Agricultural Engineering

Agricultural Engineering

  • Paul Reed Hepperly added an answer:
    What is the efficiency of using Agriculture by products act as biofilter in aquaponics system instead the commercial products?

    How much the efficiency of used Agriculture by products act as biofilter
     such as rice husk and maize stubbles?

    Paul Reed Hepperly

    Dear Abdelrazzaq Al-Tawaha, Instead of using a commercial product you might want to consider the use of mature coarse compost as a biofilter for aguaponic systems. Compost can be a source of buffering for metals provide essential nutrients. The filter material itself can be a source of denitrifying organisms which will be useful potentially in preventing the staling of the water. Biochar could be another option which would allow stable filtration if you use biochar you make want to make sure the pH is not overly alkaline. Low temperature biochar has a neutral pH which would not be problematic in the water reaction. 

  • chee ping Tan added an answer:
    Do we have recent data (2015-2016) pertaining annual global seaweed production?

    Latest data on annual seaweed production 

    chee ping Tan

    Maybe you can try work on a simple production prediction model based on all past year data? Just my thought. 

  • Abdenour Kheloufi added an answer:
    Biofertilzer use in agriculture?

    Dear Colleagues, 

    What kind of Biofertilzer are used until now with a great success?!

    Thank you

    Abdenour Kheloufi

    Thank you for your contributions 

  • J. C. Tewari added an answer:
    To what extent it is true that agroforestry is failing in arid tropics ?

    Simple  question !

    J. C. Tewari

    Thank you  very much , Dr.Pandey .

  • Guopeng Jiang added an answer:
    Practicality for on-the-go measurement of potato sizes?

    It seems to me that the potato sizes are highly variable across the paddock, as well as the potato spatial yields (spatial dependence ~3 metres). Even we take tuber samples from multiple sites, they still don't represent the whole paddock well. The grower has suggested an app called 'PotatoSize', which calculates the proportion of tuber sizes based on the photos taken by cellphone. How about the practicality to retrofit a camera like this on-harvester to measure potato sizes on-the-go? 

    Guopeng Jiang

    It seems that some previous work have been done, but for some reason they are not as popular as the conveyor weighing system:

    Heinemann, P. H., Pathare, N. P., & Morrow, C. T. (1996). An automated inspection station for machine-vision grading of potatoes. Machine Vision and Applications, 9(1), 14-19. ;

    Ehlert, D. (2000). Measuring mass flow by bounce plate for yield mapping of potatoes. Precision agriculture, 2(2), 119-130.

  • Larbi Abibi added an answer:
    Apriori Algorithm

    I have past agricultural dataset containing soil fertility, crop planted, and fertilizer applied and yield obtained. I am trying to recommend to a farmer appropriate crop and fertilizer to be used for high yield production based on his soil fertility which is also to be predicted from soil dataset. Is it possible to use apriori algorithm and if possible can someone help me with some tips on how to go about it.


    Larbi Abibi

    A priori algorithme, est un algorithme classique de recherche de règles d'association. Il opère sur les bases de données transactionnelles(enregistrements de transactions). Pour évaluer la pertinence d'une règle d'association deux  critères sont utilisés: le support et la confidence. Afin d'être retenue, chaque règle doit avoir un support supérieur à minSupp et une confidence supérieur à minConf. Ces deux paramètres sont définis empiriquement par l'utilisateur.

                                                                                                    Abibi L.

  • Gedalyahu Manor added an answer:
    What do you think is the most urgent research topic related to leaching of pesticides?

    I would like to know scope of research in leaching pesticide due to heavy rainfall or spilling of pesticides on the surface. Is there any scope for mathematical modelling of leaching as in chemical engineering point of view?

    Gedalyahu Manor

    As we know that we can not always prevent chemicals that are needed for crop production from reaching the soil, the best approach is to collect the leachate before reaching the aquifer and take the chemicals out and save the water for reuse. We have a first design system to do it.

  • Srinivasa Brahmanand Pothula added an answer:
    Do you have any information about pineapple critical temperatures?

    I want to get detailed information on the pineapple's climate, thermal, and water needs

    Srinivasa Brahmanand Pothula

     Dear Dr. Daniel,

    Page number 52 from the following web link may be of some help to you. (Threshold critical temperature for Pine apple is 35 degree celsius).

  • Igor Fomenko added an answer:
    Can someone advice an opensource program for 3-d slope stability?

    I'd like to work with a spatial distribuited opensource program for shallow slope stability.

    Can someone advice?

    Igor Fomenko

  • J. C. Tarafdar added an answer:
    What is the best way to compare the uptake of plant root nutrient uptake when using chemical fertiliser as opposed to using a blended fertiliser?

    Dryland, 3 foot row spacing, plant population 16800/ha

    Roundup ready yellow and white maize, with chilo resistant gene

    summer rainfall 400-600mm

    N = 80kg / ha P = 20 kg/ha clean element K = 4.5kg / ha clean element

    Urea based N, MAP(33%) based P, KCL(50%) based K

    time to physilogical ripeness = 126 days

    ave temp during season -> 19 deg celsius - 42 deg celsius

    J. C. Tarafdar

    Another important aspect to compare is the metabolic activity. In order of ions or other solutes to accumulate against a concentration gradient , an expenditure of energy is required, either directly or indirectly. The main source of energy in nonphotosynthesizing cells or tissues (including roots) is respiration. Thus, all factors which affect respiration may also influence nutrient/ions accumulation. For example, if oxygen tension decreases, the uptake of ions such as K and Phosphate falls. You may also find close correlation between carbohydrate content and uptake of ions; example, K (Mengel, 1962).

  • Olusegun D. Samuel added an answer:
    Does anybody know how to obtain an estimate of energy needed for fertilizer production for agricultural use?

    Trying to obtain the total energy consumption at farm level, we need to consider also "indirect" energy, mainly due to fertilizers use.

    Olusegun D. Samuel

    I suggested you to read a journal entitled, "Fadare, D. A., Bamiro, O. A., & Oni, A. O. (2010). Energy and cost analysis of organic fertilizer production in Nigeria.Energy, 35(1), 332-340". - Dr.O.D. Sam

  • Michael Byle added an answer:
    What are the methods for naturalization of regulated streamflow?

    Suppose in a basin we have a dam and we want to naturalize the flow at the outlet of the basin. What are the ways for naturalization of streamflow, so that the dam effect can be neglected. I have a long series of streamflow record prior to the dam construction.

    Michael Byle

    This has everything to do with the design of the outflow channel.  The channel must be shaped and dimensioned to mimic natural outflows corresponding to precipitation events.  Factors such as the nature of the inflow channel and incident precipitation directly on the reservoir surface will alter the flow regime and must be accounted for.  While you can mimic the flow, there will be a delay imposed by the reservoir.  The out flow rate will be driven by the levels in the reservoir and the configuration of the outflow channel.  Depending on the size of the reservoir and associated watershed, creating an effective discharge structure to mimic flows that would have occurred without the presence of the reservoir can be quite challenging. 

