Questions related to Agricultural Development
How agriculture is important in our country? How agricultural development is now seen an important part towards economic development?
How does agriculture help in economic growth? How agricultural development is an important part of development strategy towards economic development?
looking for a qualitative assessment of the most important cultural influencers in Congolese history (both nations) from a local perspective. Should cover sociology, history, religion, arts, geography, agriculture and/or Bantu linguistics.
Cherish your feedback.
I perceived that rural community members with ample experience tend to participate on various agricultural development activities than educated one (who are searching for other employment opportunities)
Climate-Smart Agriculture “Agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, enhances resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes GHGs (mitigation) where possible, and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals” is an approach guide to improve productivity and income of subsistence agriculture system and also, provide agriculture development for food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation (FAO, 2013). Climate-Smart Agriculture has three goals: firstly, increasing agricultural productivity to support increased incomes and food security, secondly, resilience adaptive capacity, and thirdly, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing carbon sinks.
Therefore, the design of adaptation using CSA concept to suit each social-ecological sub-system is needed. Thereafter, these CSA alternatives have to be assessed against the future risk to support selection of CSA design using food security and greenhouse gas emission indicators that could enhance resilience of highland social-ecological system
Considering a four wheel skid steering heavy robot of one ton, I need to know the minimum torque needed to rotate itself from standstill.
Are the calculous very easy or there is a paper that is exhaustively focused on this issue?
In my opinion, the wheels torque should be greater than (i.e. win) the static friction considering that all four wheels are not rotating. Indeed the robot should move normal to its longitudinal axe which in our case coincides with the longitudinal axes of the wheels.
Other than the impact of an agricultural environment on the static friction, what is the impact of the wheel orientation?
What is the impact of the center of gravity in case it does not coincide with the center of area?
Thank you very much
The One Health approach is gaining more and more importance in the concert of integrated studies on human, animal and plant health, of microorganisms, as well as in studies of soil health and ecosystems in general, at a time of frank deterioration of biological diversity.
The One Health approach is paramount in the observance of the safety of productions intended for both human and animal consumption.
What theoretical and practical elements do you consider that should not be neglected when planning a study of the relationships that make up the One Health approach in a community of agricultural producers?
The purpose is to ensure that the producers end up empowering themselves with a careful productive attitude in the terms that are raised with the One Health approach.
What are most important characteristics used for land evaluation to know capability productivity to establish agricultural development?
Agriculture is the basic sector of national economies. The technological progress that has been taking place over the millennia, including mechanization and the chemization of agriculture developed since the beginning of the 20th century, through the use of chemical plant protection products, and then genetics have increased yield per hectare. Technical and technological progress in agriculture has also contributed to the gradual decline in employment in agriculture. However, these are not the most serious problems of agriculture. However, many scientific studies and data of climatologists suggest that in the near future, in the 21st century, these will not be the most serious problems of agricultural development. Well, in the 21st century, due to the progressive global warming, crop acreages and areas of arable land can be significantly reduced. In connection with the emission of greenhouse gases in the perspective of the next dozen or so years, the process of global warming may enter the phase of acceleration of this warming and the inability to reverse this process if man in the coming years fails to implement pro-ecological reforms to implement sustainable and pro-ecological development based on national and global economy. the concept of a new, green economy. If this negative scenario was to be realized then by the end of the 21st century at the latest the average temperature at the Earth's surface will increase by as much as another 4 degrees C, which will increase and increase the scale of increasingly emerging climatic cataclysms, all glaciers and arable land areas they will decrease. As part of climate disasters, droughts, desertification and steppping of existing areas covered with greenery will appear. These processes will also reduce arable land areas. There will be problems with the boarding of a large part of the population, the scale of the national migration of people in search of places to live will increase, to survive. More and more permanent economic crises will appear and the risk of dramatic events, including wars, will increase. Humanity can not let this happen. This is the main challenge of humanity for the 21st century. In the near future, ecological innovations, renewable energy sources, streamlining the process of waste segregation and recycling, the electromobility of motorization etc. should be developed. Scientific research shows that these projects should be carried out on a large scale globally already in the perspective of the next decade. Otherwise, the process of global warming will accelerate and become an irreversible process, which in turn would lead to a global climate disaster at the latest at the end of the 21st century.
