Science topic

Agroforestry - Science topic

Explore the latest questions and answers in Agroforestry, and find Agroforestry experts.
Questions related to Agroforestry
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
The title of my research is " contribution of agroforestry in soil fertility to small farmers." I'm using mixed-method research so I'm having difficulty creating hypotheses since I don't know which type of hypothesis should I use.
Relevant answer
Answer
It’s apparently Ok. But the title chosen suggests there are positive contributions to soil fertility from agroforestry. Is the null necessary?
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
The title of my research is the contribution of agroforestry in soil fertility to small farmers. I'm using mixed-method research I don't know what should I do in making the theoretical framework. Sorry if I'm not good in English.
Relevant answer
Or compare different models :)
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
1 answer
This is in reference to tree species identification using submeter multispectral optical satellite data or UAV images in the context of horticulture and agroforestry studies.
Relevant answer
Answer
Shivam Trivedi, I would recommend that you peruse this work (link provided below). It may be helpful. All the best.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
2 answers
I have data on DBH and the Height of different agroforestry species from different agroecological conditions, and I want to quantify the site-specific and species-specific aboveground biomass (ABG)by using existing allometric equations, what procedures can I use? am I need to produce the scatter plots? am I need a model fit? DBH and Height should be my independent variables. Is it possible also to add other factors which have not been used in those existing equations such as temperature and precipitation since they can affect the biomass?
Any guidance should be appreciated or any papers where they have used existing allometric equations for tree biomass quantification.
Relevant answer
Answer
I have one publication regarding allometric equations entitled "moisture content, density and allometric model for estimation above-ground biomass of peronema canescens jack in the private forest". i hope it will help you. thank you
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
1 answer
I am working on the estimation and simulation of the carbon-sequestration potential of different agroforestry systems.
However, I am unable to download it from the official website. http://dataservices.efi.int/casfor/models.htm
Even after filling the form around 10-20 times.
So kindly share the CO2fix 3.2 model here in Zip form or send it to my email: prashantsharma927@gmail.com
Thanks in advance
Regards,
Prashant Sharma
Relevant answer
Answer
Kindly find the link provided below, the link is valid for 72hrs. http://dataservices.efi.int/casfor/CO2FIX/download/6ae38f6f6793c17a/setup_CO2Fix_V3.2.exe
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
I need to know which tree species can be beneficial to be planted close to date palm trees for better yield and soil improvement (with references).
Relevant answer
Answer
Thank you @Shuraik Kader for sharing this useful paper.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
11 answers
There is a lot of demand for information about the potential of different tree species (and also other types of crops) to capture and store carbon.
Such information is critical to designing farms with a better climate footprint.
This is particularly true for agroforestry farming systems relying on one or more tree species!
However, information on this topic seems completely scattered and not synthesized.
Does such a database exist?
Best regards,
Thomas Fungenzi
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
11 answers
I am going to calculate the carbon sequestration potential of some trees in arid and semi-arid regions using trunk diameter and tree height. Is there a way to calculate carbon sequestration potential without destroying trees?
What is the most suited reliable method?
Selected trees include apple, walnut, elm and almond.
Relevant answer
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
That would be grateful if you could bring examples of agroforestry from around the world.
Relevant answer
Answer
Very interesting question @ Elaheh Daghighi. In Asia perspective I would say Prosopis Juliflora and Leucaena leucocephala are some effective tree species that can be suitable for soil health improvement. Also you can go for Azadirachta indica that tree sp. has good insecticidal properties, air purification properties and also improves soil health.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
I would like to know how to calculate the sample size for the inventory of trees in the agricultural landscape (Agroforestry diversity and allometric inventory).
The first study area has 32626 ha, and the second has 101064 ha.
I intended to use the cross-plots along the transect.
Relevant answer
Answer
You sample c. 5% of the area using a minimum of 30 quadrats or trees to fulfil the central limit theorem :)
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
8 answers
what are the effects of different altitudinal variation on productivity of agroforestry systems in India?
Relevant answer
Answer
A declining trend with an increase in altitude reported at Himalayan regions by several workers.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
I want to correlate the ecology of agroforestry with economics.
Relevant answer
Answer
Indeed, Ecosystem Services Valuation (ESV) with Circular Economy Valuation (CEV) are perfectly bridging ecology of agroforestry with economics. Indicative research works are the following:
Kyriakopoulos G.L. et al. (2017). Ecosystems Services Valuation (ESV) Then and Now: A Review. Chapter 1, In: Advances in Energy Research vol. 27, 1–61. Nova Science Publishers. ISBN: 978-1-53612-305-0.
Kyriakopoulos G.L. (2021). Environmental Legislation in European and International Contexts: Legal Practices and Social Planning toward the Circular Economy. Laws 10(1), 3; 15 pp. doi: 10.3390/laws10010003. https://www.mdpi.com/2075-471X/10/1/3
Zamparas M., Kyriakopoulos G.L. (2021). A New Method for Lake Restoration, Impacting on Circular Economy (CE). Chapter 8, In: Chemical Lake Restoration – Technologies, Innovations and Economic Perspectives, 1st Edition, Editors: Miltiadis G. Zamparas and Grigorios L. Kyriakopoulos, 195-203. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-76380-0. https://doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-76380-0_8
Kyriakopoulos, G.L., Kapsalis, V.C., Aravossis, K.G., Zamparas, M., Mitsikas, A. (2019). Evaluating circular economy under a multi-parametric approach: A technological review. Sustainability, 11 (21), 6139. DOI: 10.3390/su11216139
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
19 answers
Journals related to fruit based Agroforestry and horticulture basically for a review paper.
