Science topic

Academic Writing - Science topic

Initially, study of the relationship between academic writing, assessment and approaches to learning
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... for example
Reviwer #1: Please consider using one figure (e.g., Figure B) ...
Reviwer #2: I would suggest adding a flow so the reader can have a general idea about the platform by looking at Figure B.
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Accept those comments which are going to improve your MS and reply with evidence against those comments which are not correct
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Hello dear researcher,
I am very eager to participate in writing part of your research, if possible, and do whatever my scientific ability allows. My favorite topics are plant nutrition, environmental stresses and other aspects of crop physiology. Thank you very much.
AHAD MADANI
Ph.D in Agronomy.
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How to Find a Research Collaborator
Authorea is the leading collaborative platform to read, write, and publish research.
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I would like to pursue a career as a Biomedical/Scientific communicator and that requires me to get some recognised writing experience before I apply for such a position in any company. I am a current BSc Biomedical Science student graduating next year (summer 2023) but my previous background is science-business related and at a Master's level. I do a lot of academic writing which is outside of the course-related requirements, as I like doing some research and learning more from doing so. I share my findings with work colleagues and relatives only so far and am in process of starting my blog online. Advice is greatly appreciated!
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Does this mean you want to publish it on a website or blog rather than in a journal? The latter is obviously much time-consuming but strongly improves your credibility in that area.
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Which tool do you think is easier and more practical when writing your articles? What are your recommendations?
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Hi all, In my opinion Zotero is working well with all the browsers, and specially with Mozilla. Integration with MS Word is easy and intuitive. In any case, the few miskakes working with these softwares are related with the structure and fields included in the databases (authors´names and surnames, initiales, use of Caps,...). Best regards
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Dear researched,
I read a paper from one well known publisher. Paper is about gestational diabetees. At the age 45+ they found 35 cases of diabetes and 90 women without it. They wrote: ''Te incidence of GDM at age≥45years was as high as 38.89%.'' I would suggest 28%? What do you think?
In addition, I have some question. If something increase from 50 to 200, that is 4 times increase?
What about folds? In my opinion, folds are not same as times? The next article stated in abstract: ''neutralizing antibodies were increased by 10.3–28.9 times at 4 weeks after the booster'' and than in results ''eutralizing antibody GMTs then increased during the 4 weeks after the booster dose until day 237 by 28.9, 10.3, and 11.9-fold". Was this written correctly?
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38% comes if we divide 35/90 . it should be 28% (90/125).
"fold change" i think synonymous with "times", as in "3-fold larger" = "3 times larger"..
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Hello, I'm currently conducting research concerning the effect of social media language on EFL students' academic writing.
Does that make my research descriptive in nature?
And I want to collect data via questionnaires and interviews, does that mean the mixed-methods approach is used?
Finally, the descriptive statistics technique (statistical analysis) is used to analyze the participants’ responses? Could you please tell me if this is accurate?
Thanks in advance.
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I suggest you read some articles/research papers for a better understanding of writing style.
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Hello, I'm currently conducting a study concerning "the effect of netspeak and textism (social media language) on students' academic writing".
I want to know if 1) the impact is positive or negative , and if 2) the target population of my study integrates this language into their academic written assignments (essays).
So, is my research design descriptive, correlational, or exploratory?
Could you help me, please ? I'm confused.
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Dear Mr. Benazza!
Your study is "explanatory" as your aim is at answering "why" these phenomena work in a particular way. Please see a resource: https://scientificinquiryinsocialwork.pressbooks.com/chapter/7-1-types-of-research/#:~:text=Exploratory%20research%20is%20usually%20conducted,the%20way%20that%20they%20do.
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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The theme of the above-noted article is comparable to this already published article: An author’s guide to mastering academic writing skills: Discussion of a medical manuscript.
I mean one is not so aware of journals in the discipline of Education and Teaching that may be suited for such scientific content? Or rather journals that bridge the gap between Education and Medicine?
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There are various criteria such as high citation, high co-authorship, author reputation, high download or related factors such as publisher reputation, database credibility, journal credibility, and so on. Therefore, what is the most crucial criterion when choosing a scientific paper?
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For me, it is the relevance and impact of the journal
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The is a new "fashion" on publishing the protocols of research. I have already published the protocol, including the full description of the materials and methods. Now, I'm preparing the paper with the results but I would like to know if I should rewrite the M&M section, write a short description of the methods, or just simply refer the readers to the previously published protocol. I don´t know what would think of a potential editor or referee if I send them to read another paper. Would you mind giving me some advice?
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You just refer to the methodology previously published but you can provide a summary and any updated information :)
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I am working towards my Ph.D. applications again, and I hit a wall. So, I have a pretty good idea of what I want to research, but I cannot make a clean-cut research question(s) on what I want to research! How can I approach potential supervisors to discuss my research plans with them?
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Dear Khaled,
There is one critical thing to remember when you begin to design a research plan:
Your supervisor is there to advise you. He or she will have experience in planning research, and, having agreed to supervise you in the first instance, will happily guide you as you gather your thoughts and formulate your plan. In consultation with your supervisor you should, within the first months of your Ph.D., be able to identify major tasks and work out the order in which they should be done. Members of your Doctoral Studies Panel will also be experienced in planning research and will be happy to discuss your plan in your biannual meetings, but most of the work will be done with your supervisor in advance of meeting the Panel.
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Dear all
I am using the Mendeley, although there are few disadvantages on Mendeley, such as low stability (it crashed frequently), a bad manual adjustment (even when I adjust the format I want, it jumps back to the original formation of default). Some lecturers suggest I can use Endnote instead of Mendeley, but they do not give any reason. I would like to know what the advantages of Endnote are compared to Mendeley. Now, I know there are two advantages of Endnotes. First, more formats can be chosen in Endnote than in Mendeley. Second, there is no limitation for storing documents. Apart from these advantages, are there other advantages? Additionally, there is one huge disadvantage of Mendeley. It is unstable, and the output of the bibliography is not following the detail of documents on Mendeley. I am wondering whether Endnote can improve these problems and whether it is worth 80 pounds or not.
