• Harisankar Krishnadas added an answer:
    How can one make a 3D map with GIS software?
    Could anyone advise me on creating 3D maps with GIS software?
    Harisankar Krishnadas


    I would suggest you to use ESRI CityEngine. Otherwise use the ArcGIS Pro. Link is attached below.

    Hope this helps.


    + 1 more attachment

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer:
    Products / technologies developed are more effective than advisory services for increase of agri-production. Can we debate on this imp topic?

    Examples of products/technologies- fertilizer types (customized, fortified, foliar, organic, PGP), newer pesticides, new cultivars, agri-implements, reource conservation technologies.

    Few Examples of Advisory services-  agro-advisory, soil-test based recommendation, yield forecasting and management options, water/tillage management options, weather based agro-advisory (although nice work but not very effective, specifically for tropical/sub-tropical regions, intensive agriculture system),


    Naveen Kalra

    Agreed Samba, both are complimentary to each other, but operational effectiveness of services is an essential requirement for product/technologies dissemination. Example is a good variety for better yield takes a good amount of time for adoption  (slower rate), regards

  • Ladi Sandeep Kumar asked a question:
    Can anyone suggest any useful link where we can get a survey on Hyperspectral image processing Processing in Agriculture.

    Research Scholars,Faculties

  • Ivan Shorstkii added an answer:
    Is anyone from Egypt looking for a cooperation in Fundamentals researches between Egypt National Research Center and Russian Foundation ?

    There is a government grants support for common fundamental researches with Egypt via  National Research Center (NRC).
    We are looking in common work in Fundamentals of sustainable and productive agriculture. We are looking in common w

    Ivan Shorstkii

    Hi Prof. Linh,
    Thank you for your answer.

    Which research fields are you working in?

  • Avijit Ghosh added an answer:
    Has there been any study on food quality of the produce obtained from Conservation agriculture, long term fertility experiment?

    Has there been any study on food quality of the produce obtained from Conservation agriculture, long term fertility experiment?

    Avijit Ghosh

    Thanks a lot Sir.

  • Julia Poerting added an answer:
    May I ask for some references related with national cotton promotion policies in Pakistan?

    I am doing policy analysis of cotton production policies in Pakistan. Most of the documents refer to textile policies. It will be great if somebody can refer some review articles or government policy documents. I want to eventually take it to sustainable cotton production. 

    Julia Poerting

    Dear Farhad Zulfiqar, maybe the paper by Khan, Mooshammer and Kundi is a good start.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract]
      ABSTRACT: Abstract Objectives In the cotton industry of Pakistan, 15 million people are employed and exposed to cotton dust, toxic chemicals, noise and physical hazards. The aim of this study was to determine the prevalence of health symptoms, particularly respiratory symptoms, and to measure cotton dust and endotoxin levels in different textile factories of Faisalabad, Pakistan. Methods A cross-sectional investigation was performed in a representative sample of 47 cotton factories in the Faisalabad region in Punjab, Pakistan. Respiratory symptoms of 800 workers were documented by questionnaire. Occupational safety in the factories was assessed by a trained expert following a checklist, and dust and endotoxin levels in different work areas were measured. Results Prevalence of respiratory disease symptoms (fever, shortness of breath, chest tightness and cough) was generally high and highest in the weaving section of the cotton industry (20–40% depending on symptoms). This section also displayed the poorest occupational safety ratings and the highest levels of inhalable cotton dust (mean±SD 4.6±2.5 vs 0.95±0.65 mg/m3 in compact units). In contrast, endotoxin levels were highest in the spinning section (median 1521 EU/m3), where high humidity is maintained. Conclusions There are still poor working conditions in the cotton industry in Pakistan where workers are exposed to different occupational hazards. More health symptoms were reported from small weaving factories (power looms). There is a dire need for improvements in occupational health and safety in this industrial sector with particular focus on power looms.
      Full-text · Article · Apr 2015 · BMJ Open
  • Gavin Hall added an answer:
    Anyone has done research on the effect of dust on herbicide efficacy?

    physical particle and dust may affect herbicide efficacy and therefore the out come of weed control operations, I would like to know if anyone has any detail about a protocol etc.

