Science method

Active Learning - Science method

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Thanks for sharing your opinion.
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Dear Maryam Rahimi,
Key barrier to students' creativity and innovation for better learning is the Traditional teaching method, which is teacher-centered, where the process is mainly one-way and where students' active participation and involvement are ignored. If the teacher plays only the role of an educator - to teach knowledge, it prevents students' developing creativity.
When teachers are bound to proceed according to the guidelines of school administration, have to work under pressure with a fixed framework for completing the course contents as stated in the curriculum, enjoying little or no freedom, then it is never possible for them to apply critical thinking strategies for effective learning for their students.
Freedom for the teachers as well as freedom for students are simultaneously important for the growth of students' confidence level, creativity and ensure an environment for innovation for better learning.
I think this attached image helps you.
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Since this semester started, I have been applying (or trying to) several strategies that can be related to that current approach in teaching and learning, known as Flipped Classroom. Particularly I have been trying to apply it to lectures, which have been, in fact, transformed into a space where the contents (and objectives), previously received by students, are discussed, exemplified and, in general, analyzed; even sometimes lectures are transformed into seminar-like activities. I would like to know/discuses other experiences. Would you share yours?
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Proponents of flipped classroom list numerous advantages of inverting teaching and learning in higher education according to the flipped classroom model: it allows students to learn in their own pace, it encourages students to actively engage with lecture material, it frees up actual class time for more effective.
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How can we make education today an education for life, not just for achievement?
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تختلف استراتيجيات العمل بحسب الاهتمام الحكومي من جهة وبوجود متخصصين اكفاء قادرين على مواكبة حركة التطور العلمي المعاصر
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I am interested in the concept of active learning, its related methodologies (PBL, cooperative learning, peer learning) and theories to support it.
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24 December MMXXI
I don't know of any,
and I hope none exists!
Cordially...
ASJ
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I have moved away from asking students in a variety of classes (ethnographic methods, introductions to anthropology as well as advanced courses) to develop unique projects. I have a few reasons for these changes and am interested in learning what others think.
In place of unique projects, I give students short "experiments" where they can apply effort to specific work. For example, in methods, I give students a subject and ask them to develop questions, analyze responses, think about ethics and about what does and does not work. My goal is to teach the conduct of inquiry and it is my belief that regardless of the project, there are some basic skills that will define success. Additionally, anthropological research does not take place in the span of a few weeks--and teaching students they can successfully complete a project in a semester is problematic to say the least. So, my question is how do you manage classes where students are learning methods or applying anthropological concepts? Do you give students free reign to develop a project they are interested in? Do you give students an assigned series of exercises? Or is there an alternative that works for you that I and others can learn from?
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Ethnography can help investigate very complicated or critical design challenges. A ... Ethnography was popularised by anthropology, but is used across a wide ... The aim of an ethnographic study within a usability project is to get 'under the ... As discussed above, ethnographic studies do not always require a long
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  • Hello Active Inference community. We are developing an Active Inference body of knowledge. As part of this educational project, we are now able to share with you the first version of the terms list: https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/d/1sZshsKprHVi123Bgqgj6pb2o_TsrRnhqbHWy2Bz6Y-4/edit?usp=sharing
  • The terms list is a first step towards mapping our domain, and helps us focus our regime of attention towards relevant ideas. This terms list will develop into a more comprehensive ontology, which will facilitate the creation of courses, trainings, translations, and more.
  • We kindly request feedback on this terms list from all perspectives and levels of familiarity with Active Inference. This feedback is vital for us as a participatory Lab & we are really looking forward to hearing everyone's thoughts!
  • In our next actions for this project, we are seeking participants with expertise in Ontology building, even if they are not familiar with Active Inference. If you have any further ideas or questions here, let us know. Thank you.
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I completely agree with Mohammed Saleh Alajmi
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'Students just dont want to study; they are here to waste time!'
I have heard this phrase many times; so are the students solely to be blamed?
We will find many students who just dont seem to have the motivation to learn. So how to solve this problem?
How about asking students to write down their own learning outcomes; what do they want from this Economics course? What ends do they have in mind when they join this program; and then use this input to offer students what they want to learn instead of forcing down topics which they just dont seem to relate closely with?
Look forward to my fellow researcher's valuable inputs in this regard.
Best wishes
Sohaib Siddiqui
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Students at higher levels could be involved in finalizing the learning outcomes, especially for needs-based curriculum. However, I do not think it is a good idea to leave it entirely to students. Instead, they could be made a part of this process.
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For the students to learn actively online during the pandemic, they must understand certain Terms and how to use some Tools for learning to be meaningful. What are your contributions on this ?
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Yeah we must give first orientation class
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everyone knows the importance of knowledge but knowing this too why there is a restriction in getting access to it what is reason behind this.
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Thanks a lot dear professor Madhukar Baburao Deshmukh for your nice view.
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How do we get students to look beyond the surface of an issue?
As an university tutor I often ask questions that require an answer that is more than the question actually asks for. For example an exam question asked for a detailed analysis of the probable increase in electric vehicle use after the UK government moved forward its plan to ban petrol and diesel powered cars to 2030. I wanted them to look beyond the rise in demand and the costs. I wanted to do this so that the students asked the questions about the deeper issues below the surface of the simple opening question I gave them. They need to be able to do this without their teacher constantly pushing them as they progress through their studies. So how do we do this without giving them a list of issues that we feel they should be looking at?
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I think reflection can be a good way to practise seeing beneath surface
Reflecting develops skills in student to review their effectiveness, rather than just carry on doing things. It is about questioning, what you do and why you do it and then deciding whether a better, or more efficient, way of doing it is feasible in the future.
we use Gibbs reflective cycle for effective reflection for exploring an experience: description, feelings, evaluation, analysis, conclusion and action plan.
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Nowadays I have received a lot of invitations for attending conference online like webinar and get certificate and I am wandering about this certificate is the same for real attendence physically Thank you in Advance
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Due to COVID-19, the conferences have to take place virtually, so it is logically for participants to receive a CERTIFICATE OF VIRTUAL ATTENDANCE...
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Statistics and different topics courses are offered daily. Master's degrees in universities, but very few or almost none, provide scholarships to be able to study them. How can you get financing for this?
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Here is an example of a funded MSc/PhD Asiel. It can be frustrating to find these because many are country resident/area specific. This one suits your needs
John
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experiment design, data interpretation, research article writing
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For use of SPSS, use YouTube (www.youtube.com)
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Beyond needs assessment, what strategies do you use to encourage the sharing of more personal experiences and observations by learners during in-class discussions?
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I think it could be related to the need of an adult student, with some future employment opportunity in a country of a different language than the one of their origin. This experience could be integrated through student exchange programs between institutions that collaborate in making this type of link.
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Considering the current context in which many teachers need to migrate / transition their planned activities for face-to-face teaching to a remote / online teaching situation, as there were and still are not safe conditions to carry out face-to-face activities with many students. The need to develop teachers' media and digital skills was very evident. Such competencies will be necessary not only in this moment of transition, but later on for a post-pandemic scenario, to expand the teaching modality by the Blended approach. How are Universities and Institutions responsible for teacher training dealing with the development of media and digital competences of their teachers and the training of future teachers?
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As a result, teachers are suddenly faced with the challenge of how to continue their students’ education. While this might seem a daunting task, there are several ways teachers can utilize the technology and resources already available to support online learning and ensure students still receive a quality education. 
cited from
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There is NO 'proximate' without absolute discovery.
Not a question for me (I've answered it with full, real, strict empiricism -- observational "anchors" ALWAYS, clear and INVOLVED -- for/in EVERY CONCEPT, ETC.). It is also not a discussion for me but, rather, for literally/practically EVERYONE ELSE (see previous sentence). You may well be only 900 pages away from knowing the what and the how. (At the same time, I will show you the best (and most real) PARSIMONY; it may be VERY hard for you -- it is hard to "escape" and grow up.)
Identifying a pattern simply and clearly DOES NOT GIVE SOMETHING CAUSAL STATUS (e.g. simple learning patterns -- yeh, they are THERE but in any specific important circumstance/situation do not DESCRIBE the real GROUND of WHAT IS (AND HAS) GONE ON -- they are simply NOT the full crux of anything (not the only thing involved in any crucial juncture); <-- Not, IN THE FINAL ANALYSIS, ANY THING LIKE A PROXIMATE CAUSE. hopeless, hopeless, hopeless If the simple "learning" explanations had been good, they would have "stuck" 40 years ago (e.g. with Charles Brainerd)) .
