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What do you think are the key factors that could trigger a food crisis in your country in the next quarters and/or years?
Due to many different factors, a food crisis can develop in many countries. The international supply and supply logistics chains that were interrupted during the SARS-CoV-2 (Covid-19) coronavirus pandemic have not been fully rebuilt. Rising fuel prices are driving up the cost of transporting food products to shops. The decline in fertiliser production is also driving up the cost of producing crops. In addition, the war in Ukraine has resulted in a decline in cereal supplies to many countries. The lack of electricity has caused a decline in the production of nitrogenous fertilisers. This then caused a decrease in the production of CO2, which benefits producers of many types of food products. Many food product factories are raising the prices of their products due to increases in raw material, energy and fuel prices. Many production facilities are reducing the scale of production. There may be job cuts. Consumption is falling due to high inflation. If a downturn in the economy occurs in the next quarters, many companies may go out of business and unemployment will rise. In addition, periods of increasingly severe drought, more and more hot days and less and less rain and more and more frequent fires in many parts of the world are causing a significant drop in crop production in agriculture. On the other hand, further food crises may arise in the future in the long term, which will be the result of a global climate crisis developing on a multi-year scale.
In view of the above, I address the following question to the esteemed community of researchers and scientists:
What do you think are the key factors that could trigger a food crisis in your country in the next quarters and/or years?
What should be done to reduce the scale of development of the food crisis?
What is your opinion on the subject?
What do you think about this topic?
Please reply,
I invite you all to discuss,
Thank you very much,
Regards,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Dear Dariusz
I dare to assert that all epigenetic factors may initiate a food crisis (Social interaction, war, disease, financial, created deficiencies etc.) More important is to have strategies to contain an emerging problem so that it will not spread globally. To avoid that we formed the UNO. In the post war era we also created the global market. Unfortunately, this is an economic concept that is based on competition and the winner in competition are those with with power. Now we are witnessing the global economy is dividing and consolidating in blocks. Unfortunately, the blocksformation is permananentl restructured and driven by a few war mongers. For them power is more important than food for the global citizen.
Many people are afraid and believe that we have too many people on the globe. For them war is the preferred mode to assure access to food. They cant imagine that with innovation and new circulatory technologies it is possible to multiply food supply. Food shortage is always a distribution problem. There are many actors around that increase value through shortage. The alternative is entrepreneurial collaboration with advanced technologies to assure a very large diversity of healthy food, enhanced with free global trade via internet. Science has failed to convince taxpayer that with sustainable technologies we will always have enough food for everybody.
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Dear Researcher,
i am looking for Molecular Biotech lab whole equipments and consumables and chemicals list specially with its brand and catalog Number. Can anyone provide me. Suppose if anyone has RKVY project equipments list details also no issues
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Mohammad Zaefizadeh I am thinking to establish a new molecular lab MAS and Diversity in case of crop plant. for that I need list of equipments, chemicals and consumable. for that I couldn't able find it in browser. its irrespective of brand prices.
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Please I obtained soil from a depth of 20cm and placed 5kg of the soil in pots of 29cm in height and labeled them. Please should I be calculating the fertilizer and biochar application rates according to the height of the pot (29cm) or according to the depth at which the soil was collected (20cm)? Please kindly find attached the calculations I have made and kindly advise.
Thank you for your time.
Example Biochar application rate calculations
Height of pot = 29cm
1h = 10000 m2
Assuming soil bulk density of 1.2 g/cm3
Volume = 10000 m2 × (29cm × 10-2) = 2.9 × 103m3
m = p × v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.9 × 103 × 1 × 106) cm3
m = 3.48 × 106 kg
or Use 20cm which is the depth at which the soil was collected and end up with
Volume = 10000 m2 × (20cm × 10-2) = 2.9 × 103m3
m = p × v
m = 1.2 g/cm3 x (2.0 × 103 × 1 × 106) cm3
m = 2.4 × 106 kg
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base your application on quantity per/ha. in this wise, 1ha soil is 1.0 million kg soil. hence, the quantity of the biochar needed is (rate/1,000,000) x quantity of soil in pot.
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This semester, I am having a credit seminar. I have to choose a topic related to Agricultural biotechnology and molecular biology. Suggest me a good topic, which will help me to get good credit grade. The topic should be related to molecular biology.
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Dear @Balaji B.
You can choose a topic such as "gene editing and crop improvement".
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Currenly, my study is related with rhamnolipid treatment on Colletotrichum sanseveriae. These are SEM images to observe the mycelia after has been treated with rhamnolipid, but there is unknown sticky and mucilaginous appearance that surrounds the mycelia, which i would like to know more about it.
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You have a nice SEM picture there i can see. Good job Farha
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Hello,
We are also doing an experiment about siderophore. Can anyone please inform us why the color change occurs in the CAS media? I mean what chemical reaction is going on there?
Thank you very much in advance.
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The main issue is storing seeds of tropical tree species is pathogens attacks, mainly insects. Which chemicals can be added to the seeds to decrease the amount of predated seeds?
Many thanks
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Perhaps this article can be of your interest:
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Hello everyone,
Could somebody tell me about, how to interpret the Zero or No expression of target gene over the control population.
"Whether getting zero in one population and more than one in another population of the same of the similar can be acceptable?"
Your reply appreciated!
Thank you.
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I think it will be best if you set up a couple of controls for that
1. you can set a tube with only water and no template DNA.
2. while setting up the cDNA synthesis protocol, you can have an additional tube where you do not add the Reverse transcriptase enzyme. This tube will give you signal from background genomic DNA if you have any.
Hope this helps
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The One Health approach is gaining more and more importance in the concert of integrated studies on human, animal and plant health, of microorganisms, as well as in studies of soil health and ecosystems in general, at a time of frank deterioration of biological diversity.
