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Agricultural Development - Science topic

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How agriculture is important in our country? How agricultural development is now seen an important part towards economic development?
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Let me use two cases from Ghana to demonstrate the importance of the agriculture sector to socioeconomic development. The International Food Policy Research Institute (IFPRI) assesed the impacts of COVID 19 pandemic on Ghana's economy using the Social Accounting Matrix (SAM). The findings indicate that the agriculture sector was the most resilient in terms of ability to withstand external shock. Second example is Ghana's Cocoa sector performance and its impact on the performance the local currency, the Ghana Cedis. Since independence, exports earnings from Cocoa are used to shoreup our foreign reserve. Anytime the Cocoa sector under performed, the local currency had depreciated significantly because of our incessant reliance on foreign imports. This year, Ghana is set to record her lowest output from Cocoa and already the Ghana Cedis is in freefall with the major global trading currencies especially the US Dollar. This examples reinforce the points raised by Dr. Zeinab Ali Dashoor. For me, agriculture is the problem and solution of our country.
Thank You.
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How does agriculture help in economic growth? How agricultural development is an important part of development strategy towards economic development?
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Very nice question sir...Agriculture, "a science" and "an art of doing" by which we cultivate crops(here crops stand for every farming produce may be meat, fuel, food, fibre, forage, wood, timber, etc besides generating employment opportunities by utilising all main products, by products and waste materials by recycling, for income generation, livelihood, and basic necessities of life... Agriculture sector is itself a job creater..By entrepreneurship development utilising agricultural produce, so called public sectors of the country to yield value added products, medicines, milk products and many many more... Higher productivity of the crops with lesser cost incurred by adopting sustainable Agricultural technologies which must be ecological friendly, economic feasible with good quality produce...
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Hi there,
looking for a qualitative assessment of the most important cultural influencers in Congolese history (both nations) from a local perspective. Should cover sociology, history, religion, arts, geography, agriculture and/or Bantu linguistics.
Cherish your feedback.
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Crucially, let alone in most measures; the sociological influencers in the Congolese history are the European diamond cartel ....then today the Chinese BRI for coltan
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Gender in Agricultural development
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Gender issues are common in agriculture all over the world, mostly in developing nations.Women do most of the agricultural work and they are still paid less as compared to male for the same level of work. Particularly for maize,in my view knowledge level of both male and female in production may be the issue.
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I perceived that rural community members with ample experience tend to participate on various agricultural development activities than educated one (who are searching for other employment opportunities)
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Education comes both in formal and informal ways. We have to have some form of knowledge on whatever we want to do. I think here you are asking about the formal one. Education has always a “positive impact” on the individual’s life in many ways. However, since life is integrated, education alone may not have that much impact if there is no peace, good governance and other necessary aspects of life.
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by providing comforts to the operator.
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Agriculture has been established as one of the drudgery prone occupation of unorganized sector due to lack of access to improved agricultural technologies. ... The drudgery areas/activities in agriculture were identified. Drudgery can be reduced by providing gender-friendly farm tools and equipment which increase the productivity of worker with safety and comfort to her. Time scheduling is also needed for achieving such task. Tools and equipments to reduce women drudgery
  1. Sitting Type Groundnut Decorticator.
  2. Naveen dibbler and Rotary dibbler.
  3. Equipment for dehusking and pearling of ragi (fingermillets)
  4. Four- Row Paddy Drum Seeder.
  5. Tea Plucker Scissor Type.
  6. Fruit Harvester.
  7. Cono Weeder.
  8. Groundnut Stripper
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Climate-Smart Agriculture “Agriculture that sustainably increases productivity, enhances resilience (adaptation), reduces/removes GHGs (mitigation) where possible, and enhances achievement of national food security and development goals” is an approach guide to improve productivity and income of subsistence agriculture system and also, provide agriculture development for food security, climate change adaptation and mitigation (FAO, 2013). Climate-Smart Agriculture has three goals: firstly, increasing agricultural productivity to support increased incomes and food security, secondly, resilience adaptive capacity, and thirdly, decreasing greenhouse gas emissions and increasing carbon sinks.
Therefore, the design of adaptation using CSA concept to suit each social-ecological sub-system is needed. Thereafter, these CSA alternatives have to be assessed against the future risk to support selection of CSA design using food security and greenhouse gas emission indicators that could enhance resilience of highland social-ecological system
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No universally acceptable standard exist for "climate-smart agriculture", a notion that has been criticized as a form of greenwashing. That said, approaches that help farmers and foresters increase productivity and incomes in a sustainable way are welcome. Such approaches might focus on ways to reduce farm inputs (e.g., energy, fuels, mineral fertilizers, pesticides) for higher resource-efficiency; cut emissions from livestock production; and keep carbon stored in the soil. To note, making farming systems more diverse can also make them more resilient in the face of climate change: this the FAO's definition does not allude to.
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Considering a four wheel skid steering heavy robot of one ton, I need to know the minimum torque needed to rotate itself from standstill.
Are the calculous very easy or there is a paper that is exhaustively focused on this issue?
In my opinion, the wheels torque should be greater than (i.e. win) the static friction considering that all four wheels are not rotating. Indeed the robot should move normal to its longitudinal axe which in our case coincides with the longitudinal axes of the wheels.
Other than the impact of an agricultural environment on the static friction, what is the impact of the wheel orientation?
What is the impact of the center of gravity in case it does not coincide with the center of area?
Thank you very much
Stefano
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[redacted]
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<Which commodities/elements of the agricultural sector are most likely to generate inclusive growth?>
The question is quite timely to ponder over, especially in the context of economies and regions that lag behind in terms of agriculture growth and the inclusiveness of such growth outcomes. While all agricultural commodities (food and non-food) may have linkages with inclusive growth, the strength and sustainability of the linkages would depend on several factors, such as: (a) price of the commodity accrued by the producers domestically and internationally; (b) the extent of value addition and its redistribution back to the producers and workers; (c) the factors retarding growth and expansion of the commodities, including agro-environmental factors, extreme climatic conditions affecting the growth; (d) the effectiveness of the policies and institutions (including trade related) that facilitate/ promote growth, etc. In short, the question needs to be addressed (understood) with respect to all the above factors and with specific reference to the economies and regions of the world.
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The One Health approach is gaining more and more importance in the concert of integrated studies on human, animal and plant health, of microorganisms, as well as in studies of soil health and ecosystems in general, at a time of frank deterioration of biological diversity.