In view of the above, the current question is: The importance of agriculture in modern economies in the context of the progressive global warming of the Earth?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
I would be grateful if you could help me find out one or few case studies in the Pacific region where soil erosion in pineapple fields is efficiently managed. As part of a regional project (www.spc.int/resccue) dedicated to integrated coastal zone management in the Pacific region, I would like to identify few case studies where soil erosion in pineapple fields is correctly managed in order to organize a technical exchange between pineapple producers in French Polynesia and producers in other places of the Pacific region.
Many thanks for your answer.
Do not hesitate to contact me if you need further information.
Mr CHARLES mahe / RESCCUE project coordinator in French Polynesia
In many coastal places, coastal wetlands have been drained and converted to agricultural land (a process often also called reclamation). But the names for the infrastructure that creates them, and the resulting landscapes, vary widely. For instance, here in Nova Scotia, Canada, the barrier is usually called a dyke (or dike), penetrated every so often by aboiteaux (one way gates that let fresh water out but prevent sea water coming in), and the agricultural land behind is called dykeland or agricultural marshland, formed and ditched to facilitate drainage. But in the UK similar landscapes are called fenlands (at least in some places) and in the Netherlands polders. We are trying to compile a global glossary of similar landscapes. Can you help us find other such terms where you live or work?
This is especially in context of poverty struck and agricultural dependent regions/population
I am interested in knowing sensor relay materials, development and construction of
, so as to try and do research for the use of drones for agricultural development and maintenance of crops while reducing agricultural waste byproduct from chemicals such as insecticides, pesticides by not only providing a highly detailed soil analysis both before and during, as well as the use of for a continuous system of periodical "on-site" checks and maintenance schedule with consistency and accuracy in all weather conditions, climates, and geo-locations.
We are having a seed dryer soon in our Farm. In our assessible markets, grain dryers are common but getting choices for seed dryer is not. I am concerned about germination of seeds if dried in grain dryer which doesn't have temperature control options. Please suggest me mechanical seed drying options suitable for a farm that produces seeds in about 30Ha of land.
Any research available on 1st, 2nd & 3rd Wave of COVID-19, and different economic responses by Top 3 Suffering Countries (USA, Brazil & India) ?
I am looking for Economic Responses in Each Wave by the top COVID-19 suffering countries,
How it lead them to prepare for the another wave ( In Economic terms)
70 percent intensified production of agricultural products is absorbed by the production of livestock, above all for the purpose of meat production.
If this production would be burdened with the costs of neutralization of harmful, negative effects of environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions generated by intensified meat production, then a correspondingly higher meat price would take into account the costs of repairing the mentioned negative externalities.
Then, a drop in meat consumption would generate a drop in the intensification of agricultural production. At that time, most of the agriculture could switch from intensified, productive agriculture to organic farming.
Generally healthier agricultural produce would be produced with a much smaller amount of applied chemistry, and overproduction of agricultural produce could be redirected to the poorest countries to eliminate the problem of hunger in Africa.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Is technological progress in agriculture based on the application of scientific discoveries in the field of biotechnology, genetics, automation and robotics of field works, implementation of biodiversity principles and the creation of resistant to fungal, viral, bacterial and other cultivar diseases, etc. with the elimination of the use of chemical plant protection products will enable in the 21st century the development of sustainable environment-friendly agriculture, ie the kind of agriculture thanks to which healthy vegetables, fruits, grains free from pesticides and other chemical plant protection products and organic farming, ie non-polluting, are produced?
Agricultural development in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 posed quite a challenge, because of the narrowing of agricultural land caused by the conversion of land to non-agricultural functions. This is compounded by the lack of a young generation workforce (millennial) who are interested in working in the agricultural sector, especially in developing countries, as well as the diminishing benefits of experts in agriculture whose knowledge is not really used by farmers (death of expertise), because farmers are already much to know from Google. What is the right solution to solve the problem.
Is ecological sustainable agriculture developed according to the concept of natural ecosystems, including the genetically-based genetically-scaled species that will be used in a limited, fully controlled environment, help in the 21st century in increasing the productivity of crop production in the situation of declining areas of arable land?