Thank you for your answers in advance.
Chen
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I prefer to make my notes manually, on a file. All of these apps are good but have their limitations. Sometimes they fail, when you need most...
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I'm curious what steps you've taken to increase the visibility and accessibility of the articles, books, or book chapters you've published.
What are your tips and tricks?
I'd like to hear your thoughts on this.
Thank you in advance for your thoughts and responses.
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I think this depends on the topic itself . If the topic of the article, chapter, book,….,etc is a vital and necessary topic and it enters into many issues of life , then the it will be more visible and accessible.
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Hello everyone
Can you share your experience with me about the literature review? How do you record the studies? How do you create a research matrix and classification the studies? What tools do you use for this purpose? , etc.
Regards
Vahid
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Dear,
You can define the research keywords, then using google scholar you look for articles that combine these keywords and extract the citation.
In writing the literature review, the categorization of similar articles is recommended based on methods, time, spatial, etc.
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I worked for months on writing this paper, but it's been rejected twice. It gives an alternative explanation to the expansion of the universe and gives a hint to quantum gravity, but there is no mathematics to back this idea, although it only needs some basic knowledge to understand. I've also given testable perditions to prove my point. Should I make it public or keep sending it to journals?
I've attached abstract and Introduction of my paper.
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Dear Dr. Vishal Wagh
I feel its too early to give up, better to look into the comments of the reviewers, get them fixed, and keep sending the article out to journals until it is accepted for publication
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Could you please provide any tips or ideas you have for creating the finest meta analysis review on cancer? Rather than writing a review article, I'd like to begin working on a meta analysis.
regards
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I totally agree with Timo Van Canegem that the word by itself "cancer" is such a broad term and I would narrow down to a particular sub-type and/or treatment. My best suggestion for this would be if you are uncertain as to which type to focus on to look at what type or types are treated or investigated in your organisation. For example, where I work currently, they are particularly interested in lung cancers and where I was working before has a special focus on bowel and breast cancers.
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I intend to understand the common errors in writing Formal emails, understand the difficulties students face in academic writing. What are the common areas that students fail in academic writing? How does Online teaching impact/impair the students' academic writing Skills?
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I also agree with Ajit Singh. Thanks to Kezia Mkwizu and Norleen Soko for their contributions from which I also have benefited.
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I have noticed several online postings criticizing reviewers but haven’t seen a post appreciating them. Talking more about bad reviewers can give a wrong impression to the young researchers that the majority of the reviewers are bad. Therefore, I thought of sharing my experience.
We have published over 20 papers, and of course, got several rejections. However, I haven’t encountered an unreasonable reviewer yet. A reviewer can occasionally miss a point in a manuscript, but the reviewers repeatedly asked us fair questions and provided meaningful comments.
For example, I have attached one of our recent responses to a reviewer. It can be clearly seen that the reviewer’s comments helped us to significantly improve the quality of the manuscript. That was not an isolated incident. In 3 out of our 5 latest publications, we included a statement like “The insightful comments of the reviewer are gratefully acknowledged” because we believe that the reviewers helped us to improve our manuscripts significantly.
Thank you, reviewers.
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Sometimes I feel some of them deserve to be added to the list of authors. I hope the publication policies change one day to allow that to happen.
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Dear RG community,
I have been looking for journals to publish my reviews papers. However, it seems like that the « oldest » way of describing and explaining the subject in its whole idea is not working anymore as we can perfectly see on « old » papers where everything about the subject is covered and described through an exhaustive way, but well explained.
I am not sure if I am wrong, but it seems that the « new « reviews are focusing on adding a lot of references and briefly describing their results about the subject without covering what is really happening and how important the result is to understand the matter and covering the theory as the old ones used to do.
Am I wrong about this new trend or I am looking for wrong journals to publish?
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Hello
1. You have to write over and over
2. Do not be sad if magazines do not accept your paper
3 You have to be clear about the magazine
4 Always try
Best regards
Ph.D. Ingrid del Valle García Carreño
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What is the greatest way to avoid plagiarism when writing an academic paper, thesis, or dissertation?
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Rather of merely paraphrasing what you've read, describe other people's thoughts or results (using sources) and their significance to your argument.
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A little over a month ago, I submitted a manuscript to a journal that is part of Springer. The status has never moved beyond "quality check in progress." I havent published with a journal that uses this system, so Im unfamiliar with how long this step usually takes, but a month feels a bit excessive. Is this typical?
I've reached out to the journal twice, and both times I got a canned response, telling me that "they're doing everything they can to move things along."
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This "quality check" thing is actually strange to me,
However, you can just hold on a little bit more considering the fact that the new year is just opening up, probably those in charge of the quality check are not yet available
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  • Bibliometrics, Scientometrics and Informetrics were introduced in twentieth century (later some others). Those years had their values, behaviors and characteristics in the world of higher education. Fraud, misconduct, data fabrication, plagiarism, were not so wide spread as they are now. In recent years we were introduced terms such as gift or ghost in authorship.
  • But we are still using old methods (in new forms) in metric studies E.g. Scientometrics to say who is who in science, or where is where in science... In the age of virtual worlds available to everyone, everywhere, even the meaning of "publish or perish" has changed. Many universities around the globe not only put pressure on their faculty members but also many incentives in different forms, such as cash, to publish more and more... Too many authors have become addicted to see their works published at any costs. They show off their published works, citations, … and "ordinary Scientometrics" with any given names, descriptive or analytic in nature up to now help them. All appear to become "Soft Power" and "Matthew Effect" for those who might not deserve. We have to move to something "Interpretive", "Inferential" or the like to find out or pull back the curtain (please see also my other 2 discussions, related to this one).