The One Health approach is paramount in the observance of the safety of productions intended for both human and animal consumption.
What theoretical and practical elements do you consider that should not be neglected when planning a study of the relationships that make up the One Health approach in a community of agricultural producers?
The purpose is to ensure that the producers end up empowering themselves with a careful productive attitude in the terms that are raised with the One Health approach.
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Good question.
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What are most important characteristics used for land evaluation to know capability productivity to establish agricultural development?
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Dear Dr. Reza Sokouti
Thank you for your kind explanation.
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Agriculture is the basic sector of national economies. The technological progress that has been taking place over the millennia, including mechanization and the chemization of agriculture developed since the beginning of the 20th century, through the use of chemical plant protection products, and then genetics have increased yield per hectare. Technical and technological progress in agriculture has also contributed to the gradual decline in employment in agriculture. However, these are not the most serious problems of agriculture. However, many scientific studies and data of climatologists suggest that in the near future, in the 21st century, these will not be the most serious problems of agricultural development. Well, in the 21st century, due to the progressive global warming, crop acreages and areas of arable land can be significantly reduced. In connection with the emission of greenhouse gases in the perspective of the next dozen or so years, the process of global warming may enter the phase of acceleration of this warming and the inability to reverse this process if man in the coming years fails to implement pro-ecological reforms to implement sustainable and pro-ecological development based on national and global economy. the concept of a new, green economy. If this negative scenario was to be realized then by the end of the 21st century at the latest the average temperature at the Earth's surface will increase by as much as another 4 degrees C, which will increase and increase the scale of increasingly emerging climatic cataclysms, all glaciers and arable land areas they will decrease. As part of climate disasters, droughts, desertification and steppping of existing areas covered with greenery will appear. These processes will also reduce arable land areas. There will be problems with the boarding of a large part of the population, the scale of the national migration of people in search of places to live will increase, to survive. More and more permanent economic crises will appear and the risk of dramatic events, including wars, will increase. Humanity can not let this happen. This is the main challenge of humanity for the 21st century. In the near future, ecological innovations, renewable energy sources, streamlining the process of waste segregation and recycling, the electromobility of motorization etc. should be developed. Scientific research shows that these projects should be carried out on a large scale globally already in the perspective of the next decade. Otherwise, the process of global warming will accelerate and become an irreversible process, which in turn would lead to a global climate disaster at the latest at the end of the 21st century.
In view of the above, the current question is: The importance of agriculture in modern economies in the context of the progressive global warming of the Earth?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Dear Paul Reed Hepperly,
Yes, you pointed to the important issues of sustainable and pro-environmental development of agriculture.
Thank you very much,
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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I would be grateful if you could help me find out one or few case studies in the Pacific region where soil erosion in pineapple fields is efficiently managed.  As part of a regional project (www.spc.int/resccue) dedicated to integrated coastal zone management  in the Pacific region, I would like to identify few case studies where soil erosion in pineapple fields is correctly managed in order to organize a technical exchange between pineapple producers in French Polynesia and producers in other places of the Pacific region.
Many thanks for your answer.
Do not hesitate to contact me if you need further information.
Best,
Mr CHARLES mahe / RESCCUE project coordinator in French Polynesia
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This is a good question.
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In many coastal places, coastal wetlands have been drained and converted to agricultural land (a process often also called reclamation). But the names for the infrastructure that creates them, and the resulting landscapes, vary widely. For instance, here in Nova Scotia, Canada, the barrier is usually called a dyke (or dike), penetrated every so often by aboiteaux (one way gates that let fresh water out but prevent sea water coming in), and the agricultural land behind is called dykeland or agricultural marshland, formed and ditched to facilitate drainage. But in the UK similar landscapes are called fenlands (at least in some places) and in the Netherlands polders. We are trying to compile a global glossary of similar landscapes. Can you help us find other such terms where you live or work?
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Hi Dr Kate Sherren . It is called dry land. Due to their productivity, wetlands are often converted into dry land with dykes and drains and used for agricultural purposes. See the link: https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Wetland
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This is especially in context of poverty struck and agricultural dependent regions/population
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Yes. Very Much, and without a doubt!
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I am interested in knowing sensor relay materials, development and construction of
, so as to try and do research for the use of drones for agricultural development and maintenance of crops while reducing agricultural waste byproduct from chemicals such as insecticides, pesticides by not only providing a highly detailed soil analysis both before and during, as well as the use of for a continuous system of periodical "on-site" checks and maintenance schedule with consistency and accuracy in all weather conditions, climates, and geo-locations.
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Hello Mike,
there are a lot of options to collect data on a crop: the carrier ( satellite, aircraft, UAV, tractor), the sensor, the crop, the phenological period.
I attach a file with some indication. A suggestion: when experimenting, choose a parameter that you may measure on the ground with a reliable result, then compare it with electronic responses. In had many surprises in my experience. The control of the sensors is basic, to avoid failures. Best wishes
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We are having a seed dryer soon in our Farm. In our assessible markets, grain dryers are common but getting choices for seed dryer is not. I am concerned about germination of seeds if dried in grain dryer which doesn't have temperature control options. Please suggest me mechanical seed drying options suitable for a farm that produces seeds in about 30Ha of land.
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La temperatura que se sugiere es 15 grados celcius
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Any research available on 1st, 2nd & 3rd Wave of COVID-19, and different economic responses by Top 3 Suffering Countries (USA, Brazil & India) ?
I am looking for Economic Responses in Each Wave by the top COVID-19 suffering countries,
How it lead them to prepare for the another wave ( In Economic terms)
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Dear Prof. Masood Ahmed!
You pointed to an essential problem - the need for brand new datasets on the socio- economic factors impacting countries during this ongoing pandemic:
1) Anser, M.K., Yousaf, S.U., Hyder, S. et al. Socio-economic and corporate factors and COVID-19 pandemic: a wake-up call. Environ Sci Pollut Res (2021). https://doi.org/10.1007/s11356-021-15275-6 Free access:
2) Anser, M.K., Khan, M.A., Zaman, K. et al. Financial development during COVID-19 pandemic: the role of coronavirus testing and functional labs. Financ Innov 7, 9 (2021). https://doi.org/10.1186/s40854-021-00226-4 Open access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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70 percent intensified production of agricultural products is absorbed by the production of livestock, above all for the purpose of meat production.
If this production would be burdened with the costs of neutralization of harmful, negative effects of environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions generated by intensified meat production, then a correspondingly higher meat price would take into account the costs of repairing the mentioned negative externalities.