Over-generalization because of academia's permanent inability to connect with Reality (at any crucial point, WHICH WILL BE THROUGH DIRECT OBSERVATIONS). "It" maybe "is and ever shall be", but it is just crap (thinking doing too much of "the job" in some sick, but real, sense). [ P.S. I, too, see learning (NOT one type of thing) as always involved. ]
Here is the main guidance you need to start (the OTHER guidance noted is also necessary for specifics, for specific testable (verifiable/falsifible) HYPOTHESES): READ: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/286920820_A_Human_Ethogram_Its_Scientific_Acceptability_and_Importance_now_NEW_because_new_technology_allows_investigation_of_the_hypotheses_an_early_MUST_READ and https://www.researchgate.net/publication/329428629_Essentially_all_Recent_Essays_on_Ethogram_Theory (basically a BOOK) and https://www.researchgate.net/project/Human-Ethology-and-Development-Ethogram-Theory (see the Project Log of this Project to see many important Updates.) ALSO, not among the 200 pages of major papers and 512 pages of essays in my "BOOK", above (which you already have been directed to), the following link gets you to 100 more pages of worthwhile essays composed after the 512 page BOOK: these are addenda: https://www.researchgate.net/publication/331907621_paradigmShiftFinalpdf (you CAN find the pdf at this last link, though it may take a little careful looking). And, similarly, see the other 2 addenda .
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Sorry for many hours of editing (basically additions); I am old and tired and may not say all that should/must be said on "first try". My 900 pages of recent writings (2015 - 2019) give many good (likely valid) perspectives and much perspective [overall] . ALL the writings are available here on researchgate.
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The trend is to move more and more college courses from a face-to-face (on-ground) format to a 100% Online format. I wonder if the level of quality can be the same? I have taught in both formats for many years. My experience is that students in online courses don't learn as much.
What is your opinion and/or your experience?
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An interesting but very open question. In what exact sense? In instruction? In my opinion it is practically the same. In education? no, education is social, instruction can be individual.
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What is your favourite remote teaching/learning App? Why?
Thanks in advance for your participation!
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I do prefer google classroom and google meet as well.
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I actually need some idea (a project) to cover a vast area of educational theories and curriculum.
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David Gillespie Actually, what I meant by this question was the publications in the literature always focused on one approach to handle learning activities individually and the researchers were usually obsessed with making sure that the one relevant approach they were taking was working well and in another study the one relevant approach was working well. The efforts were somehow in vain, which in the end makes Douglas R. Daugherty right, unfortunately. I actually think not taking a whole approach to all the methods and techniques in education of any kind cripples the science of education and creates losses more than it creates contributing individuals. Kind Regards and thank you for your answers.
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I'm working on a research and I need references to studies, papers, web pages, etc., to know how a computer based system could in the future detect when a student is not understanding a topic of a lecture by detecting the emotions expressed in a student's face. So, imagine you are a Professor and you are explaining a new concept to the class. Maybe you see on your students' faces a confusion or surprise feeling that tells you they aren't understanding well the concept you are explaining. That's what I need, I need a source, reference to a paper or any oficial source of information to proof that what I'm saying aren't just word, but it is proven by researches. I want to prove that certain emotions can tell us the weaker knowledge points of students. All I've found is about how positive/negative emotions affect academic achievement, performance, etc., but I want to focus on the association of weak knowledge points with emotions, how we may know a student isn't understanding a topic by the emotion he is expressing.
Thank you so much and I hope I've explained myself.
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I Agree With Steve Schneider
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For evaluation of students activity and for final exam... based on Online learning... what does the type question that must be adopted to makes the process work in the right way..
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This is most important under this Pandemic Scienario( Covid19 ) .
Obviously it depends on Subject area , Class , Exam etc .
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Here's an article about a research project saying that students learn more when taught using active learning strategies:
What do you think?
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I use problem solving method in my teaching. It contains scientific method,critical thinking,taking decision,examining and reflective thinking. Brainstorm technique will give students to say the possible solution for the problems for the given case.Project based learning is favorite among students.Panel discussion and model teaching and peer coaching and drama technique are effective active learning student centered methods we can use for any subjects. As lecturers we have to facilitate them to involve in self learning and participatory group learning.
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I need help for a research project I'm doing. I want to know what expressions are expressed in students' faces at class when they don't understand a topic a Professor is explaining. Do you know where I can find information? Any recommendable paper? All help is welcome.
Thank you so much in advance.
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When you do not understand something you usually feel frustration. This feeling can be expressed in forms of anger, irritation, dislike for the professor and so on. If you do not have anyone who can help you may feel dissatisfaction, which feeling can translate into a sense of being more stupid than the other students. I attach something about students coping mechanism with their lives:
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Dear all
For the purpose of an analysis and large-scale literature review on student activity and engagement, I am looking for a way of thoroughly illustrating students' learning with technology/TEL. I.e., some kind of figure/model that includes the main components of teaching and learning with technology, such as, e.g., the student, the educator, the technology, the learning design/pedagogy, the teaching itself, the outcome, and the context, as well as how these relate.
I am aware that models are often linked to an underlying pedagogical theory (e.g., Kolb, Activity Theory, Active Learning, Peer Instruction, etc.), but I find that many of these and other models overlook some of the essential components and aspects of learning with technology.
Do anyone use models/figures to illustrate students' learning with technology? Are there any models you would recommend?
Any ideas and thoughts about useful models are highly appreciated.
Best wishes
Mikkel
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In a learning process, to convey learning messages to students, teachers usually use teaching aids in the form of pictures, models, or other tools. It aims to provide concrete experiences, learning motivation, and enhance absorption and learning retention. The role of the media is quite important to help and to facilitate the learning process, also one of model for learning process to made process more easy and enjoy for participant/students.
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(see one of my last, previous posts for the perspective on Psychology)(not really much translation involved, in the following):
The aspects of my perspective that are typically missing in AGI's (artificial general intelligence) ideas of "cumulative learning" [(see "Cumulative Learning", By Kristinn Thorrison et al )] include:
True Hierarchical learning -- which is more than a new category and a responses using and building on existing behaviors PATTERNS of otherwise of the same nature (as those used in the past).  (Note the thinking always in PATTERNS -- it is thus that behavior patterns show detectable changes, which are the new behavior pattern itself AND by which behavior patterns are defined (as in classical ethology) -- i.e. DEFINED BY THE PATTERNING OF BEHAVIOR "SURROUNDING" THEM.)  Then realize: True hierarchical learning ADDS new elements (in the behavior/response pattern), which shifts some key pattern(s) _AND_ which promote (IS) fuller sensing/perception of the key aspects of the situation(s) BY the Subject -- literally PERCEIVING NEW CONCRETE ELEMENT(s) (as indicated, AND these may be across several times and across several circumstances -- especially later in ontogeny; such is the power of SOME of our Memory systems; we simply must use "more imagination" here, both the Subjects and as researchers/theorists).  The sub-elements (lower level elements OF the previous responses to "such" situations) may change in their nature as they are used differently (e.g. "tagged" or "typed"),  or at least when associated with new-different circumstances; some may certainly be truncated or dropped out (think: new "chunking").
Foundations in PERCEPTION -- yes, THAT kind-of basic process.   It is with/in perception (and later, attention FOLLOWING THAT) that  provides for (IS) "new elements which promote full sensing/perception of the key aspects of the situation BY the Subject literally PERCEIVING NEW CONCRETE ELEMENTS [(or elements in a distinctly new context)]".   Resolving that seeing SUCH new things and JUST THAT (see above), as the foundation of each new level of abstracting ability (i.e. abstraction) -- THAT is a major seemingly paradoxical set of "things" which simply must be resolved ("bucking" the philosophies of the past).