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Kindly see also the followingRG link:
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Hi everyone,
Some time ago I shared my scientific essay with GRIN. They offered me selling hard copy of this work via GRIN site or Amazon and pdf version to download from GRIN. I prepared pdf version of the paper and upload it, but I must admit there was inconsistency between final version active on site and pdf version that I have shared with them - problems with accurate formatting. Even if I selected for free option, little price was set up for downloading the pdf. Each one who wants to upload its own paper, has to agree with conditions, and one of them is that the paper will be active at least for 5 years under agreed conditions.
Still I have doubts if I did wrong or good sharing my essay with them. As a publisher was GRIN suitable choice indeed? What do you think? What experience do you have with this publisher?
Thanks in advance for your reply!
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I think 'GRIN Publishing' is one of the vanity publishers. Do not publish your thesis or book via this publisher, it may bring trouble in your scientific career.
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Dear Research Community,
I need to write full research protocol and I need help in suggesting the steps to follow and the template for it please,
your guide is much appreciated
Mohammed Abed, MD
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Driss Benattabou
Thank you so much
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Scientific publications are an integral part of the life of any scientist. Taking into account the orientation of modern science towards international, mainly English-language journals, scientists from countries where
(1) English is not the main language and
(2) a different culture of academic writing has been formed, different from the international one,
faced the problem of adaptation.
Could you share some good open academic writing courses in English?
What are other methods of improving academic writing skills?
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Hope to have a good academic discussion going. Thanking all of you in advance for your ideas and comments.
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Hi Airil Haimi Mohd Adnan - absolutely. Given that many doctoral students will wish to continue an academic career following graduation, the ability to write like an academic (which often requires development) is an extremely important skill.
Very best wishes, James.
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The Statement of Purpose is one of the most misunderstood components of graduate application essays. The majority of students treat it like it's another essay on themselves and, as a result, create mundane material that does not stand out. That is why the university admissions committee places a high value on the statement of purposes and its structure — they want to determine whether we are committed to communicating your desire to study at their university. Could you kindly share your expertise with writing SOPs so that we can determine the most critical components that we should include in particular?
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Follow
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I would like to learn from your experience in order to improve the way we write and to facilitate the method of writing in a way understandable and clear to the reader.
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I hope the following link could help you:
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Many interesting topics and controversies are discussed on ResearchGate. There are opinions from experts across the globe. Can these discussions be summarized as an article? Would there be a need for an ethical approval? Is consent required from various contributors?
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these discussions be summarized as an article?
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I am writing a qualitative research paper on EFL graduate students' academic writing challenges in a university in Turkey where English is the medium of instruction. The research instrument is a semi-structured interview, and thematic analysis (TA) will be implemented. Based on what should I choose the sample size? What is the best/ideal sample size to reach the principle of saturation?
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Congratulation to the excellent question of the sample size of qualitative research. Please refer to the sooner question about the same topic to get more information: https://www.researchgate.net/post/How_many_interviews_are_needed_in_a_qualitative_research_Is_there_any_rule_or_popular_practice
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So I have been working on a project discussing the various partnerships and collaboration strategies engaged by arts organizations with different stakeholders. Although we've been using partnerships and collaboration almost interchangeably in academic writing, I have some feelings that the two terms are different in practices, or they are related somehow but involving different degrees and types of inter-organizational relationships. I am wondering if anyone can point me to some sources discussing their similarities and differences. They can be cases from the arts and cultural sector or in general. Thanks!
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Please have look on our(Eminent Biosciences (EMBS)) collaborations.. and let me know if interested to associate with us
Our recent publications In collaborations with industries and academia in India and world wide.
EMBS publication In association with Universidad Tecnológica Metropolitana, Santiago, Chile. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/33397265/
EMBS publication In association with Moscow State University , Russia. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/32967475/
EMBS publication In association with Icahn Institute of Genomics and Multiscale Biology,, Mount Sinai Health System, Manhattan, NY, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
EMBS publication In association with University of Missouri, St. Louis, MO, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30457050
EMBS publication In association with Virginia Commonwealth University, Richmond, Virginia, USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with ICMR- NIN(National Institute of Nutrition), Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
EMBS publication In association with University of Minnesota Duluth, Duluth MN 55811 USA. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852211
EMBS publication In association with University of Yaounde I, PO Box 812, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
EMBS publication In association with Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30693065
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Yaoundé I, Yaoundé, Cameroon. Publication Link: https://pubmed.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/31210847/
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of the Basque Country UPV/EHU, 48080, Leioa, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27852204
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King Saud University, Riyadh, Saudi Arabia. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER , Hyderabad, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Alagappa University, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30950335
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University, Hyderabad , India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and C.S.I.R – CRISAT, Karaikudi, Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237676
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Karpagam academy of higher education, Eachinary, Coimbatore , Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Ballets Olaeta Kalea, 4, 48014 Bilbao, Bizkaia, Spain. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29199918
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad - 500 016, Telangana, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/28472910
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Ocean Science and Technology, Kerala University of Fisheries and Ocean Studies, Panangad-682 506, Cochin, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27964704
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and CODEWEL Nireekshana-ACET, Hyderabad, Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26770024
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Bharathiyar University, Coimbatore-641046, Tamilnadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27919211
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and LPU University, Phagwara, Punjab, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/31030499
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Department of Bioinformatics, Kerala University, Kerala. Publication Link: http://www.eurekaselect.com/135585
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Gandhi Medical College and Osmania Medical College, Hyderabad 500 038, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27450915
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and National College (Affiliated to Bharathidasan University), Tiruchirapalli, 620 001 Tamil Nadu, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/27266485
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and University of Calicut - 673635, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/23030611
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and NIPER, Hyderabad, India. ) Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/29053759
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and King George's Medical University, (Erstwhile C.S.M. Medical University), Lucknow-226 003, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579575
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and School of Chemical & Biotechnology, SASTRA University, Thanjavur, India Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25579569
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Safi center for scientific research, Malappuram, Kerala, India. Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/30237672
Eminent Biosciences(EMBS) and Dept of Genetics, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/25248957
EMBS publication In association with Institute of Genetics and Hospital for Genetic Diseases, Osmania University, Hyderabad Publication Link: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/26229292
Sincerely,
Dr. Anuraj Nayarisseri
Principal Scientist & Director,
Eminent Biosciences.
