Science topic

Aggression - Science topic

Aggression is a behavior which may be manifested by destructive and attacking action which is verbal or physical, by covert attitudes of hostility or by obstructionism.
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We have studied the association between aggression and positive mental health, using the Brief Aggression Questionnaire (BAQ; Webster et al., 2014; DOI: 10.1002/ab.21507) and the Positive
Mental Health Scale (PMH; Lukat et al., 2016; DOI 10.1186/s40359-016-0111-x).
BAQ has four sub-factors- Physical, Verbal, Anger, Hostility. Here, the verbal aggression was positively correlated with mental health (PMH), other three factors were negatively correlated with PMH. The sample was 3145 university students, age range 17-27 yr (M= 22.07, SD= 1.74); Male= 1943 (61.8%).
However, the correlation between verbal aggression and PMH was inconsistent with theoretical background. But this correlation was consistent on an adult sample- N= 298, age range 30-65 yr (M= 41.05, SD= 7.88); Male= 159 (53.4%).
What would be the explanation behind the relation of verbal aggression and PMH in student sample?
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قد يكون السبب التقليد
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Sadists tend to display recurrent aggression and cruel behaviour while deriving pleasure in hurting or humiliating others. Are there causes and cure for sadistic personality disorder? Thanks for your perspectives.
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Poland has suggested Russia's exclusion from the G20 group, while China opposes it. Should the group's democratic members boycott the planned events as long as Russia continues its war of aggression in Ukraine?
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I think - YES
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MAOA gene is responsible for aggressive hormone production
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The direct answer is: "not with current methods" - but this is also the answer for "Can human beings travel at superluminal velocity". The better answer is: "Not if one wishes to maintain any semblance of humanity."
Frontal lobe lobotomy would be far more cost effective, and would likely give the same results.
Biological meddling in this manner - by definition without consent - is the very image of what could be termed "evil".
Meddling with an enormously complex system, over which one has little to no control "in the wild" is, at best, extreme negligence.
Aggression exists for very good reasons.
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Dear Ukrainian researchers and students,
This is a response to the war by my university. If that is of your interest, please, get in touch!
War in Ukraine - The University of Stuttgart expresses solidarity with Ukrainian universities and their researchers, employees and students
Dear Professors, Dear Employees, Dear Personnel and Students at the University of Stuttgart,
Last Thursday, February 24, 2022, the Russian military invaded Ukraine and began a war of aggression ordered by President Putin. Since then, it has been trying to occupy Ukraine, using all military means available to it, and to gain political power over a free country. This inconceivable attack is not only reprehensible under international law, but it is also an attack on free Europe. The news from Ukraine in recent days has certainly shocked us all. The Western community of states reacted promptly by issuing various sanctions. Last Sunday, in a special session of the Bundestag, the German government made a fundamental shift in terms of its security and energy policy that probably no one would even have thought possible just a few days ago. The state government of Baden-Württemberg has also responded to the situation: the Minister of Science, Research and Arts, Theresia Bauer, sent the attached letter to state universities last Sunday. In accordance with the Alliance of Science Organizations, and the political decisions being made by the federal and state governments, the Rectorate adopted the following resolution on February 28, 2002, published on March 1, 2022:
1. The University of Stuttgart declares its solidarity with academics, students and employees at all academic institutions in Ukraine and pledges its support, especially in terms of aid programs promised by the state government in Baden-Württemberg and various foundations. It is with deep sympathy, that the university expresses its commitment to providing a safe academic and humane haven, as well as personal assistance to refugee researchers.
2. The University of Stuttgart is reviewing its scientific relations with partners in the Russian Federation and will suspend these until further notice, insofar as this is justifiable in individual cases in terms of humanity and international law. This will also include research funds that benefit the Russian Federation. We will not be initiating any new cooperative projects in the near future.
3. The University of Stuttgart will strengthen its bilateral relations with scientific institutions in Ukraine at all levels of the university, faculties, institutes and central institutions.
4. The University of Stuttgart explicitly recognizes that many Russian scientists disapprove of Putin's policy of aggression and are still interested in a peaceful discourse with free science in Europe and who wish to continue this peaceful cooperation in the future. The University of Stuttgart would also like to express its solidarity with this group.
The resolution of the University of Stuttgart concludes with a reference to its long-standing and fruitful relations with partner universities in Ukraine, which benefit from an active exchange of researchers and students. The Donetsk National Technical University was named as one example, some faculties of which were moved to Pokrovsk north of Donetsk after 2014 due to the armed conflicts in the Donbas. Just a few days ago, the University of Stuttgart signed a new contract with this technical university promising interdisciplinary cooperation and aiming to expand scientific cooperation, in conjunction with the High Performance Computing Center at the University of Stuttgart and other participating institutes in the fields of engineering and simulation sciences.
The Federal Ministry of Education and Research (BMBF), the Ministry of Science, Research and Arts (MWK), and the Ministry of Finance (FM) in Baden-Württemberg have already announced that public research funds will no longer benefit the Russian Federation and Russian institutions. Also, no bilateral scientific and research events are currently allowed to take place. The German Academic Exchange Service (DAAD) has informed universities that exchange programs and the funding of exchange programs for students, researchers and teachers as well as other university staff in both directions will be suspended until further notice. This also applies to activities in any event format (including online).
I strongly ask that all faculties, institutes and central institutions, including the Central Administration department, as well as all scientists, employees and students at the University of Stuttgart to support this attitude, including recommendations and decrees from the government, ministries and scientific organizations and to suspend any existing cooperations with Russian scientific institutions, with all due respect for those involved, until further notice. I would like to draw your attention specifically to point 4 of the resolution.
The Rectorate will continue to monitor the situation and developments in Ukraine, as well as in Russia and Belarus, and will provide you with further information in coordination with the Ministry of Science and the Alliance of Science Organizations in the coming days and weeks.
Yours faithfully,
Wolfram Ressel
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Hi Marie! There's an organization called Science for Ukraine that is collecting information from various research institutions around the world that are willing to help scientists from Ukraine. I would suggest you get in touch with them to be added to their institution list!