In connection with the warming up of the Earth's climate by the end of the 21st century, a significant part of the arable land will be either flooded by the seas and oceans or will be excluded from the production of crops due to intensifying drought. As part of the civilizational progress, including increasing the productivity of crop production per hectare, it will be necessary to continue research in this field. As part of the pro-ecological development of agriculture based on the assumptions of sustainable pro-ecological development, ie the concept of green economy, chemistry should be gradually reduced to reduce environmental pollution and reduce the impact of chemicals on human health and other life forms. In this way, the adverse impact of civilizational imbalances in natural ecosystems will be limited. In connection with the above, the aim of continuing increasing the production efficiency of agricultural crops per hectare in the future will be intensified by mechanization automation, robotization, improvement of weather forecasting and logistics systems for field works, and improvement of current crop varieties by increasing their resistance to viral and bacterial diseases, fungal, parasitic etc. An important field of research and scientific discipline, thanks to which it is possible to gradually improve current crop varieties by increasing their resistance to diseases is genetics. In addition, it is necessary to improve irrigation and greenhouse systems due to the progressive global warming and more and more often natural cataclysms. It is also important to improve the techniques of recycling and re-use of waste from intensified agricultural production, so that those wastes that are unsuitable for re-use were as few as possible. It is also important to limit the wastage of produced crops, reduce and develop the recycling of organic waste from the food production process in the agri-food processing sector. As part of the development of sustainable agriculture, it is also important to develop organic farming referring to natural ecosystems. This type of agriculture refers to natural ecosystems in which primary varieties of arable crops function or function. As part of this concept of ecological agriculture, different agricultural crops grow on one agricultural area, which also limits the potential scale of pest feeding and feeding, and ensures a better economy of savings in the use of plant protection products. Therefore, the use of genetics should be limited only to the successive improvement of current varieties of agricultural produce by increasing their resistance to viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic diseases, and not to create completely new species of flora and fauna. In this way, through the process of improving, increasing resistance to diseases of agricultural crops, genetics would help to restore or at least significantly increase the natural balance in intensified agriculture. For this process to work it is necessary to develop also the above-mentioned other techniques of environmentally-friendly sustainable development of agriculture. All of the above-mentioned techniques must be applied in a purposefully, precisely planned integrated system of managing sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture. In this way, the developed agriculture will be adequate to increase the risk of unfavorable effects of the progressive global warming of the Earth's climate and will be one of the most important determinants of the globally developed sustainable economic development of the entire human civilization, ie deliberately oriented development according to the concept of green economy.
In view of the above, the current question is: Is ecological sustainable agriculture developed according to the concept of natural ecosystems, including the genetically-based genetically-scaled species that will be used in a limited, fully controlled environment, help in the 21st century in increasing the productivity of crop production in the situation of declining areas of arable land?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
The North eastern region of India (26.3 m ha geographical area) is having an unique geographical and environmental characteristics with very high annual rainfall, no or meagre rain during November to March, soil acidity, P fixation, soil, nutrient and biodiversity loss due to primitive farming practices like along the slope cultivation, shifting cultivation, lack of soil and water conservation measures and so on. The major challenge is sustaining food security and at the same time conserve natural resources. Drought, floods, hailstorms, cyclone, land slide, earthquake etc are major natural disasters in the region which farmers/people face every year. By 2050, about 30% deficiency in food grains is projected. Oilseed and pulses sector deficiency remain very high. Same is the situation in fish, milk, meat, eggs and so on. Only Horticulture sector is able to meet the requirement and provide a reasonable surplus, thus, there is opportunity for processing and value addition to enhance income and employment. Massive infrastructure and investment is needed for meeting seed and planting materials requirement for crop, animal and fishery sector. Mechanization is still one of the lowest in the region and restricted mostly to rice cultivation that too for field preparation, threshing etc. Light weight automated machines are required for field preparation, planting, intercultural operations and so on. There are large number of farm machines available in various parts of the country many of them may be suitable for the region, with only a little modification. Conservation agriculture is the real need of the region with principle not restricted only to three but beyond like agroforestry, integrated farming system, efficient water use, integrated nutrient management and so on. Rain water harvesting and its efficient utilization, acid soil amelioration, and sustaining soil fertility through integrated nutrient management holds key for achieving Sustainable Development Goal in the region. Addressing shifting cultivation through improved management approaches and farmers participation is also the focus at present. Trans boundary pests (insects and diseases)-their survey and surveillance and adequate management is the major thrust for protecting crop and animal. Addressing marketing and socio-economic issues are also important aspect of agricultural development of the region. Look forward suggestions for devising effective agricultural plan for sustainable hill agriculture. Collaboration and partnership in research is welcome to achieve the goal of self sufficiency and resilience in farming.
