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Addiction Psychology - Science topic

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Hi.
I'm an undergraduate student who's doing the research recently and there's something confusing me. I need some discussions and insight so let me drop the question here.
Do you think social media addiction still relate in this era? since we all acknowledge that these almost past 3 years we were facing the pandemic which force us to use social media often (more hours in a day) and also there are a lot of things we do in social media, such as for occupation (digital related), learning, promoting or marketing , and many more. Do you think it's still researchable or perhaps we all indeed addicted to social media nowadays? How to distinguished someone who's actually addicted with the otherwise (through survey/self-screening)?
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Social media & COVID-19: A global study of digital crisis interaction among Gen Z and Millennials (who.int)
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I'm looking for co-authors Are you a master's or doctoral student in psychology, behavioural sciences, social work, counseling psychology or a related discipline and would like to co-author a study on the depth of emotional pain? If so, let's examine this together.
Have you ever wondered why people self-harm when they are in discomfort or emotional pain? Some curse injury by cutting or burning their flesh, punching or hitting oneself. They do this to divert attention away from the pain or to distract the brain. Can you fathom burning your skin in order to relieve emotional pain? We won't be able to grasp why individuals do what they do or how to help them unless we understand the depth of emotional agony. It is simple to discuss bodily pains caused by injury or illness. Non-physical pain, on the other hand, is difficult to discuss, and instant treatment is impossible.
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Before we start an article or research on emotional pain, I think we should look closely about the main components or dimensions that make up emotional pain, and through which we can find a treatment that enables us to overcome or alleviate it in the individual who suffers from it.
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Are you superstitious?
If the scientist can be superstitious or can he have respect for superstitions?
Can a scientist completely ignore superstitions if he does not research them scientifically?
Are superstitions an atavistic element of culture?
Are they atavistic remnants of the ancient times when people have explained the occurrence of puzzling, unrecognized scientific atmospheric, climatic, cosmic phenomena, etc., explaining this by the action of higher, supernatural forces, etc.?
Please reply
I invite you to the discussion
Thank you very much
Best wishes
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yes they can
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1. Please suggest easy to use questionnaire.
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There are four kinds of tools available to measure social networking addiction.
1) Tools that measure generalized internet addiction such as Internet addiction scale (Young, 1998), Pathological Internet Use Scale (Morahan-Martin & Schumacher, 2000), Online Cognition Scale (Davis et al., 2002), and Internet-Related Problem Scale (Armstrong et al., 2000).
2) Since Facebook has recently been one of the most popular media, many measures have been developed to measure Facebook-related addiction (Çam & Isbulan, 2012; Andreassen et al., 2012b; Sofiah et al., 2011).
3) Two scales that assess generalized social media addiction are Bergen Social Media Addiction Scale (Andreassen et al., 2016) and Social media disorder (Van den Eijnden et al., 2016).
4) Tools that measure social networking addiction such as Addictive tendencies toward SNS (Wu et al., 2013) and Social networking addiction scale (Shahnawaz et al., 2013).
However, a closer look at these tools revealed that none measured social networking addiction except for the last two. The first category of tools measures generalized internet addiction while the second category of tools measures a very specific parameter that is Facebook. The third category of tools which are of recent origin measure social media addiction. In a review on social networking sites, Kuss and Griffiths (2017) categorically stated that “social networking and social media use have often been interchangeable in the scientific literature, but, they are not same” Also, they stated that “Facebook addiction is only one example of SNS addiction.”
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I'd like to create a browser plugin for online shops which introduces a layer of added friction for (unnecessary) purchases before checkout. What would be the most effective way to make a consumer think twice? Any thoughts on how to approach this?
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I would suggest some type of delay mechanism that the user can adjust, say from 5 minutes to 24 hours. A simple time delay can provide a new perspective on the desired object. It may simply not appear as attractive after a short wait.
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Does the global financial crisis of 2008 still have significant importance on capital markets attributed to behavioral psychology of the behavior of investors operating in these markets?
Are the determinants of behavioral investors' factors still strong in recent years on the largest stock exchanges in the world, including the importance of financial market psychology in interpreting changes in stock exchange trends in these markets?
Please reply
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The sharp economic downturn and turmoil in the financial markets, commonly referred to as the “global financial crisis,” has spawned an impressive outpouring of blame. The efficient market hypothesis (EMH)—the idea that competitive financial markets exploit all available information when setting security prices—has been singled out for particular attention. Like all successful theories, the EMH has major limitations, even as it continues to provide the foundation for not only past accomplishment, but future advances in the field of finance.
Despite the theory's undoubted limitations, the claim that it is responsible for the current worldwide crisis seems wildly exaggerated. This essay shows the misreading of the theory and logical inconsistencies involved in popular arguments that EMH played a significant role in (1) the formation of the real estate and stock market bubbles, (2) investment practitioners' miscalculation of risks, and (3) the failure of regulators to recognize the bubbles and avert the crisis. At the same time, the author argues that the collapse of Lehman Brothers and other large financial institutions, far from resulting from excessive faith in efficient markets, reflects a failure to heed the lessons of efficient markets. In the author's words, “To me, Lehman's demise conclusively demonstrates that, in a competitive capital market, if you take massive risky positions financed with extraordinary leverage, you are bound to lose big one day—no matter how large and venerable you are.”
Finally, behavioral finance, widely considered as challenging and even supplanting efficient markets theory, is viewed in this article as complementing if not reinforcing efficient markets theory. As the author says, “it takes a theory to beat a theory.” Behavioralism, for all its important contributions to finance literature, is described as not a theory but rather “a collection of ideas and results”— one that depends for its existence on the theory of efficient markets.... Ball, R. (2009). The global financial crisis and the efficient market hypothesis: what have we learned?. Journal of Applied Corporate Finance, 21(4), 8-16.
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The average person spends over four hours a day on their device. A cost to all that connection is - a presence in the real world. Time is the most valuable thing we have, so we should spend it with our loved ones, or reading books, not on smartphones.
Researchers from Queensland University of Technology recently found that excessive phone use has led many consumers to have trouble sleeping while also making them less productive. The researchers describe this phenomenon as “technoference.”
How to fight this addiction problem and help people live more fulfilling and happier lives?
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It's true! Please see the following RG link.
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My question is simple -
Do you want to help someone ?
Do you want to help change someones life for the better ?
Do you want to have an impact on lowering the suicide rate?
What would you do for someone you love? Anything..
The struggle of addiction and mental health is more prominent today than ever before. With suicide & mental health rates increasing everyday and the lack of information & resources out there required to help tackle and deal with these things are limited.
Granted that there are services out there that do help and do work but are not always easily accessible or in some cases to late. The world is changing and it is becoming more prominent that suicide and mental health are real issues that are being overlooked in some cases where they should not of been.
Change is needed to a better quality of service, information and care that is currently being provided.
Please help us with our research to understand more from holistic overview,
help us to help those that are indeed struggling but are not getting the attention that is required.