Relevant answer
Answer
Journal of Horticulture and Forestry
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
21 answers
Hi,
I'm looking for data (mainly related to management: growth rate, canopy size, soil and climate preferences, etc.) about tropical trees used in tropical agroforestry.
Have you ever heard about a database or a source of technical information available to agroforest managers?
That would really facilitate land management and field experiments.
As always, I am trying to use these questions to centralize information from different sources. RG questions tend to be well indexed in Google for different users. Thank you for your contributions!
Best,
Thomas
Relevant answer
Answer
Thomas Fungenzi i guess the attached document might be of your help
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
10 answers
There is a problem of water logging in the farm fields for maximum time after flood. Suitable agroforestry species for water logging areas.
Relevant answer
Answer
There are plenty of them. Can be easily browsed . Tree species like Tamarix aphylla, Acacia modesta and Acacia nilotica, as well as exotic species such as Acacia stenophylla, Acacia ampliceps, Casuarina obesa, Eucalyptus camaldulensis, Prosopis chilensis, Prosopis siliquestrum and Prosopis alba exhibited high survival rates under waterlogged conditions.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
2 answers
I've been searching for indonesian (especially java island) native species of crops & vegetables that can be applied for agroforestry on slope with high level of canopy shadding.
So I will appreciate if I can have some recommendation from someone with botanical experts.
Thank you.
Relevant answer
I think these papers help
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
17 answers
I'm studying agroforestry practices in volcano prone area (Mount Merapi in Indonesia). There are some benefits from this system to be volcano disaster mitigation strategies. So actually how far this system is effective can contribute to disaster mitigation strategies, not limited for volcano prone area.
Relevant answer
Answer
'Agroforestry' had its significance in the earlier days at least in India which used to meet the agro requirements of the farmers in terms of the quality wood. Bund cultivation was practiced mainly from this objective. Agroforestry has a broader objective and need be specific to the objectives and more so if it is disaster mitigation. You may also supplement the local species with suitable varieties from other regions. This would basically bind the soil and the roots provide greater strength against any penetration.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
9 answers
There is lot of emphasis on expansion of green cover or trees on farms (asfForest being common resources even after so conservation laws and efforts forest degradation and deforestation is still on) through agroforestry and tree farming can be a cheaper solution for mitigating climate change effects. If so why in UNFCC only 10-15% projects on A/R under carbon credits framework? If developing countries opting for CDM projects under A/R categories to reach out poor farmers in tropics, rules need to be made simpler and affordable fees for registration for carbon finance. Why only corporate plantations are having edge in projects. How farmers friendly tree farming policies at national level harmonized with climate change & UNFCC.
Relevant answer
Answer
Yes. Certainly!
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
Daily water demand per day in Milliliter (ml)
Relevant answer
Answer
It depends on soil moisture conditions, tree density, drought stress, and many other factors. So, you have to calculate the quantity of water based on the local conditions and environments.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
12 answers
Farmers still rely on slow-growing species which take a long time and monitoring. We have fast-growing species like Melia dubia which can be used in numerous ways even for the pulp and paper industries along with wood industries. Agroforestry implications and Melia trials have shown higher income and productivity for the farmers that rely on these species.
Relevant answer
Answer
Availability of market is major concern for Melia dubia in non-traditional states. No doubt that Melia has huge potential being fast growing, high productivity and matching farmers need but as like Tamil Nadu, AP, KN, Gujarat and some extend in Haryana, we do not have market in other states. In case of Tectona grandis, the zeal of planting is more as it take more than 20 years for rotation. Because, small scale industry is present even at village level to big cities for furniture of teak. The using teak furniture in house is considered as status symbol even among poor people too.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
Dear All,
I am working on digital classification and Agroforestry species suitability at Farm level in Indian region. could any one please suggest best model for Species distribution Modeling? where id id availabe? and what data will be required for the best species suitability at farm level scale at Bunds or inside the field. is there any method to find the crop- plant interaction.
Thanks in advance!
best Regards,
Raj
Relevant answer
Answer
Any species distribution modelling method (e.g. MAXENT, GLM,... read ) can be used for tree distribution modelling. However, precaution needs to be taken in tree presence data available, bioclimatic, geographic, landuse, and soil data available. Evaluation of the SDM is very important for better results. (check - h ; ; ) For the Tree-crop interaction, the WaNuLCAS model is suitable.
- Sailesh
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
2 answers
Most research using the scoring method by Norton, such as "TOWARDS A METHOD TO SET PRIORITIES AMONGST SPECIES FOR TREE IMPROVEMENT RESEARCH - A CASE STUDY FROM WEST AFRICA" by Jaenicke (1995) receives their score through interviews and questionnaires send to farmers, practitioners or researchers. In my master thesis (Tree selection for an Agroforestry system) however, I want to create this score primarily on existing literature, and complement it by sending questionnaires to experts only for those criteria, where literature is missing. This means I would have to define my own scale (e.g. what pH tolerance of a tree may be suited or not suited to a specific soil) to objectify this very subjective method as much as possible. I am thus wondering, if this could be a feasible way to conduct this method?
In the Handbook "Monitoring and Evaluating Agricultural Research (1993)" Norton speaks of using literature for identifying criteria, but not necessarily for scoring itself, thus I am a little bit confused and would appreciate your help!