  • Yagoub Ali Gangi added an answer:
    Can the developing countries leapfrog from agriculture to knowledge-based economy?If yes, how this goal can be attained ? what are requirements

    this is part of an ongoing research

    Yagoub Ali Gangi

     Thank you very much professor Kochar for your valuable comment 

  • Noor Edan Jarad added an answer:
    How much feed is needed for semi-intensive shrimp for each 2,500 square meters during one crop of the year

    How much feed is needed for semi-intensive shrimp for each 2,500 square meters during one crop of the year

    Noor Edan Jarad

    hello doctor see this attach 

  • Ogori A Friday added an answer:
    Calibration procedure for High temperature 180 °C humidity sensor?

    I have a high temperature till 180 °C humidity sensor, it is uncalibrated . In order to measure the humidity inside a testing chamber which is electrically heated till 180 °C and containing flowing flue gases, I want to first calibrate it . Any one have experience of dealing with high temperature humidity sensor calibration???? 

    Ogori A Friday


     What i suggest you do is allow the temperature reading for couples of three to four day , take not of the humidity out side check readings of fluctuations and compare with the inside chamber temperature before you calibrate to take your reading . if you calibrate before reading you may have false results because humidity equilibration has to take place between the prevailing temperature outside the sensor and the inside the sensor chamber.

  • Ricardo Vieira Santos added an answer:
    What are major practical inputs required to author a book in crops management ?

    I have some experience in seed quality testing, irrigation modeling, and other cultural practices related a production of some crops: barley, triticale, rye, Sudan grass, alfalfa, sweet corn, forage sorghum, and silage corn. I would like to document practical outputs into an academic book including: hybrids, seeding rates, soil conditions, planting dates, planting depth, tillage, irrigation modeling, fertilization, and crop rotations. are those enough to produce an academic book in my region ?   

    Ricardo Vieira Santos

    Mohunnad Massimi, your book is about a specifically culture? 

    For instance, I have a book about some horticultural´s species, written in Portugal. In this book, the author wrote about these points to each specie: taxonomy;  origin and history; utilizations and composition; statistics about production in country and world; morphology; varieties; physiology, like cycle and statements along cycle; característics about development; temperature and radiation requirements; soil requirements; techonology about production, like how is your cultivation; fertilization; water requirements; pests and diseases; harvest; post-harvest  management.

    You should adapt these points to each culture.

  • Ahmed Nourani added an answer:
    Does any body has a database for crops and their hybrids seeds weight in Jordan ?

    Simulating seeding rate depends on seed weight and viability. This is needed by both farmer and extension staff in Jordan. Where can i find a database for crops, hybrids, viability %, and 1000 seeds weight ?  

    Ahmed Nourani

    Hi, please check with ICARDA institution because they have a long experience of work in this field

  • Jeff Tucker added an answer:
    What is the permeability of the tillage layer in clay soil, how we measure it?

    does any researcher calculate the eprmeability of tillage layer in clay soil when he uses modeling like Hydrus?

    Jeff Tucker

    One can measure permeability by looking at relative water movement rates in different soil types.  Here is a method for quantification of permeability rate for each 10cm using a Sentek Enviroscan probe.  Please see the chart below.

  • Saddam H. Cheyed added an answer:
    What is the optimum plant density for forage sorghum and Sudan grass hybrids per meter square ?

    Based on my research and according to number of seeds per pounds. I supposed by broadcasting that the optimum plant density per meter square must be about 130 plant per meter square. Is this accurate ?

    Saddam H. Cheyed

    Dear Mohunnad,  This density is very high. ِAnyway the number of plants per meter square must be about 20-40 plant.

  • Narayan Ganapa Hegde added an answer:
    Does any agronomist or crops expert provides a name of a reference related crop rotations and patterns

    Crop rotations is the head of crop management. That due to its importance in field technical inputs like seeds management, pests control, soil fertility, irrigation models, agronomic or horticultural practices and several other factors. I need a good reference in this field that could be handled and put into practice world wide.

    Narayan Ganapa Hegde

    Based on soil quality, moisture availability and local needs,  suitable cropping systems can be designed. For instance, silvipasture can be the best option in arid and semiarid regions, if the stakeholders are engaged in livestock husbandry.

  • Sambit Kumar Karan added an answer:
    How to maintain the room temperature 25C of water in a storage tank used for a solar photovoltaic cooling system set up outdoors in a desert location?

    The storage tank volume can be somewhat between 0.3 to 0.5 cubic meters (no specific shape requirement) and preferably of a closed type apart from the water flow area from or into the tank in the closed system to avoid excessive sand or dust entry from the ambiance.

    Sambit Kumar Karan

    Dear colleagues,

    Thank you for your time and providing relevant information as answers to my question, I shall check accordingly for these options whichever is feasible and get back to you for any further queries.



  • Paul Reed Hepperly added an answer:
    What is the typical mathematical relation between 1000 seed weight and recommended seeding rate ?

    Based on seeds weight, the agronomist can simulate the seeding rate (kg or pounds) per hectare or acre. There are various mathematical formulas for this. What is the best formula could be used ? and why ?

    Paul Reed Hepperly

     Recommendation of sorghum and sudangrass is 10 to 40 kg/ha seed. I understand you are testing using broadcast seeding. I would suggest using 10, 20 and 40 kg/ha as experimental treatments. Broadcast over your plots and lightly disk the seed to give a 3 cm cover with soil. This should be done when the normal rains come or irrigation should be practiced. Take data on the treatment reaction in relation to crop performance and issues such as disease and insects this will give a curve where appropriate population for your condition can be pinpointed from the respones curve. 

  • Dorjderem Balchin added an answer:
    How big data analysis can be useful for perennial fruit crop improvement?

    Big data analysis is an emerging statistical tool for the interpretation of any large volume of data. I want have your views on its applicability for perennial fruit breeding.

    Dorjderem Balchin


  • Mohunnad Massimi added an answer:
    Does any agribusiness or academic extension expert suggests some published articles related cash flow statements calculations and crop production ?

    Measuring profitability and cash flow statement in crops production is a dynamic booster for research and extension orientation.  I am looking for some papers to cite in my projected paper before publishing. My paper related extension work and cash flow statement measurements in some forage crops using treated waste water.  

    Mohunnad Massimi

    Thank you , this is helpful ......

  • Qin Liu added an answer:
    Any advice using RCPs in AquaCrop model?

    we know that for CO2 concentration, AquaCrop model uses SRES scenarios but how we can use RCPs in AquaCrop? Can we assume A2 as same as RCP8.5 for this purpose?

    Qin Liu

    Thanks for your response

  • Bayan Hussien added an answer:
    Which are the best methods to classify water quality suitability for agricultural purposes?

    there are various water quality classification methods based on different water quality parameters, but most of these are based on single parameters. i think on the basis of single parameter classification methods, it is unfair to judge overall suitability of water for agricultural purposes. 

    Bayan Hussien

    Two famous methods are used in classifications,

    1- Wilcox diagram

    2-Richard diagram


  • Oke Matthew added an answer:
    Why it is better to add calcium carbonate to extraction solution in determing chlorophyll pigments quntitatively in plant tissues?

    Question is in the area of plant biochemistery and storage technology of horticultural crops

    Oke Matthew

    It is necessary to add it so as to prevent premature acidification and pheophytin formation during the essay. 

  • Nabil Mustafa added an answer:
    Is there someone interested in cooperating with an Egyptian scientist in an agricultural field?

