Science topic

Affective Learning - Science topic

Skills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings. There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: Receiving, Responding, Valuing, Organizing, Characterizing.
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This thread is concerned with change top down. I am still formulating this question, but central to it is change as growth.
This other thread is concerned with a bottom up approach to change as loss/ grief:
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In short, only healthy things grow. A sick plant, unless given timely care, will perish - sooner or later.
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How can we make education today an education for life, not just for achievement?
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تختلف استراتيجيات العمل بحسب الاهتمام الحكومي من جهة وبوجود متخصصين اكفاء قادرين على مواكبة حركة التطور العلمي المعاصر
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Dear community,
we conducted an experiment with training in Virtual Reality, after which participants had to perform the physical task they learned about. We measured the affective indicators of motivation, satisfaction and self-efficacy after the training and after the application as repeated measures are recommended by Sitzmann (2019). However, now it is unclear to us which of the two measures (or their average) to use. Did you ever come across similar timeframes or guidance in the literature and what would you recommend?
Many thanks in advance!
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يفضل خلال التطبيق
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We used in our center Virtual Worlds like Secondlife for presentation, networking, sharing and global virtual exchange. Now I would like to know how we could use Virtual Reality to help gifted children? If you have experience in one of these topics, please let me know.
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I’ll share the top 10 free virtual field trips for gifted children:
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In my opinion, the best strategy to remembers the words to join the words with action either story or reality.it can be by match using visual media and practice with a native speakers.
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Practicing is the best way to learn and remember.
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How to encourage deep learning of your students and discourage their habits of shallow or superficial learning?
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Shifting paradigm from informative learning to transformative learning is crucial to encourage deep learning. I believe that student engagement is an essential aspect of meaningful learning. Hence, implementing different means of better engaging pedagogical approaches such as active learning, learning communities, service learning, cooperative education, inquiry, and problem-based learning, and team projects are central.
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The last years we are working with serveral data sets that contain emotion measurements on different levels (self-report, facial action coding, eye tracking, physiological data like heart rate and skin conductance, lexical and sentiment analysis of texts).
We do not naively believe that the components of emotions match all the time or over longer or shorter time spans. But stil we search for correspondences between different emotional components.
Our aim is to measure and to integrate emotions in technology based learning designs.
Are there new ideas how to bring different components of emotions together?
What's about micro emotions, peak values, long or short term patterns; how can they help to identify correspondences?
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One reason that polygraph information is not admissible is the ability of a certain percentage of people to control physiological responses.
In classes, traditional "theatrical methods" are used to gain attention (recordings of accidents, first person accounts) to emphasize important points. Evoking emotions apparently increases training retention up to a point. However, the only measurement we obtain is student feedback. Self-report does vary widely.
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Dear all,
I'm working in a research that aims to build a platform for the users who have learning difficulties. And I need a co-researcher (preferred in the learning field ) to collaborate with me in specific points.
If any one interests please reply this discussion or contact me directly .
Regards
Samaa Shohieb
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I am looking for different questionnaires based on Bloom Taxonomy (Affective, Cognitive and Social domains) to assess the learning of computer science student in CS1 courses(such as intro to programming class with java or c or python).
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Can you recommend some VALID questionnaires for Affective, Cognitive and Social domain?
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Hi, Would you mind adding me as a collaborator to the ATTEND project?
Thanks,
Laurent
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I would also request the same. If its possible, I would to like to explore goals of this project together and collaborate 
Thanks
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As an undergrad mediocre student who always wishes to learn more about the things which excite the most and many questions kept wriggling me for time. If possible please read the blog where I tried to express my feelings....
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Thanks a lot!
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Hi,
Entrepreneurial learning takes place in a context. What are the relevant contextual factors that may affect this learning among entrepreneurs in SMEs?
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Hi, I agree with all above answers. However, I would like to stress on 3 very important and decisive factors:
1) The legislation of the country. When we read about entrepreneurship usually we think about western business and legislation. But in an emerging economy the legislation may be quite different. The legislation can stimulate or not developing SMEs.
2) Cultural value and the way people think about future and risk acceptance. There are cultures where education and religion do not encourage making decisions in conditions of uncertainty. Or, learning in SMEs means to have the capability of learning from both success and failure. If people are afraid of assuming risks in making decisions their learning style is missing an important component.
3) Learning usually is considered as a rational process. However, learning is a complex process which integrates rational, emotional and spiritual intelligences and the result of such a process should be found in rational, emotional and spiritual knowledge.