Science for Ukraine
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Dear colleagues in the filed of psychology and similar disciplines,
Do you know some open call for cross-cultural project regarding post-COVID effects (or what is happening after the 2 years of pandemic) on various aspects of mental health (life satisfaction, stress, anxiety, optimism...), emotional status, interpersonal relationships, risky behavior, conspiracy theories and other beliefs, etc.?
Thank you.
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Dear Prof. Dinić!
I found the following websites hoping you consider these of value:
1) Coronavirus and COVID-19 Related Funding Opportunities from Research Professional and Pivot, Research Professional News is part of Ex Libris Group. Available at:
In this list I noticed the following: CDC-RFA-IP22-2203 "Tracking the burden, distribution, and impact of Post COVID-19 conditions in diverse populations for children, adolescents, and adults (Track PCC)" Department of Health and Human Services, Centers for Disease Control - NCIRD
Current Closing Date for Applications: Mar 07, 2022  Electronically submitted applications must be submitted no later than 11:59 pm ET on the listed application due date. Estimated Total Program Funding:$45,000,000
Further details are available at:
I really think these funds are also available for EU institutions as well.
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Hi! I'm having a hard time choose a video game for our research. Basically, we are going to use that online game or video game to know if that game has an effect on the aggression of teenagers for we have know that teenagers are more prone to aggression. I wonder which game should we used that a 13 0 18 years old teen can play? Please help us and thank you in advance.
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It seems like you suppose an answer to your question and are now trying to make a study to prove your point by cherry-picking a game.
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I am having a hard time choosing an online game to use for our research. Basically, this online game will be used to identify the effect of online games on the aggression of teenagers since they are prone to aggression. Our participants will be a new player (of a chosen online game) teenager.
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This looks like cherry-picking to get an assumed result. The fact you are asking for a game that has your wanted result and assume your hypothesis beforehand is problematic.
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Generally some kind of behavior is assessed with the help of some questionnaire e.g.- task,ego ,motivation level, anxiety level, aggression etc.Is there any other scientific way of making psychological assessment of player that may contribute in his/ her top performance ?
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Yes, Vienna Testing System
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I want to knock out a gene in the U87 cell line. Can you suggest a gene that causes aggression (invasion and metastasis)? I read that Hsc70 gene causes aggressiveness in glioblastoma, is Hsc70 a meaningful gene to be knocked out? Thank you ...
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Dear Devrim, I don't have a specific experience with knockout genes. I recommend Professor Yasemin Baspinar and Associate Professor Gizem Kocal for discussion. Best.
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I am preparing to write my thesis about the Crime of Aggression and its definition. However, I am struggling to come up with good research questions that are neither too open, nor too closed.
Grateful for any input.
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Thank you for your answer. As the Crime of Aggression has only been activated mid-2018 (and states have the possibility to ratify the amendment while opting-out of its applicability to them through state referral) there are no cases so far.
I was thinking along the same lines, doing an analysis of the most critical parts of the definition, looking into different interpretations and then choosing the one I would propose and give my reasoning. But proposing an alternative definition appeals as well.
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We need to analysis social network of multiple individuals. Such like record contacting time between multiple individuals(5-10 mice group) to find out the most popular one (social centrality or spending most time with) in a open field. Besides, we also need to differentiate aggression, random contact, and friendly contact. Some of my friend suggest me to use "DeepLabCut", but I am not sure if anyone has a better suggestion to achieve what I need. I am kind of software-challenged person. So if you guys have a easy user manual or toolkit, please share with me. Thank you!
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You might want to have a look at Doris (Detection of Object and Tracking) at http://www.boris.unito.it/pages/doris.html . It's a free and open-source software, should be a bit more friendly than DeepLabCut, but I haven't tried it yet.
Chiara
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I am using 3 pre-existing questionnaires to study the influence media has on human behaviour.
The questionnaires I am using are listed below...
The aim is to see if there is a link between the altering aggressive videos and the two questionnaires ratings of aggressivness.
  1. ‘Frequency and enjoyment of violent media’ questionnaire (Richmond & Wilson, 2008).
  2. Video clips varying in aggressiveness (Bushman & Geen, 1990).
  3. Aggression questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992).
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Multiple regression is also an option here to control for shared variance.
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The Management of Aggression and Violence Attitude Scale (MAVAS) was used to identify staff perceptions about the causes and management of aggression and violence. Previous research has validated the 30-item MAVAS in comparing the views of mental health nurses and psychiatric in-patients as to the causes and management of patient aggression and violence.
Despite well-established validity and reliability in the inpatient mental health setting, the psychometric properties of the MAVAS have not been evaluated in the emergency department (ED) setting. A study explored and compared the attitudes held by staff and patients in a forensic mental health service about aetiology and management of aggression and violence reported very little overlap between their findings and the proposed four-factor structure.
Furthermore, the original survey questions were designed for a mental health setting where seclusion was used, however seclusion is not used in EDs. To ensure the MAVAS is applicable in the ED setting, we had replaced the word ‘seclusion’ with ‘security’ in three items of the MAVAS. We have also changed the scale from a 100-mm visual analogue scale to a 4-point Likert Scale (1=Strongly agree, 4=Strong disagree).
We would like to test the factor structure of the MAVAS tool within a new population (ED service users and staff) in order to verify its factor validity in this population. A confirmatory factor analysis on the ED staff and consumers sample is planned to assess the reliability of the modified version of MAVAS in the ED setting. But we don't have AMOS, can we do this analysis using SPSS or other softwares? What is the best way to test the factor structure? Thanks!
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You can use SPSS AMOS for CFA
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Is it possible to increase the aggressiveness of the subject due to the creative nature of his activity? Is there a correlation between creativity and aggressive behavior from a neuroscience perspective? What kind of research would you recommend on this topic?
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Cristian Ramos-Vera Thank you. I will definitely check the recommended publication. It looks interesting, although I'm not sure if it is exactly what I'm looking for.
