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Affective Neuroscience - Science topic

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Dear fellow researchers,
I am looking for some advice on eye-tracking enabled VR headsets. Currently contemplating between HTC Vive Pro Eye and Pico Neo 3 Pro Eye... Both have built in eye tracking by tobii. Does anyone has any experience with any of them? Or can recommend any other brands?
We are planning to use it for research in combination with EEG and EDA sensors to assess human response to built environment. Any advice is much appreciated.
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The iMotions VR Eye Tracking Module allows for eye tracking data collection, visualization, and analysis in virtual environments using the HTC Vive Pro Eye and Varjo VR-2 eye tracking headsets.
Kind Regards
Qamar Ul Islam
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There is a protective role of estradiol against fear overexpression during the recall of fear memories, but why are anxiety disorders more common in females?
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I agree with all answers
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Hi, I was reading some to papers that use machine-learning approaches in automated emotion classification tasks, but they don’t specify which eye-tracking variables are the most informative to successfully infer the person’s affective state.
I would like that anyone recommend me papers (articles, books or chapters) that report associations between other eye-tracking measures, (besides pupil size, e.g. fixation duration, saccades, blinks, etc.) and affective variables (valence, arousal, or specific emotions)?
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Perception emotions
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The role of astroglia in brain function has been well studied since the use of fluorescence microscopy (in vitro and in vivo two-photon imaging) began in the 1990's.
Verkhratsky and Needergaard (2018) have shown, beyond reasonable scientific doubt, that astrocytes control chemical homeostasis in the whole brain. However, the role of calcium waves in this control of homeostasis is still not consensual among the experts.
The existence of large-scale calcium waves has been proven and imaged 'in vivo' with two-photon fluorescence microscopy. Thrane et al (2012) showed that general anesthetics selectively eliminate these waves. Recently the structure of these waves has been imaged and analysed, but their function(s) is (are) still not well identified.
References:
Thrane AS, Rangroo Thrane V, Zeppenfeld D, Lou N, Xu Q, Nagelhus EA, Nedergaard M. (2012) General anesthesia selectively disrupts astrocyte calcium signaling in the awake mouse cortex. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A.109(46):18974-9.
Verkhratsky A, Nedergaard (2018) M. Physiology of Astroglia. Physiol Rev. 98(1):239-­‐389.
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The "paradox" above appears because astrocytes control brain homeostasis according to the valence of the stimulus. Therefore, excitation can be turned into inhibition, or vice-versa, according to the adaptive process in which the brain responds to stimulation, moves away from homeostatic equilibrium, and then reaches a stable region far from equilibrium, or recovers equilibrium after crossing a unstable phase. I mentioned this type of process in my 2010 paper with Furlan:
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Does anyone have scoring manual of  Amsterdam Misophonia Scale or know how to score it?
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Could you please share with me how it was rated? 1801077078@student.beykent.edu.tr
📷@
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The studies I have found on breath holding are focused on holding the breath purposely for several minutes.  I am looking for studies of unconscious breath holding while concentrating on a task. Popular terms for this kind of breath holding are 'screen apnea' and 'email apnea'.  Since the brain requires ten times more oxygen than any other part of the body, it seems counter-productive to hold the breath while concentrating.
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not exactly but close enough!
Human non-olfactory cognition phase-locked with inhalation
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1. Does consciousness exist?
2. If so, what is Consciousness and what are its nature and mechanisms?
3. I personally think consciousness is the subjective [and metaphysical] being that (if exists) feels and experiences the cognitive procedures (at least the explicit ones). I think that at some ambiguous abstract and fuzzy border (on an inward metaphysical continuum), cognition ends and consciousness begins. Or maybe cognition does not end, but consciousness is added to it. I don't know if my opinion is correct. What are potential overlaps and differences between consciousness and cognition?
4. Do Freudian "Unconscious mind" or "Subconscious mind" [or their modern counterpart, the hidden observer] have a place in consciousness models? I personally believe these items as well are a part of that "subjective being" (which experiences cognitive procedures); therefore they as well are a part of consciousness. However, in this case we would have unconscious consciousness, which sounds (at least superficially) self-contradictory. But numerous practices indicate the existence of such more hidden layers to consciousness. What do you think about something like an "unconscious consciousness"?
5. What is the nature of Altered States of Consciousness?
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Quoting Larry Carlson:
By the way, I am looking for the textual reference, but I read recently that subconscious sensations (e.g., what one might be said to be feeling while having a nightmare), have physical realizers (e.g., neural substrates), similar in structure and function to those associated with conscious experiences (of sensations, thoughts, & emotions). We might call them the neural correlates of the subconscious... e.g., NCS rather than NCC.
  • By what criteria do we distinguish between subconscious, subliminal, or conscious awareness/experience?
  • By what criteria do we distinguish between subconscious or conscious (sense of) self .
  • Is subconsciousness another compartment of consciousness involving a different "I", or else is it just a diminutive form of consciousness.
  • What is the significance of correlating different types of brain "waves" with different forms of consciousness or experience, e.g., waking vs. hypnotic vs. drugged vs. sleeping forms of consciousness.
  • Can we even claim that there are subconscious experiences?
  • Can we claim that subconscious thinking is an experience, as in the case, for example, of those scientists who claim to have solved great mathematical problem in while sleeping, or out of the blue as if their subconscous had been mulling over it, e.g., Poincare stepping off a bus.. a now widely accepted concept
  • Can we draw a distinction between a subconscioius self and a conscious one, e.g., as Freud and Mary Shelley, etc. etc. did.
  • Are we "personally responsible" for our subconscious thoughts and desires, or Freudian slips of the tongue.
  • At what point does my sudden subliminal sensory/cognitive awareness of a McDonald's ad as I drive by a billboard sudden stop being the subconscious experience of hunger (if that's not an oxymoron) and become the P-conscious experience of the sensation of hunger for a cheeseburger in my conscious mind.
  • At what point, then, do I stop being my subconscious I or self, and become my conscious self.
  • At what point can we distinugish between Freud's notion of the Id and that of the Ego, or as Shelly put it, between Mr Hyde and Dr Jekyll.
  • And does it matter whether Dr Jekyll remembers all the terrible things what Mr Hyde did, and is the Dr "responsible?" Can we hold someone responsible for what they did when they were in a blackout state of intoxication, or sleep walking, or overcome with rage?
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I'm trying to increase the contrast of OsO4 stained brain tissue for x-ray microtomography (a recent scan had very poor contrast). I was wondering if there is any literature precedent for getting denser OsO4 staining by first treating the tissue with an alkene that covalently links itself to biomolecules. My thought is that I could incubate my tissue in 3,4-epoxy-1-butene (or something similar) for a few hours, then lower the pH of the solution, facilitating covalent linkage of the alkenes to the sample's neurons. By coating the cells in alkenes, I would hope to subsequently get denser OsO4 staining and better x-ray contrast. If possible, I would greatly appreciate links to any similar protocols, related suggestions, etc. Thank you!
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If your Alkene is specific then adding OsO4 will oxidise d ENE bond to fool and hopefully give you a denser stain
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Hello everyone, I am interested in the role of the body (or corporal dimention) in the educational context, specifically the interactions between teacher and students during the teaching-learning process.
Thank you
Best regards,
Paola
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thanks to everyone for their enriching suggestions.
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The feeding habit and the psychological disorders.
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Please take a look at the following PDF attachments.
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Joint pain is a very common problem with many possible causes - but it's usually a result of injury or arthritis.
Due to the fact that anxiety can increase long term stress, the risk of of inflammation is high. I think This inflammation can cause pain and swelling in joints, affecting every day movements.
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Please take a look at the following PDF attachment.
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I understand that external factors like smell and colour of a room can affect the mood or performance of a person. But to what level is the effect ? Is there any quantitative measure of its influence.
