African Development

African Development

  • Marcus Goncalves added an answer:
    Are there researches on internationalization models used by MNCs from frontier markets?

    i'm researching modes of entry on MNEs from lusophone-African when internationalizing in the African continent and abroad. Any leads on internationalization theories applied to these regions?

    Marcus Goncalves

    Many thanks Klaus,

    Ramamurti is a great friend of mine here in Boston, I'm already familiar with his work. I'll definitely take a look at your paper. While familiar with those internationalization dynamics (theoretical framework) of emerging markets, I'm specifically interested of those of frontier markets, as they are even at an earlier stages than emerging. I'm researching frontier MNE in Angola and Mozambique, and so far, I find that current internationalization frameworks do not fully apply. I need to verify this though.

    Many thanks again!



  • Efem Ubi added an answer:
    Are there papers that comprehensively discuss the Nigeria's in modern African international relations with particular focus on OAU/AU?

    Any research expert on the contemporary African diplomacy and International Relations can answer my question

    Efem Ubi

    Africa's International Relations: Themes and Perspectives- Fred Aja Agwu

  • Alia Raya added an answer:
    What agricultural market innovations in supply chains might increase market participation among smallholder producers?
    Market access among smallholder producers remains a great barrier to many individuals in developing world. Many studies have been conducted on factors that influence market participation by this category of farmers yet majority have remained "out" of the formal markets. As an intervention to promote food security in Sub-Sahara Africa, production of indigenous food crops are being promoted due to their ability to cope with harsh climate in the region. However, something remains untapped under the indigenous tuber crops and that is market benefits. SO, THE BIG QUESTION IS: WHAT SHOULD BE DONE FOR FARMERS IN SUCH ENTERPRISES TO PARTICIPATE IN FORMAL MARKETS BEARING IN MIND THAT THESE CROPS ARE REGARDED AS POOR-MAN'S CROPS?
    Alia Raya

    I have an experienced on doing research chili farming in coastal sandy land area. You can understand that coastal sandy land is a marginal land which slightly similar with the poor area of farming while also has a extreme climate. However, farmer have been persisted on chili farming since 1985 and suprisingly they could harvest chili in good quality and continue. Then, they make an association of chili farmer after they understand that middle-man of chili traders are hold the price of chili that make farmer get a lower revenue. By this association, they could shorten the market chain and got the higher price. System of marketing is collective marketing. They collected chili in the farmer group and farmer group seek the traders to negotiate the price. 

  • Carlos Castel-Branco added an answer:
    How do we model Africa's development taking into consideration the weak institutions, low production and high corruption of the leaders?
    How do we model Africa's development taking into consideration the weak institutions, low production and high corruption of the leaders?
    Carlos Castel-Branco