The One Health approach is paramount in the observance of the safety of productions intended for both human and animal consumption.
What theoretical and practical elements do you consider that should not be neglected when planning a study of the relationships that make up the One Health approach in a community of agricultural producers?
The purpose is to ensure that the producers end up empowering themselves with a careful productive attitude in the terms that are raised with the One Health approach.
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Good question.
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There is very little publication where functional characterization(cloning, overexpression, silencing, etc.) of genes identified through GWAS has been performed. However, most of the publications on functional characterization are on genes identified through transcriptome. Why is this? I doubt whether there is any usefulness of GWAS on crop improvement or not? if yes then give me some successful publication examples?
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The reason is that there are very few publications where functional characterization (cloning, overexpression, silencing, etc.) of the genes identified through GWAS has been performed. However, most of the publications on functional characterization revolve around genes identified through transcription because these are quantitative traits and are controlled by many genes and the influence of the environment is very high and the effect of each gene is weak (Minor genes) and they have small-effect genes rather than Major genes that have large -effects
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Demographers estimate that by 2050, the number of people on Earth will reach 10 billion. With such a number of people, the agricultural economy, logistics of food supplies and people's eating habits will have to change. It is likely that economics will force these processes, which will result in the transition of the majority of humanity to nutrition mainly based on vegetable and vegetarian diets. Meat production is many times more expensive than the production of cereals, fruits and vegetables. In addition, according to scientific research and the theory of futurologists, the production of traditional meat, e.g. pork and beef, may be replaced by the production of protein from insect breeding. Research shows that there are more proteins in the bodies of insects than in traditional meat dishes. In addition, the logistics of food supplies, agri-food products will have to improve. Systems for matching agricultural and reptile production to the current needs of the industry and the nutritional needs of people will be improved so as to reduce the scale of food wastage. The biggest threat to the implementation of this plan may be unexpected atmospheric phenomena, natural disasters, droughts, hurricanes, tropical heat in the areas in which agricultural crops have been cultivated so far. In addition, industrial exploitation of arable land and climate change causes soil depletion and the disintegration of areas suitable for agricultural production. Therefore, it will be necessary to continue the technological progress in the production of crops, in biotechnology, in the creation of new plant varieties resistant to pests and adverse climatic changes.
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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With rising income food consumption patterns also change. Calorie intakes of poor and rich people are surprisingly similar, but rich people consume more protein. This adds about a further 1 percent growth to food demand which means that the world will need to produce approximately two percent more food annually if today’s poor become rich. The growth of supply needed for the future about 2 percent annually has to come mainly from available farmland to avoid an overly negative impact on fragile ecosystems. This requires finance, investments, innovation, and knowledge to improve the yields at existing farmlands. The yield gap between what’s needed and what’s being produced is still very high. On the other hand, reducing food waste can have a significant impact on the availability of food. Reducing food waste can improve the efficiency of food value chains and help to distribute food more evenly to those in need.
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Greetings,
I have more than 100 bacterial isolates, and I want to identify them. Would you like to suggest to be the best way for their 16s rRNA identification (most probably by 27F and 1492R universal primers), concerning; 1) reliability, 2)time taken, 3)cost/price, and 4)service provider from KSA.
Thanks.
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You can classify your bacteria up to a certain level by various microbial and biochemical techniques. But to identify the bacteria to the genus and species level, you need to do 16S rRNA gene sequencing. You can try sanger dideoxy sequencing method. If you are using applied bio-systems sequencer, You will get 2 trace files .abi1 and .abi2(fwd and reverse) files. You may use DNA baser software to assemble both the forward and reverse trace files. After assembly you will get the contigs sequence in fasta format and then perform a nucleic acid blastn against 16S ribosomal RNA sequences(Bacteria and Archea). You can identify your bacteria.
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Hi, everyone!
I'm looking for an untouched area or highly emerged problem that humans (probably farmers, pharmaceutical industry-related) facing recently or might be faced in the near future which can be sorted out by marine microbiological or biotechnological resources.
or please suggest to me any resource related to this matter. your valuable comments are highly appriciated.
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To all my network.
in our lab. we are looking for one QIAamp PowerFecal DNA Kit, Ref. No. 12830-50. The kit has been discontinued and we need to run few more samples for an important experiment.
Any of you could help us on finding one of this kit?
Thanks in advance for your help
Best,
Giuseppe
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Bassam MS Al-Musawi we have contacted qiagen and they have proposed us the PRO version of the kit. Of course the results with the normal kit and the PRO are not comparable, that's why we would like to run all the samples with the same type of kit for DNA extraction. Anyway thanks for checking in your lab. if you had some of them
Best regards
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70 percent intensified production of agricultural products is absorbed by the production of livestock, above all for the purpose of meat production.
If this production would be burdened with the costs of neutralization of harmful, negative effects of environmental pollution and greenhouse gas emissions generated by intensified meat production, then a correspondingly higher meat price would take into account the costs of repairing the mentioned negative externalities.
Then, a drop in meat consumption would generate a drop in the intensification of agricultural production. At that time, most of the agriculture could switch from intensified, productive agriculture to organic farming.
Generally healthier agricultural produce would be produced with a much smaller amount of applied chemistry, and overproduction of agricultural produce could be redirected to the poorest countries to eliminate the problem of hunger in Africa.
Do you agree with my opinion?
Please reply
Best wishes
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Dear Nesrein M Hashem.
Thanks for your comment on the various aspects of agricultural production. You added a new perspective on the issue of sustainable agriculture to our discussion.
Thank you, Best wishes,
Dariusz Prokopowicz
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Hi ,
I am doing a study on the valuation of quinoa and its co-products in fish feed, I would like to know how you eliminate saponin.