Then, a drop in meat consumption would generate a drop in the intensification of agricultural production. At that time, most of the agriculture could switch from intensified, productive agriculture to organic farming.
Generally healthier agricultural produce would be produced with a much smaller amount of applied chemistry, and overproduction of agricultural produce could be redirected to the poorest countries to eliminate the problem of hunger in Africa.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Nesrein M Hashem.
Thanks for your comment on the various aspects of agricultural production. You added a new perspective on the issue of sustainable agriculture to our discussion.
Thank you, Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Is technological progress in agriculture based on the application of scientific discoveries in the field of biotechnology, genetics, automation and robotics of field works, implementation of biodiversity principles and the creation of resistant to fungal, viral, bacterial and other cultivar diseases, etc. with the elimination of the use of chemical plant protection products will enable in the 21st century the development of sustainable environment-friendly agriculture, ie the kind of agriculture thanks to which healthy vegetables, fruits, grains free from pesticides and other chemical plant protection products and organic farming, ie non-polluting, are produced?
Please reply
Best wishes
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I think that technological progress in agriculture will enable the development of sustainable environment-friendly agriculture.
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I want to know role of agricultural exhibitions in agricultural development or in farmers empowerment.
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I AM DOING A STUDY ON AGRICULTURAL SHOWS
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Agricultural development in the era of the industrial revolution 4.0 posed quite a challenge, because of the narrowing of agricultural land caused by the conversion of land to non-agricultural functions. This is compounded by the lack of a young generation workforce (millennial) who are interested in working in the agricultural sector, especially in developing countries, as well as the diminishing benefits of experts in agriculture whose knowledge is not really used by farmers (death of expertise), because farmers are already much to know from Google. What is the right solution to solve the problem.
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Very good question . This is a common problem realised seriously in most of the industrially advanced countries where non- agricultural land use overtakes the agricultural land use due to urbanisation triggered through flow of rural population towards urban areas. This has given berth to adoption of techniques like protection cultivation of fruits vegatables besides flowers , verical farming , roof farming, peri urban horticulture coupled with sensor based fertigation and application of AI as an integral part of production system. High density and ultra high density planting with fertigation and canopy management could find big success to ward off grwoing land availability , with the result, role of soil for success agriculture is increasingly being felt irrelevant in hydroponic production system....
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Is ecological sustainable agriculture developed according to the concept of natural ecosystems, including the genetically-based genetically-scaled species that will be used in a limited, fully controlled environment, help in the 21st century in increasing the productivity of crop production in the situation of declining areas of arable land?
In connection with the warming up of the Earth's climate by the end of the 21st century, a significant part of the arable land will be either flooded by the seas and oceans or will be excluded from the production of crops due to intensifying drought. As part of the civilizational progress, including increasing the productivity of crop production per hectare, it will be necessary to continue research in this field. As part of the pro-ecological development of agriculture based on the assumptions of sustainable pro-ecological development, ie the concept of green economy, chemistry should be gradually reduced to reduce environmental pollution and reduce the impact of chemicals on human health and other life forms. In this way, the adverse impact of civilizational imbalances in natural ecosystems will be limited. In connection with the above, the aim of continuing increasing the production efficiency of agricultural crops per hectare in the future will be intensified by mechanization automation, robotization, improvement of weather forecasting and logistics systems for field works, and improvement of current crop varieties by increasing their resistance to viral and bacterial diseases, fungal, parasitic etc. An important field of research and scientific discipline, thanks to which it is possible to gradually improve current crop varieties by increasing their resistance to diseases is genetics. In addition, it is necessary to improve irrigation and greenhouse systems due to the progressive global warming and more and more often natural cataclysms. It is also important to improve the techniques of recycling and re-use of waste from intensified agricultural production, so that those wastes that are unsuitable for re-use were as few as possible. It is also important to limit the wastage of produced crops, reduce and develop the recycling of organic waste from the food production process in the agri-food processing sector. As part of the development of sustainable agriculture, it is also important to develop organic farming referring to natural ecosystems. This type of agriculture refers to natural ecosystems in which primary varieties of arable crops function or function. As part of this concept of ecological agriculture, different agricultural crops grow on one agricultural area, which also limits the potential scale of pest feeding and feeding, and ensures a better economy of savings in the use of plant protection products. Therefore, the use of genetics should be limited only to the successive improvement of current varieties of agricultural produce by increasing their resistance to viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic diseases, and not to create completely new species of flora and fauna. In this way, through the process of improving, increasing resistance to diseases of agricultural crops, genetics would help to restore or at least significantly increase the natural balance in intensified agriculture. For this process to work it is necessary to develop also the above-mentioned other techniques of environmentally-friendly sustainable development of agriculture. All of the above-mentioned techniques must be applied in a purposefully, precisely planned integrated system of managing sustainable and environmentally friendly agriculture. In this way, the developed agriculture will be adequate to increase the risk of unfavorable effects of the progressive global warming of the Earth's climate and will be one of the most important determinants of the globally developed sustainable economic development of the entire human civilization, ie deliberately oriented development according to the concept of green economy.
In view of the above, the current question is: Is ecological sustainable agriculture developed according to the concept of natural ecosystems, including the genetically-based genetically-scaled species that will be used in a limited, fully controlled environment, help in the 21st century in increasing the productivity of crop production in the situation of declining areas of arable land?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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Nice question
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The North eastern region of India (26.3 m ha geographical area) is having an unique geographical and environmental characteristics with very high annual rainfall, no or meagre rain during November to March, soil acidity, P fixation, soil, nutrient and biodiversity loss due to primitive farming practices like along the slope cultivation, shifting cultivation, lack of soil and water conservation measures and so on. The major challenge is sustaining food security and at the same time conserve natural resources. Drought, floods, hailstorms, cyclone, land slide, earthquake etc are major natural disasters in the region which farmers/people face every year. By 2050, about 30% deficiency in food grains is projected. Oilseed and pulses sector deficiency remain very high. Same is the situation in fish, milk, meat, eggs and so on. Only Horticulture sector is able to meet the requirement and provide a reasonable surplus, thus, there is opportunity for processing and value addition to enhance income and employment. Massive infrastructure and investment is needed for meeting seed and planting materials requirement for crop, animal and fishery sector. Mechanization is still one of the lowest in the region and restricted mostly to rice cultivation that too for field preparation, threshing etc. Light weight automated machines are required for field preparation, planting, intercultural operations and so on. There are large number of farm machines available in various parts of the country many of them may be suitable for the region, with only a little modification. Conservation agriculture is the real need of the region with principle not restricted only to three but beyond like agroforestry, integrated farming system, efficient water use, integrated nutrient management and so on. Rain water harvesting and its efficient utilization, acid soil amelioration, and sustaining soil fertility through integrated nutrient management holds key for achieving Sustainable Development Goal in the region. Addressing shifting cultivation through improved management approaches and farmers participation is also the focus at present. Trans boundary pests (insects and diseases)-their survey and surveillance and adequate management is the major thrust for protecting crop and animal. Addressing marketing and socio-economic issues are also important aspect of agricultural development of the region. Look forward suggestions for devising effective agricultural plan for sustainable hill agriculture. Collaboration and partnership in research is welcome to achieve the goal of self sufficiency and resilience in farming.