    First, I doubt that Africa's development can be modelled. Africa is a large continent with many countries with some similarities and many differences in so many aspects that I would be really surprised if any model of Africa's development can emerge that makes any sense at all. Second, before modelling, and more important than modelling, any economy it is necessary to understand its own social and economic dynamics in specific historical contexts, and these would require an understanding of the relationship between capital, labour and the state, how they develop and how capital reproduces itself in a contesting and contradictory environment. This would probably help to explain some of the factors you are concerned with, such as weak institutions, low production and corruption. Third, it would be interesting to unpack concepts like those you are concerned with. These may help to show that some institutions are strong and others weak, and what "strong" and "weak" really mean in the process of capital accumulation. The same applies to low production - unpacking the concept may show that some sectors or firms or activities are highly productive and others not; that productivity of capital may be high while that of labour may be low, and so on. Once such concepts - and others - are unpacked, we can start to understand the issues better. Let me give you a very simple example about Mozambique. Mainstream economist often say that Mozambique's low agriculture productivity is due to very slow introduction of new technologies because only 5% of the farmers utilise agrochemicals in production. Hence, their policy focus in on supply of technologies - markets and finance for agrochemicals, for example. However, when the 5% figure is unpacked, we realize that all of those 5% are the farmers producing under contract for large firms exporting primary commodities (such as cotton and tobacco). Now, this gets a little bit more complicated, because the issue is not only the supply of technologies and the ability (technical and managerial) to use them, but also the cost of production, the prices and the markets of outputs. Then, a whole chain of more specific analysis needs to be developed. What my example tries to do is to explain the importance of unpacking concepts, I am not trying to discuss agriculture. Finally, issues issues like corruption and lack of transparency are not good explanatory variables and they need to be explained under their specific historical context - I don't mean accepted and justified, but explained. I think that understanding the reproduction and accumulation of capital and its historical specificities, and the role of the state in that process, can go a long way in explaining what on the surface looks like the big, explanatory issue - corruption and lack of transparency. I would suggest reading the following article: Growth, capital accumulation and economic porosity in Mozambique: social losses, private gains. Review of African Political Economy. Volume 41, Supplement 1, October 2014, pages S26-S48. DOI:10.1080/03056244.2014.976363 ( There is a lot of literature on Asia that discusses the issue of corruption within the context of understanding the reproduction and accumulation of capital, focusing on different issues: how corruption takes place, whether it is explanatory power or needs to be explained, and how the revenues from corruption are then utilised. Chang, H-J. 1996. The Political Economy of Industrial Policy. McMillan: London and New York; Cramer, C. 2001. Privatisation and adjustment in Mozambique: a “hospital pass”? Journal of
    Southern African Studies 27(1), pp. 79-103 (March) (shows that the implicit privatisation subsidy, that can amount to corruption, was essential for the emergence of a asset owner class of new, national capitalists); Jones, L.P. and Il Sakong. 1980. Government, Business and Entrepreneurship in Economic Development: The Korean Case. Harvard University: Harvard, Cambridge, Massachusetts and London (shows how close links between government and specific firms helped the development of the chaebol in South Korea); Khan, M. 2001. The new political economy of corruption. in Fine, B., C. Lapavitsas and J. Pincus (eds.). 2001.
    Khan, M. 2000a. Rents, efficiency and growth. in Khan, M. and Jomo K.S. (eds.). 2000. Khan, M. 2000b. Rent-seeking as a process. in Khan, M. and Jomo K.S. (eds.). 2000. Khan, M. 1995. State failure and weak states: a critique of new institutionalist explanations. in Harriss, J., J. Hunter and C. M. Lewis (eds).
    Khan, M. and Jomo K.S. (eds.). 2000. Rents, Rent-seeking and Economic Development: Theory and Evidence in Asia. Cambridge University Press: Cambridge. 
    Kim, Eun Mee. 1997. Big Business, Strong State: collusion and conflict in South Korean Development, 1960-1990. State University of New York Press: Albany.  Rasiah, R. 1998. The export manufacturing experience of Indonesia, Malaysia and Thailand:lessons for Africa. UNCTAD Discussion Paper 137 (June).
    Rasiah, R. 1995. Foreign Capital and Industrialisation in Malaysia. MacMillan: London. These are some of the literature than can help you formulate the issue of corruption in, I think, a more useful way for policy and deeper intellectually.

    In brief: don't try to explain Africa (or Europe, or America, or Asia) as a whole. Unpack concepts and try to understand them in historical perspective. In order to do so, shift towards a more kind of political economy approach, in which you look at how capital reproduces and accumulates, what kind of economy emerges, how the relationship between labour and capital evolve and the role of the state in this process. If after that you feel like modelling, please do and show us what you got.   