Thanks
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I have been working with melon TSS% level in Bangaldesh for four years. Here melon become very low in brix in soil plantation. I ahve tried many ways to improve ssc%. We do not have nitrate fertilizers available here. We have to use urea or DAP as a source of nitrogen. I believe, if I can use nitrates, it might change the result! This is why i am interested in making organic liquid fertilizers rich in nitrates. I am making mustard cake liquid fertilizer as well as fish fertilizer.Can I add nitrifying bacteria culture to the drums of those fertilizers to increase N?
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Yesterday, I attented in a seminer on the use of vermicompost and cowdung. The results showed that vermicompost was better both in rice field and vegetable crops.
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From literature and my own experience, to culture Ascochyta rabiei without supplementing the media with chickpea powder is not possible. I am curious to know what's the active ingredient in chickpea powder which is actually required to nurture its culture and can we supplement it chemically instead of raw chickpea powder or chickpea extract?
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Dear @Amina Ilyas
Phytoalexins accumulate in plants or cell cultures only transiently, because they are degraded or polymerized by extracellular peroxidases. The degradation of phytoalexins may be important for the development of particular plant diseases. For example, Ascochyta rabie causes the oxidation and reduction of the phytoalexins (medicarpin and maackiain) in chickpeas. Thus a knowledge of phytoalexin catabolism will underpin the development of compounds resistant to degradation by pathogens. I have attached two pdfs. Please check whether both are useful to you.
Best wishes, AKC
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Is technological progress in agriculture based on the application of scientific discoveries in the field of biotechnology, genetics, automation and robotics of field works, implementation of biodiversity principles and the creation of resistant to fungal, viral, bacterial and other cultivar diseases, etc. with the elimination of the use of chemical plant protection products will enable in the 21st century the development of sustainable environment-friendly agriculture, ie the kind of agriculture thanks to which healthy vegetables, fruits, grains free from pesticides and other chemical plant protection products and organic farming, ie non-polluting, are produced?
Please reply
Best wishes
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I think that technological progress in agriculture will enable the development of sustainable environment-friendly agriculture.
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Hello! Could you suggest a proper analytical method to quantify the number of each bacterial species of interest: Azotobacter chroococcum, Rhizobium leguminosarum, Bacillus megaterium, Frateuria aurantia?
It should specifically identify and count each species.
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How will agriculture look in the future? It seems that precision agriculture is gaining importance very quickly, especially in large-scale production. For example, the use of satellite images, remote sensing, drones, automated tractors, etc. is that the dominant trend in agriculture? Should we include these topics in the professional education? I would like to know your opinion or experience, thank you.
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Great thanks Dr Juan Carlos Torrico for this topic discussion.
Precision Agriculture (which means intervening at the right time and in the best place with the right dose) is becoming more and more important in the world not only in developed countries but also in developing countries in which it arouses interest.
Precision Agriculture, which is based on high technology, certainly has its advantages in increasing yields both in cultivated plants and in animals, especially on large farms. Thanks to drones and sensors in the field, several factors are controlled such as irrigation and fertilization. In animals and thanks to digital technology, it is possible to monitor the health and growth of livestock.
So as the name suggests, it's all about being precise about spacial location of information and thus producing more while applying less inputs and energy.
Many advantages of course, but some specialists emphasize the importance or even the necessity of the quality of the input data because the latter will necessarily impact the quality of the final decision. On the other hand, according to some specialists, because of all data is tainted with uncertainty it is that it is essential to be able to measure and quantify this uncertainty and also take it into account in the final decision / application.
Thus, it turns out that, precision agriculture requires learning new technological and environmental skills as well as managerial skills. Therefore, it is important to incorporate it into training systems for a good mastery of all its tools.
Finally, precision agriculture could be useful for the future and for the sustainability of agricultural production if it is done while respecting Diversity and protecting the Soil and the Environment. However and particularly in countries newly concerned by this type of agriculture, it is necessary before its implementation to take preliminary studies to assess its benefits and impacts on the environment and to decide on the locations of its implementation as well as the identification of the types of farms as well as the sensitization of farmers for this type of agriculture but also the estimate of its costs. In addition, its success also requires knowledge and permanent supervision by agricultural advisory services.
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Other people in my lab have used NormFinder but I'm trying to find other options which are user friendly as well
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What are the conditions for the vonversion? in many countries where conventional agriculture predominates, it seems something very difficult or impossible to achieve, I am referring to the conversion of large-scale conventional systems to agroecological systems.
I would like to know your opinion or experience, because I only know small-scale agroecological productions.
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I think you proposition is very common in coutries with large scale production and developped agriculture.
In small coutries, we only finding basic agriculture with limited production.
But, i think as ecologist or agro ecologist we must following this large-scale possibility?
For example, in Algeria we using a limited area without any network between production and agro systems!!!
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Dear Researchers,
I did a transformation of an empty vector (pCAMBIA1301/1302) into my passion fruit plants, for the optimization of the transformation protocol. After transformation; DNA extraction was done (CTAB method) and run the PCR by using the specific primers of the promoter (35S) and other regions (present in a vector such as GUS, GFP, Hyg, etc.), for the detection of successfully transformed plants. Control/negative control plants PCR were also run by using plants without vector. The positive control was run by using the Vector Plasmid.
1- But the control plants also showing the specific bands of 35S, GUS, and GFP, so how to solve this problem?
I have attached the image files of the bands,
Thanks in advance
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Hafiz Muhammad Rizwan Ok, good. How long does it take for the calli to grow that size shown in the picture?
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According to the popular model proposed, Cry1A toxin binds with Aminopeptidase N to form pores in the membrane. How the mechanism for binding toxins to receptors and how these receptors change the conformation of toxins so that they can form pores I still have not found a complete and clear explanation.