Mob :+91 97522 95342
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Mendeley and EndNote
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It is common to find endless names on many article types, but sometimes we need to stop. Guidelines, journals... Where can you find the definitions of these article types? How many names can you think of? Could you give them a definition?
I will like to start with some of the articles names, can anyone give a definition on them?
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Thank you very much for your contributions. I will take a look at all the links...
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I am curious, has anyone had a manuscript go through peer review and have all the reviewers recommend acceptance only to then get rejected by the editor who strongly recommended rejection and no resubmission? I personally wrote the manuscript and there are no issues/activities such as plagiarism or fraud that should warrant a automatic rejection. It seems someone truly just doesn't like me as I can't see how a manuscript could pass pre-screening and then peer review only to get tossed by an editor.
While I plan to just move on and get it accepted in another journal, i was wondering has anyone else had this happen?
thanks for your time
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Dear Dr Doub, do not let it discourage you. Probably you submitted it in a wrong journal. The right journal will accept it.
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is there a document or video that is quick study to use Mendeley reference management software?
Many thanks
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Their YouTube channel.
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Reviewers play a pivotal role in scholarly publishing. The peer review system exists to validate academic work, helps to improve the quality of published research, and increases networking possibilities within research communities. Despite criticisms, peer review is still the only widely accepted method for research validation and has continued successfully with relatively minor changes for some 350 years (Elsevier, 2021). If you could change something to improve how the peer-reviewed process is traditionally done, what would you change?
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Dear Dr. Hickmann!
I am not a specialist in this topic but I think I can contribute to this discussion by searching for novel resources:
1) Elise M. Smith (2021). Reimagining the peer-review system for translational health science journals, Clinical and Translational Science, Volume 14, Issue 4, July 2021, Open access:
2) Matthew J. Pavlovich, Shawnna Buttery (2021). How peer review and publication can make a good protocol even better, STAR PROTOCOLS, Volume 2, Issue 2, 18 June 2021, Free access:
Yours sincerely, Bulcsu Szekely
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Dear all,
I would like to know what methods/modes of constructive feedback on university student-written assignments (ESL) do you find to be most efficient (based on your practice). I would really appreciate it if you could share your expertise with me. Thank you very much in advance.
Kind Regards,
Alexandra.
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There two important things when we talk about feedback on students' academic writing.
The first part is related to linguistic competence that includes everything related to grammar, and the second part is related to the rules of academic writing.
The second part also has some sub-sections; for example, if you are teaching to write a paragraph, what type paragraph is your focus - a definition paragraph, a descriptive paragraph, an opinion paragraph, a process paragraph, a narrative paragraph. The same structure will go with academic essay writing.
Coming back to teaching a paragraph or essay writing, a teacher should know his/her teaching techniques and method. For teaching and learning outcomes, I recommend the following steps based on my lifelong experience:
1- Teaching essay writing in parts before you ask them to write a complete essay.
2- Work on each part one by one focusing on writing techniques and grammar.
3- Give written feedback on the most important points and make sure the students do not repeat the same mistakes
4- Make 2 or 3 groups in the class and nominate at least 2 good students in each group. These students will help their group to correct their essay.
5- In class, give feedback on the board/projector and let the students correct their essay and encourage them to ask questions about each correction that you have done.
I do hope it can help most of the colleagues who are teaching academic writing skills to the students at any level.
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An abstract is a brief overview of the major points of an article, report, thesis, or proposal. The template for abstract of Emerald Publishing reads, "Purpose, Design/methodology/approach, Findings, and Originality/value". Meanwhile, some Scholars believe that the best format is, "Significance of the study, aim of the study, research methodology, and major conclusion". For abstract indexing and systematic review, accurate abstract is capable to earn good recommendations of Editors, Reviewers, and Readers.
Could you please share your opinion on the subject matter? How best do you believe an abstract should be written?
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Of course it is better. It gives better understanding of whole methodology, problem statement, key findings and novelty of the article to the readers.
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Hi everyone
Language editing is a major concern for authors who do not have English as their primary language. Problems with grammar, language, and syntax can result in the rejection of manuscripts from international biomedical Journals. The editors and experts often recommend professional editing which can sometimes cost hundreds of dollars. This is not feasible nor affordable for the majority of authors and researchers based in developing countries who do not have sufficient funds or institutional support.
Many online language editing softwares are now available but the better ones have limited functionality for the free version for example Grammarly.
Please share your experience of using online language editing software with their and strengths and shortcomings. I have been Trinka for 4 months now with excellent results and would highly recommend it
It is the world’s first grammar and language enhancement tool is custom-built for academic & technical writing. Its standout features are that it works with the author and goes beyond the grammar and spellcheck to ensure holistic language enhancement.
If you have not tried it yet, Sign up for a free account from this link
Share your experience of other software too
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You can use grammarly
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How can you decide the judgment on a specific article whether it is good or not, is your judgment depends on the title of the article or the abstract or the publishing journal or something else?
Please, share us your opinions about the discussion
Thanks
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I think depends on
1. Quality of Journal which depends on citations, Quartile, Indexing, Impact Factor etc.
2. Novelty
Regards
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How to publish in Sentiment Analysis/Opinion Mining Journal that do not ask for Reviewer name
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The reference section of a submitted article is an excellent place to start when looking for peer reviewers. It’s worth bearing in mind that cited researchers could be particularly appropriate if their article is a broad review on that area of research. But beware of conflicts of interest, as authors may have cited colleagues or collaborators.
