Science topic

Agricultural Extension - Science topic

Agricultural extension or Cooperative extension service relate to applications of agricultural science: communication, marketing, and business.
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Globally, Governments, Private organizations and International Development Orgnizations have invested large resources for developing agricultural extension systems. What are the challenges before Extension and Advisory Services?
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Agricultural extension services typically include capacity development through training, strengthening innovation processes, building linkages between farmers and other agencies, and helping to strengthen farmers' bargaining position through appropriate institutional and organizational development .Extension provides a critical support service for rural producers meeting the new challenges confronting agriculture: transformation in the global food and agricultural system, including the rise of supermarkets and the growing importance of standards, labels, and food safety; growth in nonfarm rural employment and developments.
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Please suggest different ways to assess the service quality of agriculture/ extension service providers ? with respect to different dimensions / attributes
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Thank you@ Valluru Jyothi
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Is it ok to have case study type research topic for doctoral research in Agricultural Extension Education??
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It is an accepted research method. Please see Robert K. Yin, Case Study Research and Applications: Design and Methods.
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This is especially in context of poverty struck and agricultural dependent regions/population
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Yes. Very Much, and without a doubt!
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I have state level agriculture gdp for India, however, I wish to compute district level agriculture gdp for India. Could you please suggest some way out?
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Could you find the district-level Agri-GDP data? It will be a great help f you can share any updates on this.
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With the increasing importance and implementation of computer applications in modern agriculture,
Should Agricultural universities make thier students sufficient in advanced computer knowledge or should they have depend only on pure computer scientists ??
Who will fill the gap between agriculture and computer ?
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Yes, it is necessary
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Although, FAO's Global consultation on agricultural extension (1990)recommended that governments of all nations should develop agricultural extension policy.
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I want to know the journal names which are good in the field of Agricultural Extension, Rural Development and Social Science with good impact factors or NAAS rating
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Journal of Human Sciences and Extension.
Journal of International Agricultural & Extension Education.
American Journal of Evaluation.
Journal of Agricultural Education Online.
Journal of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development.
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I want to take suggestions to know the main points which should be remembered in any social science research especially in the field of Agricultural Extension and Rural Development
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Dear Monirul;
Sociological study seldom takes place in limited, tight quarters. In their own offices or facilities, sociologists never research subjects. Sociologists go out into the world instead. They meet subjects in which individuals live, work and play. Field research refers to the compilation without performing a laboratory experiment or a survey of primary data from a natural environment.
It is a type of assessment suited not to the scientific method but to a conceptual setting. The sociologist must be able to move into new environments and observe, interact, or observe such worlds in order to perform research work. In field work, sociologists are the ones out of their element, instead of the subjects.
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Technology adoption rates amongst small-scale farmers in the Global South (e.g. Africa) remain low, even when scientific evidence shows that a particular technology is beneficial.
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You can find the below-mentioned report on the link shared here with
ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS WAGENINGEN WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS
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In India, there are very few posts for an Agriculture extension in the job vacancies of any Agriculture related Institution,?? I believe in Extension graduates that perform better, but why this trend is there in all projects of SAUs(State Agricultural universities), few Universities abolished SMS(Extn) posts in KVKs, where the Extension personnel work is Very much essential, no recruitments for the extension department since from 15-20 years in many colleges even after it's a requirement.
We are not getting that who are the persons created this trend, why the department is losing its importance, who are responsible for this trend over a period of time.
We all extension students should fight for the Extension department's sustainable growth or better close the same if it is not required because the mere existence of the department spoils the student's life who opt for it.
What about the future of Agricultural Extension graduates? There is the biggest question mark? I have one question which was pounding inside my heart many times? Whether students blame their abilities or the limited scope of the subject but anyway, one thing am sure about, the student life is going to be spoiled.
I will warn future students those who are want to study the Agricultural Extension is your favorite subject, Please go through your idea about the subject scope and importance.
These statements representing the opinions of the many extension students.
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I believe in the role of agricultural extension in developing agriculture. I suggest if there is a labor market that does not provide work for graduate students that there should be a merger of the department with other departments
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Here in my country Pakistan more than 80% are small farmer but our population is increasing gradually and land is also dividing so how can we meet the future livelihood challenges?
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Agricultural extension can help the small holder farmers through:
1. Educating the farmers on modern farming practices which gives higher output with little input. E.g. hydroponics, planting of improved seeds, among others.
2. Educate them on the important of adopting innovation as majority of smallholder farmers are risk averse.
3. Provision of high quality planting materials.
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It can be said that government support can take different forms depending on the type of liberal democracy, equality based or inequality based. Hence, we should be able to expect to see specific type of government support associated with equality and inequality based liberal democracy, which raises the question, what type of government support should we expect in each case? What do you think?
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Dear Lucio Munoz,
Yes, welfare economics, as earlier, is narrowing, welfare green economics is on the way, but You, as a humanist, should know that besides welfare economics as economics, there exist welfare as social policy, welfare as social security in its redistributional political or social understanding. I argue that welfare state is more sociological and political science subject than economical. And You, dear Lucio, must have that in mind too.
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Dear viewers, I’m observing in Ag Extension, sociology and rural development have less or even no postdoc opportunities as compare to other discipline. Any expert in this field can you please answer your valuable reply, what are the reasons behind this?