Ontogeny involves a new type of learning at each stage, unfolding in response to (or included in the response to) NEW elements of the concrete situations/circumstances  (and, given the sophistication of some of our Memories: this can be across times and spaces.)  Here, it is important to see/find TRUE ANALOGIES (not just "trumped up" analogies).   These are doubtlessly useful in generalization to "other" circumstances -- seeing other situations similarly better by seeing MORE there "too".  PLUS: We must get rid of the idea that "learning" is always the same type of thing IN ACTION; it changes qualitatively there, BY VIRTUE OF CONTENT, AND CHANGING RESPONSES TO THAT.  Ironically, in my system , in another sense, all learning is the same in that it conforms to simple associative learning patterns-- that is all that is needed (or likely), given what else is going on.  [ Of course, good integration, consolidation and generalization of earlier behavior patterns must occur before "moving on" from one stage-type ("level"-type) to the next. ]
Thus, the AGI machine must contingently, after previous developments and integration/consolidations/generalizations, SEE MORE) BASIC [(here meaning: additional)] ELEMENTS OF THE SITUATION.  And, JUST THIS, provides for moving in-key-part(s) the whole system -- allowing more abstractions (things seen conventionally as "more abstract"), and THUS yielding more refined responses (whether they are specialized or not -- to some extent an open question -- BUT THEY ARE NEW w/r to the important sets of overt, express, explicit circumstances (AT LEAST clear at the inception of such a new sort of processing)).  Likewise the BEHAVIOR PATTERNS, AT LEAST AT FIRST ARE ALSO overt, directly observable and clearly expressed. It is important to realize that although initially overt, directly observable and expressly and explicitly seen IN patterns of behavior, such overt-ness of direct, observable overt evidence of change may be short-lived, as the Memories change and incorporate the new (new type) of learning behavior (perhaps VERY quickly) (This is why, for humans, eye-tracking technology and associated technology (e.g analysis software) likely have to be used.)
Given the distinct limitations of short-term memory (I should say "working memory") and the LACK of limitations of other Memories (e.g. visual-spacial) make it understandable that small changes in response (including PERCEIVING) must be able to yield BIG changes in understanding; this is why this perspective and theory make sense (and ONLY something like it could make sense).  AGI simply must figure out such ontogeny as I have described AND DO IT.  In AI you have the great ability of trial-and-error, quickly and over-and-over, that allows for a fair amount of guessing (I would guess) -- and give the "locality" of the beginning of new patterns in behavior COULD (in theory, with a thoroughly educated view/approach) BE GUESSED AT.   But none of this is possible without an appreciation for True Hierarchical Learning during ontogeny -- very, very likely occurring in qualitatively different stages.  The machine must make ITS OWN analogies, and only such analogies are appropriate (as has been the case in science "forever" ).
Something very much like I propose (above) OR attempts at AGI (as is and has been the case with Psychology) can continue-on, basically the same way as they have been for decades -- i.e. no big progress (as is acknowledged, again and again in the AGI field).
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What is the best method(s) to encourage and motivate young adults to take their academic studies seriously? Many young people (age 18 to 25) don't seem to take their college courses serious. How can instructors/professors motivate them to study hard and be more serious about their college courses?
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  1. Give lots of examples.
  2. Encourage students to share their ideas and comments, even if they are incorrect. You'll never know what students don't understand unless you ask them.
  3. Provide opportunities for students to speak to the class
  4. Return assignments and tests to students as soon as reasonably possible. Provide constructive feedback.
  5. Make sure that your exams are current, valid, and reliable. Tie your assessment to your course objectives.
  6. Plan around 15-20 minute cycles. Students have difficulty maintaining attention after a longer period of time.
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Active learning aims to make the students an active part of the learning process. He should prepare and discuss with his team the assignment then explain it to the class under the supervision of the instructor. I applied it in many of my courses and find that the student has a positive rule in the learning process rather to be just a listener.
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Thanks Dr. s. Béatrice Marianne Ewalds-Kvist and Dr. Sajeda, for your answers
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Dear friends and colleagues,
Today more and more students are pursuing to study abroad, while others decide to study in their countries . Nevertheless, national educational systems are not always sufficiently developed to educate this student flow in alignment with (much more) demanding courses of tertiary institutions overseas. Similar learning difficulties are also experienced to in-country studies. In your opinion, which should be the skills and the educational reforms needed to: a) enable students to "bridge this cognitive gap" between the secondary and tertiary education? b) enable students to achieve their leaning outcomes? c) enable students to advance their professions while studying abroad or in their countries? d) enable educators/teachers/educational policy makers to take strategic initiatives or educational reforms, in order students to feel confident and be determined in pursuing studies at higher education? e) in the context of adolescent psychology, which should be the ways where pursuing studies can be a conscious, attractive, and challenging decision, beyond social norms imposed?
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Dear Grigorios, this issue occurs everywhere and therefore deserves more attention and deeper research; thank you for raising it! Acutally I can reduce the issue in how to help a pupil become a student. This is not an easy challenge but I put forward three suggestions (I do not pretend I am providing an answer!). (1) The problem lies in both systems; ie secondary and tertiary levels. Students need to be introduced to some skills, especially soft skills, needed in the tertiary level while studying in high school. (2) Because those in university already know the students need some special skills, cognitive and metacognitive, they should give the freshly enrolled students opportuinties to catch up. They can schedule a foundation year for this purpose or assign modules that can help students shape their personalities and become autonomous learners. (3) The students who join university these days are digital natives and therefore we can use ICT for creating opportunities of collaborative learning. Also, ICT can be used for differnetiating different inputs to different needs.
Research should be present in all the stages of implementation and experimentation.
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what about Active learning strategies ?
what is the effect of Active learning on the students ?
what are their requirements ? and his laws ?
how do we know its effect ?
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Dear Ibraheem Albasheri I have attached some great literature when it comes to active learning.
''Active Learning: Creating Excitement in Classroom'' (Bonwel & Eison, 1991) is crucial for laying a foundation.
Feel free to share your thoughts!
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How to encourage deep learning of your students and discourage their habits of shallow or superficial learning?
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Shifting paradigm from informative learning to transformative learning is crucial to encourage deep learning. I believe that student engagement is an essential aspect of meaningful learning. Hence, implementing different means of better engaging pedagogical approaches such as active learning, learning communities, service learning, cooperative education, inquiry, and problem-based learning, and team projects are central.
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In reality, is active learning and interactive teaching one and the same thing?
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Hi! These expressions have both more defined (but slightly different) meanings and more general, open for interpretation. An important element us that it takes more than one agent to run some interaction, and both students and teacher must be active of course. Therefore ”teaching” cannot be interactive in a vacuum, someone is needed to interact with. Furthermore, teaching is very often called learning, as in ”distance learning” - because people, when they learn something, learn where they happen to be, not on a ”distance”.
All this becomes easier if we think of Vygotskij’s ”Obuchenie”, the ”teaching-learning activity”, when teacher, learners and peers interact.
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Anyone who can help me provied some Corresponding Codes on Active Learning? such as the batch-model active learning. Matlab codes are the best. Something else on the knowledge of AL is also useful for me. Thanks very much.
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Thank you all very much!
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they said the the best way for teaching especially in university; is learning the student how to learn, i want to know the basics and principles of this approach
What are the mechanisms for sharing knowledge between teachers and students?
"how to transference the Implicit knowledge into Explicit knowledge or sharing knowledge especially for the PhD student and Supervisor ?
kind regards
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Teaching students how to learn - It is based on the principle that learners must be taught how to search for and discover knowledge rather than a teacher spoonfeeding them with the knowledge. Thus, educators globally advocate the implementation of learner-centred approaches rather than teacher-centred approaches. It is as it were, arming the students with knowledge on how to fish rather than giving them fish.
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RG has given the options to Recommend, Follow, & Share but some members prefer to follow by comments like following, nice question, interesting etc etc. I couldn't understand the reason, please share your opinion.
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I click 'recommend' and 'follow' after I read/quote other scholars paper/journal to acknowledge their work and it is politely means I thank you to them for sharing the ideas/information plus I wanted to know what on their next research for me to keep learning. Except for those doesn't wish their paper to be acknowledged via Research Gate.
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Strengths: It enhances group cohesion and social understanding among learners
Weaknesses: Social activities unintentionally led to bullying and loss of confidence in some learners
Your views are warmly welcomed. Kind regards
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Folowing.
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I am looking for different questionnaires based on Bloom Taxonomy (Affective, Cognitive and Social domains) to assess the learning of computer science student in CS1 courses(such as intro to programming class with java or c or python).
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Can you recommend some VALID questionnaires for Affective, Cognitive and Social domain?
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Has pedagogy and education created new scenarios?
How is learning changing and for who?
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Thanks Osama
The formats mentioned in the linkage very interesting. They are used also on Coursera and other platforms linking people from far to close encounters on a shared theme.