  • Robin Edward Jarvis added an answer:
    Does anyone have information on CDF monitoring systems/case studies in Africa and suggestions on the way forward vis-a-vis CDF?
    There has been an increase in the adoption and implementation of Constituency Development Fund (CDF) on the African continent. However,Ii am yet to know any country with a satisfactory CDF monitoring system and has yielded desired results. Leaders seems to be abusing it and it may actually work against the stable democracies that have emerged over the years. Any thoughts anyone?
    Robin Edward Jarvis

    Dear David, Please explain the reasons for your concerns and some references to explain more about the CDF and its methods and goals.   Robin

  • Victoria Omeche added an answer:
    What are the relevant variables i can include in my model to expalin the decomposition model of Mo, 2001 in explaining corruption in Nigeria?

    a simple breakdown and explanation of Mo Park's decomposition model will be appreciated. also, Nigeria's corruption data from ICRG is needed from 1985 to 2014 so as to be able to analyse my study on corruption and economic growth in Nigeria: the transmission channels

    Victoria Omeche

    Corruption is diverse in its approach; first and foremost, these variables should be considered: godfatherism and favoritism is the height of Nigerian corruption. for instance in party politics, in government appointments, in many organizations,( take for instance, giving of key appointments to families and relatives), even with individuals, take for instance, at a fueling station, where fueling station managers, attendants and the workers favors those they are familiar with, or the Bosses friend.

    secondly, enforcement of Laws, Rules and order at all levels; the constitution should be fashioned in a way that, any person/individual, who has served or governed before, should not be allowed to re-contest or aspire for any government position. looking at the history of Nigeria, same set of people keep changing positions from time in-memorial,that is why the Looting of Government funds cant be curtailed.

    Due Protocols, should be enforced and appropriately checked.

    there should be Transparency, at all levels, involving every one, every organization, lawyers, the media`s, etc

    Bribe should be discouraged, as seen to be common among workers.

    some irrelevant appointments should be scrapped, it creates an avenue for misappropriation of the nations fund,( the senate and house of assembly should be decongested, almost all Councillors, chairmen, and Reps who are elected to represent some constituencies, are just there for their selfish gains, they dont do any work, or make any infrastructure to better the lives of those the are appointed to serve).

    and lastly, Accountability; every appointed individual should be accountable for services rendered, and role played in line of duty, taking into consideration their finances, their worth on assumption to office, and on vacating the office. by so doing, looting will not encouraged, and corruption will be checked.

  • Stefan Skupien added an answer:
    Does anyone know analysis of internal and external African research cooperations using bibliometric data?

    I am specifically looking for studies that can reproduce the results of this study/leaflet from 2010 that bases on Thompson Reuters Web of Science-Data:

    Interestingly, this study clusters internal African research cooperation by four groups (see p. 8), singling out not only the North-African States as a homogeneous group but also the Francophone countries of West Africa. However, Web of Science is known to be dominated by Anglophone journals. Therefore I wonder whether for example Scopus can deliver sharper pictures of such relationships, taking into account also Franco- and Lusophone publications.

    Thanks in advance for any hints!

    Best regards, Stefan

    Stefan Skupien

    Dear Jörg, dear Elango,

    you're hints are very much appreciated!

    Best regards, Stefan

  • Jennifer Cole added an answer:
    Have you been in West Africa during the Ebola outbreak(s)?
    I am looking for people who are in, or have recently returned from, the areas of West Africa affected by the current Ebola outbreak, as I would like to interview them regarding their health information requirements and the communications they received/looked for during the experience. If you'd be willing to be interviewed, please let me know.
    Jennifer Cole

    Thanks for replying Glenn, but my study is well over now.

  • Erik Aasland added an answer:
    What are some of the methodologies to be used in incorporating agricultural ideas in illiterate societies?
    Want to look at how to help them increase their farm size and yields
    Erik Aasland

    You are looking to work with oral preference learners. Ghanese culture has a rich oral tradition. You can use stories and proverbs to help in the training. Develop the material so that it can be shared orally through stories, with repetition of content, and using folklore. Your learners gain most of their information and solutions for problems through communicating with friends and neighbors orally, so design your material to be shared in this way.

  • Joshua Sumankuuro added an answer:
    Can anyone provide information on the current statistics for maternal mortality rate in Africa and Kenya?

    In line with achieving the MDG 5.