Most of the current laws within this sphere were designed before the rapid progress of digital agriculture and therefore they can be interpreted differently. Most of the farmers using benefits of digital agriculture are concerned about data use (or theft) since they are no ICT experts and the data can be used for various reasons. Is it really a data theft then, since some of that data could (and should?) be used by the local (of national) agriculture authorities to monitor the agricultural process or production of the farmer (in case of governmental incentives)? For what else can it be used in that case? What if the software is freeware as a part of the agricultural incentives for farmers? To what level the farmer should be informed about it since there is no possibility to guarantee what will happen with that data in practice?
How do you see the advancement of the law in this field? How do you assess the current situation? Let me know what do you think.
Lots of people think that world poverty is increasing, the poor get poorer, world hunger is expanding, food production is stagnating, and future prospects are even worse . Why? All figures tell otherwise. Exactly the opposite, in fact,
For recent periods (1960-2012, or 1980-2012 or 1990-2012, etc.) all the following are true according to existing data: Malnutrition prevalence is decreasing (WHO), child mortality rates are decreasing (UNICEF), per capita food production and per capita food consumption are both increasing (FAO), quality of average diet is improving (FAO), rate of undernourishment is decreasing (FAO), farm land productivity is increasing (FAO), prevalence of poverty is decreasing by any measure (World Bank, UNDP/Human Dev Index, and many academic studies). Asia is progressing fastest, followed by Latin America, and even Africa is also progressing fast since 1990-2000 (unlike precedent periods). Much yet to be achieved, of course, but the world is going forwards, not backwards. And projections for the future (e.g. FAO for 2050) envisage further improvement, even after accounting for climate change and other factors.
How will agriculture look in the future? It seems that precision agriculture is gaining importance very quickly, especially in large-scale production. For example, the use of satellite images, remote sensing, drones, automated tractors, etc. is that the dominant trend in agriculture? Should we include these topics in the professional education? I would like to know your opinion or experience, thank you.
What are the conditions for the vonversion? in many countries where conventional agriculture predominates, it seems something very difficult or impossible to achieve, I am referring to the conversion of large-scale conventional systems to agroecological systems.
I would like to know your opinion or experience, because I only know small-scale agroecological productions.
Every year, millions of tons of food of food are wasted in every highly developed country. How should the logistics of deliveries of agricultural products be improved and the consumers of food products to be more economical in order to economise the purchased food so that citizens do not throw so much food into the trash? How to change the habits of consumers? What institutions should still be created to take away unused food from consumers and, if it is suitable for consumption, efficiently, systematically transfer it to poorer countries in which food is lacking? In connection with the above, the current question is: How can the food waste in developed countries be systematically reduced?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion.
Technology adoption rates amongst small-scale farmers in the Global South (e.g. Africa) remain low, even when scientific evidence shows that a particular technology is beneficial.
What recommendations do you have of books providing a strong survey of key issues impacting international agricultural development? I'm especially looking for something with a strong global outlook (many resources I'm finding are very USA-centric)? I have previously used Gordon Conway's One Billion Hungry, however, published in 2012, it is starting to show its age. What would you recommend?
If anyone is interesting to share your experience with me on application of Public Private Partnership Extension approaches for technology dissemination, input supply change, information management, Agricultural development project. please response
What certification options exist, which would be the most appropriate to certify small productions of poor families, do you have any experience. What is your opinion about certification companies, are they really an option for small scale producers?.
Multi-Market-Models were much famous a decade ago to carryout policy simulations. Are they still famous in economics now? Scope for publication in the present time?
Thanks in advance
I'm in the first stages of an attempt to chronicle the history of Sharecropping in the U.S. for a school project and I've been unable to find anything definite about its presence in modern agriculture, if any.
Would definitely be curious (and appreciative!) of anything anyone has to contribute on the topic of Sharecropping, generally, as I am more or less stumped.
according to you what are Hot problems currentlyworld is facing? And what solutions you would suggest to solve them?