Has anyone did a real life testing ?
Thank you
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Actually there are studies regarding the effect of conditioning place preference (CPP) via disparate environmental ques such as texture of a room, a redolent odor (natural pheromones for instance for certain animals or artificial fragrances such as a preferred food) or temperature, etc.
The underlying neurobiological and cognitive mechanisms of place conditioning or fear conditioning are plexiform and complicated. The perception of ques (visual or olfactory stimuli for example) becomes associated with the memory of an event (fear, reward,...) and becomes consolidated if repeated or if the intensity of the stimuli is significant. The model animals or rodents for example remembers (retrieval of the episodic or associative memory mostly in the hippocampal CA1 and DG) the good (rewarding) or bad (punishing) memory, and this would affect the decision-making via the strong connection and projection between hippocampus and cortical regions (e.g. PFC).
We have done a research in which we performed CPP by reward from drug-seeking and dependency:
Study on odor-conditioned rodent models:
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Neurolaw is a branch of law that is emerging in our eyes, which must give the answer to the question about the acceptable level of ingrerene in the human brain.
Physicians and scientists agree that having the right research equipment and knowledge about the functioning of the brain they can determine the ability of a person to bear full responsibility for their actions.
Today, neuroscience affects criminal law and forensic science, contributes to the redefinition of such concepts as, for example, sanity, insanity, awareness or incapacitation.
Currently, in most legal systems, psychopaths are considered to be well-versed and aware of their deeds. Because they often do not show remorse they receive high penalties. According to the current state of neurological knowledge, psychopathy is a disease, and a person affected by it has no ability to empathize and experience deep feelings. Should this be a mitigating circumstance during the trial and when the court issues its judgment? Or should you rather examine potential psychopaths and isolate them from society before they commit a crime?
How can you reconcile the medical knowledge, which allows for the possibility of interference in the human brain with the legal regulations that have to uphold human rights?
I see many opportunities and threats here and I am very interested in your opinions.
Happy New 2019!
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I just finished spectating a course on neuroendocrinology (I am a law student, and thus this is not my main field), and even though there is research supporting that people convicted of murder and rape have more testosterone1. A problem that all studies on neuroendocrinology face, is that a part of the explanation on how testosterone, oxytocin and vasopressin works, is largely dependant on context. For example testosterone has been linked to social status-seeking behaviour, but what is seen as status-seeking behaviour can vary largely based on both immediate context and cultural context. This means that using brain chemistry to predict behaviour is extremely difficult, which makes your idea of isolating people based on brain chemistry a terrible idea. A lot of people who have high testosterone levels are not criminals. Maybe a better idea would be to improve on the context - teach people better methods of status-seeking than committing crime. The idea of using high testosterone as a mitigating circumstance is interesting, but again, high testosterone and low oxytocin doesn't necessarily mean that you become a criminal, it just means that you are more likely to seek status, and less likely to care about what other people think. If you need me to link some more research, feel free to ask. Also, where does this come from " Physicians and scientists agree that having the right research equipment and knowledge about the functioning of the brain they can determine the ability of a person to bear full responsibility for their actions. "? I haven't heard about any studies that support this, and it sounds interesting. 1https://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/019188699400177T
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Is this control value differ globally in different country region?
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of course it differ between countries and ethnic groups and you have to build your own by sampling many normal healthy people and study their NCS and decide the normal references for your citizens
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Dear colleagues,
Do you have an idea about the source of light through which we see dreams ? and what is the source of light through which we can see the colors we see in dreams?
I wish you all the best
Huda
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Blind people have no visual imagery in their dreams, if born blind. Dreams do process past memories; in a dream, different temporal memory layers can be mixed over into 'one film'. We do not dream with our eyes, it is a brain function in sleep as the brain is a non-stop organ (you could put a light bulb on it).The existence of pre-cognitive dreams, which is portrayed in prophetic literature, e.g. Joseph in Egypt, cannot be ruled out. A healthy sleep cycle (chronobiology) and dreamimg are closely connected, in medical terms, to 'free' the memory from non-necessary psycho-logical ballast of life experiences.
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  • I think , If we were able to model one’s dream we could have informed that person about his future . This is possible by comparing EEG signals of the slept person while dreaming and those modeled dreams . So , what do you think of it?
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What do you mean, to model dreams?
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Hi all, unfortunately I haven't been able to find a review paper about this topic. Is there anyone who happen to know about a paper that describes ERP components that can be modulated by unconsciously processed stimuli (e.g. stimuli suppressed from awareness in binocular rivalry paradigms)? I'm particularly interested in unconscious processing of emotion. Any suggestion is welcome. Thanks.
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I hope that several articles from my electronic library will help you understand the complex problem.
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prof Theodore Bulloch has published with me as a co autor severaal papers on bicoherence for detection of nonliner features in EEG and ERP (See Nato Advanced Institiute volume on induced oscillatios.
Have you tried bicherence as a feature extraction method ?
Jerzy Achimowicz
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Thanks alot for agreat paper Shafagat
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Do you know papers that sum up the scientific (physiological or psychological) results on the personal experiences of energy (prana, deqi), characterized often by body sensations (tingling, warmth), linked mostly to oriental/contemplative and body-oriented healing methods?
How would you explain scientifically if your research participants reported to feel a warm tingling flow of energy, when focus on body / practice some meditative method? Were these experiences linked to
  • acute local and systemic physiological changes (EMG, SC, ECG, EEG, fMRI)
  • or mental processes (attention, memory, emotion)...?
Which we already found: Hui et al., 2007; Raingruber & Robinson, 2007; Beissner, 2015 e.g.
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Dear Benedek, bullshit is a philosophical term. I take myself the freedom to use it whenever I find it appobiate. When it comes to religion I have heard more offensive arguments during the last few years.
This is an open discussion and you should learn to accept other arguments and believes. We are discussing here hopefully in a quite open way. So this is not your personal partyroom nor is it your personal website where you can invite people or ask them to leave in case you do not like a certain point of view. Even not if you feel 'offended' or somehow negativly affected (which I can understand in a way). Let me be clear here, Benedek: You have by all means no right to ask me to leave the discussion. I communicate my questions here as I think it is linked to the topic. If you do not want to answer then just do not answer. By all means: Please do not feel forced to comment. I am not forcing you.
I am not talking here about the validity of verbalization. I guess we both know that especially when it comes to certain mediated processes sometimes there is no other way then to rely on self-report. As I said to you I do not think that there is necessarily a connection between the two. Beside that I clearly explained you why. Go back and read carefully what I wrote.
Subliminal messages are in some parts of psychology (especially advertising psychology) well researched. You can find tons of material when it comes to this topic. If my question was too much pioneer thinking for you... and by that you feel 'offended'... then feel offended. I really do not feel much responsible for your feelings. Indeed I give not so much when it comes to your feelings :[[[[[ Yes, I know... I might just be a mean person. But do not forget that people always felt insulted by new ideas :[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[[
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Self/Body objectification was said to be connected to an external self-perspective (i.e. exteroception like visual appearance), while an internal self-perspective (i.e. interoception, body awareness) was said to decrease objectification, shame, surveillance (e.g. Noll & Fredrickson, 1998). So, the personal connection with the body was thought to be more negative when external perspective dominates, and positive, when internal perspective dominates. 
I argue, that internal perspective can also be negative (like in the case of somatosensory amplification, catastrophization of body sensations, shame about interoceptive experiences, like fatigue), and external perspective can also be positive (satisfaction with and acceptance of appearance). So the consequence of external/internal perspective might depend on the cognitive evaluation of the different sensory input. 
What do you think about this argument? Do you know any paper that investigated this complexity of self-awareness?