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Hi everyone,
I'm currently conducting a research project for my MA; long story short there was something wrong with the wording in one section of my questionnaire that made the meaning ambiguous. I've changed it now but the first 15 participants might have been influenced by that wording to answer differently. I'm thinking of doing this:
1. Anyone after the 15th participant will get to answer the edited questions.
2. Some participants who answered the misleading questions have agreed to the second phase of my research, which is either an open-ended survey or oral interview. There, I will ask them to answer the edited questions before proceeding with the 2nd interview.
3. The participants who answered the misleading questions and declined a second interview, I will have to disclose somewhere in my write-up why I'm not including their answers in my analysis.
However, point 3 doesn't feel right to me because I keep thinking it'll affect the analysis of the data. Would it be worth just scrapping that entire section? Also, I wanted to ask if anyone had any tips on how to actually go about writing this up in the report itself?
Thank you for your time.
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Dear Ashley,
Hello There. I agree with Dr. Razina Ma'am to use that as some sort of pilot study or validation of the questionnaire using a focus group of 15 participants. If it were not 15 and had you completed data collection then I would have advised you to keep it as is and as future prospective research you could have suggested the finer modifications of the language to remove the ambiguity.
In my research group, we always send the questionnaire for pre-study pilot testing to check the ease of understanding the questions and to gauge the average completion time. This would very much help in finding out and the subsequent removal of minute language errors and other ambiguities which might have slipped the authors.
So, my suggestion is redo the data collection for that part only and exclude from analysis the data of those participants who refused to redo it for the second time. Once all the collected data is on the same page I don't think it warrants any type of justification as it was not included in the final analysis all together.
All the Very Best and God Speed.
Kind Wishes,
Nabeel
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Nice survey. I am interested in your findings. Let me advise that you revise the survey for some spelling errors.
All the best
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Hi,
My current qualitative research (for my master thesis) looks at how a company can respond better to scarcity in its supply chain. My theoretical framework consists of the whole supply chain risk management process and defines characteristics that I'm comparing to determine if missing one of the characteristics could explain the success or lack of success. But before I could answer the 'why' it was a success or not, I need to analyze 'if' it was a success.
The company has a lot of data available. I defined a few variables that determine 'success' (e.g., percentage the company can fill regarding customer demand). Is there a methodology that describes how to look at the available data? The closest methodology I could get was descriptive statistics, but I'm not sure if it covers everything I want to do. Can somebody help me with this?
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Your statement “The company has a lot of data available” is true but the shortcomings in the supply chain are mainly due to variables external to the company (if management is good enough).
Let's take an example from the recent experience of the pandemic and the difficulties on the global / local market for goods; o climatic reasons: shortage of food / feed; or even purely political reasons.
Maybe, it could be better to focus on one type of market and analyze a broad and qualitative economic / political variables.
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Dear all,
I'm looking for information about the relative distribution of different article types preferably in education / social science journals but basically anything goes. More precisely, I'm interested in what percentage of published papers are reviews, empirical articles, thoretical articles etc. All tips are highly appreciated.
With kind regards,
Dr. Pekka Mertala
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Dear Pekka, this is an interesting and rather unusual technical question. Like Dean Whitehead I don't know of any resource / database that provides this information. It certainly depends to some extent on the different disciplines of research. In our discipline, chemistry, most leading journals have three categories of articles: Communications, full papers, and review articles. Personally I don't see the benefits of knowing the distribution of these article types over the journals in a certain discipline (or even all areas of research). The reason is that, at least in chemistry, there are also renowned journals that publish only review articles or only communications. A good example for the first category is Chemical Reviews which has an impact factor of 60.622 (in 2020). On the other hand, the RSC (= Royal Society of Chemistry in the UK) journal Chemical Communications publishes mostly communications (+ occasional "Feature Articles" and "Highlights"). Thus in chemical journals there is no uniform presence of the different article types.
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Hello, I'm an early career PhD student. When people ask me questions e.g. In conference or lab meeting, even when I know the answer my mind tends to go blank and I say I don't know just to get out of the situation. I used to be good at answering questions and taking time to think and answer , especially during my bachelors degree. As time was gone by I feel I have gotten worse mainly because I am afraid the answer will be ridiculous and made fun of as I have reached a very advanced level where everyone knows what they are talking about. After all these years sometimes I get tired of science in general and have no motivation to read up on my project , so sometimes I genuinely don't know the answers which makes things worse . I used to have a lot of passion which is what put me on this path, but at the moment I'm tired of science which is making it hard to answer peoples questions and i think people are starting to notice. My answers are generally non specific and waffley, and I was wondering if anyone has tips to overcome these problems. I am interested in my project and deep down I love science and wish I could do better and go back to how I used to be and express my answers logically and what is expected at this level. This is especially important for my thesis defense, I need help and tips please on how others process these questions and defend their work. This problem has also started to overflow into my writing where I can't think properly or focus with the overwhelming amount of information.
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Also to defeat fear, you must program your mind. Mind preparation is a strategy to defeat fear.Tell yourself you can do it. Don't limit yourself, you will be amaze what you can do when you program your mind.
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PROs and CONs in adopting SCOPUS as a source for bibliometric measures of scientific and technical publications?
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What is the difference between ScienceDirect and Scopus?
Each uses a different database.
"ScienceDirect contains full text articles from journals and books, primarily published by Elsevier, but including some hosted societies. Scopus indexes metadata from abstracts and references of thousands of publishers, including Elsevier. Scopus builds additional functionality on top of that metadata, such as citation matching, author profiles, and affiliation profiles."
For information, please the attached figure extracted from Elsevier's website.
Source: ttps://service.elsevier.com/app/answers/detail/a_id/28240/supporthub/agrm/p/15838/
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I have just completed my research/thesis, a "Comparative study on effectiveness of two treatments, joint mobilization and isometric exercises protocol with an additional therapeutic patellofemoral taping protocol, in knee osteoarthritis."
Anyone reading the thesis can get an idea of the topic and the disease and its result. I started with the anatomy of knee, arthro-kinematics, the grading system of Osteoarthritis, the diagnostic criteria, clinical features, and some description of the treatment protocols. I have given proper references to everything I have written as I can't write about anatomy and radiological features by myself... because anatomy doesn't change.