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The observation made are very pertinent in the background posted towards self reliant NEH region. The secondary agriculture activities on value addition are most needed. System intensification by use of conservation agriculture also needed specially for maize based system. The various studies on conservation agriculture showed good promise in the region and provided opportunity for second crop. The use of maize for silage baling could also help in enhancing livetstock productivity. The quality protein maize having high lysine and tryptophan showed a promise for food, feed and nutritional security for improved human health and pig and poultry productivity.
The sweet corn also showed good promise in Mizoram needs to be upscaled elsewhere. The babycorn and popcorn also needs to be explored for enhancing income and livelihood security.
The use of small-scale mechanization needs upscaling by using suitable machinery in the region for durdgery reduction and enhancing farm profitability.
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Most of the current laws within this sphere were designed before the rapid progress of digital agriculture and therefore they can be interpreted differently. Most of the farmers using benefits of digital agriculture are concerned about data use (or theft) since they are no ICT experts and the data can be used for various reasons. Is it really a data theft then, since some of that data could (and should?) be used by the local (of national) agriculture authorities to monitor the agricultural process or production of the farmer (in case of governmental incentives)? For what else can it be used in that case? What if the software is freeware as a part of the agricultural incentives for farmers? To what level the farmer should be informed about it since there is no possibility to guarantee what will happen with that data in practice?
How do you see the advancement of the law in this field? How do you assess the current situation? Let me know what do you think.
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Agriculture is a sea of opportunities, where the farm laws are helping to create digital opportunities. Digital agriculture requires data and skills to proceed so, it is developing at slow pace. Digital agriculture is sustainable tool but good things take time !
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Lots of people think that world poverty is increasing, the poor get poorer, world hunger is expanding, food production is stagnating, and future prospects are even worse . Why? All figures tell otherwise. Exactly the opposite, in fact,
For recent periods (1960-2012, or 1980-2012 or 1990-2012, etc.) all the following are true according to existing data: Malnutrition prevalence is decreasing (WHO), child mortality rates are decreasing (UNICEF), per capita food production and per capita food consumption are both increasing (FAO), quality of average diet is improving (FAO), rate of undernourishment is decreasing (FAO), farm land productivity is increasing (FAO), prevalence of poverty is decreasing by any measure (World Bank, UNDP/Human Dev Index, and many academic studies). Asia is progressing fastest, followed by Latin America, and even Africa is also progressing fast since 1990-2000 (unlike precedent periods). Much yet to be achieved, of course, but the world is going forwards, not backwards. And projections for the future (e.g. FAO for 2050) envisage further improvement, even after accounting for climate change and other factors.
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Excellent answer dear prof Molly!, and also Dr Ahmad Khan ; The reality in my country and some other countries shows that ;There are millions of people in the world have next to no income, no help, no government support for people and the worst issue: NO HOPE!, We have struggled all the way through...., Do not like to be pessimistic and know that it is transition state to get the better future ,bright future....but now we are paying the costs!!!!
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How will agriculture look in the future? It seems that precision agriculture is gaining importance very quickly, especially in large-scale production. For example, the use of satellite images, remote sensing, drones, automated tractors, etc. is that the dominant trend in agriculture? Should we include these topics in the professional education? I would like to know your opinion or experience, thank you.
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Great thanks Dr Juan Carlos Torrico for this topic discussion.
Precision Agriculture (which means intervening at the right time and in the best place with the right dose) is becoming more and more important in the world not only in developed countries but also in developing countries in which it arouses interest.
Precision Agriculture, which is based on high technology, certainly has its advantages in increasing yields both in cultivated plants and in animals, especially on large farms. Thanks to drones and sensors in the field, several factors are controlled such as irrigation and fertilization. In animals and thanks to digital technology, it is possible to monitor the health and growth of livestock.
So as the name suggests, it's all about being precise about spacial location of information and thus producing more while applying less inputs and energy.
Many advantages of course, but some specialists emphasize the importance or even the necessity of the quality of the input data because the latter will necessarily impact the quality of the final decision. On the other hand, according to some specialists, because of all data is tainted with uncertainty it is that it is essential to be able to measure and quantify this uncertainty and also take it into account in the final decision / application.
Thus, it turns out that, precision agriculture requires learning new technological and environmental skills as well as managerial skills. Therefore, it is important to incorporate it into training systems for a good mastery of all its tools.
Finally, precision agriculture could be useful for the future and for the sustainability of agricultural production if it is done while respecting Diversity and protecting the Soil and the Environment. However and particularly in countries newly concerned by this type of agriculture, it is necessary before its implementation to take preliminary studies to assess its benefits and impacts on the environment and to decide on the locations of its implementation as well as the identification of the types of farms as well as the sensitization of farmers for this type of agriculture but also the estimate of its costs. In addition, its success also requires knowledge and permanent supervision by agricultural advisory services.
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What are the conditions for the vonversion? in many countries where conventional agriculture predominates, it seems something very difficult or impossible to achieve, I am referring to the conversion of large-scale conventional systems to agroecological systems.
I would like to know your opinion or experience, because I only know small-scale agroecological productions.
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I think you proposition is very common in coutries with large scale production and developped agriculture.
In small coutries, we only finding basic agriculture with limited production.
But, i think as ecologist or agro ecologist we must following this large-scale possibility?
For example, in Algeria we using a limited area without any network between production and agro systems!!!
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Every year, millions of tons of food of food are wasted in every highly developed country. How should the logistics of deliveries of agricultural products be improved and the consumers of food products to be more economical in order to economise the purchased food so that citizens do not throw so much food into the trash? How to change the habits of consumers? What institutions should still be created to take away unused food from consumers and, if it is suitable for consumption, efficiently, systematically transfer it to poorer countries in which food is lacking? In connection with the above, the current question is: How can the food waste in developed countries be systematically reduced?