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The social sciences have come late to this party. Post-docs seem to have been prevalent in the human biological sciences for a very long time. I myself only recently started creating and taking on post-docs for social science-related research in the past decade. I'm now a convert and can't recommend this mechanism (and the amazing young people wishing to pursue such a route) more highly!
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There are eight classical Agricultural Extension approaches mentioned in the literature viz. General Approach; Commodity Specialized Approach; Training and Visit Approach; Participatory Approach; Project Approach; Farming System Approach; Cost Recovery Approach and Educational Institution Approach.
However, new literature mentions Market Led Extension; Cyber Extension; Farmer to Farmer Extension; Farmer Field Schools and Farmer Group Approach also as the Agricultural Extension approaches.
Please comment if it is appropriate to call Market Led Extension; Cyber Extension; Farmer to Farmer Extension; Farmer Field Schools and Farmer Group Approach as the new Agricultural Extension approaches or no?
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Yes in some country it might not be the new approaches but specially in case of developing country it is one way to solve the real problem of farmer and for that the co-ordination between all dimention with involvement of the technical person need to involve in this sector.Actually our problem is those who involve in this field do not study those who study do nor involve in this field so combine effort is necessary to solve ......
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With a Modern Means of connection... Is Agricultural Extension yet an Educational Process?
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Contrary to some responses agricultural extension is and always has been an educational process. If farmers want to learn about knew techniques/technology then extension, no matter the source, is a source of information and therefore an educational process.
The main difference these days is that a lot of "extension" is not through physical face to face intermediaries but through some form of electronic delivery , i.e. webinars, social media, or simple a downloaded information document, but it is still an educational process.
Education is not simply sitting in a class room, and the educational theorists will tell you that learning can happen in many different forms and locations, and that people learn in different ways and through different media, thus extension is an educational process, just not in a formal school setting in most cases.
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What are the obstacles to the transfer of new agricultural technologies from the point of view of the Agricultural Extension Organization?
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I also agree with@Mutasem Z. Bani-Fwaz
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Dear viewers, I’m observing in Ag Extension, sociology and rural development have less or even no postdoc opportunities as compare to other discipline. Any expert in this field can you please answer your valuable reply, what are the reasons behind this?
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Well, I always happy to discuss research communities like you(every one) To the point of your question, In my opinion, Agricultural Extension systems have been following some notable countries.For example,India,USA,Africa, Australia and some notable countries in Europe. Apart from is , Agricultural Extension has broader view subject, because we never suppose to limit our study area. Obviously, You can study environmental sociology,
Agribusiness ,Agricultural Economics and Sustainable Agriculture. In every part of agriculture without extension is not fulfill. So, in my opinion, we should maximize our skills and expertise with those related subjects. We couldn't shrunk our limit. I believe, I may try to answer your question..
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Dear viewers, Which is the most scopeful country for subject like agricultural extension and which country is most suitable for studying PhD in agricultural Extension? Any expert in this field can you please answer your valuable reply.
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The idea of Ag Extension is typical of Agricultural Universities in the US. Check out the websites of these to see what programs they offer, or whether any of these matches your academic interests. Please, ask me any more specific questions you may have as I have been working in this field. Good luck to you.
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Agricultural extension specialist topics regarding agricultural and veterinary sciences.
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Sometimes it isn't easy to find a good place to get a membership so as to exchange our knowledge, or sometimes some online trusted organizations inquire too much money just to get an annual membership, so I would love to get a membership in a Horticulture organisation. Thanks for your kind cooperation!
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YOU CAN TRY ISHS
International Society for Horticultural Science.
https://www.ishs.org/Y1990 when I was a grad. student in Oregon State University. Y
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Looking for value chain studies on rice in different Indian states, any publications which deal with methodological issues are welcome. Also if data of area, production and yield along with marketed quantities if available, are welcome. Thank you in advance.
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Thank you for sharing this publication.
Regards
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how farmers Psychology helpful to adapt New techniques in agriculture for farmers livelihood development 
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In Punjab, psychology of farmers is to get more yield by making use of more inputs than required.  Moreover, they are least concerned about the use of natural resources judiciously. Hence, this type of nature of farmers  making difficult for the extension scientists  to make understandable  the farmers about the use of new techniques for the sustenance of agriculture. 
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We are doing a systemic review of Applications of Operational Research Methods in the Value Chain.
If you have a background in OR and interested to contribute to the paper, please apply. The researcher is expected to cover part of an extensive review.
Please send your CV to the email below with the title "Applications".
GSRN2030(at)gmail.com
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Role-Playing Game is a tool to explain factors and decision making. This game is an appropriate methodology for analyzing farmers' behavior?
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Yes,  It works well. Have tried it quite successfully in rural settings.  
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I am interested in conducting a literature review on the concept of Agricultural Water Management. Therefore, I need to set a reasonable time-period for the review. Anyone who knows when researchers started publishing findings on effectivness/failure of AGM in scientific journals, peer-reviews, ...
Thanks for your support
Lazare
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Convert these waste into another materials that could be used in many things such as water purification.
Regards
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I need to know whether contract farming should be promoted for the upliftment of farmers or  farmers should be brought to a competitive market and let them to compete with other big players?