Link below is to the study :-
Thank You
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I took the survey to help. A good piece of work!
I think addictions treatment should not just focus on the old model of abstinence and 12 steps. There are many newer techniques including acupuncture and holistic approaches which should be integrated into the treatment protocol. The old approach of "confront, confront..." does not work with every addict. Use of the "Stages for Change" model ( Prochaska and DiClemente) along with a full blown assessment of where the client is and their support system and beliefs is vital.
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See above.
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Thank you so much for your thoughtful and useful answer. And for the time taken to respond. Kind wishes to you
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I am looking for recent research on "functional addicts or alcoholics" who are still employed and went through out-patient treatment. I does not have to be published work, it could be internal outcome studies. In particular, I am interested in job retention or mental health outcome measures.
Any pointers or papers are much appreciated.
kind regards
Oliver
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Thank you Bryan
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RG has given the options to Recommend, Follow, & Share but some members prefer to follow by comments like following, nice question, interesting etc etc. I couldn't understand the reason, please share your opinion.
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I click 'recommend' and 'follow' after I read/quote other scholars paper/journal to acknowledge their work and it is politely means I thank you to them for sharing the ideas/information plus I wanted to know what on their next research for me to keep learning. Except for those doesn't wish their paper to be acknowledged via Research Gate.
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Please suggest free or one-time-payment website-blocking programs (for an individual) that you can put a password on .
I already use Qustodio.com but I need an additional program when Qustodio is disabled.
I found salfeld.com and tueagles.com but I don't know if they're reliable or not.
K9 used to cause technical problems for me in the past and I can't find their contact info now
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You can use OpenDNS Family Shield - can block categories and individual websites at the router level. It is free.
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Psihologija (www.psihologijajournal.org.rs) is a scholarly open access, no fee, peer-reviewed journal published quarterly. It is currently referenced in the Social Sciences Citation Index (SSCI).
As a journal mainly focusing on psychology, neuroscience and psychiatry, Psihologija calls for papers related to all aspects of Internet, digital media, smartphones and other technology use that could lead to potentially detrimental mental health effects. Original research and review articles about specific models and theories, definition, classification, assessment, epidemiology, co-morbidity and treatment options, focusing mainly on, although not limited to:
· Internet gaming
· Internet gambling
· Excessive social media/networks use
· Online dating, cyber-relationships/sex and pornography
· Excessive online information collection
· Cyberbullying
· Smartphones, tablets and other technology use.
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Giovanni Portuesi & Duane A Lundervold great! Definitely good articles are needed! Will be happy to provide more details if needed!
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What should musicians’ health education sound like? The floor is yours!
Workshops funded by Realab and the IMR
Wednesday, 19 September OR Monday, 24 September 2018 | 11.30 AM, Royal Northern College of Music (RNCM), Manchester, UK
Tuesday, 25 September OR Saturday, 29 September 2018 | 11.30 AM
Institute of Musical Research, Senate House, London, UK
The physical and psychological demands of the training and practice that musicians must achieve to perform to a high standard can produce deleterious effects on their health and wellbeing. However, music conservatoires still endorse practices that are informed by tradition more than evidence, while health literacy and critical thinking are still not embedded in music students’ core training. Finally, there are no guidelines or regulations regarding what conservatoires should provide in terms of health education.
We want to address that AND we need your help!
We invite psychologists (both researchers and practitioners, from any specialism and not restricted to those who work with musicians) to join us in this discussion! We have prepared comprehensive lists of topics and we shall discuss their relevance and priority in small groups. Additionally, we will brainstorm ideas about what other topics might be needed as part of the conservatoires’ curricula.
Places are free, but limited. While we prioritise psychologists (due to the nature of our task and topic focus), we also welcome:
- Health professionals working with musicians
- Philosophers (yes, yes! We’d also like to discuss cognitive biases and logical fallacies!)
- Cognitive scientists
- Specialists in music education
- PhD students in any of the topics above
Please note the same workshop will be held four times. Please choose only one and register your interest here: https://mmu.onlinesurveys.ac.uk/musicians-health-education-workshop-sept-2018
For any queries, please contact the organisers: Raluca Matei, AHRC-funded PhD student in music psychology: raluca.matei@student.rncm.ac.uk | +44 757 061 2760 OR
Keith Phillips, PhD student in music psychology: keith.phillips@student.rncm.ac.uk
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Generally speaking musicians are no different to other professionals working in creative or stressful (performance) settings and so their health education requirements will be little different and should cover issues such as
- mind/body interaction
- stress and its management
- healthy lifestyle
- mental health
- help seeking
- etc etc
However, there may be one or two very specific issues
- e.g. specific stresses of performance e.g. critical solos. Mindfulness or cognitive approaches, exercise, yoga etc could all be helpful
- working in orchestras etc with strong personalities, dealing with demanding colleagues - materials on dealing the difficult people work well
- hearing damage from exposure to peak noise from instruments such as brass
I would suggest the best approach is a quick literature review, consultation with colleagues (you have many experts in regional universities), and then a brainstorm of the musician specific issues. In combination this should give you a good platform. Finally I should add that mention should be made of the health benefits of music participation as this is also an important aspect.
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Dear colleagues,
I am collecting feedback on the idea that the multi- and inter-disciplinary character of the problem gambling research is stronger and larger that thought. The pg research remained even from its early stage in the exclusive custody of the biomedical and social sciences (what M. Griffiths (1991) called “the psychobiology" of problem gambling). A first issue arises when realizing that these sciences are empirical. Does the pg also need theoretical research? Should the potential of the modern neurosciences – for instance – be exploited? A second issue is that, within the current empirical setup, the only results of the research seem to be in taxonomy and etiology. How do treatment and prevention advance with no theoretical disciplines – such as mathematics – fully involved? How it is that we investigate gambling addiction with the same tools and concepts we use for smoking addiction?
These questions relate to my current project posted here:
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I am planning a study-project on emotionregulation and the bodily experience (bodily maps of emotions) of drug addicts. I am not sure, if I can mix useres of cannabis and useres of ecstasy for example in my sample. So I'm looking for literature/studies, wheather there are differences between users of stimulant drugs versus useres of sedating drugs regarding emotionregulation and/or the experience of emotions. I'm happy about any hints!
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Addiction may begin with attitudes towards addiction in early years. There was a time when, e.g., the Swedish king asked people to grow their own tobacco in their gardens! Here our take on attitudes in schools:
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Hello,
I am planning a humble research project about an online group of self help (mutual aid). I would like to know about some serious experience (or bibliographical reference) about this kind of online group. I know how these groups work face to face but not much online. I mean groups for support to other members in certain circumstances. For instance people with no common disorders could get in touch with other patients in the other corner of the world because it is not easy for them the contact face to face (for the distance). Thanks for reading!