    I'm a researcher at National researcher centre , Egypt. my email : content removed by moderator. I'm looking forward to finding a partner from Slovakia to apply for funding of a program in the agricultural field (fruit trees research).

    Is there someone interested?

    Nabil Mustafa

    Dear Dr Mohunnad 

    Indeed, all Arab  countries couldn't and will not save a considerable balance (financial support) for research side. thereby, scientists and researcher looking forward to get this fund through applying for EU calls. As, you know the terms of these calls , getting a partner from EU countriens and another ......

    Anyway thanks for you offer and hope o hear from you in the future

  • Mohunnad Massimi added an answer:
    Can any one suggest me the relationship between Electrical Conductivity value and Vigor and germination in Maize seed?

    Definitely there is inverse relationship, but i need to know the EC value in maize and its quantitative interpretation to germination and vigor in maize.

    Mohunnad Massimi

    As a base, the higher the value of EC the lower the vigor. That means that seed coat deteriorates faster and ion lechates in distilled water are more

  • Arjen Huese added an answer:
    Digital soil nutrient sensors?

    Please let me know if you are aware of any commercial digital sensor(s) to measure soil nutrients (N, P, K, Mg)?

    The sensors are required for a land of 5000 ha. Any ides on numbers of sensors would be an additional help pls?

    Arjen Huese

    The Horiba range of digital ion meters work quite well, but doesn't provide real time automated service. They are also quite delicate.

  • Mohamed Hassaan added an answer:
    I need Information about the amount of biogas produced by the fruit of peaches, plums and nectarines.

    Hi dear colleagues, I need information of the amount of biogas or methane produced by the anaerobic digestion process of some fruits such as peaches, plums and nectarines , is that possible the amount of biogas produced by this fruit still has not been calculated in studies?

    Mohamed Hassaan

    Try to google it.


  • Redimio Manuel Pedraza Olivera added an answer:
    Does anyone have a sugar factory waste of calcium carbonate used in dairy nutrition?

    Does anyone have a sugar factory waste of calcium carbonate used in dairy nutrition?

    Redimio Manuel Pedraza Olivera

    Filter cake has high mineral content, including Ca; filter cake is usually used in cattle feeding during dry season both pure  or mixed with other food. As far I know no sugar mill have calcium carbonate as a sole by product. Regards,

  • Ali hussien Amteghy added an answer:
    What are the possible problems of putting elevated solar structures on national highways in India?

    ->Considering current land costs, can the cost of elevation be equal to or less than the cost of traditional installation?

    ->if the elevated structures are financed via the budget for lighting of highways will it be economicabally viable?

    ->will the structures improve road life as they safeguard roads from extreme temperatures and rain?

    Ali hussien Amteghy

    my dear, i agree with ammar

  • Cedrick Niato asked a question:
    Is there are ways in which plants be grown under some means of frost resistance?

    there was a lady who experimented frost resistance crop and won the global price of science award. i read it from an article,was it tested to be true?

  • Debora Zurro added an answer:
    Does anybody know where I can find information about productivity of different crops (kgs/ hectare for instance) in traditional agricultural contexts?

    I am interested in the productivity that we can expect from different plant resources used in prehistory:

    - number of fruits per plants or calories/kg per hectare

    - we are referring not only to wild and domesticated cereals, but also to roots, tubers, or different types of fruits (acorns, hazelnuts, etc... )

    I would acknowledge any information regarding existing databases, research centers or publications from which I can gather all this information.


    Debora Zurro

    Thanks to all for your kind answers. If I find anything else I'll post it here for your info.

    (Dr. Acevedo when using the expression traditional I was referring to non-industrialised contexts)

  • Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi added an answer:
    Hi everyone, I wonder any one can help me with providing data on oil production statistics of hazelnut, pistachio, avocado, almond and walnut?

    I need data on global oil production, import and export for these oils: hazelnut, pistachio, avocado, almond and walnut./ Many thanks

    Sodeif Azadmard-Damirchi

    Hi Friends, Thank you very much for your helpful reply. There were data and information about their nut, but unfortunately, I couldn't find data for their oil trade. Maybe I couldn't search in a correct way.

  • Josue Barragan Iglesias added an answer:
    What are the differences between the ripeness stage and maturation stage in agricultural products?
    see above
    Josue Barragan Iglesias

    Dear All,
    How could it be called the process of natural maturity in the tree (without harvesting it) of a climactic fruit from the physiological maturity to putrefaction in the tree ?. For example, if the period of life of a fruit is 120 days in the tree (day 0 = was born since the flowering and day 120 = Putrefaction) and at day 80 has reached the physiological maturity but not harvested. What is the name of the maturity process from day 80 to 120 developed in the tree (without harvesting it)?

  • Anil Kumar Gupta added an answer:
    Effects of industrial water pollution on the phenology, yield and production of rice pakistan papers?

    effects of industrial water pollution on the phenology, yield and production of rice pakistan papers

    Anil Kumar Gupta

    Interesting. It has relation with the occurrence of agriculture drought (extent, severity) as well, as both - rainfall patterns and penology changes. Besides, microbial (soil) activities and population also changes. This calls for more detailed ecological studies for managing drought risk as well (in South Asia) 

  • Manoj K Patel asked a question:
    Books on Electrostatic Edible Coating System for Perishable Food Products and Fruits to Enhance the Shelf Life ?

    Dear All,
    Can you suggest me few books on electrostatic based edible coating system for perishable food products and fruits to enhance the shelf life ?

    Electrostatic spraying system for edible coatings to fruits and food in one of the most promising method to enhance the shelf life for storage and transportation. It provides uniform deposition, thickness control and uses less material.

    Kindly suggest me some good books in this area


  • M L Gaur added an answer:
    What engineering techniques can be applied to prevent flooding in plains?

    In the Argentina Pampas region, several agricultural land were flooded due to high rainfall and the rise of the water table. What engineering techniques can be applied to prevent flooding in plains?

    M L Gaur

    may attempt for creating avenues for large scale artificial ground water recharging by facilitating vertical movemnet as fast and as much it can be...but all depends on local site conditions...the excess parcels of flood volumes needs to be safely economically and rapidly shifted to ground water bodies even may be in wells or local acquifers. this could be one innovative way to dampen the flood peaks atleast....

    the excess water if any way diverted or spread over the adjacent forest or grassed area it will be relatively a easy task...

  • Surender Singh added an answer:
    Can anybody provide some possible methods to dispose heavy metal contaminated soil, specifically Cd contaminated soil for Cocoa Cultivation?

    Can anybody provide some possible methods to dispose heavy metal contaminated soil, specifically Cd contaminated soil for Cocoa Cultivation? superficial soil layers (30cm) large land extensions

    Not micorremediacion with filamentous fungi or phytoremediation are a very delayed solution and does not improve the problem besides it has no applicability in the large land extensions neither industry of the cacao growers, i need cost benefit relation, Innovative ideas please.

    Surender Singh

    Refers the below web link for required information..Best..

  • Mohamed Hassaan added an answer:
    Does anyone have experience with the YSI Professional plus nitrate sensor?

    I am measuring NO3- in drainage waters from arable fields and for some drainage samples the sensor is dead on the true value from lab analysis, while some other samples results in it measuring too much

    Mohamed Hassaan

    I have YSI 1300 for wAter quality parameters such as ( ph,EC, TDS,temp).