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To John Kennedy,
Yes the internal is the real key to work on for psychological wellness. It will bring a solid external view.  This is one of the challenges of life.  Several or many methods are available.
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Dear fellows,
I'm currently planning a study about the impact of social interaction (rejection and inclusion) on the cognitive processing of emotional stimuli (negative, positive and neutral). I hypothesize that on a rejection condition, participants would have an impaired performance on a cognitive inhibition task if the stimuli presented is negative. Thus, I expect an interaction between the social interaction and the emotional valence of the stimuli on the inhibition task. 
I'm, also, exploring the possibility to test my hypothesis with the EEG. More precisely, I'm interested on the P3 component. I was wondering if it was reasonable to expect a larger amplitude of the P3 exclusively on the rejection condition when negative words have to be processed? In other words, is the P3 affected by this kind of interaction?
Thank you so much and please accept my best regards,
Gasser Saleh
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Hi and thank you so much for the reply. The rejection condition will be compared against the inclusion condition (between participants) as a control.
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I would like to work in this area, especially for visual awareness and brain, the processing is going through consciousness or unconsciousness? 
wish some of the people could help me to give me some Idea as I stuck on my research idea.
thanks 
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The standard approach is to present stimuli that are either perceived (conscious) or not (unconscious). Binocular rivalry has been used a lot. You may find an authoritative review by two big guys in the field in Scholarpedia (1st link). An alternative is a masking paradigm. We have used it to investigate interactions of spatial and valence processing (2nd link).  Be aware, that many tasks require action and that you are not investigating pure perception. A very good current review is Koch et al., 2016 (3rd link). Let this suffice for a start :)
My 2ct, Peter
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There is a debate on conscious/unconscious emotions. I am especially interested in possibility of experiencing unconscious (implicit) empathy.
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Implicit and explicit measures tend to be positively correlated, but not strongly. That's true of attitudes, motives, and personality characteristics, all of which have affective qualities. For example, he mean correlation between implicit and explicit attitudes is .24. This means that most of the variance is independent, so yes, you will certainly have many cases in which the two "layers" of affective experience go in opposite directions.
The challenge before you is to develop an appropriate implicit (or performance-based) measure of empathy. This could take very different forms. You might opt for a reaction-time based measure a la the Implicit Association Test. Or you might try to develop a picture-story exercise like the TAT measures of motivation. You would then seek to (a) validate it against actual behavior and (b) study its relationship with self-reported (explicit) empathy. If you proceed with this, drop me a note some time to let me know how it's going!.
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Hello, i'm working on a research about source localization involved in face processing.  I need to do a statistical comparison between two conditions: face perception and scrambled face perception; what software can i use to represent these statistical maps on the subjects MRI?
thanks
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Not that I'm aware of. As Dr. Schulreich above suggested, SPM also does this. If you are comparing maps from different subjects, you first need to warp them into a common space, which SPM also does really nicely. I've just found it hard to use SPM for EEG data, compared to EEGLAB and LORETA, but if you are not happy about a standard template, SPM might be the best way to go.  
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I wonder if anybody has information about computerized neuropsychological testing tools that both operate without licensing and cover many aspects such as attention, memory, executive function, emotion and social cognition.
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maybe take a look at this?
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Anybody has the Emotion Reactivity Scale(EAS)? Better Dutch Version, i need it for my fmri experiment! Thank you in advance!
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Thank you for sharing this with me!
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Extracting blood from rats that age has been proven to be difficult for many of our lab members. 
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Hi Raura, recommend you read the paper by Gareth Leng and Nancy Sabatier 2016 J Neuroendocrinology. its not quite as straightforward as isolation and then analysis with antibodies - not saying you can not do it, but be aware there are several controls required and careful selection of which antibody to use. not sure commercial assays are a good way to start. Professor Hal Gainer has fantastic antibodies for oxtocin and vasopressin. you might try contacting him. or contact Rainer Landgraf whose lab runs a very safe dependable assay. hope this of help
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Can any one send me a good scale for Emotional Regulation for adolescents (18-21) ? or at least direct me to read any informative article about Emotional Regulation ? Besides, I got a question from one of my students asking me "what is the difference between Emotional Intelligence and Emotional Regulation", can any one help me in this question ?!
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We use the Emotion Regulation Questionnaire by Gross & John (2003). I've added the link below. There is a version of this scale for adolescents and children also.
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I am starting a new line of research which includes specific hypotheses about activity in several reward-related regions. I would like to complement the whole-brain analysis with an ROI approach.
Reading through the literature, there seem to be several common tasks (the monetary incentive delay task, the gambling task with high/low/no rewards) and several anatomical localization techniques. Also, some times a specific proton-densiry-weighted scan is conducted (e.g., Tamir & Mitchell, PNAS, 2012).
What is the current state of affairs regarding the optimal strategy for localizing these regions?
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If you want to use custom anatomical ROIs (e.g. in patients), you may want to acquire proton density (PD)-weighted images. They have very good grey/white matter contrast in subcortical structures, and you can simply segment the ventral striatum manually. You can't see the VTA directly, but you can readily recognize the substantia nigra (SN), and the VTA is located just anterior-medially to the SN. And be aware that the SN/VTA distinction is not that clear-cut in humans, and particularly the medial SN also activates in tasks that would typically engage the mesolimbic rather than the nigro-striatal dopamine system (see, e.g., the review by Düzel et al., TINS, 2009)
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We know in metacognition model, metacognition lead to cognitive attentional syndrome which include worry, rumination and cotrol. So i want to know in your project how you define and measure these variables ? Thank you.
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Worry and rumination are repetitive cognitive processes central to the understanding of anxiety and affective disorders; they are everyday phenomena as well as clinical symptoms pervasive throughout psychopathology Present conceptualizations, however, suggest that worry is specifically linked to anxiety and its disorders, especially generalized anxiety disorder  Worry and rumination have beenassessed using questionares like the Penn State Worry Questionnaire or Ruminative Response Styles Questionnaire-Short Form respectively.
This article might be helpful
1. Is worry different from rumination? Yes, it is more predictive of ... - NCBI
https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov › NCBI › Literature › PubMed Central (PMC)
2.Rumination and worry as mediators of the ... - Self-Compassion
by F Raes - ‎2010
3.Are Rumination and Worry Two Sides of the Same Coin? A Structural ...
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I would like to ask if you know if the affective components modulated by the visualization of affective images of the IAPS could be inhibited by the attentional processes that also underlie some psychophysiological variables like the conductance of the skin or the cardiac rate. That is, could the attentional processes hide the typical affective responses of the IAPS images?
Thank you very much to all
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Great question and I have no answer to offer, but my understanding is that skin conductivity, for example, is always a pretty reliable indicator of arousal, and one that is difficult to actively control for a participant.
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I understand that the participants logged each evening for 28 consecutive day the extent to which they felt 20 emotions in the past 24 hours from 0 - 4 (0 being low, 4 being high)
Is there a way to access the exact tool used to collect this data? Was it an online survey? 
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This is an approach to Self Reporting that is regularly used in Qualitative Research. Some researchers may have a beeper attached to respondents (with their permission of course) to prompt them when to make another report..
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In the Emotion field, it is usually assumed that negative information is selected more efficiently than positive information. It is reflected in dot-probe tasks with a higher validity effect for negative information than for positive information.
I was just wondering, when you have a validity effect that is higher in one condition (not necessarely in the Emotion field), does it reflect a selection that is more frequent, or a selection that is stronger ?
If I rephrase, concerning the higher validity effect for negative information, does it mean that negative information are selected in more trials than positive information ? Or that negative and positive information are selected with the same frequency, but that the validity effect is stronger for negative information ?