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In his classic book, The Theory and Practice of Group Psychotherapy, Yalom (2005) discussed internet support groups and their effectiveness. These groups can "take the form of synchronous, real-time groups...or asynchronous groups, in which members post messages and comments, like a bulletin board." (p. 520). These groups can be professionally directed or self-directed.
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I am searching for Psychotherapy Single case Archives (for example the single case archive in Gent)
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There is a Single Case Archive at http://singlecasearchive.com/
Rutgers University has a Pragmatic Case Archives at http://pcsp.libraries.rutgers.edu/index.php/pcsp/issue/archive
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Hi, I'm conducting an investigation on internet addiction, measured with IAT (Internet Addiction Test) by Young. I've done most part of the results but would like some feedback on the tests I've chosen and if they are indeed correct. 
So in overall the variables I've used are
Age - continuous 
Sex - nominal
Relationship status - single, married, "together"
Internet use for: Games - Never/Low/Medium/High
Internet use for: Social networks - Never/Low/Medium/High
Recreational time spent online a day - Less then 1/1-2/2-5/5-8/8+
NEO-FFI - personality
BSI - depression, hostility, anxiety and social problems
and finally IAT
For the most part I've used T-Tests for sex, age, relationship. And Pearson Correlation for IAT and BSI; for IAT and use of games, social networks and time spent online. Then partial correlation controlling time spent. 
And finally a multiple hierarchical regression. Block 1 - all the demographic and questions of use and time. Block 2 - personality. The problem with this one is that some of the groups go as low as 14 individuals. For example on the use of social networks only 14 never use them. 
Thank you
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Non parametric ANOVA
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Does it matter if given by a first responder or lay person?
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In places of acceptance of using narcan in addiction treatment narcan  may well be administered by a lay person. Regulations and laws seem to vary widely among countries.  The availability of nasal  administration may help.   
In a far as  attitudes may possibly impact rebound , yes to your question, but location or administrator credentials would obviously not impact the chemistry. Earlier timing may in effect  be life saving..
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Various forms of entrainment are being incorporated into treatment modalities, but only limited and dated empirical data is offered. My question is, what significant effect may these therapies have, do they impact glutamate receptors to influence or balance the relationship between serotonin and domaine transmitters, improve distribution, address CREBS and Delta-FosB protein alterations, or improve plasticity? Is there influence in pathway generation, or alteration of dendritic spines - these are some of the claims made by providers.
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There is excellent research on neural and pharmacological aspects of addiction. please see proceedings of last three years of addiction therapy and education conferences by OMICS  
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Dear all,
We are conducting a systematic review and meta-analysis on the best, evidence-based, available treatments for patients diagnosed with nail biting (onychophagia).
Could you help us to find studies and research on the pharmacological and psychotherapeutic treatment of these patients?
Many thanks in advance,
Julio
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I do research in the fields of management and organizational behavior, but I became interested in conditioned reflex recently. The only impression and knowledge I have is Pavlov and Skinner's classical experiments. I hope to find some good materials to help me understand CR deeper in any related research fields or subjects. Thanks!
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most important and relevant for psychotherapy is discovery of neuroplasticity in neuroscience-refers to capacity of the brain to make changes in its own internal biology  as part of any learning experience-and principles which govern these changes-  you can find references to research in the book by Dr. James Zull,THEART OF CHANGING THE BRAIN, and my book, NEUROPLASTICITY-BIOLOGYOF PSYCHOTHERAPY..
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I am using a metric that takes a one time measure, but asks subjects to rate their past behavior numerically, their current behavior numerically, and their intended future behavior numerically.
Since past and current behaviors are not the same as intended behaviors in the future. What is the best way to compare the two?
Additionally, the measure is taking on the day of the treatment (a presentation of risk perception) and is designed as such-
Pre (#) Current (#) Future (#), with an anticipated change between the current and future categories, if the treatment is effective. However comparing current behaviors to future intent seems like a inefficient way to measure effectiveness. The metric is deployed in a quasi-experimental capacity as part of a mandatory program and thus has no control (other than the pre and current.
I have two problems- First, how best (statistically) to get the most out of this design. Second, I may need to redesign the measure entirely (I inherited it from my predecessor), what suggestions do you have about design?
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Empowerment
Psychiatric (addiction) healthcare
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I'd probably recommend looking at material that discusses harm reduction in the context of substance abuse, as that tends to focus on empowering drug users so that they can identify risk and try to minimise it in their drug-taking behaviour. The harm reduction approach also makes it easier for people to slowly access recovery/rehabilitation services on their own time, empowering them to make their own decisions about what is right for them and when.
Some articles that may be a useful starting point:
Substance abuse professionals attitudes regarding harm reduction versus traditional interventions for injecting drug users. Bonar, Erin E. ; Rosenberg, Harold. Addiction Research & Theory, 2010, Vol.18(6), p.692-707.
Empowering the disempowered: harm reduction with racial/ethnic minority clients. Blume, Arthur W. ; Lovato, Laura V. Marlatt, G. Alan ; Tatarsky, Andrew. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 2010, Vol.66(2), pp.189-200
Harm reduction by a “user-run” organization: A case study of the Vancouver Area Network of Drug Users (VANDU). Kerr, Thomas ; Small, Will ; Peeace, Wallace ; Douglas, David ; Pierre, Adam ; Wood, Evan. International Journal of Drug Policy, 2006, Vol.17(2), pp.61-69
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What is a good metric for measuring consequences and problems from substance use? Is the PFSU scale (1999) still utilized and if not, what are some good ways to measure problems related to substance use?
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Dear Austin,
The Addiction Severity Index - ASI (McLellan, 1980) is a semi-structured interview for substance abuse assessment and treatment planning.
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I am interested in collaborating with other clinicians/ researchers regarding creative / new / effective (either / or) ACT techniques (metaphors, breathing, exercises, rituals, etc) for application in clinical practice with patients with Chronic Pain.
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Milton Erickson used metaphors in his naturalistic hypnosis to control severe pain.
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I'm looking for studies with a psychodynamics approach using the IIP. Our study is an RCT testing movement (exercise) as additional therapy for alcohol use disorder.
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 Dear Beatrice,
Thank you for your answer. I have met the Norwegian Group but not the paper from Belgium. 
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There are many treatments which treat drug abuse like Therapeutic Community, other than that which is better?
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A helpful resource is a book entitled, "The Heart and Soul of Change" edited by Duncan, Miller, Wampold, & Hubble (2010). The editors and contributors make a compelling case that common factors (e.g., therapeutic relationship/alliance, collaboration in goal setting, hope, empathy, etc.) are far more important than specific factors (i.e., techniques and interventions associated with treatment models such as CBT, MI, or 12 Step Facilitation). A chapter devoted to substance abuse and dependence treatment summarizes research from Project MATCH, COMBINE, and the Cannabis Youth Treatment Study and conclude, essentially, that all treatments are equally effective. My takeaway - Treatment effectiveness hinges less on which treatment is provided and more on establishing a collaborative relationship, seeking feedback about the effectiveness of interventions, and altering the treatment course based on the feedback.