The problem i am facing now is that my research supervisor checked my thesis by putting it in plagiarism software and the software detected above 60% Plagiarism.
I am totally shocked because from Methods and Materials to conclusion, results and discussion everything is written by me. Only anatomy, clinical features etc. are taken from books which I properly cite...
Where have I gone wrong?
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One of my friends was accused of plagiarism; do you know why?
After about three months, his research paper was rejected because of plagiarism. When he checked the journal report, he found that his paper was accused of plagiarism and with a 61% percentage. The reason is that his manuscript was previously uploaded as a preprint. It took him another two months to solve the problem and removing the manuscript from the database of the preprint.
So, in order to solve such type of issue, it may take several months of following up to remove the manuscript from the database of the preprint. Anyhow, If there were accusations of plagiarism, it is not well for any researcher's reputation, in any meaning.
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I'm using Turnitin Premium, and I'm having trouble with the filtering and settings. I've removed the quotes and bibliography, but how many words should be omitted from excluding sources that are less than...... words to acquire true plagiarised content? Because it can sometimes pick up on two-word scientific words like "Calibration Method," "Air Pollution," and so on. Based on your experience, what values should we set?
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It also depends on your university policies, but Nirmala answer is correct. I use 20% similarity with phrases more than 10 words
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Hello!
I am the founder and developer of Refereed: https://refereed.com/
Refereed is a Finnish startup with a mission to make the process of academic writing, peer review, and publishing smooth, convenient, and compliant with open science principles. Up until now, we have been developing the first building block of the platform - the editor for academic writing, which natively supports real-time collaboration, LaTeX, citation management, dynamic references, and lets you focus on writing instead of formatting.
The next steps are one-click preprint publishing and interactive peer review and we are already discussing the options with preprint servers. But before moving further I would like to make sure that our editor delivers the best possible experience for the authors. I am a space scientist myself and I was developing this project according to my needs. But it could easily be the case that I haven't taken into account the specific needs of other research areas.
I kindly ask for your critical feedback about the Refereed editor. Try it out, and let me know what should be done differently in your opinion. I can't express enough how vital your input would be for the project!
You can leave your feedback directly in the editor using the yellow widget, which says "Feedback", or in this discussion thread. I would be happy to engage in a fruitful discussion and perhaps we will come up with some fresh ideas!
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Do you plan to add support for publications written with GNU TeXmacs (http://www.texmacs.org)?
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Dear Colleagues,
I would like to ask for your opinion on The Academic Times website / portal.
Recently, they contacted me to publish a short note about the research I'm doing. I noticed that the site is quite active on major social networks and describes research conducted by many leading research centers.
I wonder what is the reputation of this website and credibility. Do you know their business model? Actually, very little information about the company itself is available on their website.
Thank you for your help!
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Are you asking opinion regarding the interface?
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Publications
Academic writing
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Dear Michael Patriksson you asked to think about "One related question is whether also the worst papers published should be cited at all." In my personal opinion this is not practical. When I cite a paper in our own article this means only that the cited work is relevant to our research. It does not say anything about the quality of the cited research. I do not intend to judge the quality of the cited research anyway. Vice versa the number of citations is not always directly related to the quality of the cited work. In this context it needs to be agreed upon what "quality" really means (technical quality, good English, novelty, length of the manuscript etc.).
For a potentially useful link in which this question is addressed please have a look at the following article:
Citations: Indicators of Quality? The Impact Fallacy
Some time ago I checked my personal citation overview on Scopus and discovered that ca. 7% of all our publications have never been cited, not even by ourselves. Does this mean that these 7% are all of low quality? I don't think so. In some cases they describe interesting but isolated findings, where the work has not been continued later on, so that there was no need to cite the paper.
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We are often required to list our citation data but we have no protocol about how to collect data from different books or papers if those are not published on the net.
Do you have any method or system to do this? Please explain to me.
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Agnes N. TOTH Its a proper technique and it is mentioned on RG as well how we can get or increase our citations one by one
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I aim at proposing a mindset/method as a supporting tool in an emerging filed... what can be the process of proposing:
1) LR: previous "almost" similar projects have used this mindset, and benefited from it
2) decomposing the current field's aspects/sides
3) "debating" how these components can benefit from this mindset
4) "resulting" that this mindset can be a supporting tool
?
is it a rational and reliable process?
if that field's experts disagree, how should I convince them?
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If you wish to look at academic discipline development from the theory of academic disciplines I would suggest that the main way disciplines develop is through the influence of new theories and paradigms. Disciplines tend to have more established traditions of argumentation for discussing and establishing new knowledge. In summary I'm not quite sure what you mean by proposing a new mindset. I suggest you look at the work of Craig on the theory of disciplines and Matsuyama on communication between mindscapes.
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What is the best way to improve the quality of peer reviews for journal articles? In my experience, both as a reviewer and as an author, I have seen great variation in terms of the quality of peer reviews. This leads to inconsistency in terms of the quality of papers published in academic journals. It also leads to fairness problems. While a reasonably good quality article is rejected, sometimes you see a very low quality article appear in the same journal that rejected the former. Some reviewers write very short, hastily put together, thoughtless, and even wrong reviews, and yet, they are still used in the process. Others write extremely wrong reviews, full of inconsistent and fallacious arguments, and they affect the review process. What can be done to prevent this? Shouldn't there be a screening process to determine the eligibility of reviewers for the field that they will review the papers for? Can the reviews be reviewed by other reviewers? I have seen many unfair reviews (in both directions), and the problem is not isolated to certain journals or disciplines.