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Wisdom is the ability to think and act using knowledge, experience, understanding, common sense, and insight.
On the other hand, many people believe wisdom leads a person to overcome his/ her feelings of helplessness, love, anger or aggression by non-understanding of external elements and internal acknowledgement.
Is love against wisdom or love helps a person to have a wisely life?
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Huh!?
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Work-family conflict (WFC) results when work interferes with family time or space; or when family matters interfere with work. These WFC events can cause tension within family or at work. Can you suggest what theoretical lens (or theories or conceptual frameworks) can be used from sociology, organisational theory, family literature, feminist studies or psychology or conflict literature to study WFC?
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I think the direction of your study drawing from your research questions and objectives are critical in determining your theoretical frame. For instance, if your study intend to probe the status quo of the family institution vis-a-vis the changes it effect or trigger, conflict theory, political economy theory or critical theory would be more appropraite for your study. But on the contrary, functionalist or system theory can be adopted for your study.
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We developed a 10-item scale in order to assess the level of acceptance of aggression. Each item was measured on a 3-point ordinal scale. So far, the factor analysis requires interval or ratio scores. Can we still use these three points ordinal measures for factor solution? What could be the alternative solution?
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I would say no. This is because you dont give your participnats enough options to answer your questions. Usually for factor analysis i would recommended at least 5. That should cover all your basis.
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What is the most interesting psychological study you have ever seen? Or which one is the one that impressed you the most? Which field do you think is the most interesting psychological research in the future?
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My most interesting research is attached:
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I have reviewed some articles, for example from Anderson and Bushnam (2002,2017) on the subject. Generally, it is stated that "violence is a form of extreme aggressiveness".
I do not agree with this differentiation. Considers that violence is a form of aggressiveness with an instrumental and planned nature. I would like to know your opinion
He revisado algunos artículos, por ejemplo de Anderson y Bushnam (2002,2017) sobre el tema. En general, se afirma que "la violencia es una forma de extrema agresividad". No estoy de acuerdo con esta diferenciación. Considera que la violencia es una forma de agresividad de naturaleza instrumental y planificada
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Violence is usually an act or physical behaviour, whereas aggressivness is usually associated with non physical behaviours.
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I'm working on a meta-analysis regarding the effect of interventions on the incidence of aggression against health workers. One study in particular compares the percentage of staff of that reports having been the victim of incidents of aggression in the month prior to intervention and in the month following it in two wards: the intervention ward and the control ward. So, 22% of the staff in the intervention group reports having been the victim of aggression in the prior month, compared to 19% post-intervention. For the control group, these numbers are 13% and 8% respectively. I'm thinking that the most straightforward way to do it is comparison of relative change in risk between the control and intervention groups, but am having a hard time finding information on this.
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David Nguyen-Tri, what software are you using?
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Driver Aggressiveness
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I would start with statistics surrounding reckless driving or something similar.
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Briefly, we evaluated the effects of an exercise program on physical fitness and aggression measures using a 2x2 mixed ANOVA (2 time points, 2 groups). However, we also aim to show possible common aspects of trainability / whether individual changes in physical fitness (e.g. vertical jump) relate to individual changes in aggression (e.g. physical aggression).
Which statistical analysis could test such a statement?
Thank you.
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Hello Drazenka,
The best choice will depend on several factors: (a) the reliability of each of the measures; (b) whether the relationship (if one exists) is linear or non-linear in form; and (c) sample size.
Reliability: Any time you form a difference score, the reliability of those differences will always be less than the reliability of either of the scores from which the difference is formed, unless both scores are perfectly reliable or the scores are uncorrelated (in which case, a difference would be pretty meaningless). My guess is that you could likely get a pretty reliable vertical jump measure by averaging the value of, say, six attempts on a given occasion (but it would still be subject to disturbances such as current injury status, health, time after eating, level of fatigue, etc.). I'm not sure how the aggression scores would fare, without more information about how you quantified them.
Relationship: If the relationship is linear in form, then ordinary Pearson or Spearman correlation would do a good job of quantifying the association (or incorporate into a regression model). If non-linear, you could either try polynomial regression, or categorize cases into subsets/groups (e.g., quartiles, quintiles) based on one variable and compare the groups on the other variable (via eta-squared in anova or R-squared in regression).
Sample size: the categorization might not work well with more than a few levels without an adequate sample size.
Good luck with your work.
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Hello everyone,
I'm studying the link between psychopathy and self-aggression/suicide. All variables are numeric.
IV is psychopathy: 4 levels.
DV is self-aggression.
I would like to test the contribution of gender, traumatic experiences and aggressiveness.
And control age and borderline personality disorder (BDP).
I'm considering these two options:
1. Multiple regression + post hoc: First I would do a multiple regression to test the 4 levels of the IV and then analyse the contribution (moderation / mediation) of gender, traumatic experiences and aggressiveness.
But using this method I can't control age and BDP, right?
2. Multiple hierarchical regression : First I would do a multiple regression to test the 4 levels of the IV. Then first model would include age and BDP, second one gender, third traumatic experiences and fourth aggressiveness. I would do 4 regressions, one for each level of the IV (psychopathy).
If the difference of R2 between model 1 and 2, 3, 4 is significant then I can report ΔR2 as the additional variance explained, hence knowing if any of the variables have an impact on self-aggression.
Thanks in advance!
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You do not need to do any post-hoc tests for multiple linear regression analysis.
From the part correlation column you see how much each IV contributes with (when you square the part correlation you get the %). The IV percentages do not add up to the R2 because the only tell how much each IV uniquely and significantly contribute to the total variance in your DV.
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The challenges include: the leadership element of the crime that makes prosecution hard and the opt-in and opt-out clause that allows state parties to withdraw from the courts jurisdiction e.t.c?
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I think your question has to be more specified
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How relational aggression via social media is affecting the lives of young peoples?
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Social media has allowed a generation to express their various frustrations and angst to the world using memmes and without fear of physical or legal repercussions. They seek agreement and assurances to their views by others. They are devastated when other do not agree with them. Hassan is correct in his observations about the deterioration of social skills due to interaction with social media.