For a new approach to understand organizational learning and organizational knowledge dynamics I suggest the following book I published recently:
Constantin Bratianu (2015). Organizational Knowledge Dynamics: Managing Knowledge Creation, Acquisition, Sharing, and Transformation. IGI Global, Hershey, USA. (I attached a short presentation of the book).
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Hi,
We're trying to help find a few thousand (!!) photos for an affective study...validated, if possible. We know of
- International Affective Picture System (IAPS)
- Geneva Affective PicturE Database (GAPED)
- Nencki Affective Picture System (NAPS)
- The Attachment Picture Database (APD; ) and Besançon Affective Picture Set-Adolescents (The BAPS-Ado)
If anyone knows of any other affective photo databases out there, we would greatly appreciate it!!
Much thanks in advance,
Gina
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Hello
you can find here the OPEN AFFECTIVE STANDARDIZED IMAGE SYSTEM OASIS
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I see there is the curiosity sub-scale of the STPI (State-Trait Personality Inventory) and also apparently a state sub-scale of Melbourne Curiosity Inventory, but am having trouble locating these. Any suggestions would be most appreciated!
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In case you decide that trait measures could be useful: 
Development of the Self-Curiosity Attitude-Interest scale.
By Aschieri, Filippo; Durosini, Ilaria
TPM-Testing, Psychometrics, Methodology in Applied Psychology, Vol 22(3), Sep 2015, 327-347.
Even though introspection, reflection, and mentalization are important processes in clinical practice, no self-report measure has been developed to address the psychological construct of self-curiosity. This paper addresses this disparity, and provides a new self-report measure on this topic and data on its nomological network. Curiosity about self was initially conceptualized as the desire that people have to explore and understand themselves and their psychological functioning beyond what they already know about themselves. The manuscript presents data from three independent samples used to build the Self- Curiosity Attitude-Interest (SCAI) scale. Data show that the SCAI comprises two dimensions: attitude toward self-curiosity (cognitive propensity toward exploring one’s own inner world) and interest in increasing knowledge of self (emotional/motivational pull to understand oneself better). An independent sample shows good internal consistency, test-retest reliability, and evidence of construct validity of the SCAI. This paper discusses the utility of the SCAI in clinical practice and research. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Interest and Deprivation Type Epistemic Curiosity Model Measure
By Litman, Jordan A.; Mussel, Patrick
Construct: Epistemic Curiosity
The Interest and Deprivation Type Epistemic Curiosity Model Measure was developed as part of a study to evaluate of the interest and deprivation type epistemic curiosity (EC), the desire for new knowledge aimed at stimulating pleasurable feelings of situational interest (I-type) or relieving negative affective conditions of feeling deprived of knowledge (D-type). Adolescents and adults responded to German translations of the 10-item Epistemic Curiosity Scale (ECS) and the 15-item Curiosity as a Feeling-of-Deprivation Scale (CFDS). The ESC consists of items assessing (1) taking pleasure in new ideas (Diversive) and pleasure in discovering how things work (Specific). The CDFS consists of 3 subscales assessing (1) desire to increase competence, (2) intolerance for unsolved problems, and (3) persistence in seeking out information. Confirmatory factor analysis resulted in a 10-item scale with 2 distinct factors. Consistent with previous research findings for the English and Chinese EC Scales (Huang et al., 2010; Litman, 2008), the 5 items that comprised the ECS-Diversive subscale (alpha = .77) were the best I-type EC measures, and 5 CFDS-Persistence subscale items (alpha = .78) were found to be the best measures of D-type EC for the German versions as well. Evidence of convergent and discriminant validity were also found. (PsycTESTS Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Development and validation of the German Work-Related Curiosity Scale.
By Mussel, Patrick; Spengler, Maik; Litman, Jordan A.; Schuler, Heinz
European Journal of Psychological Assessment, Vol 28(2), 2012, 109-117.