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Quality assurance reviews differ from peer reviews in that the focus of the quality assurance review is on the following criteria: Consistency: Were reasonable and consistent units of measurement and generally acceptable formulas used throughout? Are the appropriate number of significant figures reported? Correctness: Were matrix-compatible methods used? Were measurements within the working range of the method? Can measurements be traced to a recognized standard or source (e.g., the National Institute of Standards and Technology)? Can calculations be verified, starting from representative raw data and proceeding to the summary data presented in the paper or report? Coherence: Do the stated conclusions follow from the data presented? Are the assumptions clearly stated? Are inconsistencies between data and conclusions discussed? Clarity: Are special terms and acronyms defined? Can a person with a general technical background in the subject understand the paper or report? Conformance: Did the study follow the test/quality assurance plan, with appropriate calibrations and other quality-control checks, audits, and data validations? If not, is there a discussion of problems? Concordance: Were data quality objectives met? Were the data quality indicator goals achieved for precision, accuracy, representativeness, comparability, and completeness?
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Sometimes peer reviewers write incorrect comments about your paper, or they disagree with you on some issue, but you know that they are wrong. If you are lucky enough to be given a chance to revise your paper, when you explain that they are wrong, they get defensive and write even worse reviews and change their recommendation to reject. What is the best way to handle this issue? Withdrawing the paper and submitting it to somewhere else? If we have to change our papers according to referee comments, just to have a chance to publish it, then it will be bad for academic discourse. I have seen this too many times that I recognize it as a problem in academic publishing. Unfortunately, people who are not very knowledgeable about an issue volunteer to review papers on that issue and yet, their review reports are given more weight than your rebuttals, when it comes to the decision on your paper. I have never seen a case in which the editor sided with the authors, when there is disagreement between the authors and reviewers. Peer reviewers always have to be satisfied, that is the unestablished rule. This kills plurality of ideas, causes to propagate wrong information, inflates irrelevant citations, inflates the size of papers, reduces the quality of published articles, etc.
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Regarding responding to the harsh or negative peer reviewer comments, you should deal with them as you would deal with any other comment. Give a point-by-point response to the comments, mentioning whether you agree or disagree with them. If you disagree with some of the comments, provide your reasons for doing so.
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I now explore three pedagogical strategies to improve junior high school students' skills in ESL academic writing. The main things I set up now are: lexical resources, grammatical range and accuracy, and coherence and cohesion. Do you think it works? Do you have any better suggestions for me?Thanks!
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You can consider with discourse can increase the student motivation and activity to write their idea.
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As all of us are familiar with the different journal ranking systems and requirement conditions, in many cases we meet different kind of fees, charges for publishing our researches. Usually only the submitting and the previewing cost US$ 50-250, which is non-refundable and the paper may be rejected by the editors without being sent for review. Others introduce fees for the publishing US$ 500 -1000 (extra fees for colour graphs, maps etc. or for appeals against a Chief Editor's decision). For good English, they offer some links for the grammar review: US$ 100-200. Besides all of this, they employ embargo for 12-36 months, and ask US$ 600-2500 for open access. I think these fees sometimes unreasonable, so it is hard not to find the business factor behind them.
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I do agree with the expert answers above
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Does today's western academia encourage Minimalism in academic research? I would argue for yes. It is evident in research limitations and conciseness of writing style. Are PhD theses expected to follow this? What if the researcher was being too broad though making what seems to be like a break through work that is cohesive and well connected with integrated parts?
Would appreciate your views and shared experiences.
How much is too much? And when is less more?
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Personally, I think there is a big difference between papers and theses. While conciseness is important for (most) papers, in order to avoid information overload, theses in my opinion should not have the same standards and should be rather comprehensive, to allow the student (or push the student, depending on the situation...) to overview and review the research field with sufficient completeness. The same applies in my opinion to review papers. One minimalist trend that I disagree with, but which is quite mainstream now in several scientific areas especially in Northern Europe, consists in allowing of requiring PhD theses that are simply the collection of all papers-preprints produced by the candidate.
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As an inexperienced teacher in the field of online teaching, I have the fear of unconsciously ignoring one of the skills while focusing on not ignoring the other!
Therefore, I wish to make use of your experiences with distance learning/teaching in the field of integrating the four skills-listening, speaking, reading, and writing- in the language course.
Note: the context of teaching is Algeria, hence, some limitations exist concerning the availability of internet and computers.
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Online or distance teaching has its implications on learners. One of the direct consequences of distance learning is the type of educational platform an institution adopts and uses. Features of these platforms determine which skill is prevalent and more rapid in use. I have found interactive oral skills to be most affected followed by writing and then reading. Students listen most of the time while attending online classes with less willingness/chances to interact verbally.
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I'm looking for suggestions on unexplored areas of the intersection between law and information technology, artificial intelligence and, data protection laws to research upon and academic writing.
Since I'm very new to the field, any help in this regard will be godsent.
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Within the area you are focusing upon, there may very well be unexplored terrain. But any such will have to be of interest for you in order to support a present or future research project that will be implemented to completion.
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Can I use the same topic as my master's research for a Ph.D. study? My master’s project turned out to be not so simple as it first looked and the results aren't /weren't as satisfying as I expected.
In my master's thesis, I investigated EFL international graduate students' academic writing challenges and their strategies to cope. However, there is still room for research and in-depth analysis; to have better and more satisfying results.
Any thoughts, please?
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Yes you may use your unplublished topic
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Recently, I found an article that has been published in IEEE Access (DOI: 10.1109/ACCESS.2020.3045008), which is directly copied from a research article of ours (DOI: 10.1007/s00170-019-04213-z). A lot of figures and tables, and the text in body of the paper are same as our published paper. Moreover, most of the data are the same or have been only slightly changed and the text in the finding and discussion section is also mostly identical. We can see the same text with the same references (see the attached file).
Regarding this essential problem we sent an email to the editor handling of the paper. Then, the first author of the paper sent us an email, in which he tried to persuade us to forgive him. In fact, he confessed to committed plagiarism and asked us for mercy. Following reporting the problem to the EIC we received an email from IEEE Access as an investigation outcome as follow. "In the present case, we performed an investigation and discussed the case with the EIC, IEEE Intellectual Property Rights (IPR) and myself. We believe that the article overlap is small enough that it does not warrant any further investigation."