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Hi all, I need help for a statistical analysis. I need to do a cluster moderation analysis.
I have 3 populations (based on geographical areas), and I am trying to see whether the geographical area moderates the relationship between two variables (social relationships and aggression). I have two waves of data for each region, and I also need to see if the groups differ significantly on certain variables.
Could anyone help me in how to do a cluster moderation analysis in SPSS? Thank you a million!
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Try R software
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Most previous studies always focus on the distinction of the predictive factors of reactive and proactive aggression, but my research result found a common predictor for both reactive and proactive aggression, so, i want to know the theoretical meaning. Thanks
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Reactive/Proactive is similar to Angry/Instrumental aggression in the social psychology literature. They are conceptually distinct, but in reality, a given act can have elements of both. The idea of revenge as a social control strategy is an example where someone does something to you that makes you angry, and you decided that a good strategy for preventing it from happening again is to respond aggressively. It is not surprising that there are some common predictors of both types, but that does mean they are the same thing. I would expect that people with low empathy would be more likely to engage in both types of aggression for example because such individuals have less inhibition to harm others.
Bies, R. J., & Tripp, T. M. (2005). The study of revenge in the workplace: Conceptual, ideological, and empirical issues. In S. Fox & P. E. Spector (Eds.), Counterproductive work behavior: Investigations of actors and targets. (pp. 65-81). Washington, DC, US: American Psychological Association.
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The Buss and Perry questionnaire is the most widely used but I am having difficulty using it in my study without range values. Hence why i am asking. Please help!
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I used the (APRI) questionnaire and with the help of statistics professor, we determined the cut-off point for questionnaire.
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Hi! I am struggling with the analysis of my data and could use some help.. I am looking at the effect of castration on the development of social behaviour in gorillas. I have observed 11 males, of which 4 are castrated and 7 intact. I have observed them for four years and for every male thus four data points: 2015, 2016, 2017 and 2018. I would like to compare the development over the years of castrated and intact males, but also take into the account the possible effect of age and zoo (as the males live in different zoos).
So far I figured I would do a repeated measures ANOVA, using the following code:
lme_aggression = lme(Aggression ~ Group + Age + Zoo, data=aggressionlong, random = ~1|Focal)
anova(lme_aggression)
summary(lme_aggression)
I really do not know that much of statistics, so I am wondering if this is correct?
If it is, the next problem is that the assumption of normality of residuals cannot be met for a lot of behaviours and using the Friedman test as an alternative for the ANOVA is not working in R...
I appreciate your help!!
Thank you.
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Is the rate an average of multiple observations for each individual in each year? I.e., is the rate fractional or integer? The reason I ask is if the response is integer the Poisson distribution may be a good error term.
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In a test scale which has 11 test items, and each item has been assigned 0-6 points. It is written that "This scale is scored by adding responses to all items. Possible score range is 0 to 66 points. Higher scores indicate a greater frequency of engaging in overt and relational aggression."
My question is that what is the range of score that can be considered HIGH SCORE? What should be the minimum score to be considered HIGH SCORE?
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Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist, and John-Kåre Vederhus ,thank you so much for your answers...
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I think there is a positive correlation between parental aggression, juvenile psychopathy and ADD. What do you think?
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Yes, definetly there is a correlation. It is not possible for children not to internalize parents' behavior. Here is a study
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It is a 22 item conditional reasoning test.
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it was used in this study, so i would contact the authors....
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Dear researchers, do you agree that peace should be educated? how
your valuable views are appreciated.
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I totally agree with u dear Farangis, and teachers must be teach and learn the students how they can live in, and treat with peace. As well as, teaching how they can leave aggressiveness and they hate the destructive wars.
All the best,
Naseer Almukhtar
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What have the school system done if there is a link
Has there been any intervention in the school regarding aggression
Being expose to aggression in the school and what have they done
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I am using a multivariate regression framework to test the association between childhood behavioural problems and employment earnings. Behavioural assessments were obtained from kindergarten teachers when the children were aged 6 years, which could have led to clustering effects i.e. ratings differ depending on the teacher/classroom. Ideally, I would use a multi-level model that accounts for clustering, but I’m wondering whether there’s a simpler alternative. For example, would it be possible to remove the ‘residual’ correlations between the predictor (e.g. aggression) and the clustering variable (i.e. teacher) by calculating the intraclass correlation coefficient for both, then extract this residual correlation from the predictor before rerunning the model?
I’ve tried it and it seems to work. But I’m not sure it’s methodologically sound and don’t have references to back it up. Any suggestions welcome. Thanks.
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Hi Abolfazl Ghoodjani, thanks for your suggestion, although I'd still like to know whether the approach I used is methodologically and conceptually justified.
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We now know that a mutation in MAOA gene excessively impact the person's susceptibility to aggressive behavior. However, research reports that findings regarding this gene were more consistent in males than females, although there are no apparent reasons for this. Why does this happen?
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The relationship between sexual dimorphism and MAOA genotype is beyond skepticism. Findings such as estrogen altered expression pattern of MAOA and epigenetic modifications (methylation pattern), heritability provide substantial evidence for the role of sexual dimorphism in the MAOA gene (genotype) associated phenotypes. As mentioned by Craig S Wilding, MAOA is X linked which also provided additional level of genetic predisposition.
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I wondered if pregabalin is associated with aggression when prescribed for OCD. If yes, in what doses; and does such aggression that may occur tend to diminish over time when taking this medication?
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A possible augmentation therapy for treatment resistent OCD disorder is wellcome, since the disorder is so difficult to treat and so impairing. So I think that I will try to use pregabalin for this purpose. About the risk of aggression, it does not seems intuitive to understand, and it could open the way to very interesting biological models of OCD.
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Hi,
I was wondering if you have any results which you could share?
I am conducting MSc research on brief mindfulness and displaced aggression. I'm curious whether similar mechanism can govern both types of aggression and whether mindfulness affects them similarly.
How long is your mindfulness intervention?