Curiosity, a personality trait underlying behavioral tendencies related to knowledge acquisition, learning, and thinking, can be expected to be of high relevance in the world of work. There is, however, to date no work-related curiosity measure. The present article reports results regarding the development and validation of the new 10-item Work-Related Curiosity Scale. Based on two studies, the measure had a one-factor solution, acceptable internal consistency, and expected construct validity. In Study 2, incremental criterion-related validities were found over and above five general curiosity scales (ΔR2 between .12 and .15), which is in line with the frame-of-reference approach underlying the development of the scale. Interestingly, the lack of evidence for criterion-related validity in Study 1 indicates that these results do not generalize across positions. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Work-Related Curiosity Scale
By Mussel, Patrick; Spengler, Maik; Litman, Jordan A.; Schuler, Heinz
Construct: Epistemic Curiosity
The 10-item Work-Related Curiosity Scale (Mussell et al., 2012) was developed as an assessment of curiosity that taps behaviors that are especially relevant to the workplace. Based on an agreed-upon definition of curiosity in its epistemic form, 2201 job-related items were developed. Expert evaluation reduced the pool to 38 items. Employees at a German financial service organization completed this scale, and items for the final version were selected based on high discriminatory power, high convergent validity with openness for experience, and content validity. The final 10-item scale, completed by university students, assesses enjoyment of activities like seeking information, knowledge acquisition, learning and thinking, as well as persisting in these activities in exploratory behaviors until the desired information is obtained or the problems have been solved. Norm values on scale level across two studies: M = 52.6, SD = 7.89 (N = 644). Gender-specific norms: female: M = 52.1, SD = 7.83 (N = 343); male: M = 53.1, SD = 8.14 (N = 301). The final scale had acceptable reliability in terms of internal consistency and expected construct validity. Exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses revealed that a one-dimensional solution explained variance reasonably well. Incremental criterion-related validities were found over and above 5 general curiosity scales. (PsycTESTS Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
Curiosity and Exploration Inventory--II (CEI-II)
By Kashdan, Todd B.; Gallagher, Matthew W.; Silvia, Paul J.; Winterstein, Beate P.; Breen, William E.; Terhar, Daniel; Steger, Michael F.
Construct: Curiosity
The Curiosity and Exploration Inventory--II (CEI-II, Kashdan et al., 2009) was developed in order to improve upon the original Curiosity and Exploration Inventory (CEI; Kashdan, Rose, & Fincham, 2004) and provide a brief, reliable, valid measure of curiosity that expands the breadth of the construct. A preliminary pool of 36 items was generated and contained revised versions of many of the items of the original CEI. It was generated based on the a priori hypothesis that there may be three facets of curiosity: exploring or stretching, absorption, and embracing uncertainty. Through an iterative process, absorption was removed from the CEI-II item pool to improve reliability and validity. Using a sample of 311 undergraduates, an exploratory factor analysis was conducted and produced two factors (eigenvalues of 3.99 and 1.40) that were clearly interpretable as the stretching and embracing facets of curiosity. The authors then selected the best 10 of the 36 items, resulting in the revised CEI. The CEI-II was determined to have good internal reliability and results of a confirmatory factor analysis provided evidence of validity. (PsycTESTS Database Record (c) 2015 APA, all rights reserved)
Epistemic Curiosity Questionnaire (EC)
By Litman, Jordan A.
Construct: Epistemic Curiosity
The Epistemic Curiosity Questionnaire (EC Questionnaire; Litman, 2008) was developed to assess the desire for knowledge that motivates individuals to learn new ideas, eliminate information-gaps, and solve intellectual problems. The Epistemic Curiosity Questionnaire included the scale items from the 10-item Epistemic Curiosity Scale (ECS; Litman & Spielberger, 2003) and the 15-item Curiosity as a Feeling-of-Deprivation Scale (CFDS; Litman & Jimerson, 2004). Undergraduate students were instructed to report how they "generally feel" regarding each item statement by rating themselves on the following 4-point frequency scale: 1 = Almost Never, 2 = Sometimes, 3 = Often, 4 = Almost Always. Exploratory factor analyses of the ECS and CFDS subscales yielded two factors; the first (I-type) involved pleasure associated with discovering new ideas, while the second (D-type) emphasized spending time and effort to acquire a specific answer or solution. Alphas were acceptable for both of the subscales. (PsycTESTS Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
The Measurement and Conceptualization of Curiosity.
By Reio Jr., Thomas G.; Petrosko, Joseph M.; Wiswell, Albert K.; Thongsukmag, Juthamas
The Journal of Genetic Psychology: Research and Theory on Human Development, Vol 167(2), Jun 2006, 117-135.