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 There is a small piece by me on my page, that you may find useful, though it is a little dated. Poultry Farming in Integration mode has worked well. Most others have not. Pepsi's potato contract farming has had mixed results. 
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Hello All,
While exploring the relationship between the performance and diversity of grassroots conservation organizations, I found a nonlinear relationship between these two variables. The performance was lower in the organizations with the medium level of diversity than in the organizations that have low or high levels of diversity.
I am wresting with what could be the explanation for this relationship. I would greatly appreciate your help in directing me to the relevant resources.
Thank you in advance for your help.
Sincerely,
Nabin
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Hello Nabin, Those are interesting results you have. I'm curious what the correlation coefficient is? One reason for your findings could be that less diverse groups have more inter-group trust. I just read an article about some experiments that show people are more likely to trust people who are similar to them (in-groups) than they are to trust people who are different (out-groups). There is a lot of literature out there about this exact phenomena and the grouping of people ranges from race to common-experiences. Here is one source for you to start with: https://academic.oup.com/scan/article/12/3/372/2738791/Trusting-outgroup-but-not-ingroup-members-requires
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I am doing an assessment about climate smart agriculture in South Western Ugandan farmers. I am wondering what would be the key indicators that I should look for in this case. The purpose for this study is to improve food security, mitigate climate change while conserving biodiversity. My major interest would be on soil and water conservation during this study
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To assess climate smart agriculture, !. the major soil physical indicators and related process you should look at: Soil Texture, Bulk density, Aggregation, Pore size distribution and continuity, Available water capacity, Non-limiting water range, Infiltration rate, Effective rooting depth, Soil temperature
2. The major soil chemical, nutritional and biological indicators and related processes are: pH, Base saturation, Cation Exchange Capacity, Total and plant available nutrients, Soil organic matter, Earthworm population and other soil macrofauna and activity, Soil Biomass Carbon. Total Soil Organic Carbon.
3. Exposure of sub-soil, change in soil colour, ephemeral gullies, ponding, run-off, Plant response, Weed species, and decomposition are only a few examples of potential locally determined indicators. Visual evidence can be a clear indication that soil quality is threatened or changing.
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Farmer perceptions are also important variables which determine the adoption of a new technology. In my research, I used four groups of perception questions with Likert scales from 1 to 5. I look forward to better understanding analytical techniques, methods, and the way of applying in logistic models (Tobit, Logit, Probit).
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There have been so many questions about this topic that I have compiled a set of relevant resources:
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I am carrying out a critical analysis on sustainable agriculture in Kenya and India.
please I need articles and or journal paper on this.
regards
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Sustainability depends on many factors especially those regarding local resources. Any practice respects water saving, and labor investment could be helpful 
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Does anyone know where I can get electronic copies of these Ethiopian Central Statistical Agency's surveys:
Agricultural Annual Sample Survey 2014/15;
Large and Medium Scale Commercial Farms Annual Survey 2014/15.
Theoretically, they are on the CSA's website, but the website has been down for the last few weeks.
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Thanks very much Firoz - much appreciated.
The Central Statistical Agency's website is now back up and running:  an excellent resource for Ethiopia data.
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I am designing Questionnaire for Agricultural Policy makers to know their needs and problems especially related to data while policy making. Can any one guide me in this regard, what kind of question can be asked that can help them.
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I agree with Samir Sayadi that clearly defining the objectives and outcomes of your research is what shapes the questionnaire.  I think you need some kind of structure or classification of policies for your questionnaire to make sense and be useful.   I am sorry that the following publication is only available in Spanish, but it might give you an idea of the types of policies and information you need to understand agricultural policies: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/293487311_INVENTARIO_DE_POLITICAS_PARA_LA_AGRICULTURA_EN_LA_REGION_ANDINA.
If it is of any value to you, I just recently finished a paper on agricultural policy trends that might give you an idea of themes and topics of interest to policy makers.  The main structure is: 1. market oriented policies 2. policies for Integrated risk management 3. Sustainable use of natural resources and 4. Efficient use of input and factors of production in agriculture. 
In terms of policy classifications, you might also like to check the series of publications by the OECD on Agricultural Policy Monitoring and Evaluation and the series of country policy examinations performed the World Trade Organization. 
This examples should illustrate how important is to  define the level of detail and depth of your analysis. 
Kind regards, 
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I am designing Questionnaire for Agricultural Policy makers to know their needs and problems especially related to data while policy making. Can any one guide me in this regard, what kind of question can be asked that can help them.
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Are you talking about macro policy in general or in a specific sector, before building your questionnaire, choose the model that you are going to use in your methodology, if you want to use regression model for example, you have to choose some variables for each policy (monetary, financial, ..) that affecting it.
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My undergraduate thesis is on Urban Farming and the reimagining of communities through the phenomenon of urban agriculture and organic farming. It would be great to find literature that is relevant to India. 
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Thank you Hasret :) 
This is great!
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My undergraduate thesis is on Urban Farming and the reimagining of communities through the phenomenon of urban agriculture and organic farming. It would be great to find literature that is relevant to India. 
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Dear Karan,
The following article is a good literature related to  Urban Development in India in the Twenty First Century:
Hope you find it helpful,
Bests- Farzaneh
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I want to know that, what are all the tools can use to find the problems faced by farmers in agricultural marketing? for 5 scale questionnaire.
