• Rosalba Nieto added an answer:
    Does anyone have information on prehispanic agriculture in Mesoamerica between 500 and 1521 AD?
    see above
    Rosalba Nieto

    Thank you, Gracias!!!

  • Daan Francois Toerien added an answer:
    What are the factors that transform a country from agriculture to industry?

    I need the most applicable indicators to analyze my topic.

    Daan Francois Toerien

    Dibya, you mention that it is difficult to transform an economy to industry - so we must understand where the difficulties reside. I would like to add two ideas from my experience base: 1. it is impossible for a person who has never been exposed to an activity to 'see' opportunity in an area outside their experience base. Yet, authorities often use phrases such as: "Ask the people which business opportunities they want to pursue". This seldom leads to new insights and new types of businesses, e.g. in manufacturing rather than in agriculture. 2. There are world-class talents in rural people waiting to be discovered by accident.  We have many examples in South Africa where entrepreneurs by chance started an activity that eventually led to a world-class business. In my book Taming Janus: Technology, Business Strategy and Local Economic Development (which can be downloaded from my ResearchGate webpage) I discuss such examples and the critical success factors for such businesses.

  • Jonas Jägermeyr added an answer:
    What is the evaporative share of irrigation efficiency 'losses'?
    Irrigation efficiencies relate the amount of withdrawn water to the amount that reaches the plant and gets consumed through transpiration. The remainder, so-called 'losses', either evaporate or remain accessible downstream as return flow. Irrigation efficiencies are well reported, but what is the average fraction of evaporative losses for different irrigation systems, i.e. surface, sprinkler, drip?
    Jonas Jägermeyr

    Thanks for your answers, the complexity of factors involved in disentangling E and T was indeed the motivation to employ a process-based dynamic vegetation model. Such a model allows to account for most relevant processes that we can still handle at the global level and the 0.5° grid cell. If to look more locally, one should clearly increase the level of detail. For this study however, LPJmL is found to be very appropriate tool as it solves the surface energy balance for calculating irrigation water demand and water stress, cooling effects through above-canopy sprinkler application are accounted for and interception losses and its effect on plant transpiration are explicitly calculated.

  • Mahamad Nabab Alam added an answer:
    Can you suggest any marketing tools for agricultural products?
    The educated community has taken over farming and brings in a judicial usage into farming through the following, 1. Infusion of technology and expertise in agriculture practices. 2. Intervention in food processing and storage practices. 3. Establishing national and international market linkages.
    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: The educated community has taken over farming and brings in a judicial usage of chemical fertilizers and insecticide in a large scale farming application venture along with technologies enabling Logistics and Supply chain management support. The management of water resources for farming, the use of genetically modified seeds for improving productivity and the heated controversies around it; the need and advisability of corporate getting into farming will all be ironed out paving way for the following, 1. Infusion of technology and expertise in agriculture practices. 2. Intervention in food processing and storage practices . 3. Creating institutional linkages for farmers. 4. Providing supply chain solutions and ware housing solution. 5. Establishing national and international market linkages.
      Full-text · Dataset · Apr 2014
    Mahamad Nabab Alam

    Need to open STALL at various locations and give free demos.

  • Arpana Mishra added an answer:
    Does someone known role of Allechemical in the growth promotion of plants as well as microorganisms?

    How can allelopathy crop play an important role in minimizing serious hazards of the modern agriculture such as environmental pollution unsafe products anddecline of crop yield?

    Arpana Mishra

    You may refer my articles on Allelopathy.

  • Luis González-Vaqué added an answer:
    Do you have contributions for an international treaty on plant genetic resources for food and agriculture?
    I need your contribution for compiling project proposal for Balochistan province having below three themes:

    Information exchange
    Technology transfer

    Your valuable comments will highly be appreciated
    Luis González-Vaqué

    Contact Dr. José Esquinas Alcazar (Universidad de Cordoba-Spain).

  • Gordon Couger added an answer:
    Is NDVI a good indicator for agriculture yield or production?

    While calculating agriculture yield and production, NDVI is correlated with yield and extrapolated over the entire study area. Is NDVI a good indicator for agriculture yield and how accurate is it?

    Gordon Couger

    I used NDVI to estimate the amount of Nitrogen needed to top dress Hard Red Winter Wheat just before it joints in Northern Oklahoma the 3 or 4 years I wrote code for the prototypes built by Biosystems & Ag Engineering at Oklahoma State. Reflected Solar NDVI was an excellent method as if the proper wavelengths were used. Averging 128 NDVI readings or more per meter proved extremely robust even with poor signal to noise ratios.