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Interested
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If I were to receive an import of a new fruit species in the country and, upon arrival, the whole lot was diseased, what steps do I take to diagnose and solve the problem? Is there a general procedure or scheme followed for post-harvest management to identify the cause of the unknown disease?
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what is the relationship between Zinc fertilzer application and salinity tolerance in cereals?
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Since two decades we came across many tools to edit the desired gene and genome viz., clustered regularly interspaced short palindromic repeats (CRISPR)-CRISPR-associated protein 9 (Cas9), (2) transcription activator-like effector nucleases (TALENs), (3) zinc-finger nucleases (ZFNs), and (4) homing endonucleases (HENs).
Among them which is the best tool for editing the gene of interest?
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I agree that there is no such thing as "best" - it all depends on the purpose, the samples, the equipment, and... the experience of the specific researcher. For that reason, for most people, CRISPR-Cas9 is the "best" option - it is most commonly used, and thus any technical problems can easily find solutions from lots of other researchers. It is also the most user-friendly, quick, and, most of the time, cheaper than other gene-editing tools (again, depending on the specific purpose).
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If we use selected primers in the AFLP marker, select these primers on each side with 2 additional nucleotides, what percentage will the number of bands be reduced if not used?
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Thank you so much,
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We are going to do a seed germination experiment but found that most of the previous research used distilled water as a control solution for seed germination. As distilled water is devoid of any nutrients then plasmolysis can occur during seed germination. Can anyone suggest what should be the perfect composition for the seed germination solution as an experimental control?
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Dear Paul Chandra Sekhar Chandra Sekhar Paul according to the ista "International Seed Testing Association" procedure distilled water is used for seed germination
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I am doing some literature review to better understand the processes governing the biological fixation of nitrogen by non-symbiotic micro-organisms (associative, endophytic, free-living...).
I am not interested in symbiotic relations like legumes (which have their use), but rather to find solutions to promote this fixation throughout the cultivation (perhaps through composting?).
So it could be in the field or in a compost pile on the farm.
Could you share some insights?
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following
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Deepwater rice cultivars found in various regions around the world have their own differences. Please mention how the deepwater rice cultivars of North-Eastern India varies from that of Southeast Asian Countries. Also, suggest any references.
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About urea foliar application is told that agricultural breeded plants can use the nitrogen ad hoc and efficiently. But urea is ambivaltent : it is causing also leaf burning by not proper application in small ranged climatic environment conditions.
Has or knows anyone evidence based trial literature or handbooks about the benefits and the disavantages and of precise and damage avoding urea application in leaf fertilization?
I am also interested on positive reported results for soilless, tropical and green house conditons, besides crops as maize, potatoes, sugar beets, cereals, forage grasses and canola.
Best thanks in advance Johann HUMER, Austria
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Urea containing 46% N is usually applied to wheat crop especially under rainfed conditions at 1-2% urea concentration at tillering and heading stages.Some workers tried upto 4-5% urea concentrations to supply more N to crop.But one should be cautious with application of high urea concentrations with possible leaf injury/burning. To make 2 percent urea solution you have to mix 20 g urea in one litre water (2 g urea/100 ml). Foliar solutions are usually mixed with a surfactant like tween-80 at a concentration of 0.1 % v/v for improving leaf wetting and preventing droplets from immediate drying thereby prolonging the period of N absorption.0.1 percent means 1 ml per litre(v/v).
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Agricultural biotechnology sometimes sounds as resemble to plant biotechnology even at graduation and postgraduation level. But, I think there is a thin layer difference between them due to specific intentions as well as perspectives. Agricultural Biotechnology I think merely deals with the study on the internal architecture of a particular crop system and suitable approaches for structural/biochemical/physiological modifications (wherever needed) at molecular level just to promote better farming practices for a better outcome.
What do you think about it??
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The agricultural biotechnology sector (Ag Biotech) challenges, goals, and opportunities for agricultural applications of biotechnology provide a very different context for innovation and entrepreneurs. The agricultural trait segment continues to focus on two product categories, herbicide tolerance and insect resistance, in spite of few entrepreneurial opportunities available. However, Ag Biotech applications to chemistries, biopesticides, microbials, and natural products offer new opportunities. These sectors offer new business opportunities that, like the first wave of Ag Biotech, enable entrepreneurs to think about creating disruptive businesses, not just disruptive technologies for today’s business models. https://www.sciencedirect.com/topics/agricultural-and-biological-sciences/agricultural-biotechnology
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Scientific community is now facing a new threat of unethical publications in predatory journals.
How someone can identify the predatory journal?
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Pankaj - it is not too difficult to recognise predatory journals. One just has to know the 'classic' and common signs of a predatory journal. They don't necessarily expect to exists for long - so they often use 'minimal effort for maximum financial gain' - and therefore there are often many errors and of poor quality - at least in parts.
There are certain factors then that make it reasonably easy to identify predatory journals - or at least ‘cause doubt’ so further investigation is required. Essentially, rule number one with predatory journals is always be very wary when any journal approaches you directly. If you are not sure - then the Directory of Open Access Journals (DOAJ) is a good site to check first. It lists the 'good' journals. If the journal targeting you is not on their list - it's another warning sign. Then there are many other warning signs - such as:
· Poor quality online interface.
· Minimal and/or very broad journal scope i.e. we publish almost anything related to a whole discipline.
· Poor English quality and grammatical errors.
· Check the country of origin. Many predatory journals are based in certain countries (usually sub-continent). Some, however, will try to give the impression that they are based elsewhere i.e. US, Europe.
· Unknown editors.