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Though it depends on your targeted objectives to attain; yet :-
RMA(Rapid market appraisal), PRA (participatory rural appraisal) and PDM (pictorial description methods) can help for descriptive analysis but agricultural marketing problems identification goes beyond the farmers like encompassing all the chains of supply or demand across the marketing system until the consumer household or firm. On such a cases it needs further investigation sometimes going to policy systematic review, time series analysis, multi variable regression, value chain and value addition set up, price stipulation so many forwards and backward retrieval analysis might be taken to consideration.
If your objective is related to arbitrage in the market may be consider the Error; VAR and other models. 
If only determinants to price or market benefits it good to consider GLM; GMM;TGMM; and other marketing margin and concentration ration are good to identify the competitiveness of the market to benefit farmers or suppliers.  
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Several agricultural practices are known to have varying impacts on the environment. Since farmers are directly involved in such practices, it is important that we ascertain their level of knowledge on environmental impacts of their farming activities. It is equally important to know whether there are any factors that are likely to influence such knowledge.
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Here are some latest  publications from India dealing with farmers knowledge being evaluated  in form  of GAP ( Good agriculture practices) ..
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ICM is a system of crop production which conserves and enhances natural resources while producing food on an economically viable and sustainable foundation. It is based on a good understanding of the interactions between biology, environment and land management systems.
ICM is particularly appropriate for small farmers because it aims to minimize dependence on purchased inputs and to make the fullest possible use of indigenous technical knowledge and land use practices.
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Very fruitful discussion...
Integrated crop management (ICM) is a holistic approach to sustainable agriculture. It considers the situation across the whole farm, including socio-economic and environmental factors, to deliver the most suitable and safe approach for long-term benefit. This means carefully considering site selection, soil management, seed & planting material, crop rotation, crop nutrition, pest management, water management and landscape management that fit the local conditions and climate. ICM is not rigidly-defined. It is a dynamic system that adapts to changing conditions by combining local knowledge with new research and technologies. We often work where resources for production are limited, and in these situations the best solution is often to focus on optimising existing resources. In such a way, ICM delivers sustainable agricultural production that safeguards a farm’s natural assets and surrounding community, now and in the future.
Expansion in non-traditional agricultural exports(NTAEs) has stimulated public and private investment throughout Central America, and focused regional policy on promoting continued NTAE expansion.However, in recent years the potential for an entirely new set of constraints to trade have been exposed. Central American NTAEs have experienced an increase in sanitary and phytosanitary regulatory violations at United States and European ports-of-entry as producers and exporters have aggressively sought expansion of their markets without appropriate concern for the field production and post-harvest handling protocols embodied in good management practices. These noneconomic constraints to trade represent the newest and potentially most challenging limitations to future regional development in the NTAE sector, because current violations restrict market access and inhibit
market expansion
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Is there any researcher interested in agricultural vocational training for students with special needs ?
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Dear Richard Zigler, Thank you.
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I am looking for a precise calculation for Bhutan Happiness Index (BHI). Now, I need to use the principle of Bhutan Happiness Index to calculate for my research Social Adaptation Index. Please clarify whether I can use Social Adaptation index to substitute for BHI?
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I don't know exactly what you are looking at to construct your social adaptation index but check the site below
and try to compare and contrast those with what you are constructing so as to observe the plausibility. Good luck!
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Could someone give me an idea of the "prescriptive planting" technique and its implications? I read about it in this article
which of course does not go deep in the details. I would appreciate any additional information you would be so kind to share, be it technical details or opinions.
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If you want a detailed list of the most common technologies applied to Precision Farming practices, take a look at the following explanatory items:
• High precision positioning systems (like GPS) are the key technology to achieve accuracy when driving in the field, providing navigation and positioning capability anywhere on earth, anytime under any all conditions. The systems record the position of the field using geographic coordinates (latitude and longitude) and locate and navigate agricultural vehicles within a field with 2cm accuracy.
Automated steering systems: enable to take over specific driving tasks like auto-steering, overhead turning, following field edges and overlapping of rows. These technologies reduce human error and are the key to effective site management:
  • Assisted steering systems show drivers the way to follow in the field with the help of satellite navigation systems such as GPS. This allows more accurate driving but the farmer still needs to steer the wheel.
  • Automated steering systems, take full control of the steering wheel allowing the driver to take the hands off the wheel during trips down the row and the ability to keep an eye on the planter, sprayer or other equipment.
  • Intelligent guidance systems provide different steering patterns (guidance patterns) depending on the shape of the field and can be used in combination with above systems. 
• Geomapping: used to produce maps including soil type, nutrients levels etc in layers and assign that information to the particular field location. (see picture on the left)
• Sensors and remote sensing: collect data from a distance to evaluating soil and crop health (moisture, nutrients, compaction, crop diseases). Data sensors can be mounted on moving machines.
• Integrated electronic communications between components in a system for example, between tractor and farm office, tractor and dealer or spray can and sprayer.
Caption: Seeder using a geomapping system
 Variable rate technology (VRT): ability to adapt parameters on a machine to apply, for instance, seed or fertiliser according to the exact variations in plant growth, or soil nutrients and type.
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 Has anyone conducted research on relating these two?