    Others in the department found NDVI values between various wavelengths effective for fertilizing other crops. The same equipment loaded with different chemicals scanning fallow fields reduced the herbicide by 50% need to control weeds. I didn't explore the importance of wavelength on differentiating plants from the soil. The project wasn't at the stage of weed identification. The algorithm never got past trying to kill it if it was green. All the effort was put in to fertilizing wheat.

    The USDA used NDVI from the first MODIS Satellites effectively in the early 1970's to identify field crops.

    Selecting the best wavelengths for the desired results is critical to obtaining the best NDVI results from the available data. I haven't kept up, so I expect there are still gaps in the spectral coverage camera's on the MODIS satellites.

    An often overlooked source of error are minerals that are reflective to the wavelengths used to calculate NDVI. The time of day needs correction before 9:00 A.M. and after 3:00 P.M. Solar time. If it is not already corrected.

    I tried measuring NDVI up to 400x with a microscope. Although the results are incomplete they look promising.

  • Nicolas Salliou added an answer:
    Are agricultural landscapes emergent structures?

    I wonder whether agricultural landscapes can be described as emergent structures. Are they more than their individual components (crops, forests, hedgerows, orchards and meadows)? 

    Is there some work about emergence and agricultural landscape?

    What are the properties that one can describe from agricultural landscape emergence?

    Nicolas Salliou

    @ Davide : Thanks for your answer. This is very interesting. I was quite baffled by the following assumptions : " the land-use succession in a given place depends only on the land-use successions in neighbouring plots"

    The result of the map is quite good but I still don't get the way this assumption works as I feel that in a landscape some plots LUs are absolutly not defined by neighbors when they are not from the same farmer/Owner.

  • Promila Kapoor-Vijay added an answer:
    Does anyone have any information or publications on the status of the cultivation of domesticated Chenopodium album in the Himalayas?

    Chenopodium album is one of the more common Chenopods in Eurasia. It's considered as a weed in Europe but there are some studies that confirm its domestication in the Himalayas. This species, very diverse and unknown (2x, 4x and 6x), was cultivated in China, India, Nepal and Bhutan. But today it's very difficult to know the real superficie covered by C album as a crop. Where are the farmers, in which agroecological conditions, for what kind of uses (grains, leaves, etc.)?

    One reason for the lack of documented information on chenopods is that many past reports misidentified Chenopodium album as a variety of Amaranth (Amaranthus anardana).

  • Gregory Yom Din added an answer:
    What are the factors of global competitiveness of the national agro-industry?

    What are the factors of global competitiveness of the national agro-industry? Is there a model or models by which it can be determine and compare the competitiveness of this particular industry? I'm looking for literature references which specifically refer to this model or models.

    Gregory Yom Din

  • Marek Barta added an answer:
    How can I store aphid samples?

    I want to save some turnip aphid samples temporarily, so I can send them for identification later. I want to know if I can use ethanol and at what percent and is there any other special way to store those insects.

  • Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete added an answer:
    Procedure to put new online Journal?

    I am interested to start new online Journal on "International Journal on Farm Power Machinery & Energy in Agriculture". Experts are requested to suggest the procedure for online starting for it..(like steps...)

    Jaime Cuauhtemoc Negrete

    because money is needed to seek support with agricultural machinery companies
      and  just to congratulate him on his initiative and that we need a journal as it is proposed to start

  • Andrés M. Moncada-Aguilar added an answer:
    How is the IPM (Integrated Pest Management) in your countries?

    IPM was born in the USA as the ideas and working results of Californian entomologists in the early 1950s. IPM is very logical from environmental and economic point of view and is an antithesis of blind calendar tied chemical control. In 1998 USDA announced the main strategy of IPM as prevention, avoidance, monitoring and suppression (PAMS) of pests. Unfortunately, growers and pest (icide) managers did not recognize compatibility (integration) among PAMS as it was thought by the founders of IPM. Another trouble: in 1993 USDA, EPA and PDA called for a national commitment to put into practice IPM on 75% OF US crop acreage by 2000. Now, according to estimations true IPM is being practiced on only about 4-8% of US acreage (Ehler and Bottrell, 2000). Ehler and Bottrell (2000) call this situation the illusion of IPM or they claim this can be IPM without I ; or if some call the present practice IPM it is only integrated pesticide management.

    Economical success has been realized in Germany where researchers, educators, growers, legislators have done their best and IPM is being practised at some agricultural areas (Galli, 2005).