    Joshua Sumankuuro

    thisa link will also be useful to you:

  • Bright Chidugam Opara added an answer:
    Does anyone have any recommendations for resources on the progress, limitations, and challenges in achieving health-related MDGs in Nigeria?
    I'm writing an essay on the following topic and have to critically examine the policy or policies and programme(s) in place designed to address one or more of the health MDGs (identify progress made and ongoing shortcomings in meeting the MDGs and the reasons why).
    Bright Chidugam Opara

    Some of the limitations and challenges of achieving health-related MGDs include: Corruption, ethnicity, political instability,  low level of education, poor funding, poor management of human and material resources,etc.   

  • Mahinda Henegedara added an answer:
    How can parallel development best be adopted in low cost urban housing development?
    It seems to me parallel development has never really worked well, which ever scenario it has been tried in Africa particularly. Well Parallel development is " Provision of services simultaneously with housing construction"
    Mahinda Henegedara

    Social capital or the community participation is one of the effective methods in reducing cost, particularly labour cost. If you could save labour cost through community participation or mutual labour sharing methods, the total cost could be reduced at least by 30-40% . This mutual labour sharing methods are commonly used by local farmers in Sri Lanka.

  • Bikram Keshari Senapati added an answer:
    Can someone update me on the status of current strategies for managing diseases in genetic mixtures of staple crops in Africa and elsewhere?
    Traditionally farmers in many African nations (and elsewhere) still grow individual crops not only in inter- specific (different species), but also in intra-specific (same species) mixtures. However, the development ideology to improve production has been one promoting displacement of these with new 'improved' varieties or hybrids with often questionable medium to longer term results. We now know better the value of useful diversity to maintain crop robustness agains biotic and abiotic stress.
    Bikram Keshari Senapati

    Dear Peter,  Thank you for posing an intelligent question for all and for your interest for the low privileged and high innovative people. We the so called all knowledgeable people are actually be-fooling ourselves. The basis of my answer lies in the fact that "Environment is mightier than  the genetic pool"  and this is the cause and effect of  " Theory of Natural Selection" by Darwin.

    Selection of of cropping varieties for a particular bioclimatic zone is based on long term experience. This crop complex has the elements for growth in low input culture, self regulation of pest and diseases, nutrient storage, soil conservation etc. in synergy with the socio-cultural practices of the traditional systems. Please look into their local resources with minimum interference from external resources. An integrated system could maintain both quality and quantity, but it needs understanding of the complexity in togetherness and not in isolation.

    I am tempted to site two examples: (a) Local Government. officials tried to interfere in the cropping pattern of a shifting cultivation practicing tribal community with subsidies for fertilizer, pesticides etc., which only the head of the tribe accepted on lot of persuasion, but latter, the crop variety was discarded because of lack of taste and unsuitability for preparing local wine, pest attack, soil erosion etc., although the production was higher than local variety. (b)  Tea as a cash crop yield lot of profit and thus chemical management of the system was started since 1950. The system lost diversity, soil quality, tea quality and quantity ultimately.  Restoration of the system caring local resources have been very successful to develop an International 'FBO' patent.: (

    All the best,

    B. K. Senapati

  • David Darchiashvili added an answer:
    What is the yardstick for measuring the development of a state?

    I'm conducting research on the development and underdevelopment of third world countries.

    David Darchiashvili

    All depends, whether state institutions deliver, what they promise officially, given their constitutional/regulatory status, or not. 

  • Asongu Simplice added an answer:
    Do we have data on capital formation in Nigeria from 1970 to 2013?

    I tried the data stream but could not get it.

    Asongu Simplice

    Gross Fixed Capital Formation, formerly Gross Domestic Investment. 

  • Paul Chaney added an answer:
    Can anyone recommend publications on assisted reproductive technology in South Africa, its development, acceptance and advancement?

    I am looking at development in South Africa, how well it has been accepted as compared to other African countries and if any stigmatization is attached to this form of reproduction if any? This is between the races in South Africa. Does culture affect the acceptance of this sort of advancement in technology?