In this study, the authors tried various methods to measure and conceptualize curiosity. A sample of 369 education students (103 men, 266 women) who were attending universities on the East Coast of the United States completed 5 paper-and-pencil curiosity measures in 1 of their classes. Using confirmatory factor analysis, the authors found that the data best fit a 3-factor curiosity model consisting of cognitive curiosity, physical thrill seeking, and social thrill seeking. These findings supported the development of new instruments that specifically measured those 3 curiosity types, new empirical research predicting meaningful curiosity-related outcomes, and subsequent theory building concerning how and why curiosity is a fundamental part of optimal human functioning. (PsycINFO Database Record (c) 2016 APA, all rights reserved)
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My topic is related to serval factors: many colleges manage Preceptorship programs for undergraduate nursing students and require master level students to mange theses issues without assistance. I want to unveil the trend, discuss the difficulty students are having when attempting to find a preceptor as well as any distress in the process (affects on learning?), and I want to introduce solutions for this problem. I am able to find data when single topics are entered, but PICO questions are not generating evidence for use in a systematic review. How can I arrange this topic into a working PICO question? Is a PICO question necessary? Is there a suggested method of research that will assist me with locating data for documenting the problem in a professional format? Or will a narrative do? Can I use Facebook FB data without an institutional review board IRB requisition? (For examples: Request for preceptorship or documentation of the difficulty with the procedure posted on FB or other social media?
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Maybe the PEO format might be more helpful if you wish some kind of method to formulate a research question. I read about this (as well as about the PICO format and other issues regarding conducting a systematic literature review) in the book "How to do a systematic literature review in nursing. A step-by-step guide" by Josette Bettany-Saltikov. This book has been helpful to me as it contains many examples and templates regarding PICO and PEO questions (see also the attachment).
I am not familiar with using data from social media for research, especially regarding IRB involvement. Maybe the information on this website might be a starting point for reading about this: http://www.apa.org/gradpsych/2011/11/social-media.aspx
Good luck!
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I'm interested in auditors' skepticism and I'm having some trouble understanding the concept of affective state.
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In a nutshell, affect deals with the state of your emotions and/or moods. There is a stable aspect to it and it is also influenced by situational characteristics. Typically, affective states are separated into positive and negative affect because they are almost entirely independent of each other (not opposite ends of a single continuum). Highly positive affective states include enthusiasm, confidence, happiness, alertness, etc. Highly negative affective states include anger, disgust, fear, guilt, etc. And, of course, you can also have low positive (e.g. distress) and low negative (e.g. calmness). Affect factors into decision contexts because the affective state can be interpreted as a sort of signal to the decision maker. For example, I've read a recent paper that found that negative affect triggers greater persistence and thus better solutions to problem solving because the negative emotion/mood signals that the situation is not yet ideal and needs to fixed. Hope this helps.
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I found your article intriguing, and it is much in keeping with research on reevaluating our affections in a new light (that what seems cognitively certain is often affectively based). Need for knowledge (NfK) is something most of us can greatly identify with - and sometimes it is much like any hunger mechanism - thank you for suggesting this. May I ask, do you feel that curiosity could also be a more basal affectation?
You connect curiosity with cognition and conscious sense, but perhaps might it also be realizable at a more nonconscious level - since many animals exhibit curiosity and have no higher cognition per se (or language capability to discern knowledge proper). Curiosity seems to "overcome fear" and this seems to be a key component of it. That is, what is most curious (even in early and prehistory apparently) is usually most dangerous too, but somehow irresistible (e.g. Pandora's Box, Garden of Eden, and attribution to cats). It seems a "fear/desire" contention - perhaps we might even borrow your phrase with the slight change "fear-to-know"? An enduring story is that of the Tree of Knowledge, and certainly curiosity made it irresistible (and the affective relation collectively intuitive). If so, mightn't we also view curiosity as pre-cognitive?
Conference Paper Curiosity and Pleasure
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Thank you..... yes...your suggestion is truly acceptable and I agree with your suggestion...as the saying goes... curiosity  can kill a lady... in this case the curiosity acts as a positive drive for them to "accept" the challenge of solving the problem... This is one of the most important factor that needs to be nurtured among the children... but how?...
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In the next few months I will be setting up an Affective Computing lab. The aim is to quantify the effects of assistive systems and of gamification on both working and learning processes. 
I did some research on equipment, but the spectrum is very broad. Alone with encephalography I could spend my complete budget, as there are devices for € 700 up to above € 80.000.
So I would appreciate some recommendations from researchers who have been in a similar situation or currently work in a lab which they think is well-equipped.
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For the GSR, Shimmer seems the best. A cheaper solution would be Arduino with a groove gsr sensor (but I don't think it's suitable for a high precision work) or arduino with the gsr of cooking hacks.