Relevant answer
Answer
A combination of soil scientists, who typically inventory and map soils, their physical, biological, chemical and moisture regimes and botanists who work to identify native species as well as any desirable or allowable non-native species (ie, non invasive) do typically inventory and map conditions as you suggest. If you have maps of soils series and native species boundaries, you may find some of the available information desired. When analyzing specific activities, such as silvipasture, frequent biomass removal or specialized wildlife treatments, then the activities and actions may necessitate avoiding some species that are sensitive, such as are damaged by compaction, fire, animal damage, too much sunlight (intolerant species selected), too little sunlight (shade tolerant species selected), etc.
Tree improvement programs don't always yield the long term results desired. Taller and faster growing trees may be weaker in strength and subjected to more storm or other damage in some circumstances, such as a National Forest where old growth, storm resilience and longer rotations become more important.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
11 answers
SDGs are adopted to tackle numerous issues of human mankind and to secure our environment. Nowadays Agroforestry becoming a silver bullet to answer nine out of 17 SDGs on various fronts. Theoretically many are portrayed that agroforestry is a solution but practically (statistical figures) how agroforestry will provide answers to them.
Relevant answer
Answer
Have a look at this useful RG link.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
12 answers
The components constituting agroforestry depend on our culture and the way of living. I need more explanations.
Relevant answer
Answer
In Tanzania this can best e described i the context of agroforestry systems which are land management practices in which trees and shrubs are produced on the same land area as agricultural crops or livestock. Agroforestry is designed to help local communities and cultures thrive. With the help of agroforestry specialists, indigenous people and local communities (IPLC) like the indigenous Maasai and hadzabe living in Yaida Chini and Olduvai Gorge in Ngorogoro Conservation Area respectively can continue with their local beliefs and culture while ensuring long term sustainability of the traditional systems. Furthermore, by preserving indigenous working techniques and species, agroforestry also helps to protect humankind’s agricultural heritage.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
14 answers
Allelochemicals exuded by the trees may disintegrate due to photo-decomposition or diluted in soil water or their effects become null and void in an agroforetsry system. It may work well under lab conditions but i think the effect may be limited under field conditions. Further barring a few tree species, the principle does not apply.
Relevant answer
Answer
Allelopathy plays a significant role in the agroecosystems, forest plantations and agroforestry systems altering competitive interactions between plant species in the community and affecting crop yield. These interactions are mostly deleterious to the receiver plants but provide a selective advantage to the donor.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
ISARA is coordinating the education part of Cacao Forest Initiative (http://www.cacaoforest.org/english) supporting local universities to reinforce education on Agroforestry.
We are looking for any expert (fluent in spanish) for this task
Relevant answer
Answer
We have a series of teaching and training options at CATIE, focussing on agroforestry systems with coffee or cacao. Some background information is included in the global review on the potential of agroforestry for climate-smart production:
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
1 answer
Beside dung beetles, I would like to learn more about the diversity of arthropods in silvopasture systems where livestock are kept on rotation. Also what about arthropods diversity in similar systems in temperate zones? Thank you.
Relevant answer
Answer
What makes you think that I, a modest Medical Anthropologist with some experience in medical aspects of people's migration, am an expert in this particular matter?
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
15 answers
Agroforesty is the deliberate combination of the agriculture crops and forest trees on the same piece of the land management unit. Researcher generally presumed that the agroforestry systems are only present on the agriculture lands. Although from my point of view agroforestry systems like silvopastoral, Protein bank, Energy plantations are present beyond the agriculture lands. Pleases give suggestion with reference.
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
12 answers
Dear I have a large network in the field ho permit me took a samples from all Algeria territory but especialy from West. Unfortunately I haven't financial support. Ho are interesting to start collaboration with us.
Best regards
Gaouar Semir Bechir Suheil
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Henry
Thanks a lot for your responce. I have a Phd student ho have a problem in genetic caracterization (not financial suport in Algeria). I need any help can resolve this situation by collaboration on any agroforestry tree grown in Algeria.
Best regards
Suheil
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
2 answers
Carbon forestry or carbon credits produced in agroforestry systems can be easily regulated to benefit small and marginal farmers. Though protocols have been developed in Africa and India under CDM mechanism but still this has been is out of understanding and reach of farmers. even many agroforestry extension workers also unaware of these developments. how many successful stories of carbon fiance in agroforestry or plantations and how to scale up its adoption by simple methodologies for lager benefit of framers specially in India. I share any government policy to incentivize the farmers participating through agroforestry and linking same with carbon credits. Can this be one top up to increase the income of farmers. please share the new development on the topic
Relevant answer
Answer
its true sir but it need to time to build carbon credits by raising tree and more over it is subsidiary benefit as he will grow it for direct economic gain by selling timber produce.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
Forestry or agroforestry extension is an emerging discipline for determining key factors responsible for its extension or adoption by people. In ear of climate change mainly in developing country agroforestry is economic tool for adoption but it outreach is not beyond fertliser, timber, fuel and fodder. There are various studies conducted for survey and extension but no standard scale is developed for generic criteria. With respect to current scenario what is to be generic scale or parameters for forestry/ agroforestry extension?
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
10 answers
Best remote sensing method for mapping of agroforestry systems and biomass estiamtion without ground data
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
How can agroforestry practice reduce the dependency of farmers on primary agricultural commodities and help to establish the production of value-added products?