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The particular research study am conducting research about the efficacy of the “strengths” component in treatment plans for substance abuse, particularly with adolescents. My research  focuses on 2 areas:
When and why did the inclusion of “strengths” in the treatment plan begin?
What research is out there to show if it is helping with outcomes or not?
I was wondering if anyone could point me in the direction of resources?
Many thanks
Christine Rhodes
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Hi Christine,
In addition to the AA (Alcoholic Anonymous) model and the CBT (Cognitive-behavioral therapy) approaches to the treatment of substance-related disorders, there are strengths-based approaches such as motivational interviewing (MI) and solution-focused brief therapy (SFBT), etc. They attempt to elicit the client's motivation, cooperation, and strengths from the very beginning in the treatment process. Please see the following links.
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Information to clarify the Moral Theory in addressing why people use and abuse drugs and other illicit substances. Based on research by Le Moal and Koob 2007  
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Perhaps it is all very simple - people would not take drugs if the drugs did not make them "feel better" when they take them (conditioning/learning). If that is so then these people (who take drugs) do so to experience positive emotions and avoid negative emotions. Our brains are wired in such a way as the ensure our survival (and the survival of the species) by maximising positive (feeling good) emotions and minimising negative (feeling bad) emotions. Perhaps at the end of the day it is all about conditioning - and not necessarily a "medical" (illness) condition. Comments?
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I am searching for research supporting AA 12-step meetings during college years for those diagnosed with substance use disorders.
Thanks.
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Thank you Margaret.
The students I am referring are in a safe collegiate recovery program that includes a residence hall that is substance free. They are all in recovery and are required to attend meetings and have a sponsor. I am searching for evidence-based research that supports the requirements or presents alternative evidence.
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As our study is looking for someone who overuse their smartphone, and we try to let them experience a period which can reduce their overuse habit.But somehow,  less some previours research, don't know 'how long' will much appropriate? what's name of the withdrawal addition process? can this process modified and apply to smartphone users?  Wish you can help us , and please provide some evidences and literatures. thanks a lot!!!
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Thanks Prof  Lewis,Prof  Susana  and Prof John!
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Games of chance have a mathematical nature besides their entertainment features. They are so designed for the house to never loose over the long run and this design is the result of working on the mathematical models that the games represent. If (applied) mathematics did not exist, games of chance would not exist and therefore games of chance are mathematical games by nature.
There is a strong trend of the p-g research from its very beginning to focus on the biological part of the problem (having the individual as subject) in a social context and ignore the mathematical nature of the game. I say “ignore” in the sense of not exploiting at maximum such nature in the relation of the gambler with the game s/he plays. Such trend is explainable due to professional practice and habitual reasons (a psychologist would definitely be more open to collaborate with a psychiatrist, a chemist or a medical doctor instead of with a mathematician), however my concern is on the side of the results on prevention and treatment of gambling addiction, which are still poor:
As far as I know, in any addiction there is an individual and an object the individual is addicted to. Therefore any solution of preventing and treating that addiction should employ the results of the studies on both the individual and the object, but also on their interaction. This is my logic of a non-psychologist. Take the example of smoking addiction: the object has a certain design, structure and content, based on materials of a chemical nature; say it is a chemical object. Smoking-addiction research employed such chemical nature of its object, along with that of the individual. Why then p-g research does not employ the mathematical nature of its object? Introducing electronic cigarettes succeeded in eliminating some harmful effects of the smoking, possibly with potential of curing the addiction in certain circumstances. Such introduction affected the nature of the object as perceived by the smoker. Why do not think it is possible that an enhanced mathematical treatment can do a similar introduction in the way gamblers perceive the game? When I say “enhanced” I refer to a treatment beyond the classical delivery of plain curricular mathematical knowledge to gamblers, which proven ineffective, but focused more on the real relation between mathematics and the gambling reality and the perception of such relation.
So my question is straight: why the mathematical side is ignored and researchers continue to deal exclusively with substances, drugs, brain and social conditions, since researches of other addictions do not ignore the nature of their objects? In anticipating the answers, I assume as right my premise that all object, individual and their entire relation must be explored and employed for finding the adequate path to successful prevention and treatment; under this logic I cannot accept the results of the studies saying that mathematical (didactical) interventions were useless as a reason for moving the focus on the other side (the non-mathematical side). So, my question turns into: why would my logic be wrong?
Thank you for your time.
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Hi Catalin, 
Your question is very thoughtful. Researchers studying behavioral economics have indeed tried to address more of the "mathematical" nature behind the problem. The idea of probabilistic discounting is in line with what you are proposing, I think. Check out the attached article. I would also make the argument that behavior analysts strongly emphasize the importance of the person's environment or the nature of the games. 
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I'm interested in SAST (or any version.. SAST-R etc.) in language other than English and Polish.
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Thanks gals and guys!
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Hi all, I need some related studies in regard of "empowering family and community of drug addicts" to be reviewed. I need to know what have been done on this topic and what is needed to be done in the new researches; specifically, researches conducted in Malaysia. Indeed, I need to find the gaps. I have searched for it but I could not find many of them. Only a few ones!
Would you please let me know if you have already done a similar research or have a similar paper in your archives?
Your assistance is greatly appreciated.
Regards,
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Dear Farimah,
     I have published a number of papers on this subject.  I have attached one.  Others are posted at www.williamwhitepapers.com
Bill
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I am preparing a research project on willpower as it relates to its use by recovering alocholic men. Willpower is a finite resource in the human brain fueled by glucose. I need to know how long it takes for a set of neurons to use glucose when it is made available in the blood stream. I am particularly interested in any glucose depletion studies or other psychometrics that might trace the expenditure of glucose by neurons.
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Maybe this will also help: http://www.diapedia.org/metabolism/brain-glucose-metabolism they say: ~100 g/day of glucose in a 70 kg individual. No direct mention of linearity but you might find something in their references
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I agree that the choice of self-medication might have some genetic relationship to that of the parents because what works for them might also work for the offspring, but the reason for needing self-medication has a lot more to do with overwhelming experiences in very early childhood and the lack of models for how to cope with them.  I have a sense that something very complex is being reduced to an overly simplistic model.  Also where does nicotine exposure come in, both prenatally (passive and active) and growing up.  Are you counting nicotine use in the model?
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Since you are not one of the PIs could you forward this question to someone who can answer it?
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Thanks in advance for your replies.
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I worked voluntarily with an adult chronic alcoholic when the services seemed to fail him and attitudes in the hospitals etc were harmful. I simply worked a motivational program whereby he felt it safe to move from behind the mask of addiction. Harrowing but sober now eight years.
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I would like to know if any study has shown the psychological effect, positive or negative, of the viewership of socially deviant behavior and desire to indulge in similar activities.