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Sometimes students do poorly on tests, but do other things not on the grading rubric that indicate that they ARE learning.  
For example, they may be engaged in class, have interesting things to say during discussion, or otherwise do things that indicate that they are learning, even if they have done poorly on tests or formal assignments. I am not talking simple "extra credit" for things already on the syllabus.  I am thinking of things outside the scope of the grading rubric in the syllabus.
Is it fair to increase their grades for informal contributions, if they have done poorly on formal assignments?
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In our system of examination here at Indian Institute of Technology Kharagpur, we have have 20% marks (of the full marks in a subject) allocated for Teacher's Assessment. For this 20%, we have a number of parameters such as attendance, assignments, class tests etc.  to be assessed based on which this 20% share is worked out. It is here that a teacher can assess the student's capability/willingness/accomplishment in respect of learning that particular subject. In my opinion, whatever parameters you may set, these should all be aimed towards assessing the student's capability on that specific subject or else the very purpose of having that subject in the curriculum will be lost. If the significance of the contents of a subject can be compromised  for any reason, whatsoever, perhaps that subject is then not very relevant for the curriculum and (in that case) must be replaced with some befitting subject or simply removed from the curriculum.
In no case a credit should be granted for a trait not relevant to the objective function. It should not be forgotten that rest of the class is being examined/ranked very critically for the contents of the syllabus. So long as a course has been thoughtfully contemplated, there should be no compromise on the set parameters.
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Dear colleagues,
I have done a research in using the affective learning strategies in learning English as a foreign language with university students in Serbia. I would be glad to share my data with anyone interested in this issue. Also, I am interested to know how much of these strategies your students use when speaking English in the class? Do they use them at all? How to instruct students to use them and how to practice these strategies?
Thanks in advance.
Ivana
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"Affective" basically means emotional, or relating to moods and feelings.  There is a lot of literature that shows that when students experience success, and thus have positive feelings about their experiences, they are better motivated to study.
So, classroom activities must be crafted to allow students to succeed.  If they are too hard, students will be discouraged.
I am a native English speaker who has traveled in Asia and visited several universities. One of my personal priorities in such visits is to help students have positive experiences interacting with an English native speaker. 
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Gall (2002) states that the statistical literacy is comprised of Knowledge elements and Dispositional elements. However, it seems that there are only few studies that investigate about the dispositional elements, which include affective aspects.
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Dear Carlos
Although I does not know of studies specifically linking attitudes towards statistics and statistical literacy, there are some relating attitudes (or anxiety) towards statistics and learning statistics (which is related to statistical literacy). Some examples follow:
Gal, I., & Ginsburg, L. (1994). The role of beliefs and attitudes in learning statistics: Towards an assessment framework. Journal of Statistics Education, 2(2), 1-15.
Vanhoof, S., Sotos, A. E. C., Onghena, P., Verschaffel, L., Van Dooren, W., & Van den Noortgate, W. (2006). Attitudes toward statistics and their relationship with short-and long-term exam results. Journal of Statistics Education, 14(3), n3.
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Cognitive orientation is mandatory for up lift of society
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Dear Mian,
Your question is is one that is context bound. By that I mean I mean depending on the context the media can be either affective or cognitive orientated. 
Here in the U.S. were we have far to many media outlets I would estimate the well over 80% are affective orientated. This is do to the context in which they are situated. These media outlets are for profit market share driven outlets based on providing a product that will sell, hence creating ratings which drive advertising dollars. hence what the people wants our what sells namely sex and violence is what is shown.
The reaming 20% (if that) in reality are cognitive orientated. These media outlet consist of the Public Broadcasting Network, History and science Channels, C-Span, and local public access television outlets. These are cognitive oriented for the most part and are of great value for the country and its citizenry. The same can be said for news organizations and Radio outlets.
Hence to answer your question I can state yes and yes to both affective and cognitive orientation.
To the last part of your question cognitive oriented is mandatory to uplift society I would claim is also context driven depending on how you define uplift. If uplift means economic expansion or a higher standard of living cognitive orientated media is not mandatory. How so? For example your an Island nation in the Mediterranean Sea located 20 mile off shore from the south of France. What would you be selling if you were the president? The university or the topless beaches, the life style or the GPA of students attending? From this perspective cognitive orientation media is not the source of economic uplift for the nation.
hence I must answer both of your questions with the phrase "Mian it just depends on the context".