    I don't have NO3 sensor but It's easy to measure it by spectrophometer. 

    But you need to calibrate it before using with drainage water samples may be the detection limit s or the concentrations of NO3 is very high or very low and this make the problem to sensor.

    So try to calibrate it before using in the field samples

  • Abbas AbdulMajeed Allawi added an answer:
    Do you yourselves choose your major (studying field) or the situation, monetary problems or destiny choose it for you?

    I proposed this question to know who exactly choose your major based on his/her own interests? And do you enjoy, love or hate it? 

    Yours Truly

    Abbas AbdulMajeed Allawi

    Field is the best in my point of view.

  • Mohammed Faci added an answer:
    Physiology / Phenology / Development of date palm ?

    - I am looking for work on the physiology and physiological characteristics of the date palm.

    - The different phenological stages and the stages of development of the date palm.

    Thank you in advance.

    Mohammed Faci

    Well received dear Billal,
    I wish you a great success.

  • Ishak Abdi added an answer:
    How to calculate initial moisture content ?

    i am working on modeling rainfall-runoff and initial soil moisture is an important data , is there any formula to calculate the initial soil moisture ?  using for example the API or simple inputs ?

    Ishak Abdi

    thank you a lot Sir Brocca

  • Parameshwar Shirgure added an answer:
    How to prepare irrigation scheduling for tree crops/ perennial crops?

    Irrigation scheduling for annual and perennial crop are different. What are the major factors that need to be considered while planning irrigation scheduling in perennial crops like date palm?

    Parameshwar Shirgure

    Stage-wise water requirement is most important in perennial crops. For more information, you can visit my profile on RG. 

  • Azwin Zailti Abdul Razad added an answer:
    How can I get good NSE value?


    I have been calibrating SWAT CUP for a week, but still I am not geeting good NSE value. I have played with different parameters, and simulated maximum upto 2000 runs, still NSE is coming either negative or 0.005.

    Below here is the parameters, which I have used for Calibration.

    13 : Number of Parameters (the program only reads the first 4 parameters or any number indicated here)
    1000 : number of simulations 1.00 45.00
    v__ESCO.hru 0.10 1.00 0.02 0.20
    v__CH_N2.rte 0.00 0.10
    v__CH_K2.rte 0.01 150.00
    v__CN2.mgt 35.00 70.00
    v__EPCO.hru 0.01 1.00
    v__ALPHA_BNK.rte 0.01 1.00 0.01 1.00 0.00 200.00 0.00 20.00
    v__CANMX.hru 0.01 100.00
    v__SURLAG.bsn 0.05 5.00
    v__SLSUBBSN.hru 10.00 150.00

    Azwin Zailti Abdul Razad

    So ranjit, how did u resolve using the precipitation data? My nse is still negative..

  • Anup Chandra added an answer:
    What are the possible reasons for the differences in photosynthetic rate under open field conditions, dry grass mulch and lowcost polyhouse?

    I have been growing tender perennial crops under three conditions, viz.,

    1. Open field conditions

    2. Open field + Dry grass mulch

    3. Low cost polyhouse (Naturally control polyhouse)

    Note: The light intensity are the same in all the three conditions.

    Anup Chandra

    Photosynthetic rate also depends on the light intensity which is different in open field condition and poly house, evapo-transpiration which is different in open field and mulch....I think so....which may be some of the factors.

  • Ivan Vidović added an answer:
    Does anyone have any crop row detection images?
    I'm doing research in field of crop row detection and I can't find a set of real images to test my methods. Can anyone send me images or links where I can get image examples?
    Ivan Vidović

    During my PhD thesis research, I have created Crop Row Benchmark Dataset (CRBD) which can be downloaded from the following link:

    This CRBD is used in the paper "Crop Row Detection by Global Energy Minimization" published in Pattern Recognition. 

  • Muayed Fadhil Abbas added an answer:
    What are the novel bioregulators that could be used for salt stress mitigation in Fodder Beet under controlled conditions?

    Such as Chitosan, Thiourea, Sea weeds extract or some other promising biostimulant.

    Muayed Fadhil Abbas

     Salicylic acid is an excellent plant hormone, which could be used to mitigate the harmful effect of salinity. I have used this plant hormone both in  vitro and on intact plants, with excellent results. you could also use the amino acid proline, as well as silicon and selenium to mitigate  adverse effects of salinity.

  • Esraa A. Gabal added an answer:
    Can anyone provide me with some papers regarding the nutrient deficiency within the soil in Iran ?

    I am doing a presentation regarding the problems with the soil in Iran and its impacts on the agricultural production also with considering the water problems and its roles in this issue 

    Esraa A. Gabal

    Thanks so much for all of you 


  • Redmond Ramin Shamshiri added an answer:
    What are the agronomic practices of tomatoes in a screen house?

    How can tomatoes be raised in a pot experiment especially in Nigeria?

    The agronomic practices in terms of:

    • Planting,
    • Rainfall and temperature requirements,
    • Soil type and pH,
    • Fertilizer requirements,
    • Harvest, yield and storage,
    • Any other information? 
  • Aida Shomali added an answer:
    If the RH and seed moisture content being provided, is it possible to calculate seed water potential?


    Aida Shomali

    Dear Dr. Ronald Maldonado Rodriguez

    thanks a lot for the answer. I found the attached pdf very helpfull. 

  • Lorenzo Scalera added an answer:
    State of the art of inter-row plantation guidance based on LIDAR information?


    Just for contextualization my research is about an inter-row plantation guidance for precision agricultural application. The approach chosen goes throw the use of 2D point-cloud information from a LIDAR laser scanner and its posterior processing and filtering. The final result is a reference centered between the two row plantation, which will be used in the control algorithm. 

    Lately, I am searching for related works, because I want to know the state of the art on the subject of interest, nevertheless I am not finding anything relevant. What I mean with anything relevant, is that all works found are about row crop guidance for small plants like, for example, soy crop, but my work is focused in bigger plants, like coffee, olive or citrus tree. 

    From this I restate my question: How is the state of the art on inter-row plantation guidance for plants like trees cultivars? Any reference will be of great help.


    Lorenzo Scalera

    Hi! I suggest you to take a look at this paper: "A tracked mobile robotic lab for monitoring the plants volume and health".

    • Source
      M Bietresato · G Carabin · D D'Auria · [...] · L Scalera
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Precision agriculture has been increasingly recognized for its potential ability to improve agricultural productivity, reduce production cost, and minimize damage to the environment. In this work, the current stage of our research in developing a mobile platform equipped with different sensors for orchard monitoring and sensing is presented. In particular, the mobile platform is conceived to monitor and assess both the geometric and volumetric conditions as well as the health state of the canopy. To do so, different sensors have been integrated and effective data-processing algorithms implemented for a reliable crop monitoring. Experimental tests have been performed allowing to obtain both a precise volume reconstruction of several plants and an NDVI mapping suitable for vegetation state evaluations.
      Full-text available · Conference Paper · Aug 2016
  • James Varghese added an answer:
    Has anyone compared NDVI from DN and NDVI from camera DN using UAV/drone imagery?

    I am looking at the correlation between NDVI and nitrogen application rate in corn. I am tempted to use DN derived NDVI instead of computing the reflectance based NDVI... It may actually be impossible to compute the reflectance NDVI because of lack of good reflection standard material...