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There have been a number of studies by various governments around the world on the effects of media upon sexual acting out that have shown that there is no relationship between pornography consumption and sexually acting out. There is a United States government study on violence in the media and engaging in violence that has had the same result. It seems as thought there is a barrier within some people about acting out their desires/interests and others who will violate that proclivity. We know very little about that difference. 
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I am a 6th year Clinical Psychology graduate student (PsyD) that is currently working on finishing my dissertation proposal, but am having some trouble finding recent research (5-10 years - or even any research from 2002 and up) on my population. My research method & approach is qualitative/phenomenological. I want to go about things from a Positive Psychology framework, therefore, I will be exploring other factors within population such as resiliency, Posttraumatic Growth (PTG theory), & protective/risk factors etc. Any and all answers & comments are greatly appreciated. Thanks!!
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The National Scientific Council on the Developing Child is a working group based at Harvard doing extensive work in examining resilience for adverse childhood events in general.  This includes the chaotic home environments that can be experienced by children of parents with substance use issues, rather than specific adverse experiences.  The research focuses on the mechanisms of resilience and how to promote resilience in children; however, the findings are equally relevent for adults.  
Individuals need strong social interaction, coping and stress management skill sets, as well as warm, supportive relationships to navigate life and thrive. Individuals growing up in homes with substance abuse and many other parental challenges often do not receive adequate warmth and nurturing within their family of origin because of the ways that parental substance use alter family systems.  Adaptive social interaction and coping skills are frequently absent in adult children of substance users as well, as the opportunities to learn those skills from parents can be infrequent or absent.  
Through supportive mentoring relationships through work, education, softball leagues, what have you, as well as counseling and various other experiences adults can build these skills and capacities over time and be resilient.
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Is there a reliable instrument for this purpose?
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You could try using the Treatment Motivation Questionnaire (Ryan, Plant 1995) It was normed on a community sample of adult drinkers and divides motivation into several domains; internal motivation, external motivation, confidence and help seeking
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I am mainly interested in the "third wave" of CBT but am certainly open to other approaches.  One challenge is that as a counselor I cannot set policy nor greatly restructure groups, though I can modify mine or add a new group (with approval.)  Therefore, being able to easily gain any needed training and incorporate into existing programs would be preferable.
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Seeking Safety, a book by Lisa Najavits, if definitely worth checking out if you haven't already. The book specifically addresses substance abuse/PTSD co-occurrence and suggested treatment. 
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I welcome suggestions for improving both DNA rates and drop outs within addiction services.
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I dont know if this is of much help. I was part in putting out a special issue of Nordic Journal of Alcohol and Drug. It is social Scientific scholars that writes in the special issue... Here is a link to the issue:
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I am searching for the efficacy of non-pharmacological methods for methamphetamine dependency.
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There is a dearth of outcome data for all treatment modalities for all substance use disorders.  That said, the general consensus of clinicians IN THE UNITED STATES is against substitution (medication) therapy for stimulants (cocaine, methamphetamine, methylphenidate, d-amphetimine, a-amphetimine, dextroamphetamine, e.g. all DOPAMINE upregulators).  [In response to Dr. Rich's comment, I think the original question was aimed at stopping individuals from using methamphetamine using non-medicinal means.  Yes methamphetamine can induce psychosis, but clinicians can stop this not by treating psychosis directly but by trying to get meth users to stop using it.]  So, for clinicians wanting to take an abstinence-based approach, it seems that "talk therapy" like CBT and support-group therapy like 12-step programs (NA, AA, CA, etc) have shown success - but only anecdotally - we don't really know how effective these modalities are and for which patients they work, and how well they work, in achieving long-term remission from methamphetamine (stimulant) use disorders.  I think that, like with all substance use disorders, the best results will be obtained by keeping patients in long-term outpatient treatment following intensive residential treatment.  As Dr. Buttfield said "support" is the key, whatever the particular structure of a pt's aftercare plan.  Given how little real outcome data we have, the best strategy is probably to apply all available treatment modalities and hope that something helps.  But the *anecdotal* results so far are not terribly encouraging; most pts with stimulant use disorders have great difficulty achieving remission for any meaningful period of time.  In other words, the average Px for a pt presenting with stimulant use disorder is not terribly auspicious.  
For now, it seems that the only two viable non-medicinal treatments are direct therapy (CBT or otherwise) and mutual support therapy (12 step or other group therapy approaches).  I really hope that more treatment modalities will be developed for patients suffering from stimulant use disorder.  Remember also that most SUD patients have high comorbidity with other psychiatric disorders (which contribute to the difficulty of achieving absence/remission) -- it is important to Dx and Tx these as well as SUD itself.  
A final comment on the Karila et al article cited above, which reviews medicinal/pharmacological Tx (Rx) treatments.  There are really three types of strategies in medication, and I think it is important to categorize potential medications as such (1) "blockers" - e.g. medications that stop the stimulant from acting, such as naltrexone.  The problem with naltrexone, which works very well with both opioids and alcohol and has shown promise with stimulants, is PATIENT NON-COMPLIANCE.  Patients may take the medication during a study, but often will stop in conjunction with resuming use.  As such, it is not really a treatment, except in long-acting forms such as the monthly IV injection of naltrexone (Vivitrol in the US, manufactured by Alkermes).  The problem with this, again, is that patients will often decline to take medication that blocks the psychoactive effects of the substance they want to use.  Blocking strategies have had weak results so far EXCEPT in conjunction with rigorous aftercare programs, such as those required of physicians in recovery and pharmacists in recovery.
 (2) "Mitigating medications".  In my opinion, these show the most promise.  Bupropion, for example, is a very WEAK stimulant (and antidepressant and anxiolytic in some patients) - and if it can provide enough dopamine/norepinephrine/adrenaline upregulation that a patient will resist the urge to use a much stronger stimulant, then it is BY FAR a better alternative 
(3) substitution (harm reduction).  As Karila et al note, substitution with d-amphetamine, a STRONG stimulant, logically shows promise.  However, as with any substitution strategy, the patient remains dependent on a substitute stimulant with dangerous morbidity - but which may arguably be substantially less harmful than dependence on methamphetamine.  The Karila review, written in 2010, concludes "Despite the lack of success in most studies to date, increasing efforts are being made to develop medications for the treatment of methamphetamine dependence and several promising agents are targets of further research."  I am unaware of any such compounds emerging as likely candidates for medicinal treatment in the past several years.  
Furthermore, LONG-TERM COMPLIANCE is something that is rarely studied in the RCTs cited by Karila.  Unfortunately, there seems to be an inverse relationship between the effectiveness (measured in terms of pt quality of life) and pt compliance on medication.  With a blocking strategy, you get LOW LONG TERM COMPLIANCE, and with a strong-substitution strategy, you get much higher compliance (naturally) but then you are really just switching the patient from methamphetamine to a stimulant with less deleterious effects, while you try to keep the dose at a steady level (very difficult given rapid tolerance and relatively flat dose-response curves of many stimulant-substitution alternatives).  I am personally (subjectively) much more optimistic about opioid substitution therapy than I am about stimulant substation therapy for that reason -- but I have no data to  back up this conjecture.  