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Thus, the negative and positive information. What is more important to select an adequate solution? It is necessary to consider several factors to answer the question. Firstly, the modality, the intensity and duration of action of a certain factor. Second, the functional state and the individual characteristics of the object (a person, for example), which is exposed to the factor. Finally, we must take into account the peculiarities of the current change factor characteristics in a particular time and space.
Please evaluare some papers in the attachment.
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Which questionnaires do you suggest for test anxiety & self-esteem? I prefer to evaluate both state/trait test anxiety but I also want to know the best questionnaires in this area.
Do you have any suggestion or recommendation?
Do you think there are other variables that should be measured too?
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Hi Zeinab, both Nils and Julio offer some good standard measures. They are well used and valid. If you are not using them in English, you do need to be careful about possible linguistic or cultural factors that might affect results. Checking them through exploratory factor analysis, Cronbach's alphas, etc. can ensure the scales and all items functioned adequately.
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Dear colleagues,
could you suggest a specialist in Israel who have profound knowledge and the positive experience in the treatment of affective disorders with MAOI?
i mean:nardil,parnate and augmentation strategy
thanks!
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Béatrice tack så mycket!  i see 
advertising style for Russian-speaking medical tourists :)
information about the clinician's expertise and experience for complex cases, it is unfortunately no
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We are looking for papers about the relation between cognitive flexibility and the hayling task (beyond the relationship between behavioral inhibition and the hayling task). Can anybody help?
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THANK YOU!
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In my experiment participants played a horror video-game, while EEG, heart rate and skin conductance measures were taken. According to Davidson's approach-withdrawal model, the frontal EEG alpha asymmetry* (FEA) value
should increase in a fear inducing situation - in my experiment anticipation of fear was proven by heart rate and skin conductance values.
Although, FEA showed no significant correlation with heart rate or skin conductance values, a phenomena was observed right after the fearful stimuli: a significant FEA drop (towards approach tendency). As the frontal areas could only tell not the anticipated emotion, but how the subject handles the given emotion, I would suspect that the moment of fear regulation is captured - when the participants calmed themselves down. That would explain the asymmetry change indicating approach tendency. Also, video was recorded of the participants' face during gameplay; around FEA drops participants tend to (subtly) smile.
Still I'm not sure how to interpret this phenomena and if there's a neurobiological explanation for it.
*(calculated by subtracting the right hemisphere alpha power from the left hemisphere alpha power)
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I wrote a blog post on the results (link below) and uploaded videos of the participants coupled with the gameplay. Although, it looks promising, I need another experimental design to elicit fear down-regulation explicitly in subjects to come to a extensive conclusion.
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I will be conducting an experiment measuring GSR while simultaneously presenting stimuli through the software package PsychoPy. Rather than reinvent the wheel, I thought I'd ask whether anyone has done this before and whether they have some advice/resources/tips or open-source examples of past experiments. Thanks in advance for any useful answers.
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Hi Sam,
While sending the synchronization triggers to Biopac can be done by most stimulus presentation software, you might be also interested in controlling your stimuli by some characteristics of a real-time GSR signal. In this case you can look at our software, EventIDE (www.okazolab.com), which would allow you to build various neuro-feedback paradigms with Biopac, e.g. present a stimulus upon detection of a specific signal pattern online. You can see one of our demos  here: https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8IobJs0ZTaQ
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In the next few months I will be setting up an Affective Computing lab. The aim is to quantify the effects of assistive systems and of gamification on both working and learning processes. 
I did some research on equipment, but the spectrum is very broad. Alone with encephalography I could spend my complete budget, as there are devices for € 700 up to above € 80.000.
So I would appreciate some recommendations from researchers who have been in a similar situation or currently work in a lab which they think is well-equipped.
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For the GSR, Shimmer seems the best. A cheaper solution would be Arduino with a groove gsr sensor (but I don't think it's suitable for a high precision work) or arduino with the gsr of cooking hacks.
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The task is for a project that will study associations between executive functions and emotion regulation in older, midlife, and younger adults.
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Dear Rebecca,
Very interesting question for us. We are working in normalization of the affective words originally translated by Hinojosa. Our normalization is being held in México with the affective words in spanish, we are measuring emotion-attention interference.
I am now attaching the affective-word database that we are using, the words are both, spanish and english. We built up out attention-emotion model using SuperLab, based on the Stroop effect.
Hope this can be useful.
Best regards.
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Has anyone investigated using Chronic Stress in individuals as an indicator of unmet needs within a community?  Can the recipe of Stress be used to interview individuals with Chronic Stress to identify the causes and triggers the individuals are subject to?
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You may want to examine studies that focus on insulin as an early warning sign. Studies in Scandinavia and in the US show that psychosocial factors predict elevated insulin before glucose becomes disregulated.We have published a number of papers that show that persons under chronic stress (caregivers for a spouse with AD) have higher levels of insulin, but not glucose in those who do NOT have diabetes. Caregiving is a prototypic chronic stressor. Importantly, it is not the exposure to chronic stress, but individual differences (responses to stress) that are factors in elevated insulin. These include anger and hostility.
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In arts therapies aesthetic experience is assumed to be one of the specific factors of effectiveness of the healing process. We would like to measure moments of aesthetic experience in palliative patients. We look for a suitable psychophysiological marker (such as HRV, hormone measures, electrodermal activity, etc.) that helps us measure aesthetic experinece as unobtrusively as possible. Any ideas are welcome.
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i am testing 5 hypotheses regarding humour and mood using existing humour and mood scales. All relationships are significant except one, and I am struggling to understand why. I realise this indicates insufficient evidence to concude a linear relationship between the 2 variables,  but why?
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Usually a relationship is deemed "significant" when the observed correlation is stronger than you would expect to find if there was no relationship between the two variables.
The "degree of expectation" is quantified as a probability, the p-value. So: given there is no relationship you would not expect to observe a strong correlation. Seeing a strong correlation is thus unexpected under the hypothesis (that there is no relationship), and hence the p-value will be small. A very small p-value indicates that the observation (the observed correlation) is surprising (=pretty much unexpected) if there was no relationship. Now either you believe that your data is somehow strange (to give this unexpexted result) or you believe that the hypothesized abscence of the relationship was a bad blunder.
Thus, "really unexpected observations (where the expectation is relative to a hypothesized model, like the abscence of any relationship = the tested hypothesis)" are used to discredit the tested hypothesis. If this discredit is convincing enough, one sais that one considers the result as "significant". People don't like to think much about all this and they are happy to get "read-to-use" and "generally applicable instruction" they can blindly follow. This lead to the quasi-standard in many research communities to consider observations with p<0.05 as "significant". This does not make much sense, but that's unfortunately quite common practice.
This means:
If an observation shows a correlation of a size that would be expected with a chance of less than 5% given the hypothesized absence of a relationship, then we take this as "sufficient evidence to disbelieve the hypothesis", and, consequently, have to believe that there must have been some kind of relationship.
If an observation is expected to happen more likely (in the absence of a relation), then the data we have at hand is simply not able to discredit the hypothesis. This may be due to the fact that the data is in principle unsuited to "detect" a relationship, that the model we used for the analysis is not suited, or it can be due to the fact that there simply is no relationship. We can not decide between these possibilities. Just claiming that there is no relationship is not ok. This would be like asking a witness if he has seen the suspected murderer. If he just sais "no, I havent seen him" then this is not at all any reason to acquit the suspect. This statement (without any additional information) is simply not useful. Only if we had the information that the witness was at the right time at the right place and that he is not blind, that he had a free view, that he was awake and observant, etc., only then we could use this testimony to exonerate and possibly to acquit the suspect. The equivalent for testing is the "planned experiment" with stated alpha and beta levels and the correct sample size.