Please reply. I invite you to the discussion.
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Yes, unfortunately the scale of food waste is still high. Systems and instruments for reducing food overproduction, logistics for transporting food products, storage and consumption should be improved. It is necessary to limit the scale of throwing away food products in order to reduce the waste of inputs, raw materials, energy and natural resources. In addition, limiting the overproduction and scale of throwing away food products also reduces the scale of environmental pollution, e.g. chemical plant protection products used in the production model of agriculture, reducing the scale of greenhouse gas emissions from intensive, productive livestock farming, reducing the scale of water consumption, etc.
Best regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Technology adoption rates amongst small-scale farmers in the Global South (e.g. Africa) remain low, even when scientific evidence shows that a particular technology is beneficial.
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You can find the below-mentioned report on the link shared here with
ADOPTION OF TECHNOLOGIES FOR SUSTAINABLE FARMING SYSTEMS WAGENINGEN WORKSHOP PROCEEDINGS
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Hello all,
What recommendations do you have of books providing a strong survey of key issues impacting international agricultural development? I'm especially looking for something with a strong global outlook (many resources I'm finding are very USA-centric)? I have previously used Gordon Conway's One Billion Hungry, however, published in 2012, it is starting to show its age. What would you recommend?
Thanks,
Noel
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You can visit the FAO library
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If anyone is interesting to share your experience with me on application of Public Private Partnership Extension approaches for technology dissemination, input supply change, information management, Agricultural development project. please response
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Since most public extension systems have suffered drastic budget cuts over the past decades (a tendency likely to continue), the principal advantages include a broader outreach and impact through third-party privately financed extension agents. However, in many cases, if not in most, the messages and recommendations delivered by privately funded extension agents or initiatives tend to be geared, or even dominated, by business interests of the involved companies. And, unfortunately, these interests are often not aligned with the needs of protecting human and environmental health, which should be universal common goods. For the effective long-term protection of the common goods, public funding will likely remain the principal pillar.
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What certification options exist, which would be the most appropriate to certify small productions of poor families, do you have any experience. What is your opinion about certification companies, are they really an option for small scale producers?.
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Following
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Multi-Market-Models were much famous a decade ago to carryout policy simulations. Are they still famous in economics now? Scope for publication in the present time?
Thanks in advance
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Yes. Still studies are going on in some countries and areas. Some studies are concentrating on Agricultural Policy Impact Analysis with Multi-Market Models.
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I'm in the first stages of an attempt to chronicle the history of Sharecropping in the U.S. for a school project and I've been unable to find anything definite about its presence in modern agriculture, if any.
Would definitely be curious (and appreciative!) of anything anyone has to contribute on the topic of Sharecropping, generally, as I am more or less stumped.
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Thank you for the recommendation. It will be of help. @Shahin
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according to you what are Hot problems currentlyworld is facing? And what solutions you would suggest to solve them?
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  1. Now, I agree with prof. Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh.
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It can be said that government support can take different forms depending on the type of liberal democracy, equality based or inequality based. Hence, we should be able to expect to see specific type of government support associated with equality and inequality based liberal democracy, which raises the question, what type of government support should we expect in each case? What do you think?
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Dear Lucio Munoz,
Yes, welfare economics, as earlier, is narrowing, welfare green economics is on the way, but You, as a humanist, should know that besides welfare economics as economics, there exist welfare as social policy, welfare as social security in its redistributional political or social understanding. I argue that welfare state is more sociological and political science subject than economical. And You, dear Lucio, must have that in mind too.
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I am planning build my career in agricultural development using remote sensing. Now I started surfing through articles for gaining knowledge. Could anyone can suggest me some articles?
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Of course, the web of science will fascinatingly help you. And you can access some specific high impact international journals in your major, you can get lots of peer-reviewed manuscripts.
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In India there is a high demand of cotton picker which can save time and labour for cotton growers.
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Maybe the cotton variety is inadequate with a cotton picker machine.
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Looking for a company/ institution that sells/ is developing a remote sensor capable of mapping soil moisture to highest possible resolution (10-15 m) for use in agricultural crop monitoring.
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To put you in the context, our work consists in realizing a machine learning model which takes a vector with the properties of a farm, includes the weather why not.Then from a database of crops, make a recommendation of the most suitable crop for the soil. Therefore a recognition on the elements which help in this decision is an important part before starting the collection of the data necessary for the model.
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I would like to recommend you to go through two of my articles:
1. B.K.Tripathy and Sooraj, T. R.: An Interval Valued Fuzzy Soft set Based Optimization Algorithm for High Yielding Seed Selection, International Journal of Fuzzy Sets and Applications, IGI publications, vol.7, issue 2, (2018), pp. 44 - 61.
2. B.K.Tripathy, Sooraj, T. R.: Optimization of seed selection for higher product using Interval valued Hesitant Fuzzy Soft Sets, Songklanakarin Journal of Science and Technology (SJST), 40 (5), Sep. -Oct. 2018, (2018), pp.1125-1135 .
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Which is the better in the issue of agricultural development ... is the planning will be centralized or decentralized?
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How can one balance both economic motives and environmental concerns in the process of research for agricultural development?
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In my opinion, the idea of 'sustainable agriculture' is more of human-centric while it still has a valid argument on the issue of environmental concern. Its basic concept doesn't seem to be paradoxical but practically speaking, the way we (humans) implement it might make it so. To be specific to the point of the discussion here, the balance between economic return and environmental concern within the context of research for sustainable agriculture could be achieved through careful measurement of input and output. It's obviously challenging but research trend needs to focus on those approaches that can bring about the balance in a more practical way. We need to go a bit further beyond the mainstream research methodologies in order to assure our output doesn't outweigh our input to the environment.
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Thinking about food crop production this year, will there the surplus or shortage as a result of the global pandemic?
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COVID 19 has no direct impact on the crops, but it diverge concentration of farmers towrds its care due to low income and fear.
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For Scientific, Agriculture, Society and Safety equipment. Especially need to design efficient tools at lowest cost with more precise results. these scientific results should be immediately benefited to the society development. Agriculture sector is the one of the major sector in the world, by applying innovative scientific knowledge to invent low cost efficient equipment can get better yields.
Here welcoming all your innovations towards transforming knowledge to low cost efficient equipment inventions, views and information.