Hope this helps,
Douglas
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By which mechanism does Acetylcholine affect on the learning ability and memory performance ?
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thank you Dr.Ali Abdil Razzaq 
its really helpful 
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Is anyone using a valid and reliable audit tool to assess the quality of the clinical learning environment for student undergraduate nurses?
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Perhaps these papers help you:
Kettunen, J. (2010). Cross-evaluation of degree programmes in higher education, Quality Assurance in Education, 18(1), 34-46.
Kettunen, J. (2012). External and internal quality assurance in higher education, The TQM Journal, 24(6), 518-528.
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Novices need more explanation than advanced students. If we give that amount of information to advanced students we may see expertise reversal effect, and most probably learning material are boring for advanced students. On the other, if we take the advanced students side and teach faster with more complex material then novices may not learn because they lack prior knowledge.
If we teach novices and advanced student in the same classroom then they can benefit from collaboration. 
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@Jonathan, thanks for your answer. However, the main goal of this question was to open up a channel to discuss about advantages of collaborative learning (which includes learning by teaching)  versus avoiding expertise reversal effect (for advanced students) and avoiding learning impasse (for novices). You cannot have all three at the same time. Bear in mind that expertise reversal and learning impasse are both detrimental to learning. That's why a large number of Intelligent Tutoring Systems (ITSs) have been developed to provide individualise feedback and learning environments for students. I refer you to the attached paper, in which we discussed our approach to overcome expertise reversal effect by using an adaptive strategy in an ITS. The model provides different types of tasks for novices and advanced students.
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Affective factors are regarded as inhibitions and a block to learning. Learners are often innovative in language forms but still have a great many inhibitions. They are extremely sensitive particularly to peers and are much more fragile than adults.
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I'll try again to finish my post.
affective factors are the most important blocks to learning IMHO. Student's belief in their capacity to learn has the greatest effect on their learning, (Hattie, Dweck) so I aim to reduce as many factors as I can, that could influence this belief negatively. that being said, I am acutely aware tht many of my students havebeen developing negative beliefs for years before I see them at secondary school.
The key point is to reduce stress and pressure on students and teachers to perform and ocus on enjoyment, in particular, enjoyment in a job well done.
At a macro level, I structure curriculum carefully so that students believe thaat they are doing meaningful tasks, where assessment is a natural outcome of doing a good job of the task. Assessment is structured so that teachers can recognise success at various levels and so students perceive that effort equates to success.
At the individual level, I encourage treatment of negative attitudes as just another roadblock to learning similar to reading difficulty. This helps to reduce the angst and pressure that students and teachers percieve. I am hones with students about what I believe their roadblock is and encourage dialogue especially around strategies to work araound the roadblock.
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What motivates you to continue with scientific research? Is it money, reputation, competition, your institution rules, your wish to search for facts, that you want to serve the humanity, because it's your job, or for other reasons? For the universities in third world countries how can we motivate scientific research in your opinion?
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As mentioned only motivated persons can produce and published scientific research in the academic environment. It is a hard job to produce regularly novelty, with enough contribution for the scientific community, impact in the society or industry, and present it in a way that is interesting for the other researchers and for the publishers.
In my opinion, who is really motivated by money usually stay far away of the universities as they do not pay (also cannot) the hours of work you need to achieve (and I underline again here) high levels of novelty, contribution significance and interesting work.
The universities give the scientific environment, the scientific nets, the equipments (labs), the assistants, the computers and software, libraries, inside culture and knowledge, and so on. This is very expensive to build and keeping it along generations as well as maintaining a permanent improvement, beside the serious teaching contribution for which is possible to a university to stay alive within reasonable costs.
I know very few about the universities in third world. Anyway, would recommend to check the payments (are they receiving a dignified wage, i.e. a full-time job must allow to keep a family with kids at university) , to check the number of hours of teaching duties (a very good university lesson is also a hard job, which require preparation, adaptation and a lot of energy which must be balanced between research and teaching) , to check the working conditions given at university, check if they have freedom to study the problems they want or they consider the most important (one must believe in the importance of the work being doing), check the mentioned tolerance to failures, and to check for the access given to the international scientific community as well as to the society.
Universities should invest some of their budget in inviting senior recognized scientists to stay for some periods, to evaluate the environment , transmit experience and their way of working in the field. Young talented future candidates will enrich a lot contacting recognized scientists that are interested in working with these junior fellows.