I was wondering if there are any more and different ones.
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  • the advantages of investigastin on humanoid robots...
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Most of the applications I see are educational. In addition, it has applications in medicine, therapies, among others.
I recommend checking the papers of the IEEE-RAS International Conference on Humanoid Robotics (Humanoids).
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Hello
I have a question and I hope to find an answer here,
so as we all know several learning functions are available in the literature related to structural reliability.
Expected feasibility function EFF is one of them
EFF expresses the expectation that the actual outcome of the performance function in a point u is expected to satisfy the equality
constraint H(u) = t [Bichon et al., 2011] (t = 0 for the limit state).
High values of EFF are obtained for points having Kriging means close to the threshold t, as well as points having large Kriging variances.
my question is: how does this EFF function works ?
I don't really understand it,
why can't we just use the variance of the expectation and compare it to somme fixing minimum variance and that's all
why this equation is complicated?
Please if any one could bring me a simple explanation I would be very thankfull
Have a good day!
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Hello,
For sake of simplicity let:
e = \epslion(u) of your notation
H= H(u) //
T =t //
In my understanding, the expected feasibility could be written as:
EF = E[ (e - | H - T|) * 1[T-e,T+e]]
- The term 1[T-e,T+e] indicates that we integrate only close to T (in the interval I = [ T-e,T+e])
- The term H - T is a difference between T and the "values" of H . Let d = H-T. Since we integrate in I, then d is in [-e, e]
and finally e- |d| is just a triangular function of d in [-e, e].
The max being at d= 0 (i.e H = T) and decreases as the difference d increases and vanishes at |d| = e.
Roughly, /e
EF = E[ (e - |d|) * 1[-e, e]] = | e -|d|,
/ -e
It is probably late but anyway, I hope this will help.
Best regards
----------
PS (With regard to the second equation): In Gausssian Process regression framework, the posterior distribution follows a Gaussian distribution H ~ N(mu, sigma^2). Then, the second equation is "just" the result after some Gaussian computation.
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Answers should differentiate using games form gamification.
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ESL games are an important, almost vital, part of the ESL classroom. finding activities that are fun, engaging, and deeply beneficial gets a lot more challenging.📷Your advanced students are going to get a little bored if you just have them throwing the sticky ball at the board every class. for more involved and stimulating activities that will have ,due to students having so much fun they don’t even realize how much they are learning.
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Dear respected colleagues,
Kindly share your great views and references. I would be very grateful. Thanks in advance. Best regards
Dickson
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Students with learning problems must attend individually, to analyze the characteristics of each case to give personalized attention to each student. For this reason the role of the teacher is very important to achieve the expected results in learning.
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AWAY ! Unfortunately.
Nowadays, proximate explanations are, at least almost always, in terms that are neurobiological, endocrinological, or molecular-genetic . There usually appears to be absolutely no concept of a behavioral pattern or change in a behavioral pattern (either, of course, in response to aspects of the current environment) AS themselves a proximate cause of a new behavior pattern [change] -- I.E. a true observable behavior pattern phenomenon proceeding, and needed for, the key subsequent behavior pattern change. I believe there is a BIAS there , due to our philosophical cultural traditional-beliefs.
And, this is a problem.
THIS PROBLEM HAS NOT ALWAYS BEEN THE CASE, and certainly has not always been the case in ethology. The ethology Tinbergen and Lorenz were given a Nobel prize for often did have one behavior pattern as a proximate cause for certain behavior pattern(s) that followed. This is what needs to be re-learned and abided by or real ethology may be lost. Such a relationship between behavior patterns was a hallmark of classical ethology.
Modern ethologists failed to have the "backbone" to maintain that which was most distinctive and best about ETHOLOGY. They basically "caved in" to how others characterized them. (Now, the field is indistinguishable from comparative psychology and/or evolutionary psychology.)
Listen up, International Society for Human Ethology !
Real science, real biological science, the real biology of behavior DEPENDS on behavioral pattern(s), themselves, being seen as a major proximate cause of new behavior patterning [and of behavior pattern change]. Ethology must return to what it uniquely was OR THERE IS NO CHANCE OF BEHAVIORAL SCIENCE. I am sure, if I were a analytic philosopher, I could argue this. It really is logically and scientifically irrefutable. Behavioral sciences, of all "stripes", have been becoming more and more stupid -- there is no better word (since they defy biology and defy science). (Simply look for the lack of the words "behavior pattern" and you are on the way to seeing the whole problem.)
P.S. Consider this a big "kiss ...." to our philosophical cultural heritage; certainly the stupidity is a "love letter" to those arm-chair thinkers.
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I agree with Mr.MacGregor
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I want to present you with a possible particular concrete example (instance) of a perceptual shift, i.e. the inception of a stage shift (in 'seeing' and [at first, very vaguely,] in some sense IN cognition), showing all the 4 phases of a perceptual shift for the overall process of the beginning of a qualitative stage shift part of the development of cognition -- before purely associative learning "holds sway" by itself again.
This hypothetical example comes from the ape (gorilla) social "world", from which our abilities to have progressively developing levels of concepts and thinking likely first evolved. Well, HERE IS IS:
Think of an child ape, not an infant but perhaps a mid-age-child individual. He has from his previous development a conceptual idea of the dominant (adult) male gorilla (and his behavior patterns, relating to this).
But, then he "notices" that this dominant male, at times rushes towards other adults, to seemingly show other ways to express his dominance (or other aspects of that dominance) which he has not shown before (or which the young ape has not clearly seen, noticed, or processed before).
This is the kind of thing indicating [with him, this child] innate guidance, given he has good, refined earlier knowledge: AT FIRST BEING some gap in the child ape's conceptual understanding of the OVERALL structure of this adult dominance behavior. That "gap", (phase 1) of the now first-emerging of a NEW perceptual shift, may show itself in a situation (or early situations) as just something involving automatically vaguely orienting TOWARD the key situation and behaviors (and would be shown behaviorally simply in prolonged gaze when/after this dominance phenomenon shows itself).
Soon (perhaps VERY SOON) he will better see such dominance events WHEN THEY OCCUR (because of the specific "gap" existing in his understanding); this second phase (of the perceptual shift) will show clearly: orienting to the aspects of this new-to-understand type of dominance expression (still, for the most part, not conscious).
In the third phase of the shift, he will reliably have seen regularities as he continues good orientation needed to observe things associated with this dominance event. HERE he can be said to be expressly and explicitly and consciously ATTENDING to occurrences of this event.
Finally (in the fourth phase of the shift) he will integrate the essentials into memory: facts-for-occurrence, key aspects of this dominant male's behavior (with respect to dominance behavior patterns), and key aspects of the spacial and temporal aspects ("in the world"), associated with these dominance behaviors pattern's key content in visual-spacial memory (which he will be able to play back in his mind, when NOT present in the situation where the adult male dominance behavior occurs; i.e. he can "reflect"). BUT, TO DO ALL THIS:
This fourth phase shows the development of some fact/declarative memory (basically the main static features of the dominance act and their relationships to each other, defined) -- this is the declarative/"semantic" aspect of long-term memory he has developed and is developing. Also, some procedural knowledge develops (at the same time) about how to act in response to this dominance expression (especially if his has something "to do" with he, himself): this thoroughly developed, active and automatized response (or set of responses) is the procedural aspect of long-term memory he has gained: this aspect, known as procedural memory.
Also, in the fourth phase FOR THE MOST PART, he has a record-of-incident (episode) memory which is most prominently in the visual-spacial memory which is, in an indirect way, the actual thing he is able to play back key portions of in his mind, just as he sits and thinks about this dominance phenomenon -- given the EPISODIC BUFFER. (Other key aspects [mentioned above] of long-term Memories are also determining the nature of the BUFFER and are "there". ) So, the ability to do this out-of the situation reflection, just described above, relies on (and is delimited by) the content that will be a notable part of his EPISODIC BUFFER, doing some major contextualization of his working memory (entering into it) where further, now more-simple associative learning may now continue to occur, until all the Memories (each and together) are thoroughly refined.