It can be said that government support can take different forms depending on the type of liberal democracy, equality based or inequality based. Hence, we should be able to expect to see specific type of government support associated with equality and inequality based liberal democracy, which raises the question, what type of government support should we expect in each case? What do you think?
I am planning build my career in agricultural development using remote sensing. Now I started surfing through articles for gaining knowledge. Could anyone can suggest me some articles?
Looking for a company/ institution that sells/ is developing a remote sensor capable of mapping soil moisture to highest possible resolution (10-15 m) for use in agricultural crop monitoring.
To put you in the context, our work consists in realizing a machine learning model which takes a vector with the properties of a farm, includes the weather why not.Then from a database of crops, make a recommendation of the most suitable crop for the soil. Therefore a recognition on the elements which help in this decision is an important part before starting the collection of the data necessary for the model.
Which is the better in the issue of agricultural development ... is the planning will be centralized or decentralized?
Thinking about food crop production this year, will there the surplus or shortage as a result of the global pandemic?
For Scientific, Agriculture, Society and Safety equipment. Especially need to design efficient tools at lowest cost with more precise results. these scientific results should be immediately benefited to the society development. Agriculture sector is the one of the major sector in the world, by applying innovative scientific knowledge to invent low cost efficient equipment can get better yields.
Here welcoming all your innovations towards transforming knowledge to low cost efficient equipment inventions, views and information.
Which are the standard testings for fertiliser and pesticides which are required by current legislation?
Low income countries always focus on to increase yield rather than soil , air and water quality.
Any great ideas for them to overcome this situation and really obtain both purpose.
I believe through scientific development we can create technologies to tackle the climate related problems in agriculture. We have already achieved to some extent, for example with submergence tolerant rice varieties which can tolerant complete submergence. However, the main concern is that the development is not always positive, it also brings some drawback. In a changed scenario the results go in the opposite direction. The materials we develop with so much effort become non-performers compared to earlier ones. Is it possible to develop varieties which can tolerant all sort of vagaries? How?
The cotton productivity in India is declining after 2007. The reasons assigned were spread of Bt hybrid cotton from 65% to 98% area to marginal lands and rainfall aberrations. Basically the area expanded was at the cost of groundnut, soybean, maize, sorghum which farmers felt less economical than Bt hybrid cotton in shallow and marginal soils. Non practice of crop rotation is stagnating the p[roductivity in the last 10 years.
Climate changes are hitting us in a noticeable rate. The impacts are very strong on all life aspects specially agriculture. Decision makers, researchers and many others are working hard to mitigate those changes. However, we still notice that climate changes are speeding ahead of us and will continue so for some time.
So, Do you think that development in agricultural sciences and other related fields can cope with those climate changes?
Which are the main agroforestry strategies for carbon sequestration? Are the crops yield and the farmers income affected by these strategies?
The average age of agricultural enterprises is growing. For example; in the United States, the average age of farmers is 58, in Japan 67, and in Africa 60. Young people don't tend to stay in agriculture. Some motivation-enhancing studies are needed to change the viewpoints of young people in agriculture.
In developing countries irrigation projects are facing serious problem associated with crops productivity and general performance. In your opinion what are the main factors that led to this situation? Is there is any recommendations to achieve long term sustainability for these projects? Does climate change has any role in this situation?
I am looking for values comparing the yields (potential and or average), net primary production, amount of residues for the main crops over the world,
... anything related to the amount of organic matter or carbon fixed and left by the crops.
I have not yet found such a table/summary.
It would be very interesting to compare each crop for its food or fiber production potential (with the duration of the cultivation as well).
For example, at harvest, average total dry biomass of cotton is about A t/ha, and yield B t/ha. Its take about C months to produce cotton.
D t/ha of residues are left abouve ground after harvest. The shoot root:root ratio of cotton is E.
Even better if it is associated by nutrients exported at harvest, and the average amounts of water required for certain production levels.
Any clue where to find such a compilation of data.
It would be very useful for studies related to soil carbon management.
Please would you share information on the best ways to raise funds for running a non-profit organization that seeks to improve farm productivity for small-scale farmers in developing countries. Thank you!
These categories are not mentioned at the "special groups" of FAOSTAT.
What is your opinion about genetically modified crops?
Do you accept the creation of new varieties of crops by modifying the genome to produce varieties of crops that are more resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, etc. diseases?
I am doing a project in hydrophonics. I am struck in selecting sensors for my work. Can you please suggest me sensors for the following..
1. Measuring the amount of oxygen in water.
2. Measuring the amount of carbon di-oxide in air.
The Barikab Agricultural Economic Zone (BAEZ) covers the areas of approximately 100km2 located in north of Afghanistan Capital Kabul. Barikab will be planned and designed as an agricultural development hub that will include multi components and interrelated agriculture interventions.
The Barikab Agricultural Economic Zone is located on the desert area, and a water scarcity is an important problem to be solved in the project. Due to climatic and topographic reasons, it is difficult to get permanent water sources around Barikab Agriculture Economic Zone. So, the project planned several new water sources far from the area, and also planned the use of rainwater to reduce the consumption of water supplied from the new water sources.
This study investigates the feasibility of a surface rainwater harvesting from the mountains to cope with the water scarcity problem supposed in BAEZ. The system collects the rainwater fallen on surface of mountains, and it stores the water in a reservoirs. The harvested rainwater is used for the irrigation purpose. The surface rainwater harvesting system has a potential to save 4.2 milliom cubic meter water per year from 24,625,743 m2 catchment area.
I'm looking for design methodology and guideline for under ground water reservoir to keep water for the dry period.
The price of aged Basmati rice (Often sold by the well known wholesalers like Daawat, Indiagate, Lalmahal etc) is quiet higher (3 to 4 times) than the freshly harvested rice in the Indian market, as natural ageing enhance and intensify its taste, aroma, and cooking characteristics.
So should we recommend farmers to keep a part of their produce, and sell it later for getting higher value ?
& what are the ways to store these grains for long term at farmer's place without their quality being deteriorated?
I have a Phantom 4 from DJI and i am planning to use a parrot sequoia for NDVI mapping of an agricultural development project.
I normally use Dronedeploy to fly the drone and create the orthomosaic and derivates.
Does somebody have experience in using a NDVI sensor with phantom dji 4 and dronedeploy?
Any suggestion and thought would be very much appreciated!
Thanks a lot
Ancient Chinese dynasties were e.g. archaeologists examined their previous agriculture on the basis of seeds, pollen and grains and it was possible to determine, for example, have dealt with dry periods agriculturally. Now, in large parts, especially in the northern hemisphere failures due to persistent drought. Perhaps ancient knowledge could now be used for our future agriculture, as more droughts are expected in the future.
Traditionally farmers in many African nations (and elsewhere) still grow individual crops not only in inter- specific (different species), but also in intra-specific (same species) mixtures. However, the development ideology to improve production has been one promoting displacement of these with new 'improved' varieties or hybrids with often questionable medium to longer term results. We now know better the value of useful diversity to maintain crop robustness agains biotic and abiotic stress.
Sometimes it isn't easy to find a good place to get a membership so as to exchange our knowledge, or sometimes some online trusted organizations inquire too much money just to get an annual membership, so I would love to get a membership in a Horticulture organisation. Thanks for your kind cooperation!
What is the conceptual & estimation differences between
a) Capital expenditure,
b) Capital formation,
c) Investment ?
Can someone use any one of the above as a proxy to the rest when data of the rest are not available?
Or any methods to derive one from the others?
Thanks in advance
Usually, we need to compare levels of agricultural development in a country to another one, in order to appreciate the impact of a program for axample. We have economic indicators, and agronomic ones. But, the problem is that we are not sure for the moment of the indicators we can indicate accurate measures. Which indicators should us use finally ?
A new approach - System of Rice Intensification (SRI) to growing rice –
is gaining rapid momentum. So I need to emphasis on the promotion of SRI but before that, I need some qualification related to saving of water and increase in revenue w..r.t conventional method.
Can anyone provide me some papers and report on SRI implementation in mountains specifically in India. What is the technique and how much water and revenue we can generate? How the saved water can be used to calculate the cost-benefit ratio.
Post harvest losses is one of the most challenging aspects of agricultural development. How can we minimize post harvest losses in order to boost our country's revenue base in the agricultural sector of the economy?
The overuse of natural resources like water, soil nutrition, air, bio-diversity and various such parameters due to agricultural development need to evaluated in terms of cost- return analysis. Are there some empirical studies on this aspect?