    Paul Chaney

    Dear Oyedoyin Oyerinde – I attach the following:

    C. Huyser, L. Boyd (2013) ART in South Africa: The price to pay, FVV in ObGyn, 2013, 5 (2): 91-99

    Huyser C, Boyd L. Assisted reproduction laboratory cost- drivers in South Africa: value, virtue and validity. O & G Forum. 2012; 22:15-21

    Dyer SJ, Kruger TF. Assisted reproductive technology in South Africa: First results generated from the South African Register of Assisted Reproductive Technologies. SAMJ. 2012;102:167-170

    You may also be interested in

    Maura A. Ryan (2009) The Introduction of Assisted Reproductive Technologies in the “Developing World”: A Test Case for Evolving Methodologies in Feminist Bioethics, Signs, Vol. 34, No. 4 (Summer 2009), pp. 805-825

    Sullivan et al Hum. Reprod. (2013)   28  (5):  1375-1390.  doi: 10.1093/humrep/det036

    Kind regards,

    Paul Chaney

    + 1 more attachment

  • Rob Collins added an answer:
    Are there any Relevant Similarities between Post-Colonial Africa and West-Europe after the Collapse of the West-Roman Empire?

    Approximately around the year 500 (A.D.), the West-Roman Empire collapsed. Thereafter it took about 300 years before, around the year 800 (A.D.), the Germanic-Franconian emperor Carolus Magnus had (alas not without armed violence) established a new social and political order in West-Europe of such sufficient stability that quite "rapid" cultural growth ---"rapid" by the standards of those olden days--- could follow soon: New towns and cities, courts and market-places (etc.) were built, and the first West-European universities were established around the end of the 11th Century (A.D.)

    Now my Questions to Expert Historians:

    1. Do you see ---yes or no--- any relevant structural-systematic similarities between between West-Europe immediately after the collapse of the West-Roman Empire, and Africa immediately after its Decolonization in the second half of the 20th Century?

    2. IF your answer to the first question was "yes", then: Do you believe that any "historic lessons" could possibly be learned from West-Europe's "intermediate years" (500-800) for the sake of Post-Colonial Africa's further development towards a prosperous future?

    Rob Collins

    In archaeology, we often like to compare different periods and geographies to understand various processes better, too. But in archaeology, context (both its spatial/chronological and metaphorical) is always at the front of any reliable assessment.

    Stefan's original question and interests certainly bear further consideration, but I would restate the comparison, or perhaps qualify it:

    To what extent does 20th century post-colonial Africa demonstrate similar processes of collapse that have been demonstrated in the 5th-7th centuries in the post-Roman West?

    What are the comparative units of assessment?

    What data is used?

  • DJ Sullivan added an answer:
    Does anyone know how much it matters if you are not an imperial-colonial power/actor in engaging with Africa?
    I am particularly looking at the Visegrad countries of Central Europe.
  • Eldrede Tinashe Kahiya added an answer:
    Is there a reason why Internationalization of Indigenous African (Nigerian) Firms is so low?

    Few indigenous Nigerian, or even African firms diversify their operations into international markets. Is this a coincidence? Or are there more generic reasons to explain this "fear", in spite of the fact that research suggests that there is a positive relationship between internationalization and firm performance.

    Eldrede Tinashe Kahiya

    Hi, Adeniyi

    That's a great question which probably warrants a full-scale study. There is a paucity of research on the internationalization of African firms and some of the explanations found in literature are anecdotal and not based on empirical research. As it stands there is no cogent body of knowledge on the internationalization of African firms. It is my hope that the formation of the Academy of International Business-Sub Saharan Africa chapter may create a unified voice to lobby some journals to consider a Special Issue on this subject matter. Comparative studies using a sample of African firms and firms drawn from other parts of the world will also help answer your question definitively.

    A useful resource that attempts to capture the dynamics of internationalization from the African context can be found in Thunderbird International Review.