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Farming business involves taking decisions on a wide variety of questions such as what products/enterprises to produce, how to produce, what inputs and technology to use, when to produce, when and where to buy inputs and sell output, where to look for input and output prices etc. Conventional extension services in developing countries have been generally designed to address production related questions. However, as agriculture become market oriented and farmers need to take production decisions primarily to respond to market demand, questions related to market become equally important as questions related to production decisions. If extension services do not change to deal with the changing reality of farming, they become less effective. Generally public extension services are slow to change compared to private extension because private extension is based on pay for services. This is the reason there is clamour for privatising extension but in poor developing countries privatisation is not a solution for smallholder producers. For them there is still strong ground for providing extension as a public good but with proper services with efficiency.
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I am doing a research project on agricultural extension functions and its effects on food security in Iran and I am interested in know your valuable opinion regarding this issue in national, regional and international levels. Please share your Knowledge and experiences in this regard.
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The most important aspect of linking agricultural extension to food security is to recognize the need of sustainable agricultural methods for local farmers. If local people - and ultimately countires on a national level - are to achieve food security, they need to be resilient towards climate change and environmental hazards and be less dependent on globalized markets. Sustainable agricultural methods include agroforestry which also reduces a farmers dependence on artificial inputs and thus they are less (but naturally not completely) vulnerable to market changes etc. I've researched a local NGO in Tanzania which worked with agricultural extension services, they provided very important agricultural knowledge to local farmers. Apart from teaching about agroforestry, they also disseminate knowledge about gender equality and entrepreneurship. Entrepreneurship is a tool for diversification which also makes local farmers more resilient towards change and can help increase their income and thus make them more food secure. The gender equality issue highlighted local farmers problem of not allocating time and work equally between the man and the woman - the woman usually work more - and consequently they were not as efficient on their farm as they had the potential to be. This is just a brief answer, I hope it provided you with some interesting input. 
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I am doing a national research project on the factors affecting the National Agricultural Innovation and Extension System in Iran. I would like to know your valuable opinions and views regarding this Issue. Please share your knowledge and Ideas about that.   
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Dear Sir,
I believe that the type, number and level of engagement of the key players in national agriculture innovation systems vary from one country to another. I am very pleased to share with you an Ethiopian case study that my colleagues and I did last year: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/274640072_Institutional_Assessment_and_Stakeholder_Analysis_of_Agricultural_Advisory_Services_in_Ethiopia_The_Need_for_Establishing_Country_Forum_for_Agricultural_Advisory_Services_Through_Strengthening_ADPLAC
Best regards,
Belay
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I am doing a national research project on the factors affecting the National Agricultural Innovation and Extension System in Iran. I would like to know your valuable opinions and views regarding this Issue. Please share your knowledge and Ideas about that.
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Dear Alfredo
Hi, 
Thanks a lot because of your valuable opinion. 
Regards
Peyman 
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I am doing a research project on agricultural extension functions and its effects on food security in Iran and I am interested in know your valuable opinion regarding this issue in national, regional and international levels. Please share your Knowledge and experiences in this regard.
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Please have a look at this paper on how agricultural extension attempts to achieve food security in my country, Malaysia.  The Ministry of Agriculture carries out extension programs.  (I was a biology/biochemistry science student at the agriculture university, UPM, and that has been a wonderful experience.)
"Transfer of technology and providing the related supporting services become the main focus in the implementation of extension programs. To ensure good quality and safe crop yields produced from farms for human consumption, Good Agriculture Practice (GAP) and sustainable agriculture development are being emphasized throughout crop production activities."
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Respected members I have interview for the post of Agriculture Officer, Department of Agriculture (Extension Wing) via KPK Public Service Commission in April, 2016. Need your suggestions/comments/Advice. What to study? How to prepared for this interview?
Thanks in advance
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Hello Abdul,
It may help to meet with someone already in an Agricultural Officer role to find out what issues really matter to the Department. Then you can focus on understanding these issues. Otherwise you can see if they have such information on their website.
I know of a free access journal on agricultural extension and research that may offer you some ideas that you can bring up to demonstrate that you think differently and may offer innovative approaches to your work. While there are other journals, this one has some articles from developing and developed countries, thought it is Australasian-focused.
Good luck with your interview.
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An adaptive trail result that can make larger impact for more communities to adopt
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The International Service for National Agricultural Research (ISNAR)carried out a major study of "On-Farm Client-Oriented Research" (OFCOR).  The International Assessment of Agricultural Knowledge, Science and Technology ("IAASTD") underlined the need to put farmer knowledge into the "knowledge system" so that it was not a linear applied research-adaptive-research-technology transfer. More recently, researchers argue that its is necessary to understand the broader agricultural innovation system, since many technologies driving productiviity increase come from outside what are typical "agricultural research institutions".  [Think of the cellphone and its use in rural banking, crop insurance and marketing.]
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I do have two basic questions in the area of agricultural extension service delivery in Ethiopia.
i) How can I measure quality of agricultural Extension service?
ii) Is there a finding in the challenges of existing agricultural extension service delivery in Ethiopian context, if you have please forward to me.
Haimanot
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in addition of getting gap analysis, you can as well look at their need to progress in the venture. that is from personal opinion (perceived needs)as well as the aspect of  services they actually need and look at the difference between there status and where they ought to be.
or look at their output capacity before the advisory service (baseline) and measure after the services (i.e Post services) and compare the two. 