Relevant answer
Answer
Farmers are becoming more independent from the Government. And can earn significantly more money. To do this, they need not only to grow energy crops for biomass but also to join efforts with businessmen who are ready to transfer gas-fired boiler houses to work on wood chips (biomass). Because it is even more profitable to produce heat from biomass than to grow biomass itself. And the money for the coolants are not paid to other countries, but remain in the region where biomass is grown (energy willow).
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
Hello,
I'm looking for recent data on the use of fertilizers and pesticides in EU forestry. Would you know any EU website where I could find it ?
Cheers,
Laurent
Relevant answer
Answer
@ Laurent, please check the below websites:
http://ec.europa.eu>eurostat>statistics.explained>index.php>Agri-env
www.fao.org>faostat
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
Agroforestry extension is not very widely developed. During last 40 years after scientific agroforestry started different models of new agroforestry developed but their adoption and impact studies are limited. In India like countries it has widespread mixed with traditional agroforestry models. So as you no field or agriculture landscape without trees but what kind of models are more preferred, priorities , adoption and impact not properly known. How to develop criteria and indicators for Agroforestry adoption and impact studies? Is there any such studies please share to improve my studies.
Relevant answer
Answer
One can use the methodological framework developed by IIFM for evolving C&I for SFM. we can modify accordingly and use for agroforestry. More over we can use filters to evolve the C&I for Agroforestry systems.
Small work has been carried out by Dr. Panjabrao Deshmukh Krishi Vidyapeeth, Akola, Maharashtra India on Development of C&I for Sustainable Management of Agroforestry
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
7 answers
5kg biomass = ? electricity?
I am searching literature to know the exact value of energy (electricity) we can generate by burning a unit biomass of food crops, forest wastes, grasses etc., so that economic benefits of bioenergy industry (biomass heat for electricity generation) can be calculated.
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
Don't forget that the chemical energy in biomass fulfils a natural function in assisting its biodegradation and recycling without the release of excess CO2 into the environment. Intercepting or bypassing this part of the natural cycle produces much larger amounts of CO2 and leaves behind an ash residue that is not so easily reconverted into quality soil. Basically biomass isn't "waste" at all - it's just part of the natural carbon cycle, and treating it as waste ignores this important point.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
8 answers
I am currently undertaking a study on long-term soil fertility changes and organic matter dynamics in cocoa plantations.
I would like to study the effect of organic amendments and fertilizers on soil, and if possible, on cocoa productivity.
I have access to sites to perform a range of analyses, but given the timescale at which cocoa plantations develops, modelling is a complementary tool to understand how soil have changed in the past, and how they could be changed through different management practices.
I looked into the WalNulCas model, but cocoa is not parametrised yet in the crop library.
There is CASE2, a cocoa physiological production model, but soil changes are not integrated (only water regimes).
There is CENTURY, but I am not sure that a cocoa agroforestry system can be simulated with it.
I am currently going for AMG/Hénin-Dupuis, as a plan B, to look at soil changes, but it won't help me with cocoa growth, development and production.
Any suggestions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Karen,
The version I had did not have cocoa fully parametrized. I recently met someone with a newer version, and cocoa has now been parametrized.
Could you share with us the download link of the version you use?
Thanks
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
22 answers
Which are the main agroforestry strategies for carbon sequestration? Are the crops yield and the farmers income affected by these strategies?
Relevant answer
Answer
Nice response Dr Dobriyal. How do you see a empirical relation between carbon footprint and net primary productivity vis- a- via plant biomass...
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
For any non-linear equations, how can we estimate the asymptotic standard error for each of the parameters (say a, b, c, d) of that equation?
Let say an equation:
Y = a/[1+b exp (-c x X] (1/d)
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks again Brunu Martin ..... I have removed the tag C++....
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
What is the difference between Traditional Agroforestry and Ethnoagroforestry?
Relevant answer
Briefly, traditional agroforestry systems are agricultural systems developed by traditional peoples or communities. I believe that the term "Ethnoagroforestry" represents a branch of the ethnosciences that is responsible for the study of traditional agroforestry systems.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
11 answers
Agroforestry systems are suggested as sustainable designs in agroecosystems because (among several benefits) they enhance agrobiodiversity. Why then in the agricultural landscapes of more temperate zones agroforestry systems are not constructed as much as in the tropics?
Relevant answer
In fact agroforestry practices have a long history in temperate climates (see this link: http://orgprints.org/18173/1/History_of_agroforestry_v1.0.pdf).
I believe that greater importance is given to these systems in tropical countries, this may be related to the attempt to contain tropical forest deforestation and to overcome rural poverty in these countries, this is seen in the very history of agroforestry systems research and in the itself "agroforestry".
In the 1970s there was a growing concern about land use and the devastation of tropical forests, socio-environmental problems resulting from deforestation for fuel production and expansion of agriculture and livestock were already evident, and poverty was concentrated in the rural areas of countries. In that decade the FAO redirected its policies in search of solutions to poverty and the rapid conversion of forest ecosystems. However, it was the International Development Research Center of Canada (IDRC) that took the first steps in pursuing these solutions.
IDRC subsidized research and expeditions, led by forestry engineer John Bene, to develop agricultural models that would allow the integration of forests into agricultural systems. As a result of their research, in 1977 John Bene and his team published the Trees, Food and People (Link - https://idl-bnc-idrc.dspacedirect.org/bitstream/handle/10625/930/IDL-930.pdf?sequence=1) report, identifying the priority themes for forestry and agricultural research in the tropics, arguing that greater attention should be given to forestry, agriculture and / or livestock farming, emphasizing that this was the key issue for food production and forest conservation. In reference to the integration practices between crops, livestock and forest, the authors suggested the term "agroforestry".