We spent so much time on our paper, and they have just looked at our paper, modified it, and written another one. This is not fair at all. What can we do now? I would appreciate any kind of help.
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I suggest you file a complaint with COPE -- the Committee on Publication Ethics.
In addition, IEEE has a Ethics and Member Conduct Committee, and you could file a complaint with them as well -- naming not only the author(s) but the editor and the members of the committee who attempted to bury your original complaint.
In short, take your complaint to every source you can find. The last thing IEEE wants is to be accused of running a "predatory journal," but that certainly seems to be what is happening your case.
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What are some of the difficulties or disadvantages, if any, of publishing in high impact journals?
Thanks in advance for your participation!
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The only drawback is the time. These journals take a long time for research to be accepted for publication and some of them are very expensive for my person.
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I have had several papers rejected by journals because of an inability of the journal to find reviewers. As an author this is incredibly frustrating as not only do you spend a long time waiting for review but you also do not receive any helpful feedback from the reviewers.
Apart from suggesting reviewers to the Journal, what other strategies could authors use to help in this situation?
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I should most likely withdraw the paper after a while. Then try another journal.
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My policy and science technology science advisor had one of the biggest impacts on my learning and self reflection of physical science interactions with the behaviors of humankind. For example, The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks illustrated to me that while the intention to promote science and medicine is altruistic, the benefits of resultant outcomes were not equally distributed. More recently, as a mentor as part of an Innovation curriculum If I Understood You, Would I Have This Look on My Face gave me a different perspective of communicating STEM topics.
What books have you found to compliment STEM topics that include policy, social science and or science technology society topics?
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Moneef R Zou'bi , of course! Do you have any specific recommendations for books, research or other sources of information for students or professors?
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Research philosophy is broad concept but , in this context , I mean that which deals with the source, nature and development of knowledge, which inform the level of research objectives, ways in which data about a phenomenon should be collected, required approach to the analyses, advanced "knowledge" being contributed and the mastery of the use of " the field tools" .
Often in practical areas, classical distributions do not provide adequate fit in modeling data, and there is a clear need for the extended version of these classical distributions .
So, should "finding the best link function" (being parts of introducing a New Family of Probability Distribution Function, G(X:{Ø} ), given the baseline distribution X~F(X_i: I=1,2,...,n:{ ø}) be listed research objectives, given the philosophy of Graduate and PHD research program?
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thanks for your good question
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Many students are familiar with trying to find free plag check services and running their papers and dissertation work through them. I was wondering if seasoned researchers also run their papers through plagiarism checkers, paid or free. Or do you trust that what you wrote would be plagiarism-free as you have written it honestly? I know many people also raise the concern that plag checkers store your files, while others say that it does not do any practical harm.
I am curious about your stance on this. Do you use plag checks? If yes, which ones?
Thoughts?
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Since there is no guarantee that the original content of your manuscript might not be copied and sold to others before it is published by you, I discourage using any free-software-checkers for plagiarism; some of them are betrayers. On the other hand, I don't believe that there is a completely free one!
In any way, if you are insisting to use anti-plagiarism software, offline checker programs are better than online ones. If I were you, I prefer to use my own words instead.
Anyhow, you can see the following site:
Moreover, there is a related discussion thread on this portal:
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What criteria determines whether something should remain in the main text or should become an appendix?
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My advice is always to think like an assessor... does the assessor really need to read this detail or example to understand your argument or might it serve to illuminate your main narrative? For the former then make best use of your word count and include it for the latter consider how likely is the assessor to choose to read this or expect to see it as evidence? I always remind postgraduate students that as markers we usually just dip into the appendix and rarely read them in detail.
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I wrote an article that I sent to be considered for publication for several journals. One prestigious journal rejected the article on the basis that it does not contribute to the common ground of scholarship of the contributors of the journal (they did not say that the article does not fall within their scope).
A second journal accepted the article for the same reason for which it has been rejected by the first journal; one of the reviewers said that the article is not similar to anything in their altitudes and that is why they think it would be a good contribution to the journal.
Where do you think academic journals stand regarding their motives or reasons for accepting and/or rejecting manuscripts? Should a researcher in a certain discipline go after innovation or should s/he go on the steps of those who preceded him?
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Good Question
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Since the decline of audiolingualism, there was bias towards speech in language teaching for communicative ends. Though, the stress on speaking rather than writing produces fluent but inaccurate learners (Hughes, 1983).
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Learning to speak comes first, in all evolutionary terms for the human species.
Writing (numbers included) is there and emerged to solidify our language foundation and communication.
It has factually a mental function to be precise, exact and clear=understandable over a distance. However, as we know from language archeology, it is not an easy task to re-translate a written text into spoken language, if the line of tradition got somehow lost, e.g. we can read Plato, but have no authentic phonetics. This is especially critical with sacred texts, where authorities claim to be orthodox.
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Crismore et al. (1993) define metadiscourse as: "linguistic material in texts, written or spoken, which does not add anything to the propositional content but that is intended to help the listener or reader organize, interpret and evaluate the information."
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The spoken text expresses discourse and usage more than the written text, which can describe the discourse, not its pragmatic analysis, while all the discursive formats are clear from the written because it represents a continuous documented system
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I am conducting semi-structured interviews with graduate students to explore their academic writing challenges. I am using thematic analysis to analyze the Qual findings. Should I include a summary for each theme (and subthemes) in the findings chapter?
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I often find it helpful to have a table at the beginning of this section which summarizes the themes and sub-themes. This can be particularly helpful to the reader if the numbers of theme and sub-themes is lengthy, or if their organization is complex.
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I apologize in advance if I come across as ignorant. I am trying my best to educate myself on LGBTQI+ community and how to write them in academic writing.
I have a sample of X participants in a qualitative study. One of them identifies as a transwoman. 3 belonged to other sexual