact. Moreover, as has been identified other characteristics may be useful to you e.g. spatial, temporal, diurnal characteristics....
So no direct answer per se to your question but I hope it helps define a direction.
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please correct my calculation regarding collection of stack sample for particulate matter by using "L" shape prob  Stack sample in iso-kinetic conditions………(1)
[[[[[
V=0.2002 (∆H*Ts)
∆H-pressure difference in mmH2O in the chimney/stack of flue gasous
Ts- temperature of  flue gas
V- velocity of flue gas in the stack
0.20020 is constant for specific equipment
Then we calculate Qs- volumetric flow rate
As :
Qs= V*An*60*1000; An area of the nozzle
Then we calculate Qs
Q!s= Qs* ( 273+25)/Ts……………………(2)
Finally we calculate Qm
Value to analyze sample, the actual flow rate to collect the sample
Qm= Qs*{( P!m-Pm)/Patm}* ( Ta/Ta)…… (3)
]]]]
so I want to ask that i never find pressure same at point or any fraction of second of flue gas in side the stack so how it will be ISO Kinetic?? (1)
(2) Is in above mentioned equation is 273+25 is fixed value or temperature of ambient at the time of collection of sample??
(3) is there other possibility to know the barometric pressure without using barometric gauge??
Also requested to suggest some reference/Books/sites to know more about air sampling.
Thank you
I recommend you to refer the book : "The atmospheric chemist's companion : numerical data for use in the atmospheric sciences" by Peter Warneck, Jonathan Williams - Publisher - springer
The book is a compilation of useful data in the area of atmospheric science and emissions (It is not a book on theory or procedures).
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For example, if my particle counter reads 452000 particles of 1.0 um, what factor can I use to convert the reading to ---um/m3?
Unless you know, a priori, the density of the particles and how density varies with particle size in your particular sample, mass cannot be accurately assessed by a number measurement.  Density differs depending on composition and size distribution, information that is often more difficult to obtain than a direct mass measurement.  It is far simpler to determine mass directly via filter mass difference (e.g., PM2.5 sampling over a PTFE membrane) during concurrent sampling of particle number measurements.
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