He no doubt will also, through cued thinking (and likely some observation) relate this aspect of his concept of dominance to other aspects at the same conceptual level (and to/with earlier conceptual levels) that are related to shows of dominance. When ALL this (all of the 4 phases and associative learning needed for refinements and concept integration) has occurred (perhaps taking a year), he will be ready to notice other greater patterns BY HAVING a new perceptual shift (that, too, with 4 similar phases) -- these are the core foundational happenings in ontogeny (aka THE proximate directly observable causes of the development of behavior patterns via perceptual shifts) and that which AGAIN allows qualitative NEW learning new ways (using a qualitatively different kind of learning, and also using well-refined aspects from earlier stages): to AGAIN further develop his representation system(s)( aka concept structure), this being related to all major aspects of the Memories and likely mostly connected with through visual-spacial memories, and all the other Memories connected to that AND USED (in the final step of cognizance) BY THE EPISODIC BUFFER; then working memory can work on new "things".
[ Full explication and justification for this approach (and the implications of this approach) can be found via :
and
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I should note that this perspective can be seen as finishing Piaget's theory (and that of neo-Piagetians), by defining the stage shifts (associated with Equilibration 2, qualitatively described ONLY, and not accomplished with regular accommodation). In fact, Piaget just stated the major factor behind the main stage changes was "maturation". Unfortunately, most psychologists completely overlook statements about Equilibration 2 and either do not know of it or totally neglect to mention it in any regard. In any case: THEY NEGLECT TO SEE THE STARK FACT OF THE LACK OF EXPLANATION HERE, which Piaget MORE than clearly stated; they somehow (often, and maybe always, adding in fictional executive and meta processes) explain cognitive developments just with assimilation and accommodation -- BUT THIS WAS NOT PIAGET'S VIEW (he had a qualitative idea of the situation and nature of things that would evoke Equilibration 2, BUT PROVIDED THEN ONLY "MATURATION", otherwise, as an explanation and that is all (which he would himself see as empirically incomplete).
Thus, this perspective and approach is congruent in the main with the Piagetian perspective and all neo-Piagetian perspectives, just adding in the needed processes (and resulting in a way to throw out all those "meta" processes, because they are not only not well-founded, but they are not needed for explanation). Once these fictional (though on the "face of it" seeming totally descriptive) processes are eliminated, my perspective and approach is entirely consistent with neo-Piagetian theories.
It returns to the empiricism of direct observation to substantiate these "perceptual shift" hypotheses, something Piaget would be very happy with. We now also have the tools of eye-tracking and computer assisted analysis technologies to allow us to DISCOVER (see) what researchers previously could not. Researchers, today, with the new procedures now available should look for and see if they can find the overt phenomenon (though subtle) associated with my empirically hypothesized, directly observable phases of the "perceptual shifts". If only today's theorists could recall or review Piaget and see that JUST THIS is what was and IS mainly missing (and otherwise just modifying some accounts because of the "perceptual shifts" testable and provable account will have its implications on the descriptions of other processes/mechanisms, but those otherwise and mainly being almost phenomenologically correct ).
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Can you please refer some newly developed machine learning algorithms which are published in any prestigious journals? for instance:
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In the context of supervised classification / regression, arguably the most dominant machine learning algorithm nowadays is Xgboost. This refers to both prediction capabilities but also computational efficiency.
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Let me try to provide an answer by sharing a relevant essay I wrote to a friend. (This contains that "shortest description".)
Let me answer "What is your definition of 'innate guidance'? " in the only way I ever will answer anything when it comes to a scientific study of human behavior (aka ethology). My answer is I do not define; I never define anything. All is discovered and the Subject (the human) will define what, in any given type of case/circumstance, the innate guidance IS (and what that is like). ("Ditto" for 'learning'.)
This is the only way other ethologists should have things 'defined' . IN FACT: Real and good scientists (in any science) NEVER 'define' anything just with their imagination; no guessing EVER, except just "where to look" -- THEN they find that which is important and worth noting FROM THEIR SUBJECT MATTER).
Everytime (literally) I hear the word "define", I cringe.
NOW: This may not be easy to understand, or understand as I intend, but I have written 500 pages explicating, elaborating, and justifying the following view:
From what I said before: I can only tell you where I would look and hope for the discovery of what is at the INCEPTION of new 'seeing' new things and differently (that then eventually leads to new representation, then to new thinking): IN PARTICULAR: This (coming up) is how I will look for the proximate causes OF the behavioral shifts, in BOTH directly observable overt behavior patterns AND in the associated directly observable aspects of the current environment (and WITH the special sort of associative/discriminative learning that THEN OCCURS; and THAT along with other behaviors -- some developed in just this same type of way in the past, which now function in some similar way to when the behavior was overt, though now covert). I hypothesize, and it is now testable and verifiable (yes or no) with new eye-tracking technology and computer assisted analysis :
That "perceptual shifts" are the overt behavioral patterns aspect(s) WITH the innate guidance that there is/are at the inception of a transition starting a qualitatively different level/stage of representation . Such an inception, of course, includes (for contextualization) what is brought forward from our Memories -- to have the new environmental aspect(s) meaningfully seen . The perceptual shifts will result in finding and using "things" thus discovered (by the organism), BEGINNING with the perceptual shift(s) FOR new elements processed from the environment which allow the key new/additional "ingredients" that need to be added to existing cognitive abilities' contents (the latter, existing already, at a lower level of the hierarchy), to begin to move to the next higher hierarchical level/stage-type behavior (behavior including not only necessary overt aspects, but also existing cognition <-- understood, in important part, by seeing similar perceptual shifts beginning earlier stages; THUS: you have to do investigations longitudinally, beginning just after infancy; you must track the relevant ontogeny).
You will note I use the word WITH very intentionally: that is because the innate guidance (which, in a sense can be seen as manifested in the perceptual shift) IS ALSO OCCURRING SIMULTANEOUSLY WITH new LEARNING, IMMEDIATELY (or in effect, immediately) ALSO INVOLVED at the same time as the perceptual shift occurs. (In short,' innate' and 'learned' occur literally (OR, IN EFFECT) SIMULTANEOUS, TOGETHER -- there is no dualism, this is that 'problem' solved. If you really want to say BOTH the innate and learned are always involved, then this is what you mean.)
I think this is the only brief 2 paragraph version I can provide. To really know more:
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A summary of Human ethology is most often expressed as follows: Homo sapiens is the creation of the Creator, Nature and Society. Atheists deny the first component of Human ethology. Those who do not know about the effect of Mowgli, those people will deny the last component of the definition. There will be skeptics who criticize genetic patterns. Therefore, explanations are required, in connection with which your 500 pages of the manuscript may help to understand the essence of the problem. All the best in 2018!
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learning design is not for the sake of finishing the semester but to master each of the design aspect introduced by the lecturer. The transition from secondary education to tertiary education sometimes can be a culture shock for students, the placement of lecturers to teach in the first semester must be done based from specific criteria that will lead to successful delivery. Any other idea?
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By offering greetings to them
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Hi,
Active Learning is based on learning for labelled and unlabeled pairs together, and all the data have the same characteristics, and the limitation is guessed the unlabeled pairs during the learning procedure.
Please, How can Supervised Learning replace Active Learning in Learning to Rank? How is the guessing for unlabeled pairs data can cause bias in the ranking model?
Thanks & Best wishes
Osman
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Dear Samer
Unfortunately, Your feedback does not help at all
Best wishes, Osman
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Yes. The teaching and learning processes in Physical Sciences is made more interesting when learners DISCOVER how things in nature function through PERSONAL EXPERIMENTATION and BEING PART OF THE INVENTING MACHINERY (INVOLVEMENT). Every learner is woowed and more glued to see in PRACTICALITY or 'PHYSICALLY' how the learned concepts and theoretical constructs functions in life.
Thanks
Dickson Adom
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Many years ago I used to have more personal relations with my students in class and outside class settings.  Recently it seems that many students come and go without me even knowing their names. Is there a problem here that needs work or is this normal?
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Dear Dr Sami
Improving students' relationships with teachers has important, positive and long-lasting implications for both students' academic and social development. Solely improving students' relationships with their teachers will not produce gains in achievement. However, those students who have close, positive and supportive relationships with their teachers will attain higher levels of achievement than those students with more conflict in their relationships.
I think correcting students in front of their peers can embarrass them, this feeling may be hurt them ,  not necessarily because of what they are being corrected for, but how they are being corrected.I usually try to consider their feeling in the class.
Best regards
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I'm looking for recent research on augmented reality and language teaching/learning. I'd appreciate any contribution and also blogs where the topic is treated in depth. Thanks.