In the 1980s the main focus of the ICRAF was the research with these systems in Africa, from 1990 its area of ​​action expanded to South America and Asia, tropical regions and that much of the population lived in poverty. Other institutions directed also directed more research efforts to these regions, influencing the generation of knowledge and also in a greater popularization of these practices in tropical countries.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
Je suis chercheur en agroforesterie et pour mois les forêts mixtes représentent une alternative crédibles face aux changements climatiques par les multiples services qu'elles peuvent offrir aux populations adjacentes.
Merci de prendre en considération cette préoccupations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Merci de cette pertinente réponse.
Je suis d'accord.
Mr Souleye BADIANE
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
Anthocephalus cadamba ( Kadamb tree) is a well known fast growing tree used in industrial agroforestry. Its wood has various uses. I am interested on studies on its seed technological and nursery aspects. How best its seed can be collected, storage time and nursery practices. Its vegetative propagation is also standardized but still seedlings has its importance for mass scale planting material. Please share your valuable points and research articles on the topic.
Relevant answer
Answer
Propagation Technology
Through Seeds
The ripened fruits are orange in colour, harvested from the trees
during September to December by climbing or shaking the branches
after spreading collection sheets on the ground. The seeds are mature
when the fruit has changed colour to dark brown. The collected fruits
can be allowed to rot for three to four days and pulp is then washed
off by hand in a bucket of water; seeds settled at the bottom are taken
out and dried well. Or, the fruits may be rubbed to form a paste like
slurry, which is passed through a 0.50 mm sieve plate and shaken vigorously (Vijayaraghavan, 2014). The blackish paste sieved
through the plate is collected into a pan and dried to extract seeds.
Each fruit on an average yields 456 mg of seeds. Another method is
by cutting the fruits into small parts and allowing them to dry and
after a few days crush the small parts and separate the seeds. One
gram has around 23,000 to 25,000 seeds..
Seeds can remain viable for up to 6 months at an ambient
temperature (Joker, 2000). According to Martawijaya et al. (1989),
dried seeds stored in airtight containers in a moist room will retain
viability for about one year. The germination rate of fresh seeds is
variable, but generally low at about 25%. When seeds are stored in
cool, airtight boxes for about 2.5 months, a much higher germination
rate (up to 95%) can be obtained.
Because of their small size, the seeds are mixed with fine sand
(1:10) and sown in seedbeds. The sieved seeds need no pre-sowing
treatment. Seeds of about 0.1g (about 2500 seeds) can be sown in
galvanized or wooden trays filled with fine river sand and soil and
treated with fungicide. The seeds better be mixed with sterilized sand
before sowing. They are sown in February at the rate of about 0.2 gm
of seed per m2 of bed. Winter sowing is not successful. Percentage of
germination is high.
The germination of A.cadamba seeds in open beds is generally
difficult. Therefore, plants are invariably raised in shaded beds to
exclude insolation and splashing effects of rain water. Before sowing,
the beds are thoroughly wetted and seeds are broadcast on the top
taking care that they do not get buried in the soil, instead they are
patted with hand. Germination takes place in about three weeks. The
germination percentage is 60-90. The seedlings from the tray can be
pricked and transplanted in polybag containers with fungicide after
attaining a height of 5 cm. Shade cover is needed after transplanting.
Growth is fast under tropical conditions and seedlings could reach
plantable size (30 cm) in 4 to 5 months. Seedlings require periodic
watering in the first stages of development. Common mistakes in
propagation are over-watering and associated disease problems,
over-shading and allowing the germinants to become too large for
easy transplanting leading to malformed tap roots or root curling
in the pots. About 200,000 seedlings can be obtained from 1 kg of seeds in nurseries. Out planting is done with 35-50 cm tall seedlings.
The seedbeds should be protected from heavy rain and not watered
too much as damping-off can be a problem. To prevent damping-off
disease, seedlings should be placed in well-ventilated conditions. A
mild fungicidal spray may also be used to prevent the damping-off
disease (Vijayaraghavan, 2014).
Through Vegetative Propagation
It has been reported that Indole butyric acid (IBA) and Napthale￾neacetic acid (NAA) at 500 ppm treatments give better results than
other treatments (Vijayaraghavan, 2014). Sometimes the treatment
with 5000 ppm of IBA during rooting and survival in air layering
can be valuable. Coppicing is another method used for regeneration
in A. cadamba
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
11 answers
Does Agroforestry practices conserve soil over a short period of time? After how long do we expect soil erosion rate to decrease in agroforestry experiments?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello, At the same time, agroforestry practices can increase energy security considerably in the short run because they can deliver additional fuelwood within a few years, increase agricultural productivity and restore land properties and services .
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
There are some articles on potentials of agroforesty for regeneration or increase of productivity for abandoned lands/degraded and or lands with poor soil health. But huge area of such lands in tropics are not converted to agroforesry ecosystems. Please discuss this matter and problems or limitations for such development.
Relevant answer
Answer
@ Ratnayake, the major limitations for such developments are: lack of knowledge of the technology, availability of suitable seeds and appropriate skills for development of agroforestry.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
I am working in the Sahel on agroforestry parklands where there is a strong interaction between crops and animals in pasture. The animal brings manure to the soil and the crops produce fodder.