    In other countries rhetoric predominates exclusively when mentioning IPM also these days. Unfortunately, use of IPM as it was defined originally is rather an illusion or not even that. Main reasons of this failure are the lack of necessary human knowledge, awareness, missing of interest, investments and legal frames, but mostly the hegemony of some dominating human attitudes which cannot accept apparently uncomfortable things. For implementing IPM it is necessary multiple knowledge (comprehensive familiarity on pests, their ecology, natural enemies and all linked fields), an operative pest forecasting system (at national, regional and local level) and several working values which can be determined merely during previous investigations. IPM can put into practice with a common action of researchers, teachers, growers and legislators. Unfortunately, it needs investments from the beginnings.

    The most important or basic notions in IPM are Economic Threshold (ET) and Economic Injury level (EIL) without these values there is no IPM.



    Ehler, L.E. and Bottrell, D.G. 2000. The illusion of integrated pest management. Issues in science and technology on line. pp. 6.

    Galli, P. (2005): 50 Jahre integrierter Pflanazenschutz im Obstbau in Baden-Württemberg. Landinfo, 5: 6-10.
    Smith, R.F. and Reynolds, H.T. 1966. Principles, definitions and scope of integrated pest control. Proceedings FAO Symposium on Integrated Pest Control 1: 11-17.
    Stern, V.M., Smith, R.F., van den Bosch, R. and Hagen, K.S. 1959. The integrated control concept. Hilgardia, 29: 81-101.
    Michelbacher A.E. and Bacon, O.G. 1952. Walnut insect and spider mite control in Northern California. Journal of Economic Entomology, 45:1020-27.

    Andrés M. Moncada-Aguilar

    In my country the IPM is more technology in areas of intensive agriculture, especially vegetables. It also takes place in traditional crops such as cotton, corn, wheat, beans, sorghum, alfalfa, etc. The programs are established between technical, government, farmers and distributors of agrochemicals.

    In Mexico there are a variety of products, many of which have not been authorized in developed countries, that is why pest control in our country is usually very effective.

    Sometimes it is expensive, which is only profitable in expensive crops such as vegetables. To be profitable in traditional crops requires intensive agricultural practices.

  • W John Martin added an answer:
    Is there anyone working on drones for biosensor application in smart agriculture?

    I am writing a book on biosensors for agrifood sector and I am looking for a researcher working on the use of drones for biosensor/sensor application in precision farming.

    W John Martin

    I am pleased to provide a composite photo on the "Use of Drone to Monitor Enhanced Production of Chlorophyll in Agricultural Crops Resulting From KELEA Activation of Water."  Kind regards, John. 

  • Kwamina Ewur Banson added an answer:
    Where can I find papers on the creation of dust during the mechanical pruning?
    I'm working on the dust in agriculture and the possible risks for the workers. Right now, I'm focusing on the mechanical pruning and the dust creation. I have not found any interesting papers or articles. Can somebody help me?
    Kwamina Ewur Banson

    Dearest Gaetano,

                                        please find attached document which is about environmental management quide for vineyard and does dust emphasis on dust creation during mechanical pruning.



  • S. G. Tan added an answer:
    Why are Impact Factor journals related to agriculture very low? While most vital and the most advanced in the science world. What are the Impact Factors agricultural research?
    S. G. Tan

    Agriculture scientists in the developing world should start citing one another's work whenever and wherever relevant instead of just citing papers from the developed countries.

    For tropical agriculture especially, work done in the tropics and published in regional or local journals are often more relevant than those done in temperate countries and published in international journals. If we, the agricultural scientists in the tropics ,do not cite our own work, who will then?

  • Kelvin Moseti added an answer:
    What is the state of application of nanofertilizers and nanopesticides in tea plantantions?

    Are there nano-fertizer formulations for tea? If yes I would appreciate information or links to information on the same with regard to manufacturers/suppliers and field trials data. The same case applies to nano-pesticides

    Kelvin Moseti

    Hi Yau,

    The link you provided is a very interesting read. Indeed as the author of the article puts it;

    " the potential for nano-enabled pesticides is unbelievable, but it is still a dream at the moment"


    "the environmental fate for nanopesticides is a big, black hole"

    ...In the article it is clear though that quite a good number of agricultural pesticides already in shelves already contain nano-sized particles, which, by definition, would make them nano-enabled pesticides;

    "An initial scan revealed that 90 percent of the dozen pesticide products Harper and her colleagues have tested contain particles in the nanoscale range. Now she has to determine whether the nanoparticles are an active ingredient, a chemical stabilizer or simply a benign component that’s been in pesticides all along, unseen until recently."

    It is clear that alot needs to be done in this interesting area and it needs not be said, IT IS NOT BUSINESS AS USUAL!