Best wishes,
Dorota
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Dorota,
Unfortunately we are still collecting data (currently at 90 participants) and do not have preliminary results ready to share. I hope to have those before the end of the year. For results from a similar study, I would recommend reading Seavey's (2014) dissertation entitled, "The effects of a brief mindfulness intervention on lab-based aggression." Based on her results, brief interventions may not have much of an effect on aggression, particularly among those who are being exposed to mindful meditation for the first time (since research suggested that mindfulness can exacerbate distress the first time one attempts a mindfulness exercise); it may be helpful to control for this in your study.
With regards to the current study, participants in the experimental condition listen to a 20-minute audio-guided mindfulness exercise (i.e., "Mindfulness of Body and Breath). This audio was previously used by Yusainy and Lawrence (2014) to examine the effects of mindfulness on aggression following self-depletion. and is common practice in Mindfulness-Based Cognitive Therapy (Oxford Mindfulness Centre, 2002).
I will be sure to update the project when I have results to share.
Bests,
Meagan
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I am looking for incidents of this behavior in the literature, or from government agency reports. Links and citations would be most helpful.
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In case anyone would like to read about this encounter with manatees, here is the note:
We received lots of great feedback from reviewers and from others in the marine mammal field and are glad we could provide some insight to other divers.
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With an ordinal scale, we know the rank order, but we do not have any idea of the distance or interval between the rankings. For example grades such as “A,” “B,” “C,” “D,” and “F” are ordinal numbers, which are scores given in terms of high, medium, and low. What about the common use of Likert-type scales in behavioural research? Although most psychological scales are probably ordinal, psychologists assume that many of the scales have equal intervals and act accordingly. In other words, the difference in the level of aggression between a score of 1 and a score of 2 is about the same as the difference in the level of aggression between a score of 2 and a score of 3, and so on. Many researchers believe that these scales do approximate equality of intervals reasonably well.
Any restriction on arithmetic operation on these data is a problem for many academics and applied researchers because rating scale data is at the heart of marketing, psychology and much of social sciences research. If we cannot use means and standard deviations we also cannot use most statistical tests (which use means and standard deviations in their calculations). Even most non-parametric tests convert raw values to ranks (ordinal data) and then compute the mean or median.
What do you think?
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Scales made up of 5-point items can often end up with pretty like a normal distribution. You can realise why: the inequalities of spacing of the five categories vary between items, leading to a more equal average spacing over the sum of the items.
The advantage of giving average scores is that these can be mapped back onto the original scale. So if you have a 1-5 scale ranging from disagree strongly to agree strongly, a mean value of 3.8 is up near 4, which would be 'agree'.
While the mathematical purists may come out in goosebumps, I do find that this is a useful way of communicating results. Of course, it doesn't take into account the variation in answers, but then that's not what a measure of central tendency does.
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I am a graduate student in search of an instrument that would allow me to assess how perceptions of aggression might be moderated by age of perpetrators/victims.
My targeted research desire is to find a tool accommodates the manipulation of age in assessing the severity of acts upon victims of aggression. That's proving to be a real challenge.
My mentor suggested finding an instrument with validated acts of aggression and then instructing participants to rate the severity of those acts assuming they were perpetrated on a 12-year-old, or a 47-year-old, etc.
Has there been any prior work removing the term "partner" from your conflict assessment? Would you allow that?
Thank you in advance for any support you might offer,
Terri Bryson
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Hi Terri,
The Conflict Tactics Scale is not a good scale to use because its construct validity has been questioned. It does not distinguish between playing around or "horse play" and violence, which involves power and control tactics. You might like to take a look at Sherry Hamby's work. She has carried out considerable work on violence and aggression and has used scales that have better validity:
Kind regards,
Alison
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I would like to apply game theory, potentially the prisoner's dilemma, to aggression in fish. I have a lot of data in which to apply this theory, but have no experience myself on modeling decision probabilities. Please contact me if you would be interested in collaborating or further discussing this idea. Many thanks!
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Hi Amber,
I hope you've made progress, but if you're still looking for someone to bounce ideas off, I'd be happy to oblige. I'm an honours student at the Universtiy of Stellenbosch/AIMS in Cape Town, South Africa. My supervisor Cang Hui has a lot of experience in modelling agricultural and ecological phenomena, including using game theory. He may also be interested in being involved, and I'd certainly be happy to share ideas.
Jeremy
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1. What forms of abuse do Girlfriends and partners report experiencing from juvenile intimate partners?
2.What specific experience of victimization do Girlfriends and partners report?
3. What impacts of that abuse do Girlfriends and partners report?
4. How is partner abuse conceptualized by the Girlfriends and partner who report being abused and by service providers who work with those juveniles?
5. What are the barriers to Girlfriends and partners disclosing abuse against them?
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Here are some text and literature review that could help you.
Olsen, J. P., Parra, G. R. et Bennett, S. A. (2010) Predicting violence in romantic relationships during adolescence and emerging adulthood: A critical review of the mechanisms by which familial and peer influences operate. Clinical Psychology Review, 30, 411-422.
Offenhauer, P. et Buchalter, A. (2011). Teen dating violence: A literature review and annotated bibliography. Washington, DC: Federal research division, Library of congress.
Exner-Cortens, D. (2014). Theory and teen dating violence victimization: Considering adolescent development. Developmental Review, 34, 168-188. doi: 10.1016/j.dr.2014.03.001
Capaldi, D. M., Knoble, N. B., Shortt, J. W. et Kim, H. K. (2012). A systematic review of risk factors for intimate partner violence. Partner Abuse, 3 (2), 231-280. doi: 10.1891/1946-6560.3.2.231
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I have aggression scores which are categorical. I'm interested to see how aggression levels of individuals change over trials (time). I made a random slope random intercept model for boldness scores which are continuous and visualized using the sjPlot package in R. I'm wondering if the same can be applied for categorical response variables. I have been searching along these lines for quite some time, and since my knowledge in statistics is very basic, I don't know if I found anything useful. Any help would be much appreciated. Thanks! Bharat
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Thanks much Andrew. Much appreciate your help. I'm looking for ways to do what you suggested. Any suggestions on links/articles that you may know of will be helpful.