Of course, with globalization many of sharing opportunities are being closed by the extreme competition and commercialization. Many available knowledge where in the past easily passed from university to university, but not nowadays.
Also, removing responsibility of seniors on preparing future generations to replace them as a natural event when they retire is doing damage. Of course, retirement income should also be a dignified.
Finally, this express only an opinion at this moment which can be changed with discussion and reflection, but hope contribute for the discussion in this very complex subject.
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Assessing the development of the affective domain.
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The assessing of Affective Domain also calls on moral development.. how a child perceived 'a' another and their own relationship to them; sensitivities towards power relationships and how the child may understand these, and how they are moving from a self focus to being aware of how their own actions can have a consequent on others.
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Nominalization is the most typical structure of Ideational Grammatical Metaphor (IGM), particularly in scientific and political discourses as well as academic writing. Halliday and Matthiessen (2004) point out that information density, nominalization and GM are as the foremost lexico-grammatical features of the academic and written language. We are doing empirical research based on the explicit teaching of Nominalization to advanced EFL learners to find out its impact on their writing skills. What do you think of this? State your informative experiences and advice please.
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Dear Alan Jones
Thany you so much for your informative remarks. I will surely get the papers and read them with scrutiny.
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Bullying in various forms is quite a common scene at schools of all levels particularly among undergrad students during their earlier years of studies. Sometimes it may start as early as the first day at the school/university in the shape of ragging and may continue till the graduation day or even beyond and into a workplace.
For the victims of bullying, the time spent at university may become a long nightmare and leave a deep and permanent impact on their behaviors. For these reasons it is very important that such acts and tendencies are monitored and corrected wherever and whenever possible.
What can be some of the strategies that can help schools discourage bullying and maintain conducive environment?
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Bullying is assault and should be treated as such. The perpetrators should be punished because it causes injury. We do not tolerate individuals who cause physical injury to others and we should not tolerate those who inflict psychological/psychiatric injury on others. I have encountered lots of bullies in my professional life and they do not respond to 'tender loving care', which they invariable view as a weakness to be exploited, but can be deterred by punishment. I would support Giuseppe's views on rehabilitation if I did not have the many years of experience I acquired dealing with violent criminals. Some can be rehabilitated but sadly the majority think that giving others a hard time is either 'fun' or their 'right'. They need extirpating from decent society and no one should have to put up with them for the sake of 'their' rehabilitation
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The advent of printing press was probably the first wholesome and (to date) the last invention that truly revolutionized the information transmission and archiving. It also had shaped the core teaching/learning systems with book(s) as the nucleus. Since then inventions like radio, TV, computer and Internet have created a lot of optimism but, till date, no revolutionary achievements seem to have been made
Do you think any of the contemporary developments have the potential of realizing the big dream?
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Teaching is a method of transfering ideas and knowledge to students through lectures. Teaching can be done by electronic method in which you could followscience through internet
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How do you know if a learning intervention implemented within an organisation has had any impact? What aspects of pre-program design, program delivery and post-program evaluation can be undertaken to study the value derived from the learning program? (looking beyond Kirkpatrick and Brinkerhoff)...
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LIke John, I think this still seems a bit vague. Does the program already have a theory of change or logic model in place? What outcome or change do they seek? What does the literature say already about program design and organizational impacts? For instance, I research out-of-school time programs in community-based organizations. There is a wealth of literature that suggestions many things make a quality program (e.g. staffing, program structure, climate). For this research I looked at three units of analysis -- program participants, the program itself, and the organization. Each of these have detailed aspects I'm looking at - some of which both Benod and Sergio mentioned in their posts.
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“Ce qui manquerait le plus à cette nouvelle modalité perceptive est ce que les philosophes nomment qualia (Bach-y-Rita, 1996), c’est-à-dire les qualités des choses perçues. Malgré l’ensemble des possibilités permises par les dispositifs de substitution sensorielle, il leur est souvent reproché de ne procurer aucune émotion. Un aveugle, « regardant » sa femme grâce au TVSS, resta désappointée devant l’absence d’émotion ressentie” (Ziat, 2006, p. 64).
(“A blind man ‘looking’ at his wife thanks to the TVSS, remained disappointed at the absence of emotion he felt”).