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I am interested in substance-induced psychosis, and was wondering if anyone has come across measures of psychosis in this population that can be conducted based on individual recall, i.e. when the person is no longer psychotic. 
Has anyone used the BPRS or PANSS in this manner before? Any comments on their utility/validity in this population?
Would appreciate any help anyone can offer.
Regards,
Shalini.
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I tend to agree with Aida in that both the PANSS & BPRS are used to determine the severity of symptoms that are present when the tests are being administered. In my opinion, retrospective use of these tests based on recall should not be used as this will lead to a lot of ambiguity and patients might not necessarily be able to recall all aspects of what these questionnaires seek to determine.
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The Dot-Probe task has been widely used in research on affective disorder and addiction in human subjects.  Briefly, the subject has to choose one of two buttons to indicate in which of two locations a dot appears, where the two locations are jointly preceded by presentation of drug/spider etc image on one side, and a neutral image on the other.  The latency to respond to the side contralateral to the clinically-relevant image is interpreted as a measure of attentional bias.
I'm wondering if anyone has developed a task like this for rodents, to see whether presentation of a drug-conditioned CS+ in a spatial part of the animal's environment delays/distracts an operant response unrelated to the drug in another spatial location.
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Dear James,
Neurobiol Learn Mem. 1995 Mar;63(2):116-32.
Spatial working and reference memory in rats bred for autonomic sensitivity to cholinergic stimulation: acquisition, accuracy, speed, and effects of cholinergic drugs. Bushnell PJ, Levin ED, Overstreet DH.
....This study was conducted to determine whether the selected differences in cholinergic autonomic sensitivity would be expressed as differences in cognitive ability based on choice accuracy in appetitive tasks. The working and reference memory of rats of these two strains was thus assessed using operant delayed matching-to-position/visual discrimination (DMTP/VD) and the radial-arm maze. A Long-Evans (L-E) reference group was included in the DMTP/VD study.----
J Exp Anal Behav. 2014 Nov;102(3):346-52. .
Responding by exclusion in Wistar rats in a simultaneous visual discrimination task. Felipe de Souza M, Schmidt A.
Selective cognitive deficits in adult rats after prenatal exposure to inhaled ethanol. shiro WM et al. 2014
The effects of acute pharmacological stimulation of the 5-HT, NA and DA systems on the cognitive judgement bias of rats in the ambiguous-cue interpretation paradigm. ygula R, Papciak J, Popik P. ur Neuropsychopharmacol. 2014 Jul;24(7):1103-11
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At the 2014 Neuroscience Meeting in Washington, it was presented a research on smoking that shows that mixing the smell of tobacco simultaneously with an unpleasant odor during sleep, was a powerful stimulus to quit. This effect was most intense during the stage 2 of sleeping. 
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I am strongly agree with the answers/discussions of Prof.Mahmoud Omid, Prof.Krishnan Umachandran, & Prof.Kamal Eddin Bani-Hani. 
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I am preparing for a review/conceptual paper that summarizes lessons learned from a 10-year longitudinal study on different forms of using psychoactive substances (alcohol, tobbacco, cannabis, hallucinogenes, entactogenes etc.). We have already published a number of empirical papers from this study (RISA).
1. What I want to do in this paper is to review the conceptual and methodological basis of research on drug use patterns (which has a strong bias on addictive and destructive forms of use).
2. And I'd like to make a proposal on how to define positive or beneficial forms of use and conduct research on these. It's not about denying negative effects, but about another aspect of reality.
Which proposals would you like to share about researching non-addictive/non-destructive forms of drug use? What should I consider?
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Hi Henrik,
Perhaps you could consider the use of psychoactive substances in a hedonic management point of view. This means that the use of substances is considered in a hedonic management system, among other means of hedonic management that are competing in the system. If we consider the whole range of addictions, with or without substances (behavioral addictions), and interpersonal addictions, it is clear that the use of psychoactive substances is an addiction among others.
From there, it is possible to analyze the hedonic management system of the individual and its dynamics over time. Conventionally, three parameters can be considered:
  1. salience of different hedonic solutions used by the person;
  2. variety of hedonic solutions in the system;
  3. vicariousness, that is to say, how easily the person may replace a hedonic solution by another one.
These three parameters are used to describe two extreme theoretical hedonic systems:
1) non-pathological hedonic system:
  • all hedonic solutions of the system have low salience, there is no more salient hedonic solution than the other ;
  • the hedonic system includes a high variety of available hedonic solutions;
  • the person can easily replace a hedonic solution by another when a particular hedonic solution is no longer available.
2) pathological hedonic system:
  • the hedonic system tends to focus on a hedonic monopoly, with one or two hedonic solutions that are salient in the system at the detriment of other alternative hedonic solutions;
  • the hedonic system includes a poor variety of available hedonic solutions;
  • the person can hardly replace a hedonic solution by another when a particular hedonic solution is no longer available, which can result in elevated negative states (withdrawal, frustration, anxiety, depression ...).
Note: In this model, the addictions are considered on a continuum between pathological addictions (extreme) and non-pathological addictions (even positive), everyday life addictions.
From such a model, one can easily imagine, in the context of a non-pathological hedonic system, various recreational or controlled uses of psychoactive substances, when an individual also presents a varied hedonic system and a flexibility and adaptability in the functioning of this system.
Eric
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I am looking for a large number of images of cigarettes, illicit drugs, alcohol, and gambling for an upcoming study.
Specifically, images of the target items themselves (e.g. an image of burning cigarette or an image of a mug of beer). 
Preferably, stimulus sets will have been used in prior research.
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There seems to be such a set for smoking cues, which also includes
tested neutral pictures:
  • Gilbert, D. G., & Rabinovich, N. E. (1999). International smoking image
series (with neutral counterparts), version 1.2. Carbondale, Integrative
Neuroscience Laboratory, Department of Psychology, Southern Illinois
University.
For drinking/alcohol there is a specific set called "The
Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures" (GAAP), as described in Billieux et al. (2011). The pictures are avaiable in the Supplementary Material of the Publication on the original publisher's website (http://www.karger.com/Article/FullText/328046).
Stritzke et al. (2004) is another interesting paper about such drinking and smoking cues from what the authors call the "Normative Appetitive Picture System". However, I found no newer information about this system or how you get access to the picture set.
Additionally, you could of course use pictures from the International
Affective Pictures System (IAPS) (Lang et al., 2008), which have been used in lots of different experiments. But you would have to go through the set and see how many of them you can use. You will not be able to use many of them, but a few could be interesting for your project.
You can find a link to send in a request to get access to the IAPS pictures
References:
  • Billieux, J., Khazaal, Y., Oliveira, S., De Timary, P., Edel, Y., Zebouni, F., ... & Van der Linden, M. (2011). The Geneva Appetitive Alcohol Pictures (GAAP): Development and Preliminary Validation. European addiction research, 17(5), 225-230.