So to your question: "why?":
If the experiment was "unplanned" (sample size is not defined according to alpha and beta, what I strongly believe is the case), then the answer is: "one cannot say". There can be many reasons why the available data is not convincing enough, and we have no clue which of the possible reasons is more or less likely. The p-value is a (continuous) measure of the "significance" of the data in light of the tested hypothesis. There is no god-given cut-off (like p<0.05 or so). The p-value needs actually be interpreted relative to the whole context of the experiment.
If the experiment was "planned" (chosing alpha and beta, determinning the sample size, performing the experiment accordingly), you take the decision to "accept the tested hypothesis with (1-beta)*100% confidence". That's it.This approach does not ask for whys. The structure of the experiment guarantuees you a confidence for your decisions. It is not about the problem whether a particular decision is right or wrong (you will never know, in principle!). But by wisely chosing alpha and beta you follow a decision strategy that optimizes your expected cost/benefit ratio (you see that this approach is hard to use in research). Here also the word "significant" is misplaced. It is not about significance - it is only about accepting one of two alternative hypotheses (based on alpha and beta, which are in turn based on many other considerations, and, well, on the whole context of the experiment).
Note that the tests of "unplanned experiments" (testing a single statistical hypothesis) leading to p-values as a measure of significance is called significance testing, and that the tests of "planned experiments" (leading to a decision between two alternative possibilities: the null-hypothesis and the [substantial!] alternative hypothesis) is called null-hypothesis testing. Unfortunately many textbook authors have not understood that these are two incompatible ways to go, and so they mixed and stirred them into a single non-sensical hybrid approach that is often called "null-hypothesis significance testing" (NHST). This is what you will likely have read/learned and this is at least one of the reasons causing your problems.
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I am hopeful someone can share scholarly sources challenging the validity of the "storied self" concept (upon which so much psychological testing is founded). Is it possible that the "self-image" is actually a fabrication? When children approach the social threshold, they are expected to have acquired this (an ego-self inner narrator), and so many face developmental collapse when they don't. Please share any links you may have to trace current research challenging the idea of an epic self. Thanks!
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Lonny, I just finished reading a paper by Dr. Bokon that elucidates the unconscious decision making that precedes conscious awareness by 4 seconds originating in the default mode network (medial prefrontal and precuneus). He also characterizes what he calls epigenetic cellular memory which makes the issue of the "self" even more marvelously complex.
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We all may having some sort of traumatic events in our life. Some of them are man made meanwhile some are natural. But every people who faced trauma are not developing PTSD(Post Traumatic Stress Disorder) or accute stress disorder as result of the Trauma. Their emotional Intelligence and Resilience skills play a role in this circumstances.
I kindly expect your idea to develop my research background!
Best regards
Asanka
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I agree with all of the comments posted here. I would add and emphasize that a priori long-term and enduring vulnerabilities (as touched on by Dinesh) may set boundaries for resilience across individuals and that although related to resilience, vulnerabilities are independent factors that begin before and after birth and continue to be influenced by early negative experiences/trauma. Even later in life, comorbidities (diseases, illnesses) and dispositional variables (hostility, etc.) make it more difficult to "bounce back" in the face of stressors. Resilience needs to be considered in the context of a person's vulnerability. If a person is born with physical, economic and social hardships, she/he will  find it more difficult to be resilient e.g., when one becomes a professor at a major university and has parents who never went to school, this is reflective of much greater resilience than someone who becomes a professor, but has parents who were doctors or engineers.
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The gene I am working on is is expressed in most of the regions in the brain. I tested context and cued fear conditioning (trained by 5 shocks) in these mice. I have opposite results in context and cued fear conditioning. Here are the details:
1. The knockout mice have increased freezing in consolidation (tested 24h after training) of context fear conditioning when tested 24h after the training.
2. The KO mice have reduced freezing in consolidation (24h) of cued fear conditioning. 
3. The KO mice have normal freezing in fear acquisition (tested 1h after training) in either context or cued conditioning.
4. The KO mice have about 20dB increased hearing threshold around the age tested for behavior test, but the threshold is still below the tone applied in cued conditioning. Behaviorally, there is a clear increase of freezing in the mice when the tone starts. Therefore, the KO mice can hear fine.
Theoretically, I think this is possible. Maybe somehow our gene has totally different function in regulating the hipocampus-amygdala and the thalamus-amygdala.  Has anyone seen similar phenotypes before? Any other possible explanations for this? Any comments are appreciated.
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HI Ran.
so given that you have the same mice and treatment it should not happen however 10% of freezing variation is in the normal range because of error in the software scoring or intralab manual scoring differences (inactivity vs. freezing).
That being said what footshock level do you use? you are using adult mice and your labmate is using developing mice so there might be a difference because young mice has different pain perception (lower).
Last but not least, different cohort do you get the mice from your animal house or vendor? if they come from the vendor sometimes they have  different houring conditions.
So in order I would check:
1) Is scoring correct? Freezing vs. -immobility?
2) Footshock intentities use (above .4 mA induces generalisation)
3) Are they coming from the same vendor/ barrier?
Thanks.
Best Regards,
SG
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In 2010,  G.van Luijtelaar concluded that these parameters were different  in a population of  2x 13 subjects with and without BO. (J. Neuropsychiatry Clin Neurosci. 22;2, Spring 2010).
Since this experiment , I did not see any other study in bigger samples that has confirmed these results.
Thank you for your  time and contribution. P. Mesters
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A group in Helsinki has a follow up study on our ERP study:
Sokka et al., Int J of Psychophysiology, 94(3), 427-436, 2014.
They included 41 burnout patients and 29 controls. PLease have a look
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multilevel modeling, growth curve modeling, test anxiety, test performance
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latent growth curve modelling will pull out groups of students who show similar trajectories of anxiety, which you can then characterize using regression. You need MPlus or similar software that does longitudinal SEM-based analyses.
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I'm working on a research that aims to detect the interest of a student to learn new mathematical skills.. there are several theories and some confusion between the preference, interest and liking.
from your knowledge or experience, what do you think is the most suitable physiological measure to detect interest?
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Agreed with Diverrez J-Marc. Interest isn't necessary an emotion, I would say it is more in line with a motivation to approach. One might try this "approach motivation" state measure that is popularly indexed by frontal asymmetry (I am doubtful it is a good predictor, but people suggest it could be a significant one - different things). That's usually done with EEG (or fNIRS).
If you want to do interest = not bored: lack of alpha activity. (EEG)
If you want to do interest = really excited! ECG (BPM).
If you want to do interest with this particular, super-well defined picture: P3 (EEG).
If you want to do interest = noticing the solid fun involved in such classics as "The E-Primer" (ahum), perhaps facial EMG, ZM measurements.
If you want to do interest = concentrating on the text while reading, perhaps facial EMG, CS measurements. Eye-tracking, in terms of detecting whether a person is actually reading, also sounds reasonable (more to the point, I'd say).
Do note that in all such cases, the fact that researchers found that "interest" (or motivation, or something else) reliably affects physiological correlate Y doesn't mean that the reverse is true. Since all known methods are extremely noisy and reliably confounded with other constructs, it is important to ask yourself what you exactly plan to gain. It is likely that just asking the student whether they're interested will be a much better predictor.
Best,
Michiel
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I would like to hear perspectives from both preclinical and clinical scientists in all related fields.
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Hi Jim, thanks for the tips. I agree, a good drug would impact food motivation only, rather than bringing about any counter-obesity effect through some other effect such as on affective state in general. I think the binge eating model is very interesting and useful in many ways, though I wonder how closely it reflects human binge eating, where I suspect periods between binges are driven partially by guilt in addition to satiety. 
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As a psychotherapist I am interested in research on embodied, situated, grounded cognition. Hickoks critique of these approaches seems to be sound. Since I am not an expert in the field of neuropsychology I would like to know if there are arguments to question his position. How do the protagonists of embodied cognition object to his arguments?