I am so thankful you shared this in your dissertation Mounia. It has been a tenet and wish for me for several years now, to pursue cognitive psychology partially for the purpose of researching haptic transmission as a means to connect humans via touch. Your statement says so much Mounia: sight without touch is missing most of the meaning. We do not perceive to simply detect visual information about things, we perceive to confirm our hopes and feelings about what things might possess, relative to who and what we are to one another. Elaborating visual potential is often an attempt to sublimate our lost sense of touch.
The main tenet of haptic transmission is that current video/audio transmission doesn’t intrinsically contain or convey any emotion. Unlike touch, vision and sound are not exchanged - they are transduced and subsequently inferred (eyes don’t emit light and ears don’t talk). But only touch can mutually transmit feelings of warmth, adoration, fear, urgency (deep pressure) and affective identity. In the absence of the transmission of touch, we are transmitting only “facts” about people, not their feelings. The rest must be deduced from a mutual familiarity with interpreting visual expressions like gestures, tone of voice, eye aversion, latencies, etc.
Touch is so much closer to the exchange of information within thought than any other sense, because it is the only sense that is bidirectional without alteration or transduction. Whatever we transmit is what we also feel or would receive. The other senses are really for confirmation not transmission – but we have come to rely on the supporting modalities, as the concept of becoming civilized has distanced us from being human – vulnerable - to one another. In some ways, we are isolating ourselves from one another via technology and the need to do things “faster,” more efficiently. Affection takes time to express. We do not seem to have time for it anymore.
But if we take the next natural step and connect primarily via touch (reinforced by vision and sound), then parents overseas can reach children at home, and those who cannot receive or express by any other means can find hope again within the meaning expressed by comforting haptic connection. Maybe we can get back this missing dimension of distance communication – the experience of emotional attachment/reassurance itself. May I ask, Mounia – is this something of interest to you as well?
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Thank you both for these wonderful additional illuminations on this topic.
Sachchidanand, I am very glad you identify with sublimation and its potential role in often using a plurality of inadequate substitutes to try and make up for a single urgent need. And thank you Mounia for connecting this to developmental association. One of my favorite articles on this is about a goose which any of us can discover an instant, empathetic link with (Fischer-Mamblona, 2000). Having missed that all important developmental experience to know how to respond to inner tugs of attachment urgency and fear of isolation, this poor creature found itself outside the communicative world of nonverbal expression necessary to acquire fundamental affective needs. By human therapeutic analogy, I think perhaps we might find in the example of Anne Sullivan and Helen Keller, the true potential for haptic communication of any kind. As Mounia expressed, whether for substitution of lost sensory processes, or to augment the modalities available for urgent confirmation, touch offers a path to stronger emotional attachments and lifelong growth. Please see this short video of this amazing heroic pair:
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Mounia, thank you so much for additional enlightenment on the history and future of haptics. The need for a developmentally attained association between the peripheral sense and its affective arousal is such an excellent example of the need to extend this type of research. This helped me recall the Sullivan/Keller pairing, which for all intents is an affective coupling between persons using haptic substitution (temporarily), to transcend the missing sensory boundaries (developmentally). I also much appreciate that you shared your understanding of the need for engagement and recalibration of modalities depending on context (the scuba example). I do agree, without some means to interpose the sense of self between incoming afferent stimuli and efferent potentials, there is no way to elevate self-esteem, no proof for self-efficacy to arise, and no way to valuate the self relative to other things affectively. We need to "perceive" emotion – and we can only do that if what we perceive stimulates emotion within us. Perception is only a detached set of neuronal vibrations unless we feel we are a key stakeholder in those vibrations, and with their effort to become meaningful. The haptic zoom is a great example of how human touch adapts to any environmental scale (even the digital world).
Also, I very much appreciated your phrase “We often conclude our conversation or letters with 'Stay in touch' to reinforce the will of physical proximity” Sachchidanand. It instantly brought to mind Viktor Frankl’s wonderful “Will to Meaning” belief system (Frankl, 2006). Touch is just that: the mutual will to discover meaning - despite obstacles - by sharing something inseparably affective. We wish this for others just as we wish it for ourselves.
References
Allison, S. T., & Goethals, G. R. (2012). The heroic companionship of Helen Keller and Anne Sullivan. Available at: http://blog.richmond.edu/heroes/2012/10/11/the-heroic-companionship-of-helen-keller-and-anne-sullivan/
Fischer-Mamblona, H. (2000). On the evolution of attachment-disordered behaviour. Attachment & Human Development, 2(1), 8-21. doi:10.1080/146167300361291
Frankl, V. E. (2006). Man’s search for meaning. Boston, MA: Beacon Press.