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Myself and my colleague, Dr Rob Smith are currently engaged in work on Illegal forms of farm diversification.
We seek stories and examples from colleagues who may have encountered such activities in their work. We have just published a paper on this theme (attached).
Any ideas for collaboration?
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Can some one clarify the concepts and constructs of Illegal forms of farm diversification?
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Currently, I am working on how to relate Extension officers education level or years of experiences on their decision on selecting contact  farmer. eight variables were used to measures officers´ perception towards selection of best contact farmer. likert scale is ranging highly important to least important (+2 to -2 ).
years of experience has measured using years and four level of education level were used. ( secondary school, diploma, bachelor, Master).
my hypothesis will be like
more experiences Extension officer has best choice of selecting contact farmers or more educated farmers has selected best farmer 
1. can I use Pearson correlation ( or any bi-variate ) to analysis?
2.What should I do for the likert scale data? should I need to take single ranking value for analysis?
or is there a better choice/analysis I could apply?
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If you have several Likert-scored items, you can add them together to form a scale, and then assess the reliability of that scale using Cronbach's alpha.
Because there have been so many questions here about using Likert-scored items, I have compiled a set of resources on that topic:
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Which forms of ICT can be appropriate?
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Yes, there are already several techniques for the applications of  ICT in agriculture. For example, the applications of wireless sensor networks in greenhouses for monitoring and control, optimum cultivation through modeling, large data analysis, etc. 
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When analyzing agricultural extension service models, which variables do you consider? Which are the methodologies are used to measure effectiveness and efficiency?
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I would recommend the following publication, which compares the attitudes of different stakeholders towards agricultural extension and food security.
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Dear All,
In my current work I will test different extension services to evaluate the effectiveness of providing information on environment. I have found out of literature different approaches, ranking as the most common: field demonstrations or trainings. Have you work with a more innovative approach? and, what would you consider are the main challenges to provide extension services? which criteria would you consider before implementing it?
I will most welcome your inputs and ideas.
Thank you.
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Hi Miriam, much has been said already on the extension methods.
'Farmer to Farmer Approach or concept'  is also a good extension method of dissemination information. Many agricultural practitioners and scholars believe that, adoption and penetration of knowledge and technology are faster with farmers when their colleagues disseminate it to them. From practical experience point of view, its an effective methodology.
Again, 'farmer competition model' is another approach to disseminating technologies to farmers. This helps to encourage more farmer participation for the benefit of getting some award whilst they adopt in the process. A lot of rice projects in Ghana used these approaches to extend rice technologies to farmers.
Use of 'Farming Calendar and Planning Approach' is another methodology for extension. In this case all relevant technical information for dissemination is put in the calendars with graphical images for adoption. So the calendar  (month and day) cum the information helps them to adopt with the right and exact timing of application.
Use of farmer group systems/farmer based organisations models
In addition to the farmer field trips, field schools, demonstrations, participatory rural appraisal (PRA), farmer led approach etc, you should have a comprehensive extension methodologies for an effective knowledge transfer.
...................
For challenges,
1. Need base applicability/compatibility of methods to different communities and farmers
2. Literacy rate of the people/community
3. logistics  and accessibility 
4. Willingness/ interest and ownership by the people and community
5.Level of knowledge of farmers to merit a particular methodology
6. Exposure and technical know how of the agricultural officers
7. Farmers to Agricultural extension officer's ratios etc....
NB...These are local knowledge base perspectives and may differ from country to country.
I hope these makes sense.
Cheers
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I am coming up with a module for teaching post graduate students on policy analysis related to agricultural extension or rural development.  What I find in literature is mostly about agricultural policy or food policy analysis using economic models.  Is there a framework that does not use these economic models?
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I want to see the intervention effect of agricultural extension on farmers' livelihoods
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I find case studies useful for monitoring change over time if there is no baseline information. Ask the respondents what was your situation before? what changes did you make? what have been the impacts so far? But you have to do this early on in the intervention process so that the first impact change report is akin to a baseline. You can then monitor and measure impacts over time, be they physical, financial, environmental, personal, social, cultural, knowledge based etc,
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I am doing some research projects on evaluating agricultural extension education and some of them are being done in qualitative paradigm and looking for some suitable software for those.  Peyman
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There is also QDA Miner for qualitative research: http://provalisresearch.com/products/qualitative-data-analysis-software/
..and WordStat for content analysis and text mining: http://provalisresearch.com/products/content-analysis-software/
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Increasing awareness and building capacity of farmers and agricultural extension agents on climate change issues for food security and development.
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I think this book may be useful to you, if you haven't yet seen it:
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There are many different arrangements for delivery of agricultural extension services currently in place in different countries (i.e., public, private, contract, pluralistic extension system ). At first, please share how you evaluate the effectiveness of the system in the 21st century, generally speaking. I am curious to know also how do you see the trend towards the governance of the system. Is it towards private type delivery and funding systems? How do you see the future of the system in your country?
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Dear Mr. Hashemi
Salam
I suggest you have a look to me and Dr. Shahpasand's  country report in the recent Philippines workshop.
Regards
Peyman Falsafi
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I am doing some researches on national agricultural innovation systems and agricultural extension systems and approaches evaluation and need more information on Meta-analyses particularly on agricultural extension.