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Hi Laura, there are also some recently funded projects on AR. We have just received one entitled REDESIGN.
best,
stella
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i need to comput the entropy of the learner. 
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The Active-Learning Inventory Tool is a valid and reliable tool to measure active learning in the classroom. You may view the added resource useful
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I am looking at adapting pedagogical approaches in light of increasing numbers on a PcET programme.
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Although flipped classroom approach can be implemented in face-to-face teaching, in fact it appeared, or at least it became a trend, only after ICT tools were well developed. On the other hand, to deal with a large number of students, necessarily they have to be more independent, and teacher/professor is more an advisor, orienting, proposing solutions.
Regarding blended learning, despite of great and powerful number of existing tools, there are situations where the "here-now" presence of students and teacher is advisable, for example, in first activity, or during final evaluations, or in content depending key activities.
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I'm working on an Art syllabus for an international school and I'm looking for help regarding which directions to take. My aim is to focus on skills and creativity rather than art knowledge.
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 Dear Erez,
Thank you so much for your contribution. Everything you said is absolutely on par with my thoughts on school and learning, and it's from those thoughts that my question arises. If children are free and creative and if schools are institutions which condition that freedom and creativity, I find myself in a standstill when faced with the task of producing a document which is usually used as the guideline for how schools perpetuate their control over the leaning environment.
In other words, it is not so much that I don't know what should be done in the classroom, what I'm looking for is a way to translate it to paper and have it approved by the school and, ultimately, the government. A way to express the general goals for the subject, while maintaining the children's freedom to learn and guide the learning practice, a compromise between the schools "ecology" and the child's needs.
What I need is smoke and mirrors; to satisfy the bureaucratic machine and clear the way for my students to thrive. 
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In R&D systematic production coexist both, the objetive acording to the usual procedure and the goal, acording to the aim of engender a new procedure, so may the vector analogy be extended to a broader one?
The point is: Identify in the systematic production of R&D specific conditions that may be represented by a broader analogy, more composed that the notion of vector as was defined by Gregory Bedny.
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To set forth...
In Activity Theory the concept of "motivational-goal vector" is central; in regard of a product process, it synthesize the informational (knowledge) and motivational tension under the analogy of a physical vector. It may be useful to explain certain phenomena relevant in work psychology...
On the other hand... Frascati manual defines systematic R&D production in terms of three components: 1) usual procedures; 2) new procedure; and 3) the goal achieved by both, the usual procedure and the new. This configuration affects not only the work scheme, but also, the tension, from a psychological point of view, barely described in the "motivational-goal vector".
My question points directly to this analogy... It's enough? or It's better apply a broader analogy incorporating the usual procedure as the new?
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For what your students actually need to be successful, should the online systems used to support their learning be like the traditional LMS or more like a social network? In your mind, is there a difference between the two?
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Social network is a platform to build social networks or social relations among people who share similar interests, activities, backgrounds or real-life connections. Whereas LMS focusing on learning. I would like to see LMS should incorporating Artificial Intelligence System to enhance learning. However it cant  replace classroom teacher but very helpful for distance learners.
Some differences:
LMS: Tools that make different of social networks
Progress Tracking. Progress tracking pages allow the designer to monitor student progress in the course. Indicators such as date of first and last access, time spent on system, percentage of pages visited, and more is available. An indication of course participation by way of the bulletin board is also available in terms of number of original and followup postings, and percentage of articles read. The students can be sorted on any tracking field in order to easily identify students who, for example, have stopped making access to the course, or who are prolific posters to the conferences.
Timed On-Line Quizzes. As mentioned above, quizzes can be written by the designer and delivered on-line on a predetermined day. A status page available to the grader indicates for each student whether that student has not yet begun, begun but not yet completed, or completed the quiz. A completed quiz, along with an indication of how long the student took to complete the quiz, is available to be marked on-line. Once marked, the grade assigned is automatically entered into the LMS grade database and, along with comments, made available to the student.
Student Management. Class lists can be entered one student at a time, or can be uploaded (in a simple, predetermined format) as a whole. Class lists can be presented and printed in a variety of configurations and orderings. Grades are entered automatically by the on-line quiz tool. Grades for other activities can be entered manually by the grader. Weightings can be assigned to each activity, allowing WebCT to automatically generate final grades (which can be viewed on-line by students).
Course Look and Feel. Courses can be customized in terms of several attributes. For example, the layout of the links on the homepage and tool pages can be displayed as one or two columns. 
Provides a set of built-in images that can be used, for example, as course banners and icons. If none are suitable, the course designer can upload his or her own.
A counter can be added to any page that records and displays the number of accesses to that page.
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I'm doing research to update policies and wondered if anyone has come across some recent and reputable new studies in this field
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A gifted teacher here at my University observed that almost universally the tools which work for K-12 students work at the university level also.  The Physics Education field has been in the forefront with a lot of these tools, and most of their findings agree with what I have read of Hattie's meta study.  The McDermott Physics Education group at the University of Washington in Seattle has developed some powerful materials by studying how students learn physics.  Their Tutorials In Introductory Physics, provide a model for how to add innovation into recitation section of a course, and their Physics By Inquiry text for preparing teachers for the K-12 system models changing the whole course.
They begin by mapping out the difficulties and misconceptions which most students have, and structure highly interactive thought & simple physical activities through which an instructor can have an impact in student thinking.  (See how the interviewer "teaches" a young lady that you don't need a socket to light a light bulb in the video "Minds of Our Own" at Learner.org, or how another one teaches that much of the mass of a tree comes from the air.  The video series is so fascinating to watch that my own teenage children watched most of it.)  My favorite part of these approaches is that as instructor I am expected to listen to my students.
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I'm interested in looking into research on community college students - age, demographics, etc. who are taking online classes and their learning styles - how they learn best, what types of instructional strategies (active learning, authentic, PBL, etc.) work better, etc.
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I think you can use any research on learning styles for online learning.  I do agree that Community Colleges student may have a specific characteristic which you will want to accommodate but also do remember that most studies generalize by different demographics.  The demographics may include one side of the bell curve where those who have degrees already and are returning to upgrade skills at the said institution, or the other side of the bell curve who are first time online learners.  I believe, and I may be wrong, that looking at any research that discusses the main factors can be fruitful to gain the appropriateness of learning strategies.
Hope I'm making sense?
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Mobile devices are of the most powerful teaching and learning tools in the hands of 21st century teachers. In what ways and how is it effectively used in the classroom and beyond?
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Hi Nikos, I am currently undertaking research on the use of mobile devices to increase student engagement in lectures. The research is complete and I am in the process of write up. I would be happy to share experiences.
Thanks,
Claire
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Advocates of the flipped classroom approach argue that in a flipped classroom students can do more active learning. Many regard this as the main reason to flip. 
I think this makes perfect sense in my case in China where didactic lecture is still the dominant way of instruction. However I'm not sure about the other parts of the world because my perception is that many education systems worldwide (esp. those in the "Western" nations) already have a lot of active learning components built into the curriculum. My questions are:
1. Is my perception true?
2. Is there any comprehensive statistics that can support or disprove my perception?
3. If my perception is true, what is the point of flipping the classroom in those schools already doing active learning?
Thank you. 
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Dear Ho,
As a precedent to flipped classrooms you may wish to look at self paced learning. I have had an article published on the use of this method in the modern context of virtual learning environments (https://www.researchgate.net/publication/220140006_Web-based_Personalised_System_of_Instruction_An_effective_approach_for_diverse_cohorts_with_virtual_learning_environments).
In particular, the study we reference by Tennison on the Big Wrench may shed some light onto the issue of why it is difficult to switch between different dominant forms of teaching and learning.
I get the impression that most Western teaching is still orientated around lectures which are augmented by a pedagogically poor use of virtual learning environments. See Kirkwood and Price's paper on learning in the 21st Century (also in our reference list).
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(4th or 5th edition) I would like to create a forum for the exchange of ideas, questions, and teaching experiences. What works, in your teaching? What doesn't work? Have you used any "active learning" methods in your course? Do you use virtual laboratory exercises (such as those from SimBio) in your course?