Thanks for your ideas, Michael
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I BELIEVE DR. ELKONON GOLDBERG, A WELL RENOWNED PERSON IN THE AREA OF THE HISTORY OF FRONTAL LOBE FUNCTIONING AND RESEARCH, HAS A USEFUL OPINION ON THIS; HE CAN BE REACHED AT EGNEUROCOG@AOL.COM, AND IF POSSIBLE, I WOULD LIKE TO INVITE HIM TO RESEARCH GATE. LK - CAPS FOR ME - NOT YOU!
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How can I find people willing to participate in conducting a course in empathy? Everything needed to participate is provided here. Simply email the Efficacy Report on completion to collegemhc@gmail.com Thank you :)
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Hi. I would be also interested. thanks
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The traditional view is that cognition and emotion involve separate processes and should be looked at independent of one another. However, many agree that the two are integral to each other and therefore emotion should not be separated from cognition. For instance, there are top-down aspects involved in regulating emotion, that are of a cognitive nature. 
There is also a practical side to my question. If you were to publish a computational model pertaining to emotion in some modality, would you consider submitting it to a cognitive science journal?
Thanks!
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Cognitive science deals with cognition from two sides: psychological, i.e. the way our mental life is driven by abstract concepts (as opposed to operational conditioning), -- and computational, i.e. the way brains arrive and mental phenomena through plain algebraic / Bayesian computing.  Your computational model of emotion sits squarely in the second department, so you are good with a cognitive science journal.  I support Dr Parsapoor above: bottom-up influence of emotion on cognition is called decision making.
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I am collecting some papers concerning the audiovisual experience in order to come up with a classification of the variables which may be designated for firing the emotional process of this cross-modal fenomenon. I have encountered Annabell Cohen's CAM-int.4 model in one of these but it is not clear to me how it works. Many thanks for your help.
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Dear Marcello, 
Please check this out: 
Chapter 1
Introduction: The psychology of music in multimedia
Annabel J. Cohen , Scott D. Lipscomb,
Siu-Lan Tan , and Roger A. Kendall
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The Facial Action Coding System is built to code the intensity of each action unit. But in studies on emotional facial expressions, how the intensity of global expressions is coded ? I have not found articles that indicate if some rules exist when someone want to measure the global intensity of an expression (e.g. not AU 6+12 separately, but the smile as a whole).
Many thanks for considering my request.
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Jeffrey gave an interesting hint at how we can combine individual AU's intensities into a general intensity index. But as he noted, it has limitations. I would add that since FACS intensity levels are not on an interval scale (for example, the C level covers a wider range of movement than the B or the A levels), using a 1 to 5 linear scale to compute intensity values does not represent what was intended in FACS (let alone the fact that the adjectives "slight", "marked", or "severe" can be interpreted differently by different people). Based on the paper by Sayette et al. (2001) in JONB, we used three levels to code AU intensity then we compute an expressivity index for each AU based on intensity and duration of each AU. Once you do this for several AUs you can decide of a way to combine these values. As far as I know there is no gold standard 
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One robust negative extreme point at 450ms was found in my ERP wave on many channels. This component shown in frontal, temporal, central lobes. I want to figure out what that means.
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As Salvatore notes, the meaning of the component will depend upon the task in which it is elicited. Given the distribution, the N400 is one candidate, if you have some level of semantic processing/incongruity in the task. In my work with the Stroop task and similar paradigms, we find a negative going central component between 300-500 ms after stimulus onset that is more negative for incongruent stimuli. This has been related to detecting conflict in the task and may be related to both resolving interference within a trial and proactive control over trials (West & Bailey, 2012 in Psychophysiology).
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Dear all
I want to know the impact of emotions fluctuations  on 2 outcomes (1 scale and 1 numeric).
I conducted a diary study and asked participants to report significant events and the emotions they aroused, (the diaries were filled immediately after the occurrence of the event). So, different participants reported different emotions for each event, and many participants reported more than one event per day. The outcomes were measured once, daily.
Any creative suggestions for study the impact of emotions fluctuations (apart for MSSD)?
Thanks in advance
Rita.
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Because Rita asked for creative analysis method, I was going to suggest using techniques employed in timeseries analysis (i.e. brain activation over time).
If you can reveal what your hypotheses are, perhaps we can have a more informed discussion.
But without know that,  what I'm concerned with is that in this case, sampling was done once daily, and it was not random or time-locked, but instead it was linked to specific events that were different in nature for everybody, and presumably occurred at different times of the day.
So, the sampling rate and sampling trigger may be a problem, depending on your hypotheses, and whether these the hypotheses involve individual or intra-individual effects. 
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There are several interesting papers on ways to measure emotions. For instance, Klaus R. Scherer What are emotions? And how can they be measured?, http://lep.unige.ch/system/files/biblio/2005_Scherer_SSI.pdf
The topic is wide, so contributions come from different scientific areas. My interest is related to applications sprung from IOT. Could you provide hints or examples of brilliant solutions?
Many thanks!
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Dear Riccardo
I think, it's better to check a paper about using IoT in Public Health. it maybe give you some good ideas.
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I want to work on auditory emotional stimuli and attention and i have no research paper and articles for the reference. I am closely related to my research topic so help me to find some paper.
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Please, pay attention to the fact that in 2007 IADS-2 has been introduced. 
Bradley, M. M., & Lang, P. J. (2007a). International Affective Digitized Sounds (2nd Edition; IADS-2): Affective ratings of sounds and instruction manual (Technical Report No. B-3). Gainesville, FL: University of Florida, NIMH Center for the Study of Emotion and Attention.
best, 
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I'm looking for anatomical changes in parietal and occipital cortices in patients with MDD, but there isn't a lot of literature about it.
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Dear Daniela,
This maybe should be helpful.
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Thanks.
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Hello Joshua,
We've successfully used funny movies in our lab (http://miplab.epfl.ch/pub/eryilmaz1101.pdf  and http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/24603023). In terms of pictures, there exists an updated version of the good old IAPS which has been validated in a number of ways. Recently they even added erotic stimuli (I saw a poster, not sure it's already out but you can email the people), if you wanted that type of positive emotion. It's called Necki Affective Picture Set http://naps.nencki.gov.pl/Site/Home.html
On top of that, there are the Geneva affective pictures which offerts various types of appetitive stimuli:
Music is also a good elicitor, you can ask Wiebke Trost for the stimuli (http://cercor.oxfordjournals.org/content/early/2011/12/15/cercor.bhr353.full).
All depends on your design and what emotion exactly you want to elicit. I wouldn'd go for gifts unless you're studying the reward system or pleasure (giving people sweet food will surely activate the opioid receptors in the NAccumbens). Reward is one type of positive emotion.
Good luck!
Ewa
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I'm referring to results that synchrony is stronger with distressed couples. These are the articles I'm talking about: http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/psp/45/3/587/  and  http://psycnet.apa.org/journals/psp/49/1/85/ 
Any links to critique or later work concerning this topic (by Gottman or some others) would be helpful!
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Thanks James, that is interesting. However I'm mainly interested in what synchrony in skin condutance between a couple relates to. Most of the studies concern only (pseudo)clients and listeners/therapists, and Gottman's work with skin conductance synchrony in couples is from the 80s.
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In Descartes' Error -- Antonio Damasio cites a study by Fulton and Jacobsen and evidence that certain kinds of damage to the ventromedial prefrontal areas can result in markedly reduced social interactions and indifference to one's future. What about the immediate present? Does the spontaneous sensory perimeter also lose its affective appreciation? Or is this mainly about projected future moments and directed behavior?