  • Lang, P.J., Bradley, M.M., & Cuthbert, B.N. (2008). International affective picture system (IAPS): Affective ratings of pictures and instruction manual. Technical Report A-8. University of Florida, Gainesville, FL.
  • Stritzke, W. G., Breiner, M. J., Curtin, J. J., & Lang, A. R. (2004). Assessment of substance cue reactivity: advances in reliability, specificity, and validity. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(2), 148.
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Current research shows that CBT is very useful in treating clients with depression and/or anxiety. I believe that CBT would be equally successful in the treatment of addictions outside of drug and alcohol, such as gambling, over eating and especially pornography/sex.  I have been assigned a research project where I have to demonstrate that CBT is not a good fit for addiction counseling. So, odd as it may sound, I would certainly  appreciate some advice or recommended sources as to why CBT would not work with this type of counseling.
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I don't see that there is a problem per- sae with using CTB. Cognitive types of therapy can be quite the useful adjunct to JUST substance abuse/psycho- educations, and traditional dependency therapies--including medicinal therapies. I very much prefer to use an eclectic approach to treat ANY types of dependencies, including challenging thought process', because it helps to get to the surface core of triggers, and thinking that leads to behaviors, that lead to using once again
Thanks for listening
Donna
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What are the similarities and differences between Davis (2001) & Young (1998) regarding internet addiction criteria?
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Davis et al. (2002) revealed that problematic Internet use consists of four dimensions: diminished impulse control, loneliness/depression, social comfort, and distraction
Young (1996) found that Internet use in dependents caused moderate to severe problems in their real lives due to their inability to moderate and control use. Yet,  internet itself is not revealed to be addictive. Dependents were less likely to control their use of highly interactive features than other on-line applications. It is possible that the reinforcement of virtual contact with on-line relationships fulfill unmet real life social needs.
Both researcher stress diminished impulse control and loneliness. Young stresses the clinical aspects of the addiction. She and coworkers study (2014) prefrontal control and internet addiction: a theoretical model and review of neuropsychological and neuroimaging findings.
Front Hum Neurosci. ;8:375. (Brand M, Young KS, Laier C3.)
Young et al. put forward that in particular executive control prefrontal functions are related to symptoms of Internet addiction.
Since there are many theories on internet addiction I recommend you to check out an overview such as:
Effect of social support on depression of internet addicts and the mediating role of loneliness. He F, Zhou Q, Li J, Cao R, Guan H. Int J Ment Health Syst. 2014
Internet addiction in young people. Ong SH, Tan YR. Ann Acad Med Singapore. 2014 Jul;43(7):378-82.
Internet Addiction among Iranian Adolescents: a Nationwide Study. Ahmadi K. Acta Med Iran. 2014 Jun;52(6):467-72.
Comorbidity of psychiatric disorders with Internet addiction in a clinical sample: The effect of personality, defense style and psychopathology. Floros G, Siomos K, Stogiannidou A, Giouzepas I, Garyfallos G. Addict Behav. 2014 Aug 8;39(12):1839-1845
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I am looking for articles or research that will aid in a psychodynamic understanding of addiction, especially in individuals diagnosed with bipolar disorder.
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There is no date. You can use it and write n.d. instaed of the year.
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I am looking for an instrument to measure the change in the treatment of relatives of alcohol and/or substance addicted patients, who go through individual or family psychotherapy at our clinic.
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Dear Jarmila,
I have only used a German translation of the Scala of Farrington to identify the Stockholm syndrome, to evaluate identifications with the aggressor in case reports.
greetings
Egon
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The biggest problem of recovering alcoholics may be relapse.
'A controlled relapse' may comprise and/or consists of a conscious decision and/or execution of 'an induced relapse''.
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Dear Tobias,
Empirical date demonstrate that controlled relapse is a rare exception. A relapse leads to an increasing craving for alcohol and to an accelerated development of addiction. Alcohol addiction is a chronically relapsing disorder characterized by loss of control over intake and dysregulation of stress-related brain emotional systems.
look at:
1: Hopf FW, Lesscher HM. Rodent models for compulsive alcohol intake. Alcohol.
2014 May;48(3):253-264. doi: 10.1016/j.alcohol.2014.03.001. Epub 2014 Mar 27.
Review. PubMed PMID: 24731992.
2: Zorrilla EP, Logrip ML, Koob GF. Corticotropin releasing factor: a key role in
the neurobiology of addiction. Front Neuroendocrinol. 2014 Apr;35(2):234-44. doi:
10.1016/j.yfrne.2014.01.001. Epub 2014 Jan 20. Review. PubMed PMID: 24456850.
3: Gilpin NW. Corticotropin-releasing factor (CRF) and neuropeptide Y (NPY):
effects on inhibitory transmission in central amygdala, and anxiety- &
alcohol-related behaviors. Alcohol. 2012 Jun;46(4):329-37. doi:
10.1016/j.alcohol.2011.11.009. Epub 2012 May 4. Review. PubMed PMID: 22560367;
PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3613993.
4: Logrip ML, Koob GF, Zorrilla EP. Role of corticotropin-releasing factor in
drug addiction: potential for pharmacological intervention. CNS Drugs. 2011
Apr;25(4):271-87. doi: 10.2165/11587790-000000000-00000. Review. PubMed PMID:
21425881; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC3273042.
5: Koob GF. The role of CRF and CRF-related peptides in the dark side of
addiction. Brain Res. 2010 Feb 16;1314:3-14. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.11.008.
Epub 2009 Nov 11. Review. PubMed PMID: 19912996; PubMed Central PMCID:
PMC2819562.
6: Koob GF. Brain stress systems in the amygdala and addiction. Brain Res. 2009
Oct 13;1293:61-75. doi: 10.1016/j.brainres.2009.03.038. Epub 2009 Mar 28. Review.
PubMed PMID: 19332030; PubMed Central PMCID: PMC2774745.
greetings
Egon
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Is there an addiction component of the routined behavior, including the decisional behavior? We act daily less or more in routine, we think and make decisons by routine. Can we say that we are somehow addicted to routine? If this is true, this addiction would potentate any other specific addiction, as an addiction implies routine as repetitive behavior and so on. Where do we draw the line between pathological and Pavlovian in routine?
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Routines and addictions share a degree of automaticity, but the latter are highly motivated habits that can become compulsive. Thus, brushing your teeth is a routine, but this does not activate neural reward circuitry in the mesolimbic dopaminergic system and orbital frontal cortex (unless your toothpaste has some unusual added ingredients). One major theory ( Robinson & Berridge's 1993 incentivisation model) posits that stimuli present when rewards are evoked acquire motivational properties (ie, become incentives) through classical conditioning. These become salient, grab attention and contribute to cycles of compulsive drug use or gambling. By virtue of repetition this becomes increasingly automatic- as indeed is attentional engagement- and evades cognitive control. Moreover, the reward sensitivity is enduring and contributes to relapse after abstinence.