Relevant answer
Answer
@Moussa, in addition to suggestions above you may also consider chemical and structural improvement of soil, soil stability and erosion control, crop diversity, micro-climate improvement, microbial and beneficial enzyme activities, shelter habitat for wildlife and economics as an indicator.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
8 answers
How below ground interactions for water and nutrients can be measured for agroforestry systems ?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hello Dana. This is a good question.
There are some field-level techniques that you can do, which I learned about during my research.
First is to have barrier and non-barrier plots. The barrier is made by digging (preferably mechanically) a trench along both sides of the plot (say, 1 m belowground), and lining it with black plastic sheeting up to the surface. This helps to prevent interspecies root competition.
Second, in order to measure for water differences, you can use a couple of techniques. For water, you can install ceramic-tipped lysimeters, which draw up the water, which can be tested. (You can make the lysimeters yourself, or buy them commercially). You can also install tensiometers, which will show you how dry the soil is in various places and depths.
Third, to measure for nutrient differences, you can use N15 isotopic-enriched fertilizer. This can be bought commercially (it's pretty costly). You apply the N15 fertilizer to different plots, and you can follow the fate of the fertilizer into soil, water, crops and trees, by having those samples analyzed in the lab (the N15 will still be present in the samples, even months later). There may be some other fertilizer method that could yield similar results.
Anyway, there are other techniques I'm sure, but those worked pretty well for our research. You can read more about it in some of our research:
Water competition:
Nutrient competition (and evidence for positive phytoremediation effect):
Hope this is helpful. Wish you the best with your research.
Best,
Sam Allen
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
Dear colleagues,
I am looking for information on the average biochemical profile of cocoa leaves:
% of cellulose
% of hemicellulose
% of lignin
% solubles
% ash/mineral
... etc
If you also information on other parts such as pod husks, roots and branches, that would help!
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
1 answer
I am looking for data on using fruit or nut trees and nitrogen fixing trees as intercrop with C. sinensis assamica (tea plant, tropical variety). For my studies I have to give a recommendation for tea smallholder farmers in Kabarole, Uganda.
Considerations are:
Tea is usually grown between the altitude 1200-1800
Tea has a dense and probably competitive root mat in the top 50-75 soil layer.
Trees make tea plants less receptive for fertilizers. Smallholder farmers usually do not have resources for these inputs.
Smallholder tea farmers face insecurity due to climate change (increased temperature not good for tea plants, therefore shading)
Any information on tea agroforestry would be extremely helpful.
Information on local fruit trees also.
Thanks in advance.
Valentijn Struijk
Relevant answer
Answer
Some Neotropical Inga spp produce large pods with very tasty aril. The genus also tolerates a wide range of soils.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
14 answers
Can anyone point me to sources of information on simultaneous agroforestry systems where biomass of trees and adjacent grain yields, plus grain yields in monoculture have been measured/estimated? They can be from anywhere in the world. I want to compare crop and overall yield with the results of an experiment I worked on in East Africa and there doesn't seem to be much available.
Relevant answer
Answer
Perhaps you find something at GARDIAN http://gardian.bigdata.cgiar.org/#!/
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
1 answer
I am analyzing one paper Deheuvelsa et al. 2010 Vegetation structure and productivity in cocoa-based agroforestry systems in
Talamanca, Costa Rica. I have a lot of questions since I am going to characterize the Cacao Agroforest System in Sodconusco Chiapas in other to make a study of Bird diversity and environmental services.
Deheuvelsa and colaborador use a methodology to search the relation between different Cacao Agroforest Clusters (Diversity and Vegetation Structure) and the productivity of Cacao.
They measure cacao productivity as a function of three components.
1) Counting The number of healthy pods in an area of 50mx20m in the center of the cacao Agroforest.
2) They collect 30 cacao pods in 2 seasons before the harvesting, in order to get the dray cacao comercial yield, they weight the fresh beans and applied the 56% discount to the average weight fresh.
3)Finally they estimated the Fresh above the ground plant volume, based on the function basal area x total height.
I am sure those measures are so important and determinant to get very precise data, but I wonder and some colleges suggest that, I could measure just the total dry weight asking the cacao smallholder, and I will get a direct measure of the total productivity of the plantation. But I am sure that I will miss valuable information with such simple method.
Deheuvelsa et al never explains what is the relevance to get those detailed measurements
Relevant answer
Answer
In 2011 2 authors from Costarica has done some good work on this and have published it.It is available publicly on RG. However,I am attaching it in case you can not locate it.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
5 answers
Kindly provide the equations and methods for ecosystem services estimation in Traditional Agroforestry systems?
Relevant answer
Answer
Paper suggested by Dr Anil high useful for calculating the the ecosystem services
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
10 answers
Energy accounting in an ecosystem is done different way and emergy analysis proposed by H T Odem is one such method. How to calculate or analyse the energy flow of overall agro ecosystem mainly involving trees components. Any study , references please share.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
These systems have been studied in detail in the last decade to some extent. Results show that there is no significant positive response of cocoa to fertilization in these systems as compared to full sun systems. What could be the most plausible reasons explaining these results?
Relevant answer
Answer
Hi Eltson,
To contribute to the reasons for higher fertilizer response in full sun than agroforestry,
- Light limitation is a major limitation to the fertilizer response in the agroforestry system. With the shade trees having the optimum access to light, one could also speculate that; shade trees effectively uptake and out-compete the cocoa plant for the applied nutrients. What could be interesting is to evaluate the fertilizer effect in the agroforestry system through the overall cocoa and shade tree biomass against the full sun.