    So my question is if one is looking at the correlation between the NDVI and the Nitrogen in corn... Does correcting for the reflectance affect the correlation? The imagery are taken with a UAV flying at 60m so I think atmospheric correction may not be required...

    Further to this question, one can normalize the DN NDVI by dividing by the highest value in an attempt to remove any error from not using the reflectance... but the NDVI is not a ratio of two bands, and therefore I am not sure if this would help... I greatly appreciate your feedback.


    James Varghese

    Interesting question. I would like to take some time before I write my own comments. In the meantime, you might be interested to follow a similar question that I asked a few years ago. 

  • Kalidas Subedi added an answer:
    Crops Biomass: how can i estimate Dry biomass of different crops by Wet biomass?


    Kalidas Subedi

    if the question is to determine the dry matter content of crop biomass, the simplest way would be to weigh the fresh biomass first, dry the biomass until a constant weight is reached and calculate the difference on original weight (wet biomass) and the constant weight (dried biomass). if you are interested on the moisture content in the fresh biomass then it is simply calculated as (fresh weight - dry weight)/fresh weight x 100. In other word, fresh weight minus moisture content (%) is the dry matter. 

  • Miqdam Tariq Chaichan added an answer:
    What is the effectiveness process to dry fruits by solar heat ?

    solar energy is used in many application one of this using in drying process of fruits and vegetable in many ways .

    Miqdam Tariq Chaichan

    Dear Khaleel

    For every sort of fruit or vegetables one type of what you have mentioned above. I will supply you in few days with papers about this subject.


  • Alaa Jabbar Al-Manhel added an answer:
    How can I estimate the output equivalence of date palm for energy balance analysis?

    I would like to apply the analysis of energy balance on date palm crop, but how can I estimate the output equivalence for the date palm fruit?

    Alaa Jabbar Al-Manhel

    I agree with all answers above .

  • Alex Calori added an answer:
    Can anyone suggest spray nozzle heads suitable for an aeroponic irrigation system?
    We are currently building an aeroponic system for cultivation of various vegetables.
    However, we seem to be stuck at the choice of an appropriate type of spray nozzle head. Ideally, the droplet size would be about 50 µm and it should be sprayed in an angle as wide as possible.

    I've tried several companies specialized in distribution of these nozzle heads, but none of them seem to have an appropriate one.
    Am I being to strict?

    Does anybody have a suggestion? Or better yet, could you share which nozzle heads you use?
    Alex Calori

    Hi, dear fellow. I've using the following item in my system.
    They presents a good results. I hope it can help you.

  • Paul Milham added an answer:
    Is there anyone who has done project pertaining hydroponics in africa?

    I am having problems finding information on what has been done so far in Africa in the field of hydroponics and identifying the knowledge gaps that my project may need to address.

    Paul Milham

    There is likely to be additional, unpublished information about projects led by international agencies, such as CIAT, This should be available in project reports, Paul.

  • Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar added an answer:
    What portion of Water stored in surface irrigation schemes can be used for domestic and other use possible?

    By adopting good water management practices (by reducing the duty of water for cultivation) definitely you can achieve this. But the question is how to convince the agriculture users.

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problems of drinking water in the Jaffna is an upcoming problem which mostly depended with increasing the population, growing the cultivation activities, opening the sewage in uncontrollable manner and etc. People of the Jaffna area depend on the ground water for all the activities using open well or tube-well. For all activities, the people extract water from underground, induced the badly behaved of quality of water fluctuating the years and also which case usually not related to one, this related with all people in the Jaffna area. The knowledge area covers the potential effects of the ground water in the Jaffna area and improve the problems and effort to bargain the solution for approaching problems using the collected knowledge and information from four of the previous work done by others are reviewed in this articles. The following five articles are mainly reviewed with other literatures referred. "Groundwater potential in the Jaffna Peninsula and impacts of climate change", "River for Jaffna-cultivating productive water from salt water Lagoons in Northern Srilanka-What the water balance of Elephant Pass lagoon demonstrates", "Water problems in the Jaffna peninsula", "Jaffna peninsula water resources challenges" and," assessment of groundwater resources in Jaffna limestone aquifer " .
      Full-text available · Article · Nov 2016 · International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research
    Saravanamuttu Subramaniam Sivakumar

    one useful link

    • Source
      [Show abstract] [Hide abstract] ABSTRACT: Problems of drinking water in the Jaffna is an upcoming problem which mostly depended with increasing the population, growing the cultivation activities, opening the sewage in uncontrollable manner and etc. People of the Jaffna area depend on the ground water for all the activities using open well or tube-well. For all activities, the people extract water from underground, induced the badly behaved of quality of water fluctuating the years and also which case usually not related to one, this related with all people in the Jaffna area. The knowledge area covers the potential effects of the ground water in the Jaffna area and improve the problems and effort to bargain the solution for approaching problems using the collected knowledge and information from four of the previous work done by others are reviewed in this articles. The following five articles are mainly reviewed with other literatures referred. "Groundwater potential in the Jaffna Peninsula and impacts of climate change", "River for Jaffna-cultivating productive water from salt water Lagoons in Northern Srilanka-What the water balance of Elephant Pass lagoon demonstrates", "Water problems in the Jaffna peninsula", "Jaffna peninsula water resources challenges" and," assessment of groundwater resources in Jaffna limestone aquifer " .
      Full-text available · Article · Nov 2016 · International Journal of Scientific and Engineering Research
  • Mourad Guesri added an answer:
    Rainfall erosivity estimation from daily rainfall data?

    is there any model or formula, we can use for the estimation of event wise rainfall erosivity from available daily 24 hours rainfall?

    Mourad Guesri


    Can i estimate it from hourly rainfall (3h) and daily rainfall, since I have seen that R requires the data of the maximum intensity of 30 min (I 30min),
    I want to know the passage between (I max of 30min and (p= 3 hours or p=24 hours),


  • Dilip Kumar Kundu added an answer:
    Could you tell me How do impact of ALTERNATE WETTING AND DRYING on rice plants with surface water quality?

    hello everyone!

    Could you tell me How do impact of ALTERNATE WETTING AND DRYING on rice plants with surface water quality?
    Can use HSPF model to simulate the amount of pollutants into the river from the field ?

    Thank in advanced

    Will best regards,

    Minh Nhat

    Dilip Kumar Kundu

    Dear Dr. Truong,

    (1) Alternate wetting and drying of field causes significant loss of nitrogen from soil by nitrification and denitrification process, when the soil is neutral or alkaline (pH more than 7.0). So rice plants grown in neutral and alkaline soils will suffer from nitrogen deficiency, if the field is subjected to alternate wetting and drying. It is often manifested by yellowing of crop plants in the field, and reduction in grain yield.  

    (2) In case of acidic (pH 5.5 to 6.5) and strongly acidic soils (pH less than 5.0), alternate wetting and drying will not have any adverse impact of rice growth & yield. In strongly acidic soils, it (alternate wetting and drying) may even benefit rice plants by reducing/ eliminating toxicity of iron, sulfide, and different organic acids. 

    (3) Alternate wetting and drying in irrigated rice will significantly reduce irrigation water requirement of the crop.