    Any information is appreciated  

    Gavin Hall

    Likewise unpublished but have done work in the glasshouse showing that showing that dust form soil blown onto plant surfaces can significantly reduce uptake into plant and so activity of diquat and paraquat by the organic matter and clays in the soil dust binding to the herbicides.  In a slightly different way it is well known that activity of glyphosate can be substantially reduced by binding to calcium and magnesium and other polyvalent cations found both in dust and hard waters - there are several publications on this throughtout the literature over the last 30 years  it is the reason that throughout the USA Ammonium sulphate is always tankmixed with any application of glyphosate and indeed many other herbicides.  Activity of bentazon can be lost by the formation of a less rapidly taken up sodium salt being formed when formulated in high sodium water and the inherent photo instability of the herbicide then renders it susceptible to photodegradation on the plant surface leading to loss of a significant amount of final activity - again this has been published quite some time ago I don't have the reference to hand.  All these reasons contribute to why we at Syngenta are very careful that our glasshouse plants for research screening are not rose watered from above with hard or dirty water.  best regards  Gavin

  • Anoop Kumar Srivastava added an answer:
    How will inter-plant spacing affect the nutrient-and water-use-efficiency ?

    Energy crisis is growing in all dimensions , with agriculture no exception . Horizontal expansion of agriculture is now difficult day-by-day  due to pressure from other options of land uses, leaving the vertical expansion of agriculture as most effective way to realise , both the  modern art of agriculture and the relevance of technology in a most holistic way. In this background, i have the following set of questions to my learned colleagues to respond please:

    * Does inter-plant spacing affect the rhizosphere properties ?.If so , which are these set of soil properties , we should look at ?.

    * Whether or not inter- plant spacing has any relation with root architectural bahavior vis-a-vis canopy growth?

    * Which kind of soil is most suitable for undertaking high density   annual crop or perennial  crop planting ?

    *Do you feel inter-plant spacing is dependent on soil properties ?. If so , how will you decide to grow annual or perennial crops using different modules of high density ?

    * How should we work out the water-and nutrient requirement under high density planting? 


    Anoop Kumar Srivastava

    My question was to dedicated  analyse the responses from our learned colleagues  , how the interplant distance dictates the plant growth , nutrient and water use efficiency and the nutrient acquisition pattern , in addition to influencing the time of crop maturity . Unfortunately , high density or ultra high density planting in perennial crops , consume so much of the time to arrive at such conclusion . Is there early indicators of such responses to establish the effectiveness of different  plant density levels ? 

  • Bhuvaneswari Kasi added an answer:
    Is it worth publishing with Lambert Academic publishers?
    My inbox has repeatedly been spammed from lambert Academic publishers. Is it worth publishing with this publisher. Do they have any authenticity. There is a lot of bad stuff written about this. Still, people publish their thesis with them. How one could publish your results in the form of book when its already published in the form of research articles. Are they peer reviewed....Suggestions welcome
    Bhuvaneswari Kasi

    sir, hope you are doing well, sorry to disturb you sir. this is mageswaran from chennai (madras), India sir. early, i was worked as a (S/T) project manager, in Elsevier Publishing Services, in chennai division, under els niehaus management sir. also, i have 12 yrs exp in pre-press field, like proof-reading, checking, authour"s corrections are carried out or not, like that sir. now, I look forward to work with you sir, like work from home sir.please advice me sir, i"m ready to work with you sir, like 24X 7, sir.

    mageswaran B.

  • Qi Wang added an answer:
    Would you please introduce some professor in USA?

    I have successfully applied a scholarship to study in USA for 1 year. Would you please introduce some professors in USA, whose interests are Agricultural water management, rainwater harvesting and irrigation? Please email me

    Qi Wang

    thanks for you suggestion

  • Mohammmad Ali Taslim added an answer:
    How can I estimate technical efficiency of a cropping system?