- Another important factor is soil water availability. Water dynamics are clearly a factor of shade tree species water use characteristics, site rainfall characteristics and importantly soil characteristics as you rightly mentioned.
- Just remember, issue of fertilizer in perennial systems are quite complex and as you could read from Van Vliet et al, (2015), the early studies had some limitations experimental design.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
9 answers
I want to evaluate different uses of the soil: from industrial agriculture through agroecology and agroforestry to restoration, with dynamic indicators of sustainability.
Relevant answer
Answer
awesome! very thank to everyone!
all responses will be closely observed and will collaborate for the project!
Obrigada!
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
Agroforestry, Sericulture, Mushroom cultivation, Fish rearing, Dairy farming, Poultry, Olericulture, Pomology or Floriculture all distinguished field are welcome to discuss for the suggestion of doubling farmers' income and its hurdles.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
Claims to the labor efficiency of perennial systems are repeated frequently without citation in the agroforestry literature. I'm looking for some good quant analysis of this question, and finding very little. Any leads?
Relevant answer
Answer
Agroforestry systems are much diverse and I guess labor in perenial vs annual crops debate should consider the location/site context.
Some of the literature below:
1. Armengot, L., Barbieri, P., Andres, C., Milz, J., & Schneider, M. (2016). Cacao agroforestry systems have higher return on labor compared to full-sun monocultures. Agronomy for sustainable development, 36(4), 70.
3. Ajayi, O. C., Akinnifesi, F. K., Sileshi, G., & Kanjipite, W. (2009). Labour inputs and financial profitability of conventional and agroforestry-based soil fertility management practices in Zambia. Agrekon, 48(3), 276-292.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
Medicinal trees are important source of alkaloids in the traditional system of medicine. Forests are rich source of variety of medicinal trees and some of them are in agricultural landscape as agroforestry trees. Can anybody suggests some good research papers or reference material on the topic .
Relevant answer
Answer
thanks Keenath. ok. you are right silviculture is same but as per silvicultural practices need to be modified to yield desired produce here medicinal produce
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
9 answers
We often find higher moisture under trees when grown together with crops (e.g. maize) as compared to open crop field (e.g. maize monoculture). Similarly we often observe crop yield reduction under trees. While some literature take the higher soil moisture under trees as an advantage, others take it as an indicator for poor performance of crops under trees. Any good paper with empiric evidence in arid and humid regions?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear Ian, any literature on your shared experience?
I also agree with you in the context of silvopastoral systems. However, in crop-tree systems, high moisture content under tree-crops vs open could indicate less transpiration of crops, lower/slow crop growth and eventually poor yields. But again as Ashok mentioned, the effect is crop specific, wheat and other photosensitive crops could benefit from the prolonged higher moisture and elongate their grain filling period which increases crop yields under trees (e.g. Tesfaye et al. 2017 Climate-smart agroforestry: Faidherbia albida trees buffer wheat against climatic extremes in the Central Rift Valley of Ethiopia ).
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
I'm looking for case studies on Land Equivalent Ratio applied to agroforestry systems to develop learning applications to agronomy students. I would appreciate suggestions of published raw data to create exercises with real situations.
An example of publication:
NEWMAN, S. M. A pear and vegetable interculture system: land equivalent ratio, light use efficiency and productivity. Experimental agriculture, v. 22, n. 4, p. 383-392, 1986.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
25 answers
Agroforestry boost the health of soil, induce water holding capacity (WHC), maintaining soil aggregates, improving soil organic (SOM), facilitating multilayer farming, economically viable and environmentally desirable still research and development is not doing at pace and people not taking much more interest in this field. What are the reasons behind it? Please share your valuable view and research findings.
Thanks and regards, Dr Shankhwar
Relevant answer
Answer
Interesting query@ Anil Shankhwar
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
I am looking for k1 isohumic coefficient values,
for tropical (cocoa) conditions, in Indonesia.
I would like to use them for a simple Hénin-Dupuis modeling experiment on soil organic matter dynamics.
Otherwise, have you heard of a method to approximate the k1 value depending on the organic material characteristics for example (cocoa litterfall in my case)?
Thanks
Relevant answer
Answer
No I don't have
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
38 answers
Is Agroforestry branch of Agriculture or Forestry? Give the suitable reasons and justifications?
Relevant answer
The tree is the main component. There can be agroforestry without crops or without animals, but not without trees (for example: multistrata agroforestry system).
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
3 answers
Relevant answer
Answer
Ecological interactions between trees and crops are examined in terms of above and below ground utilizations of physical resources. Above ground interactions for light, temperature, and humidity and below ground for nutrient and water are analyzed in terms of possible effects on understory crops.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
8 answers
Any idea on comphrehensive List of non-edible tree borne oilseeds (TBOs) exist in India. I could find a list of about 90 TBOs. However, In a  report by  ICAR-Central Agroforestry Research Institute, Jhansi, it is stated (but not provided) that about 150 non-edible tree borne oilseeds (TBOs) exist in India. 
Relevant answer
Answer
also have a look to attached file.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
19 answers
We have two types of forest, natural and man-grown forest. Forest is one of the most economical resource that has a big role in maintaining ecological systems. But each trees has got its own productive age after that there is decrease in its productivity. Such trees should be cut for some other uses. The old tree must be compensated with new plantation. In this way it will not only play it's ecological role but will help and support economic activities.
In contrast we have banned tree cutting under the concepts of conservation and preservation. In this way, most of the counties are dependent on man-grown forest and usually growing fast growing trees. That has got negative impacts on Environment. Is there any such study on tree's age and its ecological productivity?