  • Suresh K Malhotra added an answer:
    New research in the design of intelligent systems Irrigation was done with wireless sensor?

    A variety of wireless soil moisture sensors used in smart irrigation systems?

    Suresh K Malhotra

    In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation plays an important role for the economy and development of a country. In the conventional irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. This work makes the irrigation automated. With the use of low cost sensors and the simple circuitry this work aims low cost product, which can be bought even by a small farmer.

    See following link for details:

  • Neeraj Singh added an answer:
    What will be optimum path profile of blade in spading machine?

    spading machine works on articulated quadrilateral mechanism.

    Neeraj Singh

    Thanks for taking interest in question. Question is only related to path followed by blade tip during operation in spading machine for optimized result.

  • M L Gaur added an answer:
    Unit Hydrograph having one day unit duration ? Does it has any possible physical significance & utility for runoff simulation on ungauged catchments?

    For ungauged catchments simulation of runoff hydrographs is a big challenge. Often the only available input parameter in such situation remains daily rainfall values i.e. 24 hour rainfall depth in mm. Applying vital hydrological concept of     ' UNIT HYDROGRAPH '  for runoff simulation at finer time scale for  such situation, is a focus of this question.

    M L Gaur

    Thanks a lot Mahendra

    wonderful and most relevant information you gave

    Really it very nice work you are going along. all the best.

    I have read ur good paper. Let me get me much educated on this aspect in particular the statistical part. Only my curiosity is to see ,

    1.  One day rainfall ( a single value in mm) needs to be converted into hourly discrete values that means we need to change the shape of hyetograph. In one day form it is almost like a rectangle , which could be seen in a shape like bell or atleast a triangle , if we make it hourly. How simply it could be done is still a food for thought as per me 

    2. is there any simple way like intereactive kind of spread sheet (Excel) where such conversion could be atleast attempted first in a hypotheical input data and later real by blending or giving connectivity (hyperlinking) to very nice approaches, statistical functions, probability density functions or n number of approaches what our excellent friends (who answered or reacted on my tiny question on this wall) have suggested.

    3. The work which is unpublished at your end, seems to be extremly important and unique. my best wishes . good luck

    in last  happy deewali....n new year greetings ...

    thanks again for ur nice help



  • Mohd Najib Ahmad added an answer:
    What is the advantage of FT- Raman spectral over FT-IR in agricultural application?

    As we know, SERRS improved cross section of Raman scattering in 4 order as compared to IR. The bigger cross section, the large area for electron scattering will be in the scatter center.

    Mohd Najib Ahmad

    Ok thanks for your paper. However, the distance between the probe and objects is close and Raman spectroscopy need further enhancement in term of its coverage. In addition, vibration energy of electron from the radiated object is different and inequal as compared to FTIR. This condition may results blurer image from the FT Raman spectroscopy

  • Luke Mosley added an answer:
    Is there any standard method for preparing the synthetic groundwater in laboratory with having certain composition ?

    I need to prepare synthetic groundwater with having certain composition of anion and cation. Is there any standard method, tool or software available for doing this ? 

    Luke Mosley

    Hi, you can use the average ionic composition of your groundwater and then come up with recipe in a spreadsheet based on standard chemicals. Start with the major components of ionic composition (e.g. NaCl for Na and Cl groundwater type, Na2SO4 for Na and SO4 groundwater type, then add minor components, e.g. CaCO3 etc) and adjust quantities of each chemical to best match recipe's total concentration for a particular element (e.g. add up all Na in your chemicals to try and match total Na). Then finally you can adjust pH if required using HCl or H2SO4. Regards, Luke

  • Bir Bahadur added an answer:
    Determination female hybrids in kiwifruit?

    What is the best markers to select female hybrids in kiwifruit.

    Especially for A.deliciosa and A.chinensis hybrids.

    Also is there any markers which is related PSA resistance in kiwifruit?

    Bir Bahadur

    athe above clarifications are more than enough fot you. Best. 

  • Milad Soltani added an answer:
    How can I process 3-hourly TRMM images ?

    I am working on my thesis to produce IDF curves from TRMM data . for this I must process 52000 images and I want to know which format is best for this work and how process that .

    Milad Soltani

    Hi Javad

    see to be sites

    PowerPoint in this case. I hope helpful

    + 3 more attachments

  • Wilfred Chukwuebuka added an answer:
    How can packaging of agricultural products affect its durability? can effective storage of agricultural products be a function of its packaging?

    I'm making a research on how packaging can influence consumers' choice of agricultural products.

    I am finding it difficult on how to relate packaging to durability of agricultural products, with other findings to support my findings.

    I will also need other findings to support my finding on the effective storage as a function of packaging.

    Make your input with any theory as it relate to the question.

    I will appreciate that.

    Wilfred Chukwuebuka

    I need more response on that question, please.

  • Abhishek Raj added an answer:
    Under what soil and climate, raised bed planting of fruit crops should be advised ?

    The most of the horticultural crops are being raised on the raised beds due to many advantages like soil moisture movement, drainage, micro-irrigation and fertigation schedules, weed control, disease control etc. What should be the desigh parameters of the raise beds/bedding systems, does it vary with soil types and their properties ? What is the effect of climate features on raised bed plantation method ? 

    Abhishek Raj

     Friends, i got one PDF entitled "FURROW IRRIGATED RAISED BED (FIRB)
    FOR WESTERN IGP REGION by Naresh". The abstract id given below,

    A field experiment comparing furrow irrigated raised beds and flat beds under irrigated conditions was started in 2009. In bed planting systems,crops are planted on the raised beds in ridge-furrow system. This system is often considered more appropriate for growing high-value crops that are more sensitive to temporary water logging stress. Farmers often raise crops such as cabbage, carrot, radish, okra, onion, brinjal, cauliflower, colocasia, turmeric, cotton, maize and wheat on the raised beds. Results shows that system of raised bed planting of crops may be particularly advantageous in areas where groundwater levels are falling. This tillage and crop establishment option also facilitates crop diversification and intercropping of several vegetables. The experimental results indicated that FIRB technique is not only save the resources like water and nutrients and labour but also facilitates the greater diversification of the rice-wheat cropping systems and improve the physical properties of soil.

  • Menakhem Ben-Yami added an answer:
    How i can learn about socio-economic drought?

    I want found this type of drought does have any trend or not and it depends to what 

    Menakhem Ben-Yami

    As I see the problem, in addition to what has been said by others, such drought may be caused by not equitable access to resources, as well as lack of production means by some of the "actors". Thus, the drought is not general, but affects mostly small-scale producers, while some bigwigs, who in fact have caused such drought, might enjoy the situation. MB-Y

  • Dimitrios Kalderis added an answer:
    Is there a mathematical model to predict/estimate soil compaction after a certain period of time, as a result of natural weather conditions only?

    I am referring to the compaction that occurs to soil after exposure for a certain period of time to rain and other natural weather conditions. Is there an equation connecting air- or water-filled porosity, bulk density, hydraulic permeability or any other property to soil compaction ?

    Dimitrios Kalderis

    Thank you William for your response, I will study the Technical documentation

  • Masoud Latifian added an answer:
    How to efficiently harvest the larvae, after feeding them with organic waste?