    In noakhali char area in Bangladesh, watermelon cultivation gaining popularity day by day. It already replaced Fallow-T. aman- Groundnut cropping pattern and the new cropping pattern is Fallow- T. aman-Watermelon. I want to see the technical efficiency of the cropping pattern.

    Mohammmad Ali Taslim

    You already have several suggestions, some of which involve sophisticated econometric analyses. The conclusions will still be open to questions. If you are happy with less involved analysis, you could work out the net returns of the competing crops taking into account all products (including by-products) of each crop and all inputs evaluated at market prices. subsidies should count as cost. If you are not an expert yourself ask such a person about the environmental or agronomic impact of each crop and net this out of the net returns. The final net returns give you an indication of comparative technical-cum-economic efficiency of these crops.

  • Sohrab Kolsoomi added an answer:
    Is there any model for land use and cover change emission index?

    For example, agriculture, forestry, rangeland,... land uses and land use changes from Agriculture to settlement. forest to agriculture, agriculture to forest,...

    Sohrab Kolsoomi

    Hi, everyone

    There are different models, but i found that it  is better you develop a model or software for your own case study. that it can able to use Satellite image  and UAV images .

    Our team are working in this subject  with UAV images.

    Best Regards, Sohrab

  • Naveen Kalra added an answer:
    What is the best model for optimizing the agricultural water productivity based on the ground measurement data information ?

    I am planning to use some optimization techniques to develop efficient canal operation plan ..

    Naveen Kalra

    optimization of agri-water productivity could be through use of water production functions (seasonal/dated), use of crop simulation tools as INFOCROP, DSSAT, FAO water requirements and water stress effects. The loading of higher productivity at the cost of decline in ground water table depth and net utilizable ground water


  • Christian Gates St-Pierre added an answer:
    Can someone indicate examples of past or present societies with a subsistence economy that is based on the combination of horticulture and fishing?

    I am looking for comparative cases of societies that live primarily on the products of horticulture AND fishing, from any region and any time period, anthropological, archaeological or historical. I know that such a subsistence pattern is somewhat rare, but I would like to know more about those rare cases.


    Christian Gates St-Pierre

    Don't be sorry Nicholas: to the contrary your answers are very helpful. The past and present peoples of the Pacific illustrate the diversity of economic patterns that fall under the large umbrella of "horticulturalists".

  • András Bozsik added an answer:
    What does sustainable agricultural development mean?
    A lot of titles of research papers in agricultural economics end with "...sustainable development". In your opinion, what does "sustainable development" mean?
    András Bozsik

    Dear Dragos,

    Sustainable agriculture means to produce high quality and healthy agricultural products mainly food and feed without harming the biosphere (soil, water, air), conserving nature and countryside (even the aesthetic view) and maintaining the ecosystems and their services with one phrase sustaining life without economic and political profit.

  • Jens-Peter Loy added an answer:
    Dear Friends! Is it possible to do cointegration analysis for agricultural commodities which are available only for 2/3 months in a year.?

    I have weekly price data of pineapple for the months of June and July for 12 years. I want to know the spatial market integration. Please advise

    Jens-Peter Loy

    You could use panel unit root and co-integration techniques. Each year would be one panel member. Best JP

  • A. J. Escribano added an answer:
    Which style of Leadership is considered best in Agricultural Cooperatives?

    Are there different styles of leadership in the  developing/emerging agricultural cooperatives or consumer cooperatives etc.

    Do you that the style of leadership if improved/changed in the developing agricultural cooperative or consumer cooperatives etc.  can lead to better organisations? 

    A. J. Escribano

    Dear Necdet,

    As you know, leadership is based on confidence and freely concesion/provision of authority by the 'followers' (farmers in this case).

    In this sense, the model should be based on sharing common interests. Moreover, the main personalities of the cooperatives should be farmers, t talk the same 'language' and pull forward to achieve the same goals. Also, the change in power positions is important, to avoid corruption and divergence in interests.



  • Alia Raya added an answer:
    How to measure the role of agricultural exhibitions in agricultural development?