Thanks
AMAR
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Scientific development is the discovery process. It may not result in cost-effective solutions. Innovation is a creative and cost-effective solution to a problem. Innovation begins with an understanding of the problem (agricultural) and the opportunity for growth. Researchers in the agriculture sector should work with technology and heavy equipment industry to develop innovative solutions for the agricultural sector. Thanks.
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Hello,
Which are the standard testings for fertiliser and pesticides which are required by current legislation?
Thanks,
Antonio
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Anju Baroth thanks for sending these
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Low income countries always focus on to increase yield rather than soil , air and water quality.
Any great ideas for them to overcome this situation and really obtain both purpose.
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The approach would be combination of indicators (agriculture, environmental, economic, social) that influence immediate performance and long-run impact. Moreover, the intervention must include some social indicators also for sustainability. For example, Sustainable Rice Platform (SRP) defined 12 Performance Indicators (PIs) can be most useful for low income countries. Such PIs are net profit, labor productivity, grain yield, food safety, water productivity, nitrogen-use efficiency (NUE), phosphorus-use efficiency (PUE), pesticide-use efficiency, GHG emission, health and safety, child labor, and women
empowerment.
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I believe through scientific development we can create technologies to tackle the climate related problems in agriculture. We have already achieved to some extent, for example with submergence tolerant rice varieties which can tolerant complete submergence. However, the main concern is that the development is not always positive, it also brings some drawback. In a changed scenario the results go in the opposite direction. The materials we develop with so much effort become non-performers compared to earlier ones. Is it possible to develop varieties which can tolerant all sort of vagaries? How?
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The resiliency of agriculture with the challenges posed by global climate change is a multifaceted problem that (in my opinion) should be tackled from different angles. Plant breeding is definitely important however, this should not be the only approach. I think that agroecology offers a broader spectrum of approaches that all together may serve the cause of counteracting the negative impacts of climate change on food production. Among these agrobiodiversity is a must do by farmers and, on the same token, increasing the biodiversity also below the soil. This can be achieved through various agronomic techniques like: crop rotations, green manuring cover crops cultivation and a management of crops residues that builds carbon levels in the soil. An employment of livestock species is also recommendable as animals provide a variety of ecological services (being manure the most important one). Please consider the work of agronomist: Salvatore Ceccarelli and his team on evolutionary plants breeding. Here below is the RG link to his profile. Salvatore Ceccarelli Thank You!
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The cotton productivity in India is declining after 2007. The reasons assigned were spread of Bt hybrid cotton from 65% to 98% area to marginal lands and rainfall aberrations. Basically the area expanded was at the cost of groundnut, soybean, maize, sorghum which farmers felt less economical than Bt hybrid cotton in shallow and marginal soils. Non practice of crop rotation is stagnating the p[roductivity in the last 10 years.
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Dear Sir,
Cotton is indeed one of the most important crops of Indian subcontinent. But during the last few years, we are experiencing a certain fall in the cotton productivity here. Actually the GM cotton or Bt cotton was introduced in India to enhance the cotton productivity but, with the passage of time, an unexpected as well as unacceptable outcome was viewed...the productivity started to fall.
The major reason behind this is the violation of the principles of agro-ecology significantly which eventually suggests the extreme mono-culture of a certain crop species. To improve productivity of wheat presently, we have to focus on the absolute abandonment of Bt cotton and start the farming by maintaining the principles of agro-ecology with support of organic agriculture.
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Climate changes are hitting us in a noticeable rate. The impacts are very strong on all life aspects specially agriculture. Decision makers, researchers and many others are working hard to mitigate those changes. However, we still notice that climate changes are speeding ahead of us and will continue so for some time.
So, Do you think that development in agricultural sciences and other related fields can cope with those climate changes?
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Why did the approach entitled climate-resilient agriculture echo, for the simple reason , we utterly failed to marry the developments in agricultural practices with emmission of green house gases or in other words, menacing climate chnage . And this change is much biggger than any orther change or in any other form . We need developments in agriculture that undertake teh safety of ecosystem , be it soil itself..??
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Which are the main agroforestry strategies for carbon sequestration? Are the crops yield and the farmers income affected by these strategies?
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Nice response Dr Dobriyal. How do you see a empirical relation between carbon footprint and net primary productivity vis- a- via plant biomass...
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what are the negative effects of climate change on agriculture specially on cereal crops? 
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Breeders must start working on finding more abiotic stress-tolerant varieties because of increasing temperature, salinity and drought. Plants will have shorter life cycles because of increasing temperature which means low yield. flower and fruit drop will increase because of higher temperature and strong winds which will contribute to lower yield production. fruit quality will also be reduced. cereal and fruit crops will be the most affected ones.
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The average age of agricultural enterprises is growing. For example; in the United States, the average age of farmers is 58, in Japan 67, and in Africa 60. Young people don't tend to stay in agriculture. Some motivation-enhancing studies are needed to change the viewpoints of young people in agriculture.
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Investment and education in agriculture in developed agricultural countries like the Netherlands are much higher compared to developing countries. Unless the social and economic evaluations are changed to the agricultural sector, don't expect many young people will join it.
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In developing countries irrigation projects are facing serious problem associated with crops productivity and general performance. In your opinion what are the main factors that led to this situation? Is there is any recommendations to achieve long term sustainability for these projects? Does climate change has any role in this situation?
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Sustainability of any project is threatened by the ending of its funding unless it generate income for its maintenance and development or there is an official authority is adopting it. that is why in most of developing countries, irrigation projects is adopted by the governments. modern irrigation projects is threatened also by climate change as water salinity seems to go higher.
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Which one has higher yield?
Which ones are more commercially viable?
Which needs less water and use of electricity?
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Dimitris Stoidis J. C. Tarafdar As a general query, you get far more biomass from entering fish feed into the system (duckweed, shrimp, etc.) developing fish which then produce a greater nutrient variety and amount (at proper stocking levels) for gentle feeding greens and for heavy feeding tomatoes. Hands down, the greatest biomass per cubic meter of used water is via aquaponics not only due to the animal product but also due to the reduced water waste. Open Loop hydroponic/aeroponic systems require much incidental energy input and produce vast amounts of wastewater. Closed Loop systems dramatically reduce the waste, but introduce more challenges without challenging an aquaponics system for biomass efficiency.