· Unknown or no editorial board and/or all based in the country of origin
· Unsophisticated online manuscript submission processes i.e. send a word document by email
· Upfront publishing charges
· Not registered or associated with any reputable professional bodies and/or citation agencies - nor are credible Impact Factor sources stated. Articles may not have been assigned a Digital Object Identifier (DOI) number.
· Check the quality of existing articles in the journal. They are usually a very mixed and poor quality.
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In an experiment I found that the fresh weight of the root was less than that of the stem, however when I found the dry weight, the weight of the stem was less than that of the root. Why are these differences?
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Dear Santiago,
the disproportions between fresh and dry root: shoot biomass could be caused by a "stress response" to some abiotic factor. In the case of green pepper, I would probably estimate it in terms of light factor (or temperature). The above-ground part of the young plants stretches abnormally (higher fresh weight) when there is a lack of light. This is one possible explanation...
Best regards,
BS
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From the agricultural point of view, any agriculture graduate should gather at least some basic knowledge about fundamentals in agricultural science. But, when that guy becomes so busy in his/her biotechnology researches as well as scientific discoveries with so many advancing issues and modern interventions, how much important to keep updates on grassroot problems in agriculture say for: nutrient enrichment in problematic soil, seed priming and purification to prevent soil borne diseases, suitable irrigation practices for cereals and pulses in arid or semi-arid regions, insect management in barassicaceae crops etc. ???
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BioTech means all living things starting from single cell to humans. There is no barrier
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In the protocol for the extraction of anthocyanins from plant material, the first step is the sample preparation. The sample is prepared by converting the plant material into a powdered form after mixing it with liquid nitrogen. Is it necessary to mix the plant material with liquid nitrogen or can we proceed without liquid nitrogen to convert plant material into powdered form?
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The liquid N2 is to keep it cold, make it brittle, and exclude O2. The success otherwise depends on the properties of the particular material.
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The value of pollination of crop flowers (without cultivars) is estimated at 500 billion dollars. USA annually. Due to the intensification of production of agricultural products, including the use of chemical plant protection products, the number of pollinating insects, including primarily all bees, is decreasing rapidly. The number of bumblebees also drops very fast, and only these insects pollinate some crops. To limit the sources of this problem, people should limit the development of agriculture based on industrial production of arable crops, in particular in the areas of arable crop production for livestock and it is globally 3/4 of arable land.
Instead of industrial production of agricultural products, organic farming should be developed without the use of chemical plant protection products. Pesticides should be replaced by the introduction into the production of agricultural crops more resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal and parasitic diseases of cultivated plant varieties, which are created using modern biogenetic techniques.
In addition to the industrial production of agricultural produce (mainly for the purposes of maintaining livestock production, meat production), the global warming process is also contributing to the decline of insects, including pollinating insects. This is because, because many species of insects are very sensitive to changes in the temperature of the environment in which they live. In order to limit the sources of this problem, a person should proceed on a massive scale to reclaim industrial degraded areas in order to convert them to biological ecosystems similar to natural biological environments composed of many species of flora and fauna cooperating with each other.
In addition, the surface of natural habitats, natural biological ecosystems in which insects feed. It is caused by mowing meadows outside the city and grasses in the cities. Therefore, it is advisable not to mow lawns, put up insect houses, or remove rotting, rotting stumps in parks and forests. In some cities, flower meadows are planted and insecticides specially created for this purpose are placed in city parks.
According to observations of biologists, environmentalists are killed so quickly that in 100 years there will be no insects. If the pollinating insects die, then the plants will cease to produce fruit and seeds, many species of plants will disappear and there will be a serious problem with feeding mankind and many species of animals on Earth. Therefore, the problem is very serious. This is, in my opinion, the second most important problem to be solved in the 21st century, in addition to the problem of successive and faster global warming process. In my opinion, these are the most important global problems and challenges to solve numerous problems for humanity in the 21st century.
Do you agree with me on the above matter?
In the context of the above issues, I am asking you the following question:
How to protect pollinating insects from extinction?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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Campaigns... … We report the results of a task force of the North American Pollinator Protection Campaign (NAPPC) that examined potential effects of vector management practices on pollinators, and how these programs could be adjusted to minimize negative effects on pollinating species … Ginsberg, H. S., Bargar, T. A., Hladik, M. L., & Lubelczyk, C. (2017). Management of arthropod pathogen vectors in North America: minimizing adverse effects on pollinators. Journal of medical entomology, 54(6), 1463-1475.
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Hi, just saw this, but seems it doesn't look like papyrus. Cheers.
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As using A.Tumefacinies for inserting gene X and A.Rhizogenes for gene Y (in my case Y is for CRISPR cas9).
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Abdelrahman Ahmed Khalifa The reason I was asking you about root-specific promoters is that you can also do this way:
(1) transformation 1: use A.Tumefacinies --> binary vector: root-specific-promoter is hooked to Cas9 gene (for CRISPR) --> transform plants --> Cas9 only expresses in roots and CRISPR only the roots.
(2) transformation 2: Take transgenic plants (w/ single copy transgene) generated from transformation 1--> do a secondary transformation --> also use A. Tumefacinies; binary vector: 35S promoter hooked to your gene-of-interest
Different plant selection marker is need on two vectors. For example, kan for one, and hygromycin for another one.
Make sense to you?
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As we do not know how many markers are required for screening of background during marker assisted breeding and if we cover the whole chromosome with marker still it will not impart accurate results. According to me intermittent phenotyping is important aspect in MABB.
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Several parameters require to be optimized in a marker aided background selection program viz. at least a few hundred highly polymorphic and evenly distributed markers with a reasonable genome coverage and a minimal marker density, no dependency of the markers to genetic background, minimum number of individuals for detecting recombinants in a given marker interval, and minimum number of data points to achieve fast completion of backcross program.