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Dear Dr. Arastoo
Thank you for your contribution. As you know Meta-analysis is a research methodology to analyzing the analyses. The value article that you introduced to me is very useful and you and other respective authors have done it in an innovation system context. I will use it and I will follow your other publications through Research gate.
Many thanks.
All the best
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Both agricultural extensification and intensification are employed by some farmers around my study area for my research, there seems to be some variation in productivity, so which is best for them on the long run?
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My name is wassie Haile, assistant professor in soil science, with sufficient backround and expertise in various fields of agriculture.
Before discussing which option: agricultural extensification or intensification is best for farmers, first we have to agree on the meaning or definitions of  these terms. 
As far as I am concerned by agricultural extensification means increasing agricultural productivity and production through expansion of agricultual land or simple more and more areas should be broght under cultivation to increase productivity. On the other hand by agricultural intensification mean increasing agricultural producivity per unit area than that normally be obtained. In the later case we definitely need to use more technologies, more imputs, knowldge and skill to achieved increased productivity per unit area. And agricultural intensification is the only vialble option for increasing agricultul producivity especially in in Africa as the option for expansion of agriculural alnd is no more possible. However, with intensification appraoch, every care must be employed to avoid the negative effects of high inputs on the sustainability of the land.
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I am looking for information about strategic innovation in agriculture particularly in agricultural extension. If anyone has specific materials, please let me know.
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Hi Jamal
If you are talking about innovative extension approaches in agriculture, then check out the following website. It shows how innovative extension methods were used to scale out forages for livestock production in remote areas of Laos. Lots of videos and resource material that you can access.
regards
Jo Millar
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In Uruguay, we are starting an industrial extension center with strong emphasis on innovation demand detection.
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you may also find this work interesting on the 'innovation quick scan' from Dutch industrial extension organization Syntens
Vos, J.-P., 2005. Developing strategic self-descriptions of SMEs. Technovation 25, 989-999.
and this person may be useful as a resource as well;
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Pacific island countries are small and isolated and the transportation cost is high.
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I want to add that the type of training given extension individuals and their strengths need to be matched to the clientele. It may not be enough just to give a farmer the answer, but to lead them to the answer so they 'find' the answer themselves. Teaching a system of diagnostics to their survival is critical versus teaching to be dependent on the extension worker. There's too much emphasis on specialization when the extension worker needs to be a generalist with strong science and communication skills. Teaching interdependence between farmers in an area is very important, but sometimes you have to run the gauntlet of animosities similar to the 'Hatfields and McCoys' where long-standing disputes and family indifferences overwhelm community unity, and cut through this for the common good of all. Sometimes, its difficult to help farmers unless they're hurting and are more open to suggestions for change. Culture is the base to which you start from, and all other systems and technologies for change come later..
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Basing on the current situation of extension in Uganda, farmer are many in that they do not equally benefit from a few expansionists(case of Mbale) despite the current effort by the government of Uganda to improve extension service. The technology have come up and some people,organizations and projects are using such technologies specifically electronic media including mobile phones to ensure that farmers access extension services.But most of the farmers are in rural areas where access to the media and or the use of the phone is cumbersome. to areas where it is accessible, farmers are to busy with farm work (women mostly, who in turn do most of the farm work). field experiences shows;Cultural prejudice continue to be used by men to control women,Insecurity of some men when their wives’ voices are frequently aired on the radio (either as star or radio farmers),
Lack of capacity by the actors to identify and integrate gender in media work,
African women seem to fear their husbands rather than respecting them so it is not easy to conduct interviews in presences of their husbands,
Sometimes, male presenters on the radio get excited (sometimes use ‘inappropriate’ words) when females call in and this seems to annoy and discourage their husbands from allowing their wives to call in. in addition,Targeting women alone has failed in the past – A case of a project which targeted women for maize and beans and trained them to plant beans and maize in lines. When the women had just planted the maize alone and were about to plant the beans in lines too, the men came by and complained that the women were wasting the land and they broadcasted the beans in the maize,Some social groups like Muslims may not allow women to freely interact with men,and Women are over whelmed with domestic work.
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the effectiveness of the technology used in Agriculture extension mainly depend on accessibility of technology and then other factors in context to effective communication process. Country in which having higher technological literacy for use technological devices like mobile phones, Radio. Computers would get benefits over who do not have it. Evidence in my country on access to information via mobile once they need dialing to Agricultural extension service center has been shown effective mechanism. nevertheless, technological advantages is not much close to those developing country where Agriculture being dominating in poor rural areas and even less access to technology.
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I have collected data from Agri-officials from MOA-Saudi Arabia like their age, place of birth, current residence, level of education, area of specialization and their perception regarding privatization of extension and advisory services on a 5-point Likert scale. I have collected data from 94 officials. I have entered data in SPSS as well. Apart from descriptive statistics (mode, median and frequencies), I have some confusion in my mind regarding inferential statistics. I am treating data as ordinal. Kindly guide me that what test I will use if I want to find the relationship b/w age (for example- I have 4 categories of age) and their perceptions (15 Qs). Which test will be most suitable in this case?