Aeroponic towers function as part of many aquaponic systems. My preferred design is independent aquaponic systems with separate filtration & UV water clarification systems. Aeroponic towers mounted over floating raft beds offer maximum biomass potential per square meter of floor space, capitalizing upon differing solar radiation needs of plants while providing ease of maintenance and planting & harvesting. The two method plant growth system allows for a greater diversity of plant product in the same space.
Deep tanks allow for increased marine creature production and options for greater numbers of species. Placing the tanks along the north side (away from the sun in the northern hemisphere) in such a manner that they extend to man height allows them to serve as heat banks, storing solar radiant heat during daylight hours to release in the cooler evening hours while the depth allows your fish to move to their preferred temperature zones. Riverine species from colder climates benefit from a portion of the tank being beneath ground level, to reduce the effects of summer heat.
In short, the two techniques are not mutually exclusive and may be used in tandem for great efficiency.
Aeroponic grow towers mounted above floating raft beds (growing herbs/ greens) may produce heavy feeding tomato plants and may produce tuber crops which grow less well in floating raft/flooding bed systems. Mounting towers is an exceptional use of vertical space in a greenhouse and they can reduce the need for shading in midsummer sun. The type of plants selected for each system is a key to biomass computation. Most plant biomass actually comes not from soil/water nutrients but from carbon harvested from CO2.
Perhaps this question might be better phrased?
A different sort of question is implied by re-wording this to account for end-product nutrition, especially if human-beneficial phytochemicals are sought beyond the earlier measured "essential vitamins and minerals." The system location & mode of operation becomes key in that regard.
I feel like my responses are sometimes too long and might be more than expected. I hope someone can benefit from them when I choose to share.
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I am looking for values comparing the yields (potential and or average), net primary production, amount of residues for the main crops over the world,
... anything related to the amount of organic matter or carbon fixed and left by the crops.
I have not yet found such a table/summary.
It would be very interesting to compare each crop for its food or fiber production potential (with the duration of the cultivation as well).
For example, at harvest, average total dry biomass of cotton is about A t/ha, and yield B t/ha. Its take about C months to produce cotton.
D t/ha of residues are left abouve ground after harvest. The shoot root:root ratio of cotton is E.
Even better if it is associated by nutrients exported at harvest, and the average amounts of water required for certain production levels.
Any clue where to find such a compilation of data.
It would be very useful for studies related to soil carbon management.
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Have you look into the FAO database: http://www.fao.org/statistics/databases/en/
Some of the data might be there at a global scale.
I assume that the root:shoot ratio information will be quite difficult to obtain accurately.
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Please would you share information on the best ways to raise funds for running a non-profit organization that seeks to improve farm productivity for small-scale farmers in developing countries. Thank you!
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intresting
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These categories are not mentioned at the "special groups" of FAOSTAT.
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I need these data too
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What is your opinion about genetically modified crops?
Do you accept the creation of new varieties of crops by modifying the genome to produce varieties of crops that are more resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, etc. diseases?
Please reply
Best wishes
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David Fisher, I think your arguments are themselves misleading. You are equating a technology with an application. GMO does not require that we move genes between kingdoms, it could be as simple as taking a gene from one wheat species and moving it into another, or perhaps just removing a gene from an organism. The technology has lots of potential uses and when you promote the abolition of that technology then you prevent all those applications. The concerns you are putting forth are with regard to the applications. Yes it is true that there are problems with large agribusiness as it presently functions, but it seems more appropriate to regulate the business application than the technology. If you wanted to suggest that food crops should not carry genes that originate from a different kingdom, or phyla or whatever, that is quite different than banishing all GMO. And I strongly disagree that our understanding of genomes or DNA is superficial. Do we know everything, of course not. But superficial is vastly overstating the situation.
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It is recommended that after harvesting rice straw should leave in the field would good for soil health. Now I want to know, what types of nutrients are added by the rice straw and its amount? Is it fully replacing the chemical fertilizers?
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The below mentioned researcher has many articles on rice straw. Happy new year.
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Dear all,
I am doing a project in hydrophonics. I am struck in selecting sensors for my work. Can you please suggest me sensors for the following..
1. Measuring the amount of oxygen in water.
2. Measuring the amount of carbon di-oxide in air.
Thanks,
Prabhu P
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You can find what you want here
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The Barikab Agricultural Economic Zone (BAEZ) covers the areas of approximately 100km2 located in north of Afghanistan Capital Kabul. Barikab will be planned and designed as an agricultural development hub that will include multi components and interrelated agriculture interventions.
The Barikab Agricultural Economic Zone is located on the desert area, and a water scarcity is an important problem to be solved in the project. Due to climatic and topographic reasons, it is difficult to get permanent water sources around Barikab Agriculture Economic Zone. So, the project planned several new water sources far from the area, and also planned the use of rainwater to reduce the consumption of water supplied from the new water sources.
This study investigates the feasibility of a surface rainwater harvesting from the mountains to cope with the water scarcity problem supposed in BAEZ. The system collects the rainwater fallen on surface of mountains, and it stores the water in a reservoirs. The harvested rainwater is used for the irrigation purpose. The surface rainwater harvesting system has a potential to save 4.2 milliom cubic meter water per year from 24,625,743 m2 catchment area.
I'm looking for design methodology and guideline for under ground water reservoir to keep water for the dry period.
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Dear Ahamd thank you for sharing productive notes.
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How can I integrate Intelligent Transport System to efficiently deliver agriculture goods from small scaled scattered farmers. Are there any literature?
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Will get back you soon with conveyor belt system
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The price of aged Basmati rice (Often sold by the well known wholesalers like Daawat, Indiagate, Lalmahal etc) is quiet higher (3 to 4 times) than the freshly harvested rice in the Indian market, as natural ageing enhance and intensify its taste, aroma, and cooking characteristics.
So should we recommend farmers to keep a part of their produce, and sell it later for getting higher value ?
& what are the ways to store these grains for long term at farmer's place without their quality being deteriorated?
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Respected Dr Saab Manpreet Jaidka
I think we are well aware of these facts and figures,
& also knowing that rice-wheat cropping system is deep rooted extensively in a major geographical area of both Haryana and Punjab.
But my main concern was that, what our universities should recommend to the farmers regarding this, so that a considerable portion goes into the pockets of farmers, rather than some other stakeholders who just sit in their Air Conditioned premises whole day, stealing the shares of farmers.
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Hi,
I have a Phantom 4 from DJI and i am planning to use a parrot sequoia for NDVI mapping of an agricultural development project.
I normally use Dronedeploy to fly the drone and create the orthomosaic and derivates.