    I´m working on a project of an industrial plant processing fly larvae for sustainable protein production. I´m currently looking for an efficient way to separate the larvae from the residue (feed is bio-waste) while harvesting them. Afterwards they´re transported to where they´re processed into proteins and fat. Does anyone have any experience with this step in the production or can anyone offer some helpful advice?

    Masoud Latifian

    Hello Dear

    Please see the attach file about your quistion. I hope It will be useful

  • Job Jonas Capalaran Ruzgal added an answer:
    How can processing and markerting of sorghum and millets products enhance crop production by farmers?

    sorghum and millet utilisation relationship with crop production

    Job Jonas Capalaran Ruzgal

    Crop processing is a marketing activity wherein additional cost are incurred on the premise that profit may be generated. Like all agricultural marketing activity, the main goal is effectively transfer the goods from the farm gate to the end user. The term effective means that the marketing activities will both beneficial to the farmers and end-users. In most cases, processing activites are regarded as value-adding activities. This usually includes storing, cleaning, milling and alike. Though, value-adding can be translated to a higher price, it must be considered that when crops are processed, their perishability usually decreases. This means that seasonal variability of the crops lessen and price may not fluctuate through out the years. Consumers will most likely consider the value-addition if the produce will be available during off-season. One more thing consider is that processing may increase the quality of the produce. An increase on the quality of the produce may increase the utility of the product; hence, consumers will still buy your product even though price increases. 

  • Bryan Weichelt added an answer:
    How many Indian tractor manufacturers are using ROPS for safety purpose. Exports are requested to highlights its utilities?

    ROPS are really important for tractor operators. 

    Bryan Weichelt

    Does anyone have answers/comments for this question: 

  • Ebrahim Tghinezhad added an answer:
    How does parboiling contribute to paddy breakage?

    parboiling involves soaking,steaming and drying, how does these stages contribute to paddy breakage

    Ebrahim Tghinezhad

    My publication entitled "Quantifying the relationship between rice starch gelatinization and moisture-electrical conductivity of paddy during soaking"

    "Mathematical modeling of starch gelatinization and some quality properties of parboiled rice based on parboiling indicators using RSM"

  • Closed account added an answer:
    How can we increase safety in the use of tractors and agricultural machinery?

    Work safety in the use of tractor and agricultural machinery is very important.


    In recent years, there has been only limited progress made in reducing such fatalities and injuries in the sector for the fatalities and serious injuries in the agriculture sector. Deaths in agriculture, predominately involve family members including children and elderly. Agricultural accidents  cause  much  suffering  to  families  and  they can  also  lead  to significant  business  losses.  Research  has  shown  that  family members suffer over 90% of injuries occurring in agricultural operations. Most injuries actually occur in the farmyard.  Most  agricultural accidents  are  predictable  and  therefore preventable. The following some important points must be taken into consideration.   

    -To develop programmes to prevent accidents and injuries to
    vulnerable persons (Children and older persons) in Agriculture.

    -To establish and implement appropriate Safety and Health Training
    and Educational programmes for farmers and persons who are
    employed in the Agricultural sector.

    - To achieve cultural and behavioural changes related to risk taking in

    - To influence farmers to manage high-risk work activities and to
    improve standards in the use and maintenance of Tractors,
    Machinery and Farm Vehicles.

    - To implement programmes to assist in protecting the occupational
    health of persons working in Agriculture.

  • Stefan Wenzel added an answer:
    Does anyone knows up to which height cereals can be stored on raised floors?


    I'm looking for information about the maximum hight, up to which cereals could be stored in roman horrea, or in medieval or early modern granaries. Lars Blöck mentioned a value of 0,9 m (Blöck 2013, 86). Alain Ferdière (2015, 39) cites a value of 0,3 m. Has anyone alternative figures? I'm especially interested in dehusked spelt.

    Best regards,

    Stefan Wenzel

    Lars Blöck, Die Erweiterung der Getreidespeicherkapazitäten der Axialhofvilla Heitersheim in ihrer 4. Bauperiode – Binnenkolonisation oder Konzentrationsprozesse im ländlichen Raum im ausgehenden 2. Jahrhundert n. Chr.? Ein Modell zur Berechnung von Getreideanbauflächen anhand der Speicherkapazität römischer horrea. Alemannisches Jahrbuch 59/60, 2011/2012 (2013) 81–111.

    Alain Ferdière, Essai de typologie des greniers ruraux de Gaule du Nord, Revue archéologique du Centre de la France [En ligne], Tome 54, 2015.

    URL :

    Stefan Wenzel


    thank you very much for your helpful answer. Real life is at least equal to any reference.

    Best regards,

  • Peter Kinnell added an answer:
    Which formula is true?

    Here I given 2 fromula for soil erodibility K factor.

    Which formula is in metric units?

    K = 2.1 x 10-6 x M1.14 (12-a) + 0.0325 (b-2) + 0.025 (c-3)

    K = 2.8 x 10-6 x M1.14 (12-a) + 0.043 (b-2) + 0.033 (c-3)

    Kindly guide me.

    Thanking you

    Peter Kinnell

    If you are not working in the central USA, then the frequently used equation is not actually correct. That equation relied greatly on rainfall simulator experiments which used a series of antecedent conditions and the  results were adjusted to meet the climatic conditions in that part of the USA. In RUSLE2, it is recognized that a soil with exactly the same physical properties will produce different Ks in different climates in the USA.  How that concept is actually dealt with in RUSLE2 may be subject to some debate but the fact that K is not actually an intrinsic factor is an issue with respect to the accuracy by which soil loss can be predicted with the USLE/RUSLE model.

  • Sabbas Asoegwu added an answer:
    Can anyone explain to me technically or give me literature on why internal temperature of crops rises and at a point start decreseasing during drying?

    i was measuring the internal temperature of melon during microwave  and oven drying and i noticed that the internal temperature increased withing the first 1 hr as it looses moisture after which it starts to decrease continuously as it continue to loose moisture

    Sabbas Asoegwu

    Study the heat and mass transfer processes in microwave drying & observe the above by Omar.

  • Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal added an answer:
    Is there any source /website to obtain Aerosol optical depth (AOD) and aerosol radiative forcing (ARF) online point observation data for validation?

    Aerosol optical depth is a measure of the extinction of the solar beam by dust and haze. and  Radiative forcing or climate forcing is defined as the difference of insolation (sunlight) absorbed by the Earth and energy radiated back to space. for validation. Please let me answer if some one know online point based observation.

    Muhammad Mazhar Iqbal

    Thanks Dear  Piyushkumar Patel

  • Benxia Hu added an answer:
    How do I do meta-analysis with RNA-seq data?

    hi everybody, 

    I am going to do meta-analysis on RNA-seq data sets by R software,but there are control/treatment data of effecting different drug on different cancer, I did differential expression analysis (with CLC Genomics) then set threshold (FC & P-value) for all of experiment,now do I  need to select shared genes before doing meta-analysis? 

    Your attention would be really appreciated

    Benxia Hu

    I have one question about batch correction. Is it necessary to do batch correction? I think, we need to analyze per RNA-seq data seperately.

  • Sehroon Khan asked a question:
    Is there another vector for heterologus expression secretion work more better thank PDR111 and pP43NMK?

    Dear All

    Could any one tell me about more suitable vector than pP43NMK, and PDR111 for heterologous expression secretion in endophytic bacteria, thanks.