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Hi all.
I'm looking for a scale to measure the feeling of threat or identity threat as a result of a behaviour change programme that was implemented in a workplace.
For one week we took away most of the meat choices in a canteen and launched a campaign with information about the environmental impact of meat. Some employees reacted with denial and reactant, so I'm now interested in measuring feeling of threat with a focus on threat to one's identity. If you have come across anything I'd really appreciate your suggestions! You can also email me cverfuerth@sheffield.ac.uk
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 Hi Caroline - it may be worth looking into identity process theory (Breakwell) - and people who have used this framework, as they may well have developed scales similar to the kind of thing you are looking for.  You study sounds very interesting by the way - I would be very interested in hearing more about this, as we are studying meat-reduction interventions as well.
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Human bonding techniques help vital pair bonding in the species but they appear to have very varied mate choices and some individuals express high levels of aggression to all potential companions. I wonder if early removal from the litter is a factor and if research regarding this exists?.
When introducing pairs they appear to show no preference regarding breed, size or appearance and I assume personality assessment (bold or nervous traits) are key to success rates. It would reduce time spent on bonding attempts if individuals could be assessed prior to introduction and paired based on evidenced personality types that suggest compatibility. I'd like to identify individuals for practical use at a rescue and would ideally wish to source research to support this practice. Whilst I have literature regarding species traits I lack studies in domestic bonding and would be grateful if anybody could kindly suggest anything relevant.
Personal experiences would also be helpful.
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The welfare status is great and I'm experienced at bonding practice and intro's are done slowly at the home and by fosterers. I find wetting your finger and imitating grooming helps if sat together and bonding cages are great.. The natural structure of its wild conspecifics may add confusion when establishing relationship. Dominant and nervous pairs work due to much needed protection and therefore find companions likely to benefit survival.
I agree and have considered their personality comparatively to horses due to prey status and social needs, anti-predator alogrooming behaviour and relatively recent domestication allowing for innate and domestic based decision making processes possibly similar to decision making in prosocial cat's.
Thank you
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Dear all
I would like to hear your opinion on human aggression, whether it is a one-dimensional or two-dimensional construct. Studies point to the existence of two types of aggression: proactive and reactive, which would be different in their etiology (involving different neurophysiological processes and preceded by different events). On the other hand, there is also evidence of high correlation and coexistence between both behaviors.
Most studies that investigate the dimensionality of aggression use self-report measures. Studies that investigate competing models of aggression are rares.
Please, I would like to hear your opinion on this subject. I am grateful if you can suggest current empirical studies that have tested both structures using specific methods like bi-factor analysis and latent profile analysis.
Cordially,
Juliane C. Borsa
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Hi David
Firt of all, thank you very much for your response.
I've read the articles you suggest. In fact, the authors tested the dimensionality of aggression, but they used exploratory and confirmatory factorial analysis that do not represent a better strategy for evaluate competing structural models (in this case, PA and RA). I am also of all the researches they have used, for example bi-factor model and other related tests.
In time, I really enjoy using projective methods with children (target all my researches). Here in Brazil we have many researchers working with Rorschach.
I wish you success in your work.
Best,
Juli
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BMI reliability, validity, pitfalls, sensitivity, etc. for children 7-8 age
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I need to insert citate in my work.
Thank you.
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I would resume it with Hungarian civilian, and law enforcement individuals, and we could compare the results.
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Anna Funder's book Stasiland is full of examples of the stress caused by living in a surveillance society.  Another good source is The Stasi: Myth & Reality by Mike Dennis
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For anyone following my questions... they are related to piece working on in terms of a Book Chapter on MST/Sexual Assault..... Some have pointed to the role of Pornography in this area... and just curious if others have more information about this potential connection.... Any & all pointers appreciated.... Thanks!
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Hi -- I don't have any pointers or at-hand references; but I am interested in where your framing-assumptions, and where you are headed with this.
If you're game, let's open up a channel of communication.
Good luck with your research!
Ellis
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Could you hint me on relevant research on the theme of child-looking sex dolls and risk for sexual offending against children?
Thank you!
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I have a student who is interested in this as a research question. I think we will likely include questions about strategies people use (e.g., the use of dolls) to manage their sexual interests in a survey we are developing for online recruitment.
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I am working on a Chapter in a book on Victimology on MST vs Sexual Assault on Campuses and came across a wonderful article that discusses the difference between Sexual Harassment and Sexual Assault. ( Valerie Stander - article attached).... so curious where this new twist fits on that continuum... Thoughts?
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Yes it does. Big time
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At the micro level we have found that violence spreads like a disease from offender to offender via retaliation. Offenders prey on each other (for drugs and cash) and the "disease" can go undetected or can be misdiagnosed because offenders do not or can not engage formal systems of social control This has implications at the macro level. 
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Volkan, please expand on your thinking around primary and secondary prevention in this context.
Ben, have you looked at Vaillant's work, specifically, Wisdom of the Ego.
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-shaken as an infant
-ear infections
-traumatic events such as, death of a loved one
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Don't know of a study, there is some kind of correlation between dyslexia and ear infection in early years when language development is critical. With repeated ear infections come hearing problems, so the child is at a disadvantage in discerning speech sounds which may affect the speed with which he becomes phonemically aware.
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Violence in the health sector is frequently in the news compared to few years back in Nepal. The violence is aggressive and is always against the health care worker/institutions from the patient side of the friends/family etc.
Please share your opinions or scientific papers if any from Low income countries OR high income countries.
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Please could I ask why no one has mentioned the health care workers responsibility in these situations? I only have experience of situations in the UK, however a proportion of the aggressive behaviour i have seen was due to the health care workers attitude to the patient. Just wondering if there has been any research from this point of view?
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I'm looking for a good short scale to measure assertiveness. I find the RAS (Raths Assertiveness Scale) too close to aggression.  Anyone know of a good one?