    I want to know role of agricultural exhibitions in agricultural development or in farmers empowerment.

    Alia Raya

    Agricultural exhibition is one of the method to deliver the innovation or new information to the farmer. By this method of delivering, it can increase the desire of farmer to know about the innovation. While, innovation itself should meet the needs of farmer. When farmers can understand their needs through certain innovation, then farmers can empower themselves to increase knowledge and understanding and also embellish their skill. It means agricultural exhibition have a role as a bridging on empowering farmers

  • Nabil Mustafa added an answer:
    Are there any Indian scientists interested to cooperate with Egyptian scientist?

    I'm a scientist from Egypt interesting with applications of nanotechnology in agricultural activities to protect environmental , reduce production cost and maximize yielding. Are there any Indian scientist interest in this topic to collaborate with me to apply for call?

    Nabil Mustafa

    this call only for cooperation between Egypt-india 

  • Tarik Hartani asked a question:
    Can anyone suggest any references about drip irrigation adaptation and its sociotechnichal network?

    A farmer led adapatation (innovation) of drip irrigation systems is observed in agricultural areas. May be different factors contribute behind the farmers in this innovation process : engineers  manufactures, small material sellers etc. Are there some examples from over the world?

  • Annangi Subba Rao added an answer:
    Why do some cultivars of green gram (Vigna radiata) not flower or set pods in a region where they used to?

    Does anybody know why some cultivars of green gram (Vigna radiata) won't flower or set pods in a region where they used to do? One of the cultivars that used to set pods normally fail to do it no matter what planting dates or irrigation schedule /period I choose. 

    Annangi Subba Rao

    Dr.Binod Kumar, good answer.Are the varieties within a crop differ in their photosensitivity.Of course, varieties with in a crop may differ in their nutrient requirement and  also utilization of soil and fertilizer nutrients. Does the virus or sucking pests have some role in retarding flowering in a crop like green gram?

  • Tapas Bhattacharyya added an answer:
    How Fusarium graminearum population density can be estimated in rhizosphee soil using real time PCR ?

    P. Horevaj,  University of Arkansas, Division of Agriculture, Fayetteville, AR, USA How Fusarium graminearum population density can be estimated in rhizosphee soil using real time PCR ?

    Tapas Bhattacharyya

    My colleague Dr Velmourougane , a microbiologist,,( might reply.



  • Aboubakar Hayatou Iyabano added an answer:
    In trying to determine the economic effects of climate change on agriculture, what climate change variables are important to consider?

    What are climate change variables?

    What variables bear direct economic effect (whether positive or negative) to agriculture?

    What principle could be adopted to measure or actually quantify the effects of these variables on agriculture?

    What staitical tool or regression model could be adopted?

    I really want to know if the effects of these variables have been measured or can be measured

    Please any help, file attachment or webpage redirection will be well appreciated

    Aboubakar Hayatou Iyabano

    What are climate change variables? Most common variables: temperature, humidity, wind and precipitation could be important variables to be considered in climate change studies.

    What variables bear direct economic effect (whether positive or negative) to agriculture? Temperature, humidity, precipitation and wind can affect both positively (growing of new species of trees in a degraded land, e.g:  Jatropha Curcas, ) and negatively (dehydration of plants, slow growth, fruits productions…).

    I really want to know if the effects of these variables have been measured or can be measured:

    The effects could be measured, by statistical tools (cob douglas production function: linear or multi-factors…also estimating the yields of selected crops: e.g maize or other crops very sensitive to drought and increase in temperature…).

    Please any help, file attachment or webpage redirection will be well appreciated:


    (interesting German projects working on the issues in West Africa)

    Best wishes,


  • Naeem Fiaz added an answer:
    Identification of sugarcane varieties?
    I am preparing a comprehensive book for sugarcane varieties identification. Most of our local farmers and sugarcane procurement staff of sugar mill get confused. Can anybody share experience, or suggest literature?
    Naeem Fiaz

    Can you please give me her email address? Her contact detail is not there on official website:

  • Rina Tiwari added an answer:
    How nutritional gap of selected population can be find out?