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I completely agree withBéatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist  that on ‘theory of mind’ tasks the medial prefrontal cortex (mPFC) plays a key role in the social understanding of others and with Kuan-Hua Chen that vmPFC patients only focus on the immediate-present goals (keeping money in the Trust Game) and ignore  the future negative consequences of  choosing again the same stimuli. I think, however, that it could be useful to take also into account some laterality effects that could play a role in these behavioural patterns.
According to some authors (e.g. Fuster J, The Prefrontal Cortex,Academic Press, London, 2008) there is some evidence of laterality in orbitomedial function with more right-sided than left-sided involvement in social/emotional functioning. For instance, Miller et al. (Dementia, 1993) contrasted the neuropsychological and behavioural characteristics of  patients with right and left fronto-temporal degeneration (FTD) and showed that in right-sided patients emotional and behavioural disinhibition were in the foreground, whereas no similar disorders were found in patients with left-sided FTD. More recently, Gomez-Beldarrain et al. (J Cogn Neurosci. 2004) have shown that patients with right frontal lesions are unable to assess and use advice to make predictive judgments. All these findings are consistent with the previously reported data, but stress the greater role played by the right orbital and medial PFC in emotional processing.
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Although it gives quite clear description on the mechanism of empathy,
I didn't ever see the visualization directly deals with the model.
Has anyone visualized the Perception-action model of empathy (Preston & de Waal, 2002, Preston, 2007) in flow-chart-like diagram as a 'process'?
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Hello,
Essi Viding and I have done something like that - available (for free) here https://sites.google.com/site/geoffbirdlab/papers
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Hi,
I want to measure the affect for wildlife species among a rural population using questionnaires and structured interviews. Methods like imagery analysis are not suitable for such illiterate, rural people. I need at least 3 easily understandable questions or other measures.
Do you have any idea?
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Benjamin:  We faced the same problem in a recent study focused on support/opposition to wolf recovery. Here (below) is a description of our methods, along with a citation to the article we published.
"Affect was operationalized by a standard elicitation measure developed by Slovic et al. (1991), wherein respondents are asked to list the first thought or image that comes to mind when they think about some object of interest. A lifetime of interacting on a daily basis provides people with images of the world, which according to Damasio (1994) can be broadly interpreted as sights, sounds, smells, visual representations of events, or words associated with objects or events. Attached to these images are positive or negative “somatic markers,” which can influence judgment and decision making (akin to trait-affect or integral affect). Here, respondents were asked for the first thought or image that comes to mind when they think about wolves. They were then asked to indicate how strong their negative or positive feelings are about wolves on a ten point scale ranging from “Very negative” (−5) to “Very positive” (5), with zero serving as “Neutral."
Slagle, K. M., Bruskotter, J. T., & Wilson, R. S. (2012). The Role of Affect in Public Support and Opposition to Wolf Management. Human Dimensions of Wildlife, 17(1), 44-57. 
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If so, was it reliable and sensitive enough? I'm using it as a  measure of emotion regulation.
Thanks,
Liz
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I have used. There is also a conversion rartio in which 60,000 is the numerator and IBI is the denominator to convert it to heart rate beats per minute.  You download the emwave HRV data into excell and use specified time windows depending on how long the session was, theoretical variables of interest so a running average across a preset number of data points is used.  Google The Infuence of Communication on Physiology and Health.
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This is an excellent question.  For me, the major ethical implication involves the concepts of moral responsibility and voluntary action.  As neurocriminology  becomes more sophisticated, neuroscientists will become more capable of identifying features of the brain, both organic, neuro-chemical, and genetic which are statistically associated with the commission of crime.  One implication of this development is bound to be strategies aimed at preventing crime before it is committed.
I can imagine strategies of this sort which would threaten the freedom and dignity of the individual.  The relationship between the brain and its functions and mind which is the realm of intention, consciousness and conscience is one of the most persistent philosophical problems.  One cannot be reduced to the other. Mind cannot be reduced to the psycho-physical, and the psycho-physical cannot be reduced to the mind and its features.
The relationship is, at the least, complex and sophisticated.  Any crime prevention strategies which seek to identify and/or engage those persons seen as potential offenders, before they offend, are a danger to the concept of the moral responsibility and the human capacity to choose our voluntary actions, as well as to the concept of free will, which is another important and persistent philosophical problem, which as such, is associated with what it means to be both human and a moral agent.  In short, I am concerned with the potential for developments in neurocriminology to arise with could threaten human freedom.
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Hi dear all!
In our study we are showing the participants (as potential customers) various types of advertisements and recording their response (microsiemens values) simultaneously thorough Hrv and Electrodermal Activity. I am curious to find out what the microsiemens values would be for instance when the participants like or dislike the ad? In other words would the microsiemens values increase or decrease and how in these emotional states (of like / dislike)? How would we be able to determine like or dislike by looking at microsiemens values? I would be happy if you could provide info about the above.
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I believe that those values only provide information in terms of the intensity of arousal, from which you can't directly infer the valence. However, there is strong empirical support for the fact that negative emotions have stronger arousal responses than positive ones, since negative emotions (or affect) normally instructs the body to react, the so called "fight or flight" reaction. Good luck with your interesting research.
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Is EDA (electrodermal activity, also known as EDR or GSR, galvanic skin response), really a good (robust, reliable, not-subjective) psychophysiological biomarker to measure psychological stress and/or cognitive load? ( i.e. pls. refer only to studies with measurements and analysis of the data and not theoretical background info about EDA)
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Dear Ahmet, We recently published a paper showing robust EDA (we called it skin conductance response [SCR]) differences between judging an ambiguous picture, sentence or sound as 'harmless' or 'threatening'. These SCR measures were collected during an fMRI experiment, so we also investigated the neural correlates of autonomic arousal; and related phasic SCR responses to personality traits. As is alluded to in one of the other answers, there is the complication of 'non-responders' - some of our subjects showed an almost completely flat trace throughout the experiment (though 'normal' BOLD responses). Hence you need a-priori exclusion criteria for these subjects. One answer to your question is therefore that EDA is a robust, reliable, not-subjective psychophysiological biomarker of psychological stress within subjects, but not always between. In a separate study we found that heart rate variability (HRV) was a better marker of cognitive load (i.e. effort) than SCR. Finally, don't forget that an SCR is relatively easy to fake (clench your buttocks, screw up your toes, dig your nails into your hand, imagine your children being tortured etc), so is not really suited to high stakes situations like the polygraph.
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Damasio et al. propose that somatic markers (feedback signals representing homoeostatic and other bodily states) play a pivotal role in our decision-making processes. The ventromedial prefrontal cortex (VMPFC) is identified as the cerebral module of most relevance to the somatic system. Emotions are understood by SMH advocates as the feeling of the bodily states reported by the markers. Sufferers of damage to the VMPFC have consistently demonstrated anomalous emotional dispositions accompanied by poor decision making (both time-costly and poor outcomes), in the absence of further detrament (no loss of iq, working memory...). The role of emotions in decision making is proposed to be that of restricting the options put up for conscious consideration, based on biasing signals from the body. There is here a suggesting of tacit learning by the body, prior to conscious knowledge. (See the Iowa gambling task)
Smith and Elsworth (1985) and apparently others since then have identified six "cognitive appraisal dimensions" that can help distinguish emotions. Certainty, pleasantness, attentional activity, control, anticipated effort, and responsibility are all features of appraisal patterns underlying distinct emotions, and helping to define them.
Thus, we may find that certain emotions such as happiness and anger may share more relevant features than two emotions of the same valence (positive/negative). Since happiness and anger both construe appraisals of certainty and a sense of individual control over the situation, such cognitive dimensions might play a bigger part in determining the nature of the decisions made than the simple positive/negative valence distinction alone.
Do such considerations necessary undercut the Somatic Marker Hypothesis? Is there room for it to accept such dimensions to our emotions, without selling itself short?