To clarify, I'll be using it with a group of general mental health out-patients.  They generally err on the side of passivity.  They have issues with low self-esteem, low self-worth, low self-efficacy, lack confidence etc.  I want to see if our training group will impact on any or all of these but first I would like to measure assertive abilities.
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Dear Ms. Macliam,
The book Measures for Clinical Practice and Research (5th edition, vol 2) includes several instruments for this purpose:
  • Assertion Inventory
  • Asertion Self-Statement Test
  • Assertive Job-Hunting Survey
  • Assertive Scale for Adolescents
  • Assertiveness Self-Report Inventory
  • Assertiveness Self-Statement Inventory
  • Children's Action Tendency Scale
  • Conflict Tactics Scales
  • Personal Assertion Analysis
  • Rathus Assertiveness Schedule
  • Simple Rathus Assertiveness Schedule
Furthermore, the authors of the paper titled Adaptive and Aggressive Assertiveness Scales (AAA-S) (Thompson and Berembaun) are on ResearchGate (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/225385152_Adaptive_and_Aggressive_Assertiveness_Scales_AAA-S) and their paper is full-text.in that site.
Best wishes.
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I know I have asked this question before but I thought I'd add in my measures that I'm using so I could have more research paper suggestions :) The measurements that I am using will be:
The Aggression Questionnaire (Buss & Perry, 1992)
Multi-Dimensional Emotional Empathy Scale (Caruso & Mayer,1998)
The Arnett Inventory of Sensation Seeking (Arnett, 1994)
Thought Control Questionnaire (Wells and Davies, 1994) 
Are there any papers that look at either two or three of these variables (combined)? 
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Específicamente investigaciones con estudiantes de psicología no hay
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Explain the General Aggression Model (GAM) and use it to illustrate two cases
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Excellent!
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Looking for a tool to measure/monitor aggression on hospitalized patients. 
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I worked on an inpatient forensic setting where they used the Aggressive Incident Scale (AIS) to track inpatient aggression. It is a very useful scale for monitoring aggression and improving communication about aggressive incidents among team members. It is part of the HARM, which is a risk assessment tool that can be used in forensic and civil psychiatric settings. https://books.google.ca/books/about/Companion_Guide_to_the_Aggressive_Incide.html?id=GcaAZwEACAAJ
A recent article establishes the concurrent validity of the AIS http://asm.sagepub.com/content/early/2016/07/13/1073191116653828.abstract
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I am using this tool to measure aggression and need to find it's validity. 
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Dear Davidzo,
These articles may be of interest to you. 
Harris, J. A. (1995). Confirmatory factor analysis of the aggression questionnaire. Behaviour Research and Therapy, 33, 991–993.
Harris, J. A. (1997). A further evaluation of the aggression questionnaire: Issues of validity and reliability. Behaviours Research and Therapy, 35, 1047–1053.
Best wishes, 
Julio 
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I am looking for a questionnaire that can predict the readiness of therapists to work with aggressive and antisocial patients. I am interested in attitude, cognitions, emotions end stigma.
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Hello Arno, 
Please see attached for the article entitled "Attitudes toward Antisocial Personality Disorder Among Clinicians" (author: Theresa Matich). Hope it helps. 
Best wishes,
Julio  
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MAO-A gene has been associated with stress, violence and aggression in some articles. I need to know the story of that gene and how it works.
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These are few articles which relates MAOA with violence. Also these articles support Sushri's comments on MAOA.
1. MAOA and the "cycle of violence:" childhood abuse and neglect, MAOA genotype, and risk for violent and antisocial behavior. (PMID: 16814261) Widom C.S. … Brzustowicz L.M.(Biol. Psychiatry 2006)
2. MAOA alters the effects of heavy drinking and childhood physical abuse on risk for severe impulsive acts of violence among alcoholic violent offenders. (PMID: 20201935) Tikkanen R. … Virkkunen M.(Alcohol. Clin. Exp. Res. 2010)
3. Neural mechanisms of anger regulation as a function of genetic risk for violence. (PMID: 19485616) Alia-Klein N. … Volkow N.D.(Emotion 2009)
4. Role of genotype in the cycle of violence in maltreated children. (PMID: 12161658) Caspi A. … Poulton R.(Science 2002)
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Hi all, 
I am looking to find a self-report tool to measure previous involvement in violent behaviour, which can be used in the general population. 
I don't have any specific requirements just yet, as I am simply formulating a study protocol. Thus, any ideas would be gratefully received. 
Many thanks
Alex
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it is difficult to figure out what you really want to study unless you come out clearly  about the gap you want to fill. Who are you targeting as your respondents?
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What causes aggression?
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There is considerable empirical research on the associations between violent media (including video games) and aggression.  Additionally there are some experimental studies that show causality, and some longitudinal SEM models that hint at causality.  Social learning (e.g., modeling) and desensitization are the basic explanations of aggression as a consequence of violent media.  More complex studies incorporate many other factors, like parenting, empathy, and SES.