    What type of schedule we should use to find out nutritional gap.

    Rina Tiwari

    Dear aparna there are many ways to find nutritional gap in the population most widely used it anthopometric measurements (in combination of height, weight and BMI) with food habit, household food security, food frequency or 24 hour dietary recalls are major. It depends how much information regarding social and environmental factors you wanna measure. You feel everything is important but decide what you can make best with your limitations.

  • Abdoul Abdoul Aziz Niane added an answer:
    Is there any way to increase the rate of Adoption of ready -to use agricultural technologies ?

    Adoption of already and proven agricultural technologies in West Asia and North Africa is a real problem. How we can improve and increase the adoption rate.


    Abdoul Abdoul Aziz Niane
    Let the public sector focus on agriculture policies and regulatory frameworks and agro-biodiversity conservation activities and gradually devolve the business of technology generation, adaptation and dissemination to the private sector. Agriculture is a business not a religion.
  • Kiran Rs added an answer:
    Anybody out there who has worked on the outreach strategies of a mobile or tablet based technology in rural areas?

     What are the basic techniques used to convenience the marginal people to adopt a cost involving technology which will enhance their agriculture production and livelihoods ?. I need information on the marketing or outreach strategies for the implementation of mobile or tablet based technology in rural areas,

    Case studies on different Mobile and Tab based technologies for agriculture and rural development, its implementation techniques can also be shared.

    Thank you

    Kiran Rs

    Thank you so much Chandana Jayathilake 

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    Can anyone share with me about success story of climate smart agriculture for mitigating negative impact of climate change on agro-ecosystem ?

    I am planning to collect some success story regarding role of climate smart agriculture in mitigating negative impact on agro-ecosystem. It will help me for making review article. 

    Waiting for your good suggestion and valuable information..

    Abhishek Raj

    Many thanks to all of you for valuable information

  • Abdul Ghafoor added an answer:
    How can we develop irrigation water of desired RSC value?

    How can we develop irrigation water of desired RSC value?For eg. if we want to have irrigation water of RSC 5 and 10, what is required quantity of different salts to be added into the distilled water?(NaCl,Na2So4,NaHCO3, MgCl2 and CaCl2)

    Abdul Ghafoor

    Dear Renjit please study the paper attached which will prove helpful.

  • Honar Safar Doski added an answer:
    Has anyone investigated the relationship between fertilizer (synthetic NPK vs manure) and the %N in crop plant tissues?

    For some reason I am having trouble finding studies that have tested differences in plant nutrient uptake, specifically %N, in response to NPK versus manure.  All of the literature I have uncovered so far tests soil nutrient response but not plant nutrients.  I am particularly interested if leguminous plants may accumulate excess %N when raised in fields that have been historically fertilized with synthetic fertilizers.  Does anyone know if a study like this has been published?

    Honar Safar Doski

    Nitrogen (N)
    Converts to amino acids in plant
    »Building blocks for proteins
    »Essential for cell division & plant growth
    Necessary for enzyme reactions
    Constituent of chlorophyll (photosynthesis)
    Promotes vigorous vegetative growth

    Roles of Phosphorus (P)

    Plays role in photosynthesis, respiration, energy storage & transfer, cell division & enlargement
    Stimulates early growth & root formation
    Promotes flower and fruit development
    Promotes seedling root growth
    Contributes to disease resistance
    Does not easily leach

    Roles of Potassium (K)
    Essential for photosynthesis
    Used for protein synthesis &
    sugar translocation
    Important in membrane permeability
    Opening & closing of stomates
    Helps plant use water more
    efficiently by promoting turgidity
    Increases disease resistance

    Tells what plant actually took up
    Standards only available for crop plants
    Best timing
    »Annual crops – during active growth
    »Tree crops – July
    »Grapes – at bloom (petioles)
    Include 30+ leaves/sample  into small paper bag, refrigerate, take to lab ASAP
    Include: N, P, K, Fe, Mn, Zn, salts(?)
    Nutrient Analysis Plant Tissue Sampling

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