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I agree with Andrew Simpson. Getting students to look at real controversies is an excellent way to learn how to formulate good questions and refine their skepticism. I had a short assignment once asking student to read Woese and Mayr "battle it out" on the pages of PNAS about the three domain system. I simply asked the students to write a  short summary of each paper and a personal reflection (verdict and rationale).  We had excellent classroom discussions on the topic of systematics and evaluating theories
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An important concept within modern pedagogy is knowledge building: students or colleagues interacting, learning together, and developing new information together. From the perspective of systems thinking, we can view the classroom or community as a system: composed of dynamic units or actors, autonomous, with a certain boundary, but usually part of a larger system. So, every system also needs inputs and contains processes  to generate certain outputs. For the modern blended and technologically enhanced classrooms, what tools are you aware of, for using in knowledge building? Online forum and wikis have been around and effective for a long time... These tools play the role of processing, and presenting the outputs within the knowledge building system. Any other examples of computer or web based tools, for knowledge building? 
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I am intrigued by the view of the classroom as a system.  The view of dynamic autonomous units, empowered by digital capabilities, and  interacting  purposefully  is quite appropriate to what can be viewed in any digitally focused classroom.
This web site I will here reference provides an organized collection of information and tutorials related to a number of tools which can be used online to develop knowledge in a collaborative, or individualistic, manner:
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From the perspective of systems thinking, we can view a classroom as a system: composed of dynamic units or actors, autonomous, and part of a larger system. A system also gets inputs. For an actively engaged and knowledge building classroom, what initial inputs or preparation is necessary? In addition to a certain level of maturity and prior knowledge, does this system require some initial "knowledge transfer" from a teacher, mentor, or supervisor? What form does this come in (e.g. establishing rules, providing effective reading or learning tips, teaching a certain amount of background theory, and so on)?  What do you think? Any concrete examples of initial preparation, inputs, or direct transfers in your face-to-face or online classes, or at the institutions you have studied or worked in, that helped achieve heutagogy and knowledge building? 
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I think there are two seminal works in this area.  The first is Situated Learning by Lave and Wenger.  Essentially it posits that to be, for example,  a mathematician you need to become a member of the mathematical community.  That is a whole lot more than knowing how to add up.  It is about thinking like a mathematician.  Mathematicians, scientists and engineers have many things in common, but there are also subtle differences which distinguish one community from the other at the cognitive and problem solving levels..  Lave and Wenger show that to become a member of a community is an apprenticeship process where the student starts at the periphery of the group, but through participation in community activities they gradually move to becoming a fully paid up member. 
A very important thing about this, is the community changes as a result of "new blood".  The process of change is not one way.
The history of mathematics illustrates how each generation embraces the past, but moves the community to a different cognitive spaces.  Cantor's work on set theory was considered by many of his predecessors to be heresy.  But his work is now recognised as foundational,
The other work that is critical is the of Professor Stuart Hall from the Open University in the UK.  He shows that the Circuit of Culture has 5 interacting elements: representation (e.g. a book),  consumption (reading), regulation (don't plagiarise), identity (I am a writer) and production (writing).   To become a member of a community requires involvement in the circle.
When I first read Ed Hirsch I threw the book across the room.  It was very bad.  Years later I read it,  And I realised that what Hirsch was saying was to become a participant in aspects of society like government, executive management, etc. required person to be a member of that community, whose cultural characteristics he "defined". It showed that people from minority cultures had immense barriers to overcome if they wanted to join this "elite"   Simply put, the culture of minorities is in general not the culture of power.  Ergo minorities have more work to do if they want to make that transformation. 
As a 1950s West Indian immigrant into the UK, Stuart Hall was the embodiment of someone whose starting point was a long way from academia in the white universities of Britain.  Nevertheless he succeeded.  He certainly became every inch an academic.  But he also transformed academia, pioneering the way for black participation.
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 Do you think that this is a new or different word for an older concept (self determined, self-directed or experential learning)? Some of the ideas in the heutagogy literature (e.g. independent learning) are essential to e-learning (i.e. distance education, online education), which has been around for a relatively longer time. Online discussion groups or online meetings for practitioners or learners are mentioned; but these also are techniques that predate the popularity of heutagogy. Do you know examples of course activities that are purely self determined, planned and facilitated by learners? Any experiences, ideas, or opinions surrounding these concepts would be welcome. 
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Dear Emre, the attached post (focusing on heutagogy in mobile learning) proposes a continuum ranging from pedagogy to andragogy to heutagogy. It suggests that creating a heutagogical-based mobile learning environment  reflects the use of technology to extend learning beyond the classroom. It seems as this approach incorporates 'traditional' concepts such as self-directed learning, but also reflect additional concepts such as collaborative learning.
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Traxler and Kukulska-Hulme (2005) described m-learning as “a personal, unobtrusive, spontaneous, ‘anytime, anywhere’ way to learn and to access educational tools and material that enlarges access to education for all” (p. 1). Mobile technologies offer opportunities for instructors to create media-rich and active learning materials which enhance students’ experience in realistic and authentic learning tasks. Students are encouraged to learn the real-world activities and tasks that are relevant to the workforce of the future. Moreover, the characteristics of the iPad, such as ubiquity, access, richness, flexibility ensure students the ability to connect with active instruction and social networks anywhere anytime.
If we design our courses with m-learning technologies and apply the right m-learning pedagogical framework, what skills can students learning and benefit from m-learning activities?
Reference:
Traxler, J., & Kukulska-Hulme, A. (2005, October). Evaluating mobile learning: reflections on current practice. Paper presented at the mLearn 2005, Cape Town.
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Dear Hung, the following post provides an idea of the benefits of mobile learning in a number of countries. It indeed may open up teaching and learning opportunities that were not possible previously.
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I offer a course on (mainly mainstream) cinematic portrayals of international relations and interactions--using films such as V for Vendetta, Battle of Algiers, Avatar, Dr. Strangelove, Night of the Living Dead, Last Emperor, Fight Club, The Mission, and many others. We discuss culture, politics, colonization, the state, IGOs and international law, war, and utopian/dystopian futures. I would also be interested to read any recommended syllabi, film reviews, critical essays, or other analyses of film and cinema. Many thanks!
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Children of Men (Alfonso Cuarón, 2006) is one of the best dystopian films ever made, in my humble opinion. It makes a strong statement about recent immigration policy. There are lots of clips on YouTube:
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I have started to do the research about improving learner's reading and writing using genre based approach, so I found that it is difficult for me because I have found few researches that support about my concept, and I must design the material and activities that are relevant to the genre based too.    
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I have not looked for any research on the topic, but to me it really makes common sense. Exposing readers to one genre per term or per year, gives the student the opportunity to make many little bites at guessing the unknown vocabulary. So if the genre is detective novels, then the student absorbs words like "clue", "evidence", "suspect", "suicide", "almond smelling",  from one book and can make fast progress through the other set books. As the student reads one detective novel, the student picks up the specialist vocabulary of the field, and can apply it in understanding the next more difficult dective novel, or even other novels.
Also, the student can apply his/her knowledge of literary techniques learned (like co-incidences and cliff hangers) to the new books etc.
Then you can get the students to prove their mastery by having to write sentences containing my quoted words!
 
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There is some debate with cooperative learning vs collaborative learning:
cooperative more to students learn new social skills and how to work together, where as collaborative is have group members think about and solve abstract problems, problems that may have no specific answers, or multiple solutions.
from the article link:
Base on your experience can we incorporate cooperative and collaborative learning in a class and how to do that?
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Dear Dony
Learning in my course that involve students is as follows:
1. After I deliver part of the session, I pose problems to the students. They answer the questions individually. They can also make observations, if they like (Cooperative learning).
2. Each group of about 6 students prepares a case for each session. I can invite any of the 10 groups to make a presentation on the case. After that, individual students are invited to answer issues related to the case. They are given marks for insightful interventions and answers (Collaborative as well as cooperative learning)
3. Each group goes to field or searches literature and does a project, which is submitted to me for evaluation at the end of the term (Collaborative learning).
4. Each student takes four quizzes online during the course.(Cooperative learning)
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I am a researcher looking to study the effectiveness and implementation of the flipped classroom method. For those of you who have flipped your classroom: how do you structure your in-class time, which activities do the students prefer, and how do you use those in-class exercises to prepare the students for their exams?
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Hello Michael,
I have a similar interest as you. One of the questions I asked had a reply from a researcher suggesting to view this paper (which I found very interesting):
The flipped classroom: a course redesign to foster learning and engagement in a health professions school.