    Ibeh, K., Wilson, J. and Chizema, A. (2012), The internationalization of African firms 1995–2011: Review and implications. Thunderbird Int'l Bus Rev, 54: 411–427. doi: 10.1002/tie.21473

  • Prithvi Simha added an answer:
    What steps should be taken to have basic / improved sanitation facilities in developing and under developed countries?
    As per a WHO report, by the end of 2012, 64% of the global population used improved sanitation facilities which means almost 1 of every 3 person still have less / no access to proper sanitation. What steps should be taken to make it a near 100% of the same?
  • Titus Ebenezer Kwofie added an answer:
    What are some of the sustainable issues that should be incorporated into an affordable housing program in a developing country?
    Housing programs in developing countries are believe to be unsustainable in terms of cost effectiveness and delivery. Do you see any work-around to bring affordable housing to the masses?
    Titus Ebenezer Kwofie
    Materials selection, technology and CC aspect
  • Aklilu Nigussie added an answer:
    Africa is struggling when it is endowed with rich and diverse natural resources and professors, why?
    I have identified common errors for Africans as follows:
    •Afrikan politicians joined the political regimes of developed economy as underdogs. They remain forever followers not pacesetters.
    •Unconscious wealth black man (investor) who is missing the point and follow the white man’s foot in investment approach(blind followers)
    •The global surface disguise an African investor yet in actual fact the African is going nowhere. his/her efforts end up in the hands of developed economy
    •False comfort zone- that has been created for the middle income earner black person (the senior government officials, politicians, professionals, clergy etc)
    •Losers –a black man is forever a loser as long as he/she is tied to the current rhythm of politics, education, economy, and trade of the developed economy
    •Innovation –the black man economy has impediments for local initiatives/innovations maintained by the legacy of slavery and colonialism
    •Literacy centres- the black person is left suspended in the literacy centres in the wild paper chase. On the other hand the white child is at the literacy centre simply to be able to write and read. The actual education and learning starts at the family extending deep into invisible institutions/secret societies that shape their value driven system. A black child is in orphanage as long as these literacy centres have the greater influence of their lives.
    . Research and Development- as llong as the African governments do not meaningfully fund research and development for its cause, there will be no meaningful development for Africa.
    Aklilu Nigussie
    I believe Africans has everything that nature blessing yet nature has created unfitted political leaders this could be because they arise to with guns so in such a condition they only opt for their existence jumping here and there for years yet there is also the western world influence on them to make them as pupate as possible for damping materials rather than creating import substitution industries while they all on their mother land. On the other direction look most African countries scientists they don't even get paid well rather one propagandist can have much salaries at hand ' I mean with corruption" so how will one African professor live Africa at the moment?

    The other thing if you look Rwanda, Libya, Nigeria, Ivory coast what is happening most of the resource investment is not owned by African which means it is creating a financial flit which affects the financial sector to create micro finance investment borrowing to the cottage industries.

    The most dangerous one is that the political leaders still not consulting an African professors for their economical, political, social, cultural development strategies this could be because of the capacity of lending or the so called NGOs or capitalist ideologies of the so called foreign investment which all have their invisible hand in the political system directly or indirectly that is still affecting Africans economic development.

    There are so many factors that are not still get solution look the Nigerians they are killing their brothers because of simple thoughts of religion which African haven't received it with peace in earlier history rather they make us believe with knives and guns yet it is putting its impact on destroying the mother land.
  • Rajamanickam Srinivasan added an answer:
    What do think of Ngugi wa Thiong'o's writings? Do they merit analysis in understanding Africa?
    In his 'A Grain of Wheat' (Heinemann, 1967), Ngugi says "People try to rub out things, but they cannot. Things are not so easy. What has passed between us is too much to be passed over in a sentence. We need to talk, to open our hearts to one another, examine them, and then together plan the future that we want". Do they merit contemplation in the context of Africa today? Was he talking of an Africa that needs to look into itself and discover its strengths? What do you think?
    Rajamanickam Srinivasan
    Ngugi and Fannon's voices have become part of the postcolonial discourses. Even as we look at Africa, a simple factor strikingly stands out:

    1. Uganda, known atrocities not investigated
    2. Rwanda - ICTR
    3. Sudan - Special Chamber investigations
    4. Sierra Leone - Special Chamber investigations
    5. Chad - Special chamber investigations
    6. Liberia - Part of Sierra Leone process
    7. Congo - not yet investigated
    8. Somalia - perhaps the world is too scared even to talk of investigating Somalia
    9. South Sudan - at the present rate, the Tribunal is just a call away
    10. Egypt - there are enough trials going on inside and peculiar precedences like death sentence for 683 persons for killing one man are being set. It may not be out of place to think of a tribunal at some point of time.
    11. South Africa - the role model for Africa managed the affairs with its own Truth and Reconciliation Commission - a kind of localised tribunal.
    12. Nigeria - with Boko Haram working over time, Au/UN Peacekeepers may actually bring in a Tribunal for parallel prosecution.

    I do apologise for the loose wording above. But the point that I am trying to make is about Africa - half the continent is either tried or about to be tried for genocide, mass violation of human rights, unspeakable atrocities on women and abuse of children as child soldiers. If collective African will is not exercised to look into all these and learn their lessons quickly, Africa may become dependent on IMF and WB to fund their Tribunals instead of developmental projects.

    The sane voices of AU are drowned in the noise behind all these occurrences in Africa. It does beg understanding.
  • Kwabena Darko Akuamoah added an answer:
    Can someone recommend literature for a write up on Politics, Money and Ethnicity in Ghana?
    Will have to look at all concepts of Politics, Money and ethnicity
    Kwabena Darko Akuamoah
    Thank you David you have rally helped me.
  • Bismark Cudjoe added an answer:
    How to measure the real impact of micro-finance institutions in poverty reduction and income generation?
    I am interested in empirical and econometric models that can be adopted to measure the real impact of microfinace institutions in poverty reduction.
    Bismark Cudjoe
    Thank you Mr. Dragos Cimpoies for your contribution to my topic. I will get back to you soon.
  • Uchendu E. Chigbu added an answer:
    Why is little or no priority given to rural planning in most developing countries?
    Planning is generally viewed as an urban affair. Both novices and planning professionals are guilty of this - especially in developing countries. This means that rural areas are given little or no priority in the planning process. This has a lot of unproductive rural development implications. Why is little or no priority given to rural planning in most developing countries?
    Uchendu E. Chigbu
    They can 'afford' planning almost by force." That's totally true and special way to put it.
  • Ahsen Maqsoom added an answer:
    Are extant internationalization theories suitable for explaining the expansion of foreign firms into the contemporary African market?
    Several theories including Dunning's eclectic paradigm, transaction cost theory, the Uppsala model, network approach, and more have, over the years, been used to explain the international expansion of firms.
    Ahsen Maqsoom
    Agreed with Dr. Tiia Vissak, there is no marked comparison or explanation which of the mentioned theories is suitable for internationalization. Each theory has its own particular shortcomings; therefore the scholars support the integration of several theoretical approaches in order to get better understanding.
  • John Mabhegede added an answer:
    Can someone advise on coherence of my research aim and objectives?
    1. Research topic
    Systemic barriers to entrepreneurship in South Africa

    2. Statement of problem
    According to The Global Entrepreneurship Monitor (GEM), blacks (almost 80 percent of the SA population) have a low participation rate in entrepreneurial activities.

    3. Overall aim
    The overall goal of this project is to improve the participation of Black Entrepreneurs in the South African economy

    4. Objectives

    5. Research question

    6. Sub-objectives:
    To solve the general objective of the research, the authors address the following specific objectives;

    6.1. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current global situation in promoting
    6.2. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current situation regarding entrepreneurship development in South Africa
    6.3. Critically evaluate the literature to Identify the current situation regarding the barriers or enablers to involvement of black entrepreneurs in the South African economy
    6.4. Identify principles/factors that might assist black entrepreneurs becoming more involved in the South African economy
    6.5. Provide recommendations for the development of black entrepreneurs in South Africa
    John Mabhegede
    Many thanks Gene, I value your feedback and will make the changes. By any chance are you happy for me to have your email so I can send you a draft one pager I have developed to get your valued feedback as always?

Topic followers (628) See all