Many thanks
Adam
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Dear Adam, there is no evidence for somatic states directly influencing appraisal. The influence should be by means of brain systems. The problem is that functional anatomical hypotheses as the involvement of ventromedial PFC in appraisal do not distinguish between a brain system that instantiates the somatic feeling and a brain system that makes the cognitive appraisal. This kind of distinction is made in the attached paper that proposes that the neuronal network makes the cognitive job and the astroglial network instantiates feelings.
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i work with cilents who have suffered neurological disorders. does anyone know of a mood screen that is suited to this client group?
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This is a plausible starting point :
Validation of the Aphasic Depression Rating Scale Charles Benaim, MD, PhD; Bruno Cailly, MD; Dominic Perennou, MD, PhD; Jacques Pelissier, MD Background and Purpose—The Aphasic Depression Rating Scale (ADRS) was developed to detect and measure depression in aphasic patients during the subacute stage of stroke. Methods—Six experts selected an initial sampling of behavioral items from existing depression rating scales. Stroke patients (aphasic and nonaphasic) were assessed with these items by the rehabilitation staff, with the Hamilton Depression Rating Scale (HDRS) for nonaphasic patients only, by a psychiatrist, and by the rehabilitation staff with Visual Analog Scales (VAS). A second item selection was conducted after a regression algorithm was run including VAS as independent variables (criterion validity) and after their factorial structure was analyzed with a principal component analysis (factorial validity). The construct validity was evaluated with respect to the other depression assessments. A threshold for the diagnosis of depression was computed with respect to the psychiatrist’s diagnosis. Interrater and test-retest reliability were assessed in 2 additional groups of aphasic patients. Results—Eighty patients participated in the study (59 aphasic). Fifteen behavioral items from existing depression rating scales were selected, and 9 were retained after the validation process. ADRS correlated highly with VAS and HDRS (r􏰂0.60 to 0.78, P􏰂10􏰃4 to 10􏰃6). With respect to the psychiatrist’s diagnosis, the sensitivity and specificity of ADRS were 0.83 and 0.71, respectively, when the threshold was set at 9/32. Its factorial structure was comparable to HDRS structure. Interrater and test-retest reliability were high (average 􏰇 coefficient of the 9 items􏰂0.69). Conclusions—ADRS is a valid, reliable, sensitive, and specific tool for the evaluation of depression in aphasic patients during the stroke subacute phase. (Stroke. 2004;35:1692-1696.)
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The neuropsychological knowledge can be applied in various ways in the treatment of those affected by a particular brain disorder that impacts on behavior.
Some examples where knowledge related to pathology of the nervous system become useful:
  • Make inferences about the normal functioning of the central nervous system
  • Different disorders or disturbances can cause similar symptoms
  • Some neuropathological conditions may increase the likelihood of other disorders.
  • The presence of a certain neuropathological disorder does not mean that there can be another type of disorder
 I'd like to know your opinion, and if possible, some articles approaching this topic.
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I also think that a good knowledge not only of brain pathology, but also of brain anatomy and, in general, of cognitive and affective neurosciences is necessary for a correct and in depth interpretation of neuropsychological data. A good knowledge of brain structure and functions is, indeed,  necessary to understand the patterns of cognitive impairment resulting from different kinds of brain lesions and to plan the corresponding rehabilitation
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I am looking for journals to cite on the POSITIVE EFFECTS of music on any of these broad areas: brain development, coordination, spatial IQ, cognitive IQ, overcoming learning disabilities, overcoming neurological delays, increased chances of going to college. It is fine if the source is a recent or old journal. Please provide links, thanks.
(When I looked in RG, there was one, but it's still at an accepted article stage.)
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Music is present in all cultures since prehistoric times, but still it is not clear what the source of gratification that we feel listening. Two newly published studies now contribute to shed light on the brain mechanisms involved in the joy of music.
As you can read in "Science", Valorie N. Salimpoor and colleagues at the Montreal Neurological Institute of McGill University have analyzed the neural processes of volunteers who listened to the first few songs. To give way to the experimenters to assess the degree of pleasure evoked by the music, the subjects participated in a kind of auction in which they could make an offer to listen to a particular song.
"Viewing the activity of a particular brain area, the nucleus accumbens, which is involved in reward, it was possible to reliably predict whether subjects would have offered money to listen to a song," says Salimpoor. The involvement of the nucleus accumbens confirms recent indications of the fact that the emotional effect of music would activate mechanisms of expectation and anticipation of a stimulus desirable, mediated by the neurotransmitter dopamine when it comes to a song already familiar, the mechanism of leave would be evoked mental anticipation of the passages most enjoyable. In the search for Salimpoor colleagues, however, the music was not known, but functional magnetic resonance imaging showed that the activated areas and dopaminergic mediation were the same as those of well-known songs. The cause, according to the researchers, is an "implicit knowledge" of music, obtained over the years and internalize the structure of the music characteristic of a certain culture.
The activity of the nucleus accumbens, also, is not isolated, but also involves the auditory cortex, which stores information on the sounds and the music during the test, as the piece was rewarding, the more intense was the cross-communication between the different brain regions. This result supports the idea that the ability to appreciate music refers not only to the emotional aspects, but also on assessments of cognitive character.
Still on the subject of brain reactions to music, Vinod Menon and colleagues at Stanford University School of Medicine, authors of an article published in the "European Journal of Neuroscience," have shown that listening to classical music evokes a unique pattern of activation of areas of the brain in spite of the differences between people.
The team recorded the activation of different brain regions of volunteers who listened to the music of William Boyce, an English composer of the eighteenth century, or pieces of "pseudo-music", ie sequences of auditory stimuli obtained by altering the songs Boyce with appropriate algorithms by the computer. The reaserchers identified a distributed network of brain structures whose activity levels followed a similar pattern in all subjects while listening to music, but not in that of the pseudo-music.
"In our study we have shown for the first time that, despite individual differences, classical music evokes in subjects other than one very consistent pattern of activity in various structures of the frontoparietal cortex, including those involved in the planning of movement, memory and attention, "says Menon. These regions, in particular, participated each with its own activation rate to the development of what was being heard, helping to make sense, with its own specific contribution to the overall structure of the music.
Particularly curious is the preferential activation of the centers of motor planning in response to the music but not the pseudo-music: according to the authors, it is a "neural correlate" of the spontaneous tendency to accompany listening to music with body movements, as in the dance, or simply clapping his hands.
I red with particular interest these two papers which well summarize the mucic/brain interaction. And let me understand what is happening when I am listening to a favourite music. I do not know whether similar mechanisms are activated when I enjoy to  write, play and sing my songs. Many of you know that this is one of my hobbies.
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I have conducted an fMRI study comparing recovered anorexia nervosa patients to healthy controls on an emotional stroop task. The task consists of fearful and happy faces, overlaid with either the word 'fear' or 'happy'. Thus, a given trial can either be congruent (face and word match) or incongruent (face and word mismatch). The task was to designate if the face was happy or fearful, ignoring the word. Reaction time data showed that it takes longer to respond to incongruent trials compared to congruent trials, which we expected.
However, the fMRI analysis shows that, for the control group, participants had more bilateral amygdala activation during congruent compared to incongruent trials (as shown by the extracted beta weights from left and right amygdala). I expected more amygdala activation for incongruent trials (thinking that an emotional conflict conveys more saliency). I am struggling to understand our observation. 
Does anyone have any comments regarding this finding? All comments are highly appreciated!
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Emotional processing is attenuated when task-demands are high (high cognitive load conditions) and during tasks that recruit executive control processes such as conflict resolution and inhibitory control.
See for example the opinion paper by Okon-Singer, Lichtenstein-Vidne, & Cohen, Biological Psychology, 2013