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What are the oil based inputs for production of bio-polyamides for application in textile sector?
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Mostly adipic acid, manufactured from hexane, and also 1,6 Hexane Diamine, also made from hexane. Or Caprolactam made from hexane.
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Can this be accomplished using Cas9 and two sgRNAs targeting genomic sites over 100 kb away from each other? I want to do this in a plant that is transformable, but for which there are no reports of using CRISPR. If it is feasible, what range of editing frequency can I expect to achieve? Any literature sources on the use of gene editing for long deletions in plants generally?
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Hi Chris,
You can find some information from this reference. They could produce 115-245 kb deletions.
"Large chromosomal deletions and heritable small genetic changes induced by CRISPR/Cas9 in rice" Zhou et al., 2014. Nucleic Acids Res. 2014;42(17):10903-14. doi: 10.1093/nar/gku806. Epub 2014 Sep 8.
Good luck!
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I want to grow an unknown Archaea, for that we needs specific media like MCSV So how can I prepare this media? and what are the components from that MCSV media can be produced?
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You can try this media: SAB
archaea grew significantly more rapidly in SAB medium.....in the SAB medium, 6/10 in DSMZ 119 medium, 5/10 in DSMZ 322 medium and 3/10 in DSMZ 334 c medium
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Although aquaponics is a effective method of integrated fish and plant production, one of major downside of this technology is its cost in successful setup. So in order to promote this technology globally, especially developing countries. what are the potential area for cost minimisation and local material utility?
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I have seen several scaled-down models made by students & start-ups.
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Dear Colleagues/Editors/Reviewers,
Comment those journals which are going to receive its first impact factor in JUNE 2020 and currently indexed in ESCI, SCOPUS, PubMed, etc.
Journals must be related to plant physiology, plant biology, plant sciences, agriculture, and biotechnology, etc.
Note. Please don't comment any predatory journals. Thanks in advance.
Regards
Ali
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I believe through scientific development we can create technologies to tackle the climate related problems in agriculture. We have already achieved to some extent, for example with submergence tolerant rice varieties which can tolerant complete submergence. However, the main concern is that the development is not always positive, it also brings some drawback. In a changed scenario the results go in the opposite direction. The materials we develop with so much effort become non-performers compared to earlier ones. Is it possible to develop varieties which can tolerant all sort of vagaries? How?
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The resiliency of agriculture with the challenges posed by global climate change is a multifaceted problem that (in my opinion) should be tackled from different angles. Plant breeding is definitely important however, this should not be the only approach. I think that agroecology offers a broader spectrum of approaches that all together may serve the cause of counteracting the negative impacts of climate change on food production. Among these agrobiodiversity is a must do by farmers and, on the same token, increasing the biodiversity also below the soil. This can be achieved through various agronomic techniques like: crop rotations, green manuring cover crops cultivation and a management of crops residues that builds carbon levels in the soil. An employment of livestock species is also recommendable as animals provide a variety of ecological services (being manure the most important one). Please consider the work of agronomist: Salvatore Ceccarelli and his team on evolutionary plants breeding. Here below is the RG link to his profile. Salvatore Ceccarelli Thank You!
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How we can identify and isolate archaeal strain from the invironment?
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Endophytic Trichoderma species are rather aggresive in their colonization of a substrate; I understand that they do it faster and more effectively than mycorrhizal fungi (e.g. Glomus spp.). It seems Trichoderma spp. and Glomus spp. do not antagonize each other. However, given this faster colonizing process of Trichoderma over Glomus, would it be recommendable to inoculate an established crop first with the mycorrhizae inoculum and a few days after with Trichoderma? If so, how much time should one wait between applications?
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@ Jose, you have to inoculate separately as Tricoderma is growing very fast and they are not compatible with Glomus species. I think if you are very eager to see the combined effect you must inoculate first with Glomus and wait atleast for 2 weeks then go for Tricoderma inoculation.
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We are going to innoculate fungal spores to biochar but not able to get a higher amount of fungal spores. So, if anyone has some idea about the concentration of fungal spores which is suitable for good growth in biochar, please inform.
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You can use UV ray
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Dear RG Colleagues,
I am trying to study the effect of a biofertilizer and I am confuse about the experimental design.
So I have :
3 plant species and only one factor "Biofertilzer" and my area is 400 m2.
How should I proceed and How many replicates (plants) should be used at the sampling stage ?
Thank for your contributiom
Abdenour
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I am using one biofertilizer and of course with control.
Regards
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Hi All,
I am looking for several plant expression vectors (pML-BART, pART27 and pART7). Could anyone please tell me where I can find these vectors? I have searched in google but did not get any source where I can buy them.
Thanks,
Dr. Mahmudul Hassan
Postdoctoral Research
Oak Ridge National Laboratory, USA
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Hi , this website might want to contact them , they make plasmids according to order.
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I want to test the antifungal activity of a vegetable extract with poisoned medium technique in PDA; i have 100 ml of the vegetable extract at 1000 ppm; and i want test 200 ppm, 100 ppm, 50 ppm, 25 ppm and 15 ppm; i want prepare 100 ml of PDA with each concentration. So according my calculation, i need make the next:
200 ppm = Add 20 ml of vegetable extract in 80 ml of PDA
100 ppm = Add 10 ml of vegetable extract in 90 ml of PDA
50 ppm = Add 5 ml of vegetable extract in 95 ml of PDA
25 ppm = Add 2.5 ml of vegetable extract in 97.5 ml of PDA
12.5 ppm = Add 1.2 ml of vegetable extract in 98.8 ml of PDA
So, my question is... are my caulculations right? thanks and regards.