If someone has information, please share.
Regards
Relevant answer
Answer
One of the main focuses of the forestry discipline is optimizing the felling age (rotation period).
There are similar age one species, mixed age one species and multiple species forest in both categories (it is a better description than natural or man made from productivity perspective.
The mixed age multiple species ('natural') forest productivity is the same for centuries. Even if you extract timber (up to a level) it remain the same. There is no more net carbon sequestration, the sequestered carbon and the released from decomposition are in balance.
In the case of single age forests, the growth curve is species specific, but usually start slow (from biomass perspective) accelerates and reach the full potential when all area is covered by the trees' crowns. From that point, until the trees health affected, the yearly growth is approximately the same. The highest economic value growth is somewhat later than the peak of the mass growth since higher diameter timber is more valuable. The thinning (earlier wood extraction from the forest) influences the growth curve (drop in mass the accelerating growth).
After the harvest, you leave around the 50% of the extracted biomass in the soil. The decomposition cab be slower than the rotation period, so you accumulate soil carbon up to 3 rotation periods. If you use the extracted wood in durable products, you optimize the net sequestered carbon.
The decomposing trees are lost opportunities, you could use them for replacing fossil energy.
I do not want to refer an article, because it is an entire discipline.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
In present scenario many quoting 70-80% of the wood demand of domestic and industries in India is meet out from the agroforestry or wood from farms. We are not having any formal mechanism to get information on agroforestry produce generation and marketing in India. There may in mechanism in others parts of the globe. I would like to know the current status and mechanism of agroforestry wood products in India. This not reflect in forest department or agriculture department/ ministry reports too.There are some industries surveys but that are for paper and pulp and plywood and very sketchy. The sources of information, report or paper related may be please shared.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks Dr. Even in new draft of forest policy 2018 is also silent on wood marketing. like forest laws the market rate are not open by forest corporations barring the few states which shows there timber rates on websites.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
Generally we see that carbon sequestration potential  in agroforestry system is considered with respect to trees but what about contribution of crops and other components. Most of the researcher mentioned carbon sequesrtaion of agroforestry  systembut mainly taking into account tree component which I think not of system but trees just like pure plantations.
Relevant answer
Answer
Respected sir also have a look at this important attachment.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
10 answers
what type of agroforestry system we have to chose where soil depth is low and vice versa?
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear friend, a fundamental hypothesis of agroforestry is that different plant life forms such as trees and herbaceous crops or pastures occupy to some extent different soil strata with their root systems when grown in association, leading to a degree of complementarity in their use of soil resources. For this reason,rooting depth and the vertical distribution of root systems are of particular interest for agroforestry. Rooting depth determines to which extent plants (e.g. trees) can use subsoil water and nutrients which make them less dependent from the supply in the topsoil and may also be made available to associated plants (e.g. crops) with shallower root systems through nutrient pumping and hydraulic lift.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
8 answers
If there are two or three different agroforestry system to be evaluated for efficiency of productivity in terms of carbon sequestration potential, then what are the parameters to be used for comparison
Relevant answer
Answer
Sir, my opinion said, these parameters will be components of Agroforestry, soil carbon stock, Biomass production, GHG emissions
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
In other words, what is the difference between having livestock in a pasture with trees, versus a state of the art silvopasture? Also, are there any different approaches that should be considered when designing silvopasture systems in the tropics, versus those in more northern latitudes (eg.: temperate zones)?
Relevant answer
Answer
Silvopasture is an agroforestry practice that integrates livestock, forage production, and forestry on the same land-management unit. Silvopasture systems are deliberately designed and managed to produce a high-value timber product in the long term while providing short-term annual economic benefit from a livestock component through the management of forage or an annual crop component. S ilvopasture can be a way for landowners to diversify income sources. A possible win-win situation providing annual income from grazing as well as long term profits for fast growing, high value saw-logs.
While dealing with livestocks in a pasture, grazing animals should be moved from pasture to pasture in a rotational grazing system. Animals are typically left in a pasture for 3 to 4 days. The animals are removed and the forage is then allowed to grow for at least 30 days before grazing again. Animals should not be left in the same area for long periods of time because soil compaction can damage the roots and promote insect and disease damage of the trees. These are just a few of the many basic principles of silvopasture.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
6 answers
Hi ,
please tell all solution with reference to reduce climate change impacts on agriculture or agriculture productivity.
like agroforestry is also a solution
Thank you
Relevant answer
Answer
I agree with Kenneth Towe. No one can control or change climate. All that humans can do is to adapt to it. Note that during the Ice Ages, or earlier during the Paleocene -Eocene Thermal Maximum, tropical climate extended to Europe, yet man was not there. The climatic regimes ran into thousands and millions of years. Climate change is just normal to the earth. Man can destroy his environment but cannot control climate. Fill up the land lying below sea level and build cities. Millenia later, global warming, ice-melting causing sea level rise will simply drown the city.
Obianuju P. Umeji
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
14 answers
In Western Himalaya, at three different elevation the agroforestry sites exits. What sort of GIS methodology is best suited for mapping the tree-crop biodiversity along the altitude and aspects? The sites extends about to 1000 km2.
Relevant answer
Answer
Dear, also have a look at these useful attachments.
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry
Question
4 answers
Related climate change.
Relevant answer
Answer
Thanks sir for your valuable answer....but still i want to know whether it will be effective for both (Economical as well as ecological).
  • asked a question related to Agroforestry