  • B.R. Rajeswara Rao added an answer:
    Whether utilization of agriculture by-products or wastses as supplementary cementitious material is commercially viable?

    Whether agro-wastes can be commercially exploited as cementitious material? Leaving, Rice Husk Ash is there any other agro-waste commercially used as cementitious material? What are the physical and chemical proprieties agro-waste materials should possess for its suitability as cementitious material?     

    B.R. Rajeswara Rao


    Check this thread:

  • Velu Ethirajan Nethaji Mariappan added an answer:
    Can any one post information on field capacity/available water holding capacity of different types of soils?

    Can any one post table on field capacity/available water holding capacity of different types of soils?

    Velu Ethirajan Nethaji Mariappan

    You may to look for Indian Soil Science Journal, Journal by Maharastra Agricultural University, MASU (Madras Agricultural Students Union) Journal and NBSS&LUP Reports. In case of further information contact my email id

  • Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh added an answer:
    How can scientific understanding of beneficial soil microorganisms be utilized to increase agricultural production?

    I have read that researchers have noticed significant differences in soil microorganism community structure / ratios of fungus:bacteria in samples of grassland compared to agricultural fields.

    Soil microbiology is a (relatively) young discipline. Are we at the point where we can utilize what we have learned about soil microorganisms to agricultural applications?

    Elsiddig Ahmed Elmustafa Elsheikh

    Dear Jacob Yu
    In addition, you will find useful information in the following articles and websites. Articles include:
    (1) S Compant et al (2010) Plant growth-promoting bacteria in the rhizo- and endosphere of plants: Their role, colonization, mechanisms involved and prospects for utilization. Soil Biology & Biochemistry.
    )2) Bernard R. Glick (2012) Plant Growth-Promoting Bacteria: Mechanisms and Applications. Scientifica.

    Whereas the websites are also informative:
    (1) Biotechnology: Role of Microbes In Sustainable Agriculture And Environmental Health
    (2) Beneficial and Effective Microorganisms for a Sustainable Agriculture
    (3) Beneficial Microbes for Agriculture


    + 5 more attachments

  • Anjana Jayasanka Atapattu added an answer:
    How would I add a compound in my experimental plot to maintain a particular recommended concentration of the compound in soil? ml/acre<->ml/kg of soil

    If i have a commercially available compound (with percentage purity: 50%), whose recommended dose for usage in soil is like: 250 ml/acre,, then how much weight/volume should i apply to mine experimental plot of area: 0.33 m2 with soil weight of 500 gram to maintain the same concentration as of th recommended one?

    I am a little confused about conversion of the units: ml/acre <---> ml/kg of soil

    Anjana Jayasanka Atapattu


  • Gustavo Alckmin added an answer:
    Dose anybody have any experiences or findings about applying UAVs in destroy estimating in agricultural insurance?

    Applying UAVs (Unmanned Airplane Vehicles) in agriculture and farming systems is a new way in precision agriculture. What we want to know is using the UAVs in insurance industry particularly to help the small farmers in disasters and critical and high risk agricultural situation.    

    Gustavo Alckmin


    Adding to the previous answers, high spatial resolution  based imagery may certainly assist to develop highly accurate yield models (mostly based on vegetation indices/ 3D models), ergo, yield loss assessment.

    Nevertheless, you may take into account the challenges posed by the different crops and agricultural systems used by smallhold farmers. As usually such systems are not a mono-crop, thus not as homogeneous, consequent yield models may not be able to "capture the whole picture" based on the straightforward currently being employed. 

    You will certainly ouput great research if you analyse the different aspects that should be take in consideratino when producing yield models based on such input for this specific context.

    Success in your research,


  • Inga Wawrzynowicz added an answer:
    Does anybody know a (free) paper on precision farming/ agriculture?

    Especially about problems of adopting this technique?

    I am searching information for my master thesis.

    Inga Wawrzynowicz

    Thanks for all the comments and Links, They've all been helpful and interesting!

  • Kazutaka Nakano added an answer:
    Why is Jhum cultivation still prevalent in the north eastern region of india?
    As above.
    Kazutaka Nakano

    I suggest to Dr. Swabera islam that she shoud peruse Professor P.S. Ramakrishnan's prominent book (1992) and my recently published paper (2014) whose full text is available in the catalogue of the Research Gate. I am sure for her to find a clue to the excellent answer to her question. 

  • Bikram Keshari Senapati added an answer:
    What is the bio-energetic cost-benefit to a system by using non-native species of organism/s?