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The measurement level of the variable (i.e. whether it is ordinal or continous etc) is not the only thing to take into account when deciding how to examine possible associations between the variables. You need to think about the nature of the association - is it linear, curvilinear or something else? If you expect a linear association and you have two ordinal variables then using the Spearman correlation (or the gamma) is a good choice. If you believe the association is non-linear then you could use a chi-square test as well. When you only have 94 respondents it is a little bit difficult to use factor analysis but otherwise that might be a good suggestion as Jacek mentions (even if the requirements often ar interval-scaled variables unless you use special kinds of correlations).
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As extension has become privatized it increasingly has involved a cost to farmers. This means that information that a farmer once gained free of charge is now obtained by paying for it. My thoughts are that farmers will be increasingly likely to become information withholders, and that this will have an impact on the adoption of innovations. This will be especially important when the effective provision of information about the innovation is a necessary precursor to adoption.
I’m also thinking that information withholding will be more likely in individualistic societies such as Australia and the US and less likely in collectivist countries such as Indonesia.
I’m also wondering if information withholding is associated with more intensive agriculture and whether information sharing is more likely in extensive agriculture.
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Dear Geoff, I agree with Bettina that agricultural innovation systems literature is usefull. Also work by Paul Engel on Agricultural Knowledge and Information Systems may be relevant for you. Some other references that you may want to explore are:
Llewellyn, R.S., 2007. Information quality and effectiveness for more rapid adoption decisions by farmers. Field Crops Research 104, 148-156.
Veisi, H., 2012. Exploring the determinants of adoption behaviour of clean technologies in agriculture: A case of integrated pest management. Asian Journal of Technology Innovation 20, 67-82.
Spielman, D.J., Davis, K., Negash, M., Ayele, G., 2011. Rural innovation systems and networks: Findings from a study of ethiopian smallholders. Agriculture and Human Values 28, 195-212.
Horna, J.D., Smale, M., von Oppen, M., 2007. Farmer willingness to pay for seed-related information: Rice varieties in nigeria and benin. Environment and Development Economics 12, 799-825.
Good luck!
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Need to know about journals of Social Science (Ag.Eextension) which have an impact factor with Thompson-Reuters and do not charge any money for publishing.
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Dear Ahmad,
Currently, as far as I know, there is no Agricultural Extension Education- focused journal with IF. The five better known journals specialized in this filed are Journal of Agricultural Education and Extension, Journal of International Agricultural and Extension Education, Journal of Extension, Journal of Extension Systems. But, to name the journals you are seeking for, I will suggest Agriculture and Human Values, Journal of Rural Studies, Agricultural Systems, World Development, Journal of Sustainable Agriculture, International Journal of Agricultural Sustainability. I am also work within this filed. You may see my profile and try some journals that I published in.
Hope this help you
Wishing you all the best
Mahmoud
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Does anyone know of any ongoing outreach programs/methods specifically targeting farmers or other potential stakeholders (e.g., ag consultants, conservationists) to increase implementation of best management practices or other ag conservation practices. My research involves water quality and aquatic conservation, but I would be interested in using other topics as a template. Specifically, I'm trying to find out about programs that use a behavioral approach to go beyond dissemination of information and actually track behavioral changes or implementation rates.
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Dear Samuel,
Using the farmers experience through involving them in the co-design and development processes can be a good option.
Following links may be useful.
Regards,
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Reference and source links are highly appreciable !!
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Raj Adhikari,
Sorry for answer your question so late. I hope you still need that information. In Brazil just 9,3% of the farmers in general have access to rural extension services, 12,8% have occasionally and 77,8% don't have access of any kind of services. That information refers to research made at 2006 by IBGE, Brazilian Institute of Geography and Statistics. See more information at: <http://www.sidra.ibge.gov.br/bda/tabela/listabl.asp?z=t&c=2576>..
The number of farmers who do not have access to the rural extension service (IBGE, 2006 - the same source) show the geographical inequality in the country: 51.55% in the south (richer), 69.31% in the Southeast, 69.99% in the Midwest, 84.55% in the North and 91.62% in the Northeast (the poorest).
The rural extension as a Brazilian social service shown a paradoxical use of public financial resource. More service to richers and less service for needy and poor farmers.
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There are several actors that generate changes in production systems.
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Agroecologists study a variety of agroecosystems, and the field of agroecology is not associated with any one particular method of farming, whether it be organic, integrated, or conventional; intensive or extensive. Furthermore, it is not defined by certain management practices, such as the use of natural enemies in place of insecticides, or polyculture in place of monoculture.
Additionally, agroecologists do not unanimously oppose technology or inputs in agriculture but instead assess how, when, and if technology can be used in conjunction with natural, social and human assets. Agroecology proposes a context- or site-specific manner of studying agroecosystems, and as such, it recognizes that there is no universal formula or recipe for the success and maximum well-being of an agroecosystem.
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What is your local Agricultural Extension office actively (not just talking about) doing (to reduce the constant rise of synthetic chemical pollution in cropland, storm water runoff and in aquifers) in both the 1) commercial grower industry - and 2) the consumer (horticultural) market which accounts for about half of that total pollution?
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Especially India is dominated by rural youth. We are concentrating in retaining the rural youth in agricultural sector. Thus now we are concentrating on evoking task force in Organic farming using rural youth.
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The objective of my research is to implement programs to generate income without changing the environment in a river community. I am looking for publications relating to agricultural intervention in riverine communities