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Yes Marco Antonio Tucuch Pérez , your calculations are corrected. I have a doubt above you ask for 15ppm and calculating for 12.5 ppm. Why so? Well your calculation for 12.5ppm is half correct adding 1.25 ml of plant extract and homogenizing into 98.75ml PDA will make it more accurate. By adding 1.2ml plant extract and 98.8 it will make 12ppm only.
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I have used 3 types of media for growing an yeast.
1. LGI + 0.005% Yeast Extract
2. LGI + 0.005% Yeast Extract + 0.5% ammonium sulphate
3. YPD (1% Yeast Extract + 2% Peptone)
Now, how do I calculate the percentage (%) or concentration (mM) of nitrogen used in respective medium?
As we know,
nitrogen in Yeast Extract - 10.5 %
nitrogen in ammonium sulphate - 21 %
nitrogen in peptone - 15.5 %
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Please use S1V1=S2V2 formula for calculation.
S1=concentration of pure sample (known); V1= volume of pure sample to be taken for your desired concentration (you need to know); S2=Concentration you need (known, like 1 ppm, % or mM etc.); V2= volume you need (you have to decide; working volume).
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how to ensure the purity of apoplastic fluid
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Information on humic acid from cow dung.
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I do not think so .
the anaerobic acidogenesis couldn't produce humic acid but it can produce diffrent types of VFAs, so you can try to get new way to use the VFAs to produce humic acid.
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Which kit works best?
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Simon J Conn now I am doing with Q5 high fidelity taq polymerase and the PCR product is expected about 12 kb, could you give the PCR reaction and PCR programe that you used to be done, Thanks.
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What is your opinion about genetically modified crops?
Do you accept the creation of new varieties of crops by modifying the genome to produce varieties of crops that are more resistant to viral, bacterial, fungal, parasitic, etc. diseases?
Please reply
Best wishes
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David Fisher, I think your arguments are themselves misleading. You are equating a technology with an application. GMO does not require that we move genes between kingdoms, it could be as simple as taking a gene from one wheat species and moving it into another, or perhaps just removing a gene from an organism. The technology has lots of potential uses and when you promote the abolition of that technology then you prevent all those applications. The concerns you are putting forth are with regard to the applications. Yes it is true that there are problems with large agribusiness as it presently functions, but it seems more appropriate to regulate the business application than the technology. If you wanted to suggest that food crops should not carry genes that originate from a different kingdom, or phyla or whatever, that is quite different than banishing all GMO. And I strongly disagree that our understanding of genomes or DNA is superficial. Do we know everything, of course not. But superficial is vastly overstating the situation.
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Is we have any raw sample extract that show positive confirmation in ninhydrin test?
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Ninhydrin test is characteristic test for proteins. Very small quantities of proteins or amino acids (building blocks of proteins) will give positive ninhydrin test.
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Looking for scientists & labs who are building novel technologies to transform our food production systems to be as sustainable as possible? Alternative Proteins, Cellbased Agriculture, Plantbased Meats, GMOs etc.
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Dear Flavio,
That’s quite an ambitious and not that easy to answer question. However what comes up in my mind when it comes to food innovations (combined to agricultural innovations):
The so-called Food Valley in the Netherlands:
And France, this country has a strong history and reputation as well. See for example the following research centres:
INRA : National institute of Agronomic Research
CIRAD : Centre for International Cooperation in Agronomic Research for Development
IRSTEA : National Research Institute of Science and Technology for Environment and Agriculture
CNRS : French National Centre for Scientific Research (dedicated to fundamental research)
There are interesting examples of companies that focus on sustainability and have experience with (the acquisition of) start-up companies (like Soliance). See for example:
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hi everybody .. I just want to know what is the best way to extract protoplast from wheat plant and wil be so thankful if you provide me a previous certified article or study.
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Your welcome!!
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I want to work on PBS in molecular breeding and want to know are their any genes or tightly linked markers available for PBS in Corn. I want use these in our breeding programme.
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sorry am horticulture research
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Is it possible to use gamma irradiation to induce polyploidy on plants?
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Polyploid also may occur due to abnormal cell division, either during mitosis, or commonly during metaphase I in meiosis. In addition, it can be induced in plants and cell cultures by some chemicals: the best known is colchicine, which can result in chromosome doubling, though its use may have other less obvious consequences as well. So it can be inducted by x ray irradiation as well but you cant exactly control the process.
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In Holy Quran "a grain which growth seven ears, in every ear a hundred grains". It shows the potential yield that no one reaches yet. Therefore, scientists need to find missing key(s). This gives agronomists, breeders, and farmers a hope of the possibility of developing and devising distinct lines of grain and plant through good agricultural management.
A 100 fertilized flower and matured to be complete grain in each one of seven ears; why no one can reach it yet?
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we find about 45-60 grain per spike in wheat in iraq ,if one plant gave more than ten spikes ,at this time we get 700 grains from grain.We need optimal condition to get that.
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These types of questions have appeared many times in every era of the technological and industrial revolution, the period of accelerating technological development. These types of questions have already appeared in the periods of increasing the scale of objectification, arming technical human labor, from when the processes of manufacturing goods in manufactories transformed into mass production. This was the case during the Industrial Revolution of the XIX century, when the invention of a steam engine significantly accelerated the development of industry and mass production. Then, the introduction of tape production in various branches of mass production in the early twentieth century. In the second half of the twentieth century, ie in the era of subsequent stages of mechanization, automation, then the computerization of the production of many mass goods, this question appears again. Through these periods of technological progress, national economies have been transforming structurally from agricultural, industrial to modern-day domination of services. At the same time, the importance of new generation factors, which include information, technology, entrepreneurship and innovation, was gradually growing. Some branches of industry were shrinking, others were growing in the whole production of goods in the economy. At the same time, new professions, professions and specializations of human work were created, related to information, IT, analytical and technological services related to the development of new fields of knowledge and technology. So the earlier fears about the lack of work for people in connection with the technical progress that took place over the last several hundred years turned out to be essentially exaggerated. However, currently the same questions reappear: Can the development of robotization and computerization cause a significant rise in unemployment in the future? If such questions arise, then we are dealing with another era of technical progress or another technological revolution. The attributes of this revolution are also increasingly added to the development of new online media, computerized computing techniques, artificial intelligence, machine learning, Big Data, etc. in the applications of such areas of knowledge and science as biotechnology, metrology, ecology, energy, communication, medicine and many other fields of life science and new tech. In connection with the above, please answer the question: Can the development of robotization and computerization cause a significant increase in unemployment in the future?