  • Saqib Parvaze Allaie added an answer:
    Table of Useful life and weights of farm implements?


    I am trying to evaluate the energy input-output in Saffron cultivation in Kashmir but the tables for traditional as well as modern machinery is not available nad if available it has limited implements in it. So, anyone having a full table or some tables of the useful life and weights of these implements, please help.


    Saqib Parvaze Allaie

     The link is down

  • Noor Febrianto added an answer:
    To what extent does the the mucilage on the surface of fermented cocoa beans affect the composition of the dried beans?

    We experimented with the use of washing as a pre-drying treatment in the processing of fermented cocoa beans. We observed significant  improvements in the colour, storage and processing of the dried beans. However, we did not perform chemical analysis to determine whether there are major differences between washed and unwashed beans. There is virtually no formal literature related to the washing of cocoa beans during processing.

    The opinion of other experts will be extremely helpful to us.

    Noor Febrianto

    Washing is a common step after fermentation in purpose to enhance the color, processing and others. however, it also could be use as the step to stop the fermentation process since it remove the pulp from the cocoa beans. Based on our experience in the field, washing is an effective method to stop the fermentation process so that it will not continued during drying process. If it is not washed, the fermentation process will continued during drying process resulted in the continuous chemical changes in cocoa bean. And yes, it will affect the composition of dried cocoa beans.  Depend on drying condition and the duration, it could give you positive result (advantage) or negative result (disadvantage).

  • Kailas Kamble added an answer:
    Dear experts, I need information about equilibrium moisture content for peppermint leaves to model dynamic drying curves. Could some one help me?

    Equilibrium moisture content

    Kailas Kamble

    EMC is mc of the material with the drying air or atmosphere in which it is being done. Know the mc of atmospheric air i.e. humidity  and and rate of mc removal at certain point indicates equilibrium mc.

     From drying experiment data, at a particular temperature,  you may determine the EMC value. Plot "Moisture removal rate (dm/dt)" with "Average moisture content (kg/kg)". Now extrapolate the plot and find the point where "Moisture removal rate"=0 and subsequently get the value of "Average moisture content."

    The average moisture content value is the moisture content, where the moisture removal rate is "0", i.e. the point where the product reached EMC.

    Dear experts, I need information about equilibrium moisture content for peppermint leaves to model dynamic drying curves. Could some one help me? - ResearchGate. Available from: [accessed Aug 23, 2016].

  • Joginder Singh added an answer:
    Do you know of research on the hours to harvest a crop as a function of: crop raised, yield, and horsepower class of the combine being used?
    I am performing market research on the US combine market.
    Joginder Singh

    There is a relevant report on Socio-economic impact of combine harvesters on Punjab Agriculture by SS Ahuja, Department of Farm Power & Machinery, Punjab Agri. University based on NAIP project sponsored by ICAR. I will try to find it out. 

  • Mehdi Torki-Harchegani added an answer:
    Any research work on the effect of relative humidity of air drying and initial moisture content of dates on drying process of date palm fruit ?

    I need some researches on the parameters affecting solar drying of date palm like air relative humidity and initial moisture content of dates 

    Mehdi Torki-Harchegani

    I have sent for you two papers about date palm drying.The papers could give you some useful information.

    + 1 more attachment

  • Flavio Pompei added an answer:
    How can i map the values of the height of a crop at each stage and the amount of moisture content present to yield?

    after going through many papers,i have got an idea of how to measure the moisture content and growth of a paddy crop.But how do i map these values to the yield of the paddy?

    Flavio Pompei

    I believe that first you must apply a statistical model to collect representative data. BTW you can, as example, elect at least eight representative parcels where you will collect the data. After that, the best and worst value are dispensed and, consequently, you will work only with MODA data, which is the area where you will obtain the better true values you want to find.

  • CHANDRASHEKARA C P added an answer:
    I'm trying to find the most efficient setup for an impeller pumping slurry thoughts?

    Looking at slurry agitation in the agriculture. i want to find the most efficient setup through the type of drive and impeller shape. Any help would be greatly appreciated thanks.


    Dear Michael Slurry Impeller pumps works better for pumping slurry. Many organic farmers are already using in karnataka 

    Chandrashekar cp

  • V. N. Ravi Kishore V. added an answer:
    Regarding how to find the amorphous peak for calculation of crystallinity index in XRD data?

    I took XRD of dried mango slices and want to calculate the crystallinity index according to the formula X_c=((Icrystalline - Iamorphous)/Icrystalline) ×100 Icrystalline will be the highest peak intensity around 18o but how to find for the amorphous region.

    but how to find degree for the amorphous region?

    V. N. Ravi Kishore V.

    Instead of using intensity of a single peak of highest intensity for Icrystalline. Is it not correct to add up all the intensities of all the peaks for Icrystalline?

  • Raheleh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel added an answer:
    How to protect protein layer for a longer time at room temperature ?

    When we are bio-synthesizing the nano-nutrients, it is naturally encapsulated by mother protein. To our experience we find that it is relatively more stable when we keep it in the refrigerator at 4 degree centigrade. The problem is that we are now in a position to commercialize the nano-nutrients but Indian farmers mostly dont have the facilities for refrigerator so they are mostly keeping outside for a longer time at 25-35 degree centigrade and that way with time protein layer brakes and particles were agglomerated and becomes less effective. If anybody suggest some way to protect the protein layer of bio-synthesized nano-nutrients so that farmers can adopt it.

    Raheleh Ahmadzadeh Ghavidel

    proteins are best stored at ≤ 4°C in clean, autoclaved glassware or polypropylene tubes. Storage at room 

    temperature often leads to protein degradation and/or inactivity, commonly as a result of microbial growth. For short term 

    storage (1 day to a few weeks), many proteins may be stored in simple buffers at 4°C. Protein Stabilizing Cocktail (Product 

    No. 89806) is a 4X solution that helps to extend the shelf-life of most proteins for storage at 4° C or -20°C compared to 

    storage in simple phosphate or Tris buffers. 

    For long term storage for 1 month to 1 year, some researchers choose to bead single-use aliquots of the protein in liquid 

    nitrogen for storage in clean plastic containers under liquid nitrogen. This method involves adding the protein solution drop-

    wise (about 100 µl each) into a pool of liquid nitrogen, then collecting the drop-sized frozen beads and storing them in 

    cryovials under liquid nitrogen. 

    Frozen at -20°C or -80°C is the more common form of cold protein storage. Because freeze-thaw cycles decrease protein 

    stability, samples for frozen storage are best dispensed and prepared in single-use aliquots so that, once thawed, the protein 

    solution will not have to be refrozen. Alternatively, addition of 50% glycerol or ethylene glycol (see Additives section below)

    will prevent solutions from freezing at -20°C, enabling repeated use from a single stock without warming 

  • Sehroon Khan added an answer:
    How to get crude proteins in broth culture from Phytopthora infestans?

    Dear All,

    I want to purify the elicitor proteins from the broth culture of Phytopthora infestans, but facing a problem of very low concentration of crude proteins in Rye A broth culture. Any suggestions or comments would be highly appreciated.


    Sehroon Khan

    Thanks Dear All,

    Your comments will be fruitfull for me..

    Was out of station....



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Design, management of Agricutural systems from the plant to the Landscape

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