A good place to start your review may Anderson et al. (2010), “Violent video game effects on aggression, empathy, and prosocial behavior is Eastern and Western countries: A meta-analytic review.” Meta-analysis (study of studies) allows us to summarize across many studies, figure out what is reproducible, compare subtly different operational definitions, and synthesize both published and unpublished research.  Anderson’s meta-analysis is consistent with Greitemeyer and Mügge (2014) "Video games do affect social outcomes: A meta-analytic review of the effects of violent and prosocial video game play” with overall effect sizes around r=.2.  In contrast, Ferguson (2015) "Do Angry Birds Make for Angry Children? A Meta-Analysis of Video Game Influences on Children’s and Adolescents’ Aggression, Mental Health, Prosocial Behavior, and Academic Performance” suggests a much smaller effect of about r=.06.  Three commentaries on Ferguson’s meta-analysis mentioned methodological concerns such as treating partial correlations as zero-order correlations, though Ferguson retorted that his methodology is more rigorous.  Unfortunately I am not an expert on meta-analysis, so hopefully others can provide greater insight on how to balance these competing meta-analytic claims.  Best wishes with your research, Raven! ~ Kevin
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We would like to survey our doctors and nurses on their perception of violence and the aggression witnessed in our ED
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Dear Jean,
There is an outstanding instrument called SOAS-R. It is especially made for documentation of experienced violence and threats, it is easy to understand and fill in and you can get useful statistics either by using a computer program or just Excel. Here are some publications. Feel free to contact me for further info.// Pontus
The staff observation aggression scale-revised (SOAS-R); HLI Nijman, P Muris, HLGJ Merckelbach… - Aggressive …, 1999
Structured risk assessment and violence in acute psychiatric wards: randomised controlled trial; C Abderhalden, I Needham, T Dassen, R Halfens… - The British Journal of …, 2008
Fifteen years of research with the Staff Observation Aggression Scale: a Review ; HLI Nijman, T Palmstierna, R Almvik… - Acta Psychiatrica …, 2005
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I'm working on this cell line and know only that MDA-MB231 is TNBC, highly aggressive & metastatic while MCF10A is immortalised non cancerous cell line.But i want to know what changes lead to development of these 2 different cell line?
Thanks in advence.
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hiiii Zhang,
Thanx for reply.Can you please give me more information on MDAMB231?
And any information about mutation in MCF10A.?
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Does CBT reduce the risk of aggression in adult patients with deficits in anger management?
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yes!
check out the attached paper by shelley et al: cbt in a group setting was used to target all five dimensions of pathology revealed by factor analysis of the panss, including excitement (but, in a very similar factor analysis by marder et al. called hostility)
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Hi,
Anyone can please share his experience on FVB mice handling? I've been working for about 8 months with this strain and it was okay and now that I'm trying to mate them males fight with females and females fight with females. They hurt and bite each other. Any ideas how to calm them down? I put some nesting material in the cage but I'm not sure it is going to help. I will appreciate any advice!
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Try to establish your group housing before the mice reach sexual maturity (~6 weeks). This should significantly reduce aggression. Also whenever possible, try to co-house only litter mates, especially for the males. This should prevent the mice from becoming aggressive towards one another, and because FVB mice are an inbred strain, it is perfectly appropriate to perform brother-sister matings. If you do start seeing signs of fighting, remove the dominant mouse to a separate cage.
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Violence prevention and restraining patient is one of the management  area but restraining has an issue of ethics , human rights and law..Aggression prevention need lots of communication protocols ,gestures etc .Environment,process of work doing by health professionals sometime creates aggression .Human resources must be expert to prevent aggression.  
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Dear  Beatrice
Finland protocol is interesting and theatrical! Question is human rights and ethics
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s any cut-off  suggested For Modified overt Aggression scale (MOAS)?
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you might look up the cut-off in TOSCA study
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i searching in the field of Adolescents and problems of aggressive
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Is psychological rebellion an intellectual/thought-based rebellion or a behavioral/action-based rebellion?
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Im working on a cross-sectional correlation study and I need to measure the agression severity in outpatients. I do not know which scale would be better. Also anybody knows how to rate and interpret this sacales? Thanks
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Thanks you so much!
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Acute aggressive and violent patients make severe threats to persons and properties, so they must be de-escalated in a shortest time and with a safest technique and drugs. Some of them has others comorbidities (psychiatric, or, somatic) which makes the work more difficult to use any usual drug or technique. So, I want to know my colleagues experiences in different countries and situations of the world, especially in cases of limitations Regards
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My team work largely in community settings, with current injecting drug users, and about 25% of our clients have a diagnosed mental illness. A large percentage of our clients are dependent upon methamphetamine, and of those with a diagnosed mental illness, psychotic disorders predominate.
In dealing with people who are currently intoxicated, who are aggressive or violent, or who are experiencing anxiety, delusions, hallucinations or frank psychosis, we employ the sort of active reflective listening that Michael has mentioned, combined with verbal and non-verbal de-escalation techniques. The general principles are often described as "Verbal Judo".
The real trick is to change the way the person views you, from being "the enemy" to being a sympathetic ally. The basics involve not getting emotionally engaged and remaining calm, a capacity to express genuine empathy and care, to maintain the focus on resolving the immediate crisis, and to defuse, de-escalate or delay any aggression before violence occurs. If patients are actively delusional or psychotic, a key element is not to directly oppose or deny their delusions, (as telling someone who is delusional that their experience is not real does not stop them thinking and feeling the things they are experiencing, it just stops them from honestly telling you what they are thinking or feeling...) Instead we re-assure the person that whatever has been happening, they are safe with us.
I've attached a PDF of the introductory training package we use when training front-line staff in responding to these sorts of challenging behaviours. I hope this is useful.
Regards,
Paul.
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My study needs deep evaluation of aggressive behaviour as endophenotypes in suicidal cases. For the purpose I want to use Overt Aggression Scale/Modified Overt Aggression Scale in my study. Could you please advise me on certain points........
Is OAS/Moas copyright by anyone?
If yes then what are the charges for research use?
How much time it takes in a single evaluation?
Can a non psychologist can use OAS?
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Dear Nicolas please find the link it has mentioned scoring method
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.
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I am a trauma researcher but am quite interested in the long term affects of violence and hate-aggression on sub-populations.
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We are studying bone parameters in this population.
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Try the work of Fatima Baptista (on Researchgate):
Also Luis Azevedo Rodriguez (also on Researchgate):
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I'm looking for further information regarding this index.  Specifically, what aspects of aggression does it measure?  I found no reference to it in the MMPI-2 manual, yet a paper I am reviewing has used it.  Any thoughts please?
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Thanks very much.
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I'm using the Taylor Aggression Paradigm in my research at the moment and it requires a simple competitive reaction time task in which participants indicate when a stimulus in the centre of the screen changes colour (e.g. a blue square become red), and are given immediate feedback on their performance.
The nature of the stimulus isn't really important, as long as some sort of obvious change occurs.
I was planning to create this task using E-Prime (which I'm entirely new to), but does anyone have a similar task already set up that I could maybe 'r