Please, answer, comments. I invite you to the discussion.
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If such development would be accompanied by greed and selfishness (which is usual, unfortunately), then definitely there will be an increase in unemployment. All technology development accompanied by ethics shall ensure development to humanity, including effective employment (as new business shall be born as mentioned in question and answers ).
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is there a reference number put to be used to say the obtained number of AMF spore per gram is low, medium or high? say for instance is 18 spore per gram of dry soil large or medium or small?
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Researchers based on the below reference classified AM root colonization based on categories:
very high (.80%),
high (60–79%),
medium (40–59%),
low (20–39%)
and very low (1–19%).
Arbuscular mycorrhizae of dominant plant species in Yungas forests, Argentina
Alejandra G. Becerra,Marta Cabello,Marcelo R. Zak &Norberto BartoloniPages
I also investigated by myself the rate infection of mycorrhizal fungi in the saline soil which has about EC 8. the results were different based on the tea materials (phenoles) added with mycorrhiza to support it to be more active and abundant.
the reference is :
Interactions between Mycorrhizal Fungi, Tea Wastes,
and Algal Biomass Affecting the Microbial
Community, Soil Structure, and Alleviating of
Salinity Stress in Corn Yield (Zea mays L.)
Salwan Al-Maliki * ID and Mugtaba AL-Masoudi
plants journal 2018
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ARS (Agricultural biotechnology) mains exam question Papers or questions ?
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We plan to conduct interviews with Bt cotton farmers in Telangana.
How to start? Who must be informed regarding permission (administrative/as an respectful gesture)? Who to ask for a list of households? How to adress the villages n advance (if necessary?)? What else should be considered?
Many thanks
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Dear Luisa
In the course of conducting farmer interviews there are some key issues were repeatedly encountered. They do not cover every situation that farmer interviewers might find themselves in; but they are important to think about and prepare for.
1- Fitting in as a good guest:
Some of the challenge is also to become aware of the acceptable codes of behavior—the communicated and non-communicated house rules—and to avoid violating them. Being invited into a person's house as a social researcher is more than a simple invitation into their house, because when combined with an interview it becomes an opportunity to understand the interviewee's world.
2- Farmers decide who are "insiders" or "outsiders":
It might be best to cast notions of commonality aside and approach what the farmer says by thinking about why they have answered in the way that they have. Researchers might try to place themselves in the farmer's position and imagine what they would say if they were faced with the same complex, competing demands that the farmer experiences
3- Role of rapport:
When commonality between the researcher and participant does not exist, rapport becomes more important because it reduces the distance between interviewer and interviewee, reduces interviewee anxiety, and builds trust to make them more comfortable in sharing information.
4- Reflection as part of interviewing:
The conclusion of the face-to-face component of the interviews is only the completion of the data gathering and ideally needs to be followed by a period of critical reflection. This is because the research results are derived from more than just the analysis of the interview transcripts, but also include the reflection that happens after (and even during) the interview. The post-interview review and reflection is useful, because it is at this time that the memories of the key points of the interview are at their strongest. Critical reflection is, however, much more than just thinking about what happened, it is a structured process of looking at the topic from different perspectives.
5- A chance for farmers to construct their own identity
The key point is that when farmers participate in the interviews they do not agree to participate in any particular way; but are doing it on their own unarticulated terms and for their own reasons, which may include constructing a "self.
6- The unequal sharing of benefits from the interview
Interviewees can also find the experience rewarding because they are unlikely to often have the experience of another person spending an hour or so with them, and only being interested in them and seeking to understand their experiences of a particular topic. What initially appears as an unequal transaction—where the interviewer appears to make all the demands and receive all the benefits—may also provide some benefit to the interviewee.
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I want to know what is the best method and which species is most used .
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There is no "a priori" good answer to your question. You have to do the extractions with several methods and conclude from your experience.
See attached pdf (Chiasson et al 2001) as an example.
Best regards, Charles VINCENT
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Rose, RNA, real time
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i am also having a lot of trouble in RNA extraction from Rose tissues (leaves, flower buds, etc). I have used pBiozol, but still i haven't been successive in having a brighter 28s band in gel. I have repeated about 30 times, with different criteria, but all in vain. Please help me :`(
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I am using media contained MS, Vit,  0.5 mg/l 2,4-D and 0.5 mg/l KIN with 90 gm/l Maltose and 3:1 Gel / Agar, and after one month the callus induction very little.
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Dear Dr. Ibrahim
Anthers are aseptically dissected out and cultured in the N6 induction medium of anther culture supplemented with 2 mg/L 2,4-D, 1 mg/L kinetin, 90 g/L sucrose and 7 g/L agar. These cultures are incubated first for 5–6 weeks in darkness at 28 C. Embryoids/callus induced from the anthers are transferred to MS regeneration medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/L NAA, 0.5 mg/L kinetin and 30 g/L sucrose. These cultures are incubated for 5–6 weeks at 25–27 C with 16 h light.