I hope you find it as helpful,
Regards,
William
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What motivates you to continue with scientific research? Is it money, reputation, competition, your institution rules, your wish to search for facts, that you want to serve the humanity, because it's your job, or for other reasons? For the universities in third world countries how can we motivate scientific research in your opinion?
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As mentioned only motivated persons can produce and published scientific research in the academic environment. It is a hard job to produce regularly novelty, with enough contribution for the scientific community, impact in the society or industry, and present it in a way that is interesting for the other researchers and for the publishers.
In my opinion, who is really motivated by money usually stay far away of the universities as they do not pay (also cannot) the hours of work you need to achieve (and I underline again here) high levels of novelty, contribution significance and interesting work.
The universities give the scientific environment, the scientific nets, the equipments (labs), the assistants, the computers and software, libraries, inside culture and knowledge, and so on. This is very expensive to build and keeping it along generations as well as maintaining a permanent improvement, beside the serious teaching contribution for which is possible to a university to stay alive within reasonable costs.
I know very few about the universities in third world. Anyway, would recommend to check the payments (are they receiving a dignified wage, i.e. a full-time job must allow to keep a family with kids at university) , to check the number of hours of teaching duties (a very good university lesson is also a hard job, which require preparation, adaptation and a lot of energy which must be balanced between research and teaching) , to check the working conditions given at university, check if they have freedom to study the problems they want or they consider the most important (one must believe in the importance of the work being doing), check the mentioned tolerance to failures, and to check for the access given to the international scientific community as well as to the society.
Universities should invest some of their budget in inviting senior recognized scientists to stay for some periods, to evaluate the environment , transmit experience and their way of working in the field. Young talented future candidates will enrich a lot contacting recognized scientists that are interested in working with these junior fellows.
Of course, with globalization many of sharing opportunities are being closed by the extreme competition and commercialization. Many available knowledge where in the past easily passed from university to university, but not nowadays.
Also, removing responsibility of seniors on preparing future generations to replace them as a natural event when they retire is doing damage. Of course, retirement income should also be a dignified.
Finally, this express only an opinion at this moment which can be changed with discussion and reflection, but hope contribute for the discussion in this very complex subject.
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I am a researcher looking to study the effectiveness and implementation of the flipped classroom method. Any comments, questions, tips, stories,
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While I wholeheartedly agree with your statement about e-learning, I think you miss the thrust of what a flipped classroom is "supposed to be". I put supposed to be in quotes because I believe that there are many instructors out there who claim to have flipped courses without proper planning and thought.
The major tenants of a flipped classroom, as represented in the literature and through informal discussion with several professors who currently flip their courses as well as students in those classes, seem to be content outside of class and homework in-class. Simplistically this means that material traditionally covered in a lecture format is relegated to outside of class time. This allows for streamlining of content as well as reduction of tangents and off-topic discussions. From a student's standpoint it allows the student to watch and re-watch specific sections of material that he or she did not previously understand in addition to be able to watch the videos whenever they desire to do so. Most professors expect their students to read outside, at least according to their syllabus only to relate the same information that the students were "supposed to have read" in the lecture thus providing no incentive for the students to do the reading outside of class.
The second tenant of a flipped classroom is homework in class. This is a simplistic view which I believe can be better stated, as John Bergman and Aaron Sams did in their 2008 article in Learning and Leading With Technology entitled Remixing Chemistry Class, as "time for more student-centered and inquiry based activities". This statement suggest that class time is a time of interaction with peers and professors alike. This format fosters group learning and allows students to receive feedback from an expert in the field and discover gaps in understanding. This group learning is conducted using several well-established active learning techniques such as problem-based learning, think-pair-share, and inquiry-based learning. These techniques promote more than just simple memorization of facts, as most traditional lectures abdicate, but challenge the students to apply their knowledge, analyze information, and evaluate statements, literature, and information that they are presented with on a daily basis not just in-class but in life as well. It is these types of activities that help to develop students' critical thinking skills. Students who think critically are able to answer higher cognitive order questions on Bloom's taxonomy scale, get better exam scores, and are generally more prepared for life post school than those who cannot. A great source to read on the subject of flipped classrooms is the Chronicle of Higher Education's Casting Out the Nines blog written by Robert Talbert from Grand Valley State University in Michigan.
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In lieu of a recent article reviewing the benefits of active learning (Link: http://news.sciencemag.org/education/2014/05/lectures-arent-just-boring-theyre-ineffective-too-study-finds ) – I thought it would be appropriate to discuss the benefits (and negatives) of these different teaching modalities on here.
I find it particularly interesting that although data (for years) shows us that old style didactic lecturing is quite ineffective when compared to modern teaching that incorporates active learning – yet, only a small percentage of teachers changed their methodologies.
As an advocate of active learning, I know my opinion may be biased – this is why I am asking you:
1- What style of teaching do you do?
2- Why do you prefer this style over the other?
3- In what situation do you think active learning may produce negative results when compared to traditional styled teaching?
I know the big argument against active learning is that it is time consuming, therefore in a big classroom (i.e + 400 students) it becomes difficult to have interactive activities within the class – yet there are still workarounds. What do you think?
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I currently do entirely flipped teaching, though I don't like the term "flipped." My approach more closely resembles old-style apprenticeship learning. However, I have over 16 years of experience teaching large lecture classes, and was quite good at it!
I can't say that I enjoy one method over the other. I simply believe in using the right tool for the right job. If I'm delivering knowledge and information, I use lecture. If I'm delivering skills, I use flipped teaching.
I've found several negatives to flipped teaching. (1) Teaching evaluations not only slipped, but decisively fell. There are many reasons for this, but the most likely one is that in a lecture I am giving equal time to every student (all at once), but when the classroom is flipped that time is diluted a hundred fold and unevenly spread. (2) It's a HUGE time drain putting in the many extra hours needed to combat #1. I went from 2.5 hours of lecture a week to 15-25 hours of hands-on instruction. (3) Often the students just don't LIKE flipped! I don't think we're doing students a service by making them hate learning.
The single biggest negative of flipped teaching is that it's been over-sold (in my opinion). Lectures are derided as being "inefficient" and "boring," yet they don't *have* to be boring, and no one ever explains what they mean by inefficient. Folks simply make the comparison that flipped teaching gives 0.3-0.5 standard deviations of improvement in learning gains over lecture. THIS IS A TRIVIAL GAIN! In fact, it's the same magnitude as the spurious gains that one gets by either observing a group (the Hawthorne effect) or making trivial changes in a class.
My conclusion: One should flip a classroom only if there's a reason that goes well beyond these questionable claims of efficacy (in my estimation). Can you teach a student how to use a power tool in lecture? No. Should simple delivery of cell biology knowledge be done in a group discussion setting? No. Choose the right tool for the right job, always.
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I'm researching the educational potentials of digital learning games based on whole body interaction (use the whole body of the user to interact with digital technologies). Within that I'm particularly interested in assessing three main aspects:
- reflective action: understood as whether the learning and understanding is directly embedded into their playing behavior.
- meaning construction: understand how children interpret the learning game and how they make sense of it.
- strategy formation: understood as whether children change strategy during the game and why.
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Children playing educational games is intended for Skill Learning (the learning process), Sync the content taught with Body movement and coordination, highly flexible body postures with playful attitudes and gestures...
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And could the teacher's style influence students' learning?
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I do not believe it is a matter of being serious or not serious, in fact I think humor is a valuable tool in the classroom. An instructor can be relaxed, friendly, and humorous and humor in the classroom can often instructors connect with students and makes the learning environment more fun. The more learners connect with the instructor, the more likely they are to learn. However, I think the key is to set a standard. The challenge is to be relaxed in your teaching style, but make sure students do not mistake that for an "easy assessor". Teaching is always a balance of being fun and engaging yet ensuring delivery of content and maintaining standards of assessment.
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Do you know what is the difference in these terms?
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The difference between both can also be described in terms of the revised Bloom's taxonomy: rote learning mainly covers recalling and recognizing factual knowledge. In meaningful learning, also the other knowledge dimensions (procedural, conceptual, and partly meta-cognitive) and more cognitive processes (understand, apply, analyze, evaluate, and create) are involved. A good overview of this difference can be found in this article:
Mayer, R. E. (2002). Rote Versus Meaningful Learning. Theory Into Practice, 41(4), 226–232. (I found it on google scholar at: http://rt3region7.ncdpi.wikispaces.net/file/view/8+Perspectives+on+RBT.pdf)