    There are number of cases for waste management, land restoration, wasteland development, agroforestry and agriculture where non native species of organisms and external organic input are applied that might be detrimental to the system in the long run.

    Bikram Keshari Senapati

    Thanks to all who have enlighten the topic and to approach possible alternate answer. But my question is not concerned to one or few species with targeted short term solution. The bioenergetic cost-benefit has to be calculated in terms of  biodiversity complex and material resource stock  of a system that produce resilience for sustainable production and conservation.  Take the example of waste management, biofertilization, biremediation, land restoration etc.  Short term benefit should not nullify long term holistic development of the system. Bioenergetic cost-benefit analysis could be an integrated management tool for assessment and maintenance of the system. 

  • Mahmoud Omid added an answer:
    Are the products of greenhouse cultivation are perceived as inferior for taste and quality?

    Please compare greenhouse to open-field cultivation. Some consumers equate the phrase “open-field” cultivation (OFC) with natural products. What is your preference and perception on the final product quality of greenhouse (protected) cultivation verses OFC? What are the determinants of the perception of quality for a typical production (e.g., tomato) grown inside the greenhouse or grown outside in the open-field?

    Mahmoud Omid

    Generally, a commercially prepared soilless media is used for containerized transplant production. This media must be free of insects, pathogens, nematodes and weed seeds. Compared to field-grown transplants, greenhouse transplants have several advantages. They can be produced earlier and more uniformly than field-grown plants. Their growth can be controlled more easily through fertility and water management and they can be held longer and harvested when needed. Because containerized plants are less crowded and healthier; stockier plants can be produced. Finally, container-grown greenhouse plants have a media-enclosed root ball, which retains moisture and root integrity at transplanting, reducing transplant shock.

    Full publication source at:

  • Marcos José Perdoná added an answer:
    Does anybody have information/papers on how studies about mixed culture/intercropping affect modern agriculture?

    For my master thesis I am searching for present movements in the intercropping trend. I want to find out who finances studies about intercropping and who takes results into account for actual improving of production.

    Marcos José Perdoná


    This article may interest you:

    Productive and economic performance of Arabica coffee
    and macadamia nut intercropping

    Check on my page:

  • Kenneth M Towe added an answer:
    Will food contamination be enhanced due to climate change?
    Food (Agriculture and fisheries and aquaculture produce) is the lifeblood of every country as it contributes to national food security, national social stability and environmental protection. Climate change is projected to cause a rise in global air temperature, sea surface temperature, atmospheric CO2, sea-level and an increase in the frequency and intensity of extreme events (storms, cyclones, floods, droughts, heat waves and bush fires). Whether warming will enhance bioaccumulation of contaminants (such as uptake of toxicants) in food? The food chain (water-soil-plant-human) pathway is recognised as one of the major pathways for human exposure to contaminants. The warmer climates are known to be favourable for the proliferation of insect pests and microbial pathogens. There are reports that there will be proliferation of algal blooms in aquatic environment (freshwater and marine) which produce toxins. Climate change (intense rainfall, flooding) will increase runoff of contaminants into waterways. Some of these contaminants (e.g. pesticide, trace metals, dioxins) are very harmful (i.e. carcinogenic) and many of them have properties of bioaccumulation (accumulate in a living organism). Where there will be water scarcity due to droughts, people will be forced to use contaminated water for irrigating food crops or growing fish.

    Question: Whether contamination in agriculture, livestock, fisheries and aquaculture products will be enhanced due to climate change?
  • Edward Harwood added an answer:
    How can a higher plant leaf brix be achieved in the most agricultural arable lands?

    Perhaps any degree above a minimal of 12?

    Edward Harwood

    Try harvesting earlier and using only those plants with first true leaves

  • Philip Williams added an answer:
    Is there any source of getting Chinese organic agriculture practices information?

    I'm interested about the Chinese organic agriculture: total land ares, production, labels, certification etc. What are , in China,  the organisms for inspection, certifications and accreditation? 

    Philip Williams

    The leaders of China's Communist Party who have always controlled everything of major importance in the PRC since 1949 are supplied with organically grown food from farms that specifically supply these ruling party leaders with organic food at taxpayer expense. In contrast, as in most other countries ordinary citizens must either pay a premium for organically grown food or else grow it themselves. PRC food safety regulations are still lagging far behind those of Hong Kong and other neighboring territories with more transparent and accountable governance and more professional and less censored media outlets. That is why PRC residents have often traveled to Hong Kong to buy large supplies of baby formula; PRC baby formula tainted with malamine has severely sickened hundreds of PRC babies who drank it, and some babies even died from the tainted baby formula. 

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