See also Everitt & Robbins aberrant learning theory for an alternative account of the acquisition of compulsive drug seeking behaviour.
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With the explosion of smartphones, about 10% of Brazilians are digitally addicted. Medicine deepens the study of disorder and announces the emergence of new treatment options, such as specialized rehabilitation clinics.
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It's hard to add something new to the discussion after all these great comments, but I'd like to say that most of the problems related to internet addiction seem to be consistent with any other abuse or obsesive behaviour, as Tomislav suggested. I'm not a psychologist or a physician, but I feel that most of the problems in internet users are related to previous conditions and are a new expression for an old problem.
Internet is a somehow easy way to "escape" from reality (via forums, social networks, etc., where you can be who you want to be), it allows easy denial from your common life; but that's something that could be done with other media and/or addictions.
I certainly feel that some people is really obsessed with internet (e.g. always connected and mobile-dependant even when socializing with people), but I'm not completely sure if that's just bad-manners or real addiction; maybe a bit of both. It's sad, but I also hope that the "novelty" is making the problem more relevant socially (and in the media) than it really is. Maybe when (and if) people grow tired of this "always online" style of life and the sense of novelty fades, the apparent addiction will be reduced so that it'd easier to detect "real" addiction. I find strange that some people can't understand that I switch off my phone when I want to: as I tell them, I own the phone and not vice versa. Maybe I'm weird, but I choose when I want to be connected, to read an email...
Also, I think that it might be useful to relate this internet addiction to videogames addiction and other abusive behaviours within the entertainment & technology industries: I'm guessing that there will be common patterns within the affected people (maybe strong introversion, depression, etc.) and that these technologies give them some kind of (fake) relief, as other addictions would do.
P.S. Sorry for my English.
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Does anyone know about a good body of literature on Losses disguised as wins as it pertains to gambling research? I am looking for some good articles, but have been unsuccessful so far in finding many sources. My search criterion might be lacking.
Any and all help is highly appreciated. Any researchers proficient with the topic?
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Check Dr. Kevin Harrigan' s articles on this topic.
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Food Addiction is receiving a widespread attention from many researchers nowadays. Recently, this trait has been correlated with obesity development. However, there is still debate either on food addiction itself as a trait or the connection to other problems e.g obesity. Any opinions?
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It depends on how you define addiction. If you mean only those things that cause biochemical withdrawal symptoms when they are removed (a narrow but popular definition), then most food products don't fit in that definition. However, if you consider the broader definition of addition - repeatedly doing something even though it may cause harm, then food addition is a valid concept.
Some people have narrowly defined food addition as "binge eating", but that is quite a narrow definition. Assuming you agree with the definition of repeatedly doing something although it may cause harm, then "Food addition" could range from binge eating to constant eating to overeating certain foods to craving and eating only the same narrow set of foods over and over. Each of those can be destructive behaviors but result in different consequences from bulimia to obesity to chronic malnutrition.
The following are some scenarios of "food addition" - people may agree with some and disagree with others.
A obese person who overeats at every meal.
A vegetarian who only eats salads.
A "cookie monster" who just can't stop eating cookies until the whole bag or batch is gone.
A pregnant woman with pica.
A binge eater who then throws up after eating.
I can think of many other scenarios, but what is key here are 2 things we have to remember.
1) These are all disorders that can be dealt with through various means including education or intervention with therapy, drugs, surgery.
2) Each of them represents a unique individual with a unique set of physiological and psychological differences that must be considered in order for the so-called "addiction" to be modified or stopped.
We also have to be careful that we don't label things we don't agree with as "addiction". For example, I frequently hear people talk about how bad a "diet soda addiction" is. This is an example of "I don't LIKE what you are doing so I will give it a negative label". Drinking diet soda is not an addiction, most science shows no harm from drinking low calorie soft drinks. Many people believe overindulgence in diet soft drinks may be harmful, but generally there is no evidence that shows they are in and of themselves harmful. Thus, drinking diet soft drinks does not meet the definition of an addiction.
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Working as a counselor in the addiction field, I am drawn in to an argument that recovering addicts make better addiction counselors than counselors who have not experienced addiction. I am avoiding this direct question in an effort to incorporate a more authentic response and in part preparing a paper with the essence of this question in mind.
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Impact factor has become a specialized term for rating the professional journals. The question may be re-framed replacing impact factor with some other suitable words.
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Has anyone experienced vicarious trauma as a result of their research? Or does anyone have any feedback on how one might overcome it?
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Vicarious trauma is something which has recently (last 10 years or so) received more attention by researchers. Within the counselling field, it is recognised as a potential occupational hazard by those working with end of life patients or victims of trauma and/or abuse. I don't believe it is fully recognised within research design as the ethical guidelines for psychological research tend to focus on client safety rather than researcher safety, making the assumption that researchers have a duty of care to themselves. Unfortunately, I think it is pretty well impossible to know as you go into research within traumatic areas, how it will affect you, and the working assumption for most people is that they will be fine. It therefore comes as a bit of a shock to discover that things are not fine, and more difficult to determine what to do about it, as the trauma does have an impact. I agree with Robert that ethical committees really should consider this aspect of the research when considering ethical approval.
A useful paper to read is "Compassion Stress and the Qualitative Researcher" by Kathleen B. Rager, Qualitative Health Research, March 2005, 423-430. For a good general description of the different forms of emotional impact, I would recommend "Compassion Fatigue: Are you at risk?" by Nancy Jo Bush, in Oncology Nursing Forum, Vol. 36, No.1, January 2009. Here she differentiates between compassion fatigue, vicarious trauma, secondary traumatic stress and burnout, which can all be aspects generally described by people as vicarious trauma.
In terms of what to do about it, the main thing is simply to talk about it with someone who can listen and help you to explore what it is that has been triggered for you emotionally and physically, and how your view of the world has changed. This could be through supervision or with a counsellor or therapist with experience of dealing with trauma. Whilst journalling can help, there is the danger of being re-traumatised as you simply relive rather than transform the experience.
As well as dealing with whatever incident has triggered the reaction, it is also important to put in place things to prevent it happening again. The standard approach to this is to have a debriefing process either through talking with someone after concluding research interviews or transcriptions or through journalling, so that you can leave the material behind. It is also important to ensure there is plenty going on socially and personally as well as within the research work, so that there is balance in life and not too much focus on work.
Perhaps it is comforting to know that the reason it is often called compassion fatigue is because it can be a result of simply caring so much about the people being researched or supported, that the empathic connection becomes overloaded. Part of being able to work in these areas is creating a system of self-protection that allows the connection without the overload, and part of doing that is through your own reflection on your experience.
I hope this helps and good luck with your research!
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Cases that are frequently seen in emergency rooms.
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Here I share my vision on the subject: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=8P89bRGVgz8&feature=plcp
I hope it helps