Does somebody have experience in using a NDVI sensor with phantom dji 4 and dronedeploy?
Any suggestion and thought would be very much appreciated!
Thanks a lot
Francesco
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Experience in the educational and research process, as well as teaching graduate students in the field of leadership guidance as well as human development and communication guidance, as well as supervision of postgraduate studies, and in the field of research there are many research in the jurisdiction.
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Ancient Chinese dynasties were e.g. archaeologists examined their previous agriculture on the basis of seeds, pollen and grains and it was possible to determine, for example, have dealt with dry periods agriculturally. Now, in large parts, especially in the northern hemisphere failures due to persistent drought. Perhaps ancient knowledge could now be used for our future agriculture, as more droughts are expected in the future.
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Irrigation using canals have been known for thousands of years (Indus Valley Civilization ca. 3000 BC). Terrace agriculture in hilly terrain to minimize erosion and water run off has also been known for many hundreds of years. Rivers used to meander which is a hydrological phenomenon. Ancient people respected it; modern humans have straightened some meandering rivers which now has created many problems including flooding and destroying of natural riparian habitats. Wetlands have practically been eliminated in many places (example near New Orleans, USA, which was one of the causes of serious flooding from hurricanes in recent years). Human beings are realizing the folly of these various acts and there is some reparation done such as restoring wetlands, restoring the priaries in mid-USA, resorting back to planting native vegetation and removing invasive water-hungry species, etc. There has always been wisdom in what anceint people practiced such as intentional fire setting by the aborigines in Australia to control the amount of fuel. The ancients have learned these principles by observing nature and being in tune with it and respecting it. Modern humans, due to corporate greed and millions of other reasons have chosen to disrespect Mother Nature and many of us are facing the consequences today.
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What are the drivers for adopting precision agriculture in developing countries?
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First is increasing productivity, second is improving economics and third is standardization in quality of produce for large corporate buyers.
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 Socio-economic status scale for rural areas
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Great work ,
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Traditionally farmers in many African nations (and elsewhere) still grow individual crops not only in inter- specific (different species), but also in intra-specific (same species) mixtures. However, the development ideology to improve production has been one promoting displacement of these with new 'improved' varieties or hybrids with often questionable medium to longer term results. We now know better the value of useful diversity to maintain crop robustness agains biotic and abiotic stress.
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through IPM and IDM
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There is define limit by any Gov. body in India for (Nutrient, Metal, pH etc.)in soil to reference of soil/environmental pollution. How we can define the soil is polluted or not ?
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Oh my dear Dr Prem Baboo very satisfactory answer and also in detail. I fully agree with you, Sir
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Sometimes it isn't easy to find a good place to get a membership so as to exchange our knowledge, or sometimes some online trusted organizations inquire too much money just to get an annual membership, so I would love to get a membership in a Horticulture organisation. Thanks for your kind cooperation!
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YOU CAN TRY ISHS
International Society for Horticultural Science.
https://www.ishs.org/Y1990 when I was a grad. student in Oregon State University. Y
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Recommend me please any comprehensive information source in English for the data on Bolivian agricultural sector status, development plans and vision. Thank you!
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Dear all,
What is the conceptual & estimation differences between
a) Capital expenditure,
b) Capital formation,
c) Investment ?
Can someone use any one of the above as a proxy to the rest when data of the rest are not available?
Or any methods to derive one from the others?
Thanks in advance
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In a strict sense, capital expenditure, capital formation and investment seem to have a little bit difference.
Capital formation is an investment in a newly produced asset. This word may be matched with numbers at the national level.
Capital expenditure is an investment in a newly produced asset as well as exising asset. This word may be more matched with numbers at the sectoral level under the nation. If the analysis is done for households or businesses, capital expenditure will be more relevant.
Investment is a kind of acquisition of assets. The asset can be financial or non-financial. Capital formation and capital expenditure are more relevant to non-financial produced assets.
Therefore depending on the analytical scope, data should be carefully selected, in my opinion.
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currently i m working on master thesis where my study area is usefullness of NSI in agriculture development of developing countries. a case study of Nepal. so i think it can help to get some idea. Thank you!
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Please go through the special issue of Current Science (published by Indian Institute of Science, Bangalore), December 2014 issues where you will find papers which are the output of the project you intend to know about. Please get back if you have any other issues.
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Usually, we need to compare levels of agricultural development in a country to another one, in order to appreciate the impact of a program for axample. We have economic indicators, and agronomic ones. But, the problem is that we are not sure for the moment of the indicators we can indicate accurate measures. Which indicators should us use finally ? 
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The most common indicator of efficiency in agrarian business is EBITDA / hectare.
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A new approach - System of Rice Intensification (SRI)  to growing rice –
is gaining rapid momentum. So I need to emphasis on the promotion of SRI but before that, I need some qualification related to saving of water and increase in revenue w..r.t conventional method. 
Can anyone provide me some papers and report on SRI implementation in mountains specifically in India. What is the technique and how much water and revenue we can generate? How the saved water can be used to calculate the cost-benefit ratio.  
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Sorry! I only saw this request just now...
You can also do a search of the whole database for other topics.https://www.zotero.org/groups/344232/system_of_rice_intensification_sri_research_network/items/
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Post harvest losses is one of the most challenging aspects of agricultural development. How can we minimize post harvest losses in order to boost our country's revenue base in the agricultural sector of the economy?
Thank you
Olutosin
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Important reasons for occurrence of more post harvest losses in perishable commodities such as fruits and vegetable crops in developing countries are primarily attributed to lack of infrastructure for cold chain. We never discuss cold chain as a whole for adoption. Cold chain includes infrastructure for grading, sorting, pre-cooling, refer vans for transport, ripening chambers at destination, cold storages and primary processing facilities etc. Such facilities if created will definitely contribute for minimizing post harvest losses. In India, a special move has been started through mission approach and these days Government of India is promoting such integrated cold chain units with subsidy provision of 35%.
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The overuse of natural resources like water, soil nutrition, air, bio-diversity and various such parameters due to agricultural development need to evaluated in terms of cost- return analysis. Are there some empirical studies on this aspect?
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Excellent question put by Dr, Singh. Environmental degradation includes land degradation, water deletion, air and water pollution, nutrient depletion, microbial degradation and effect on diversity, effect on flora and fauna. Therefore, it is very difficult to estimate the cost of degradation value including all aspects. Please find attached some publications who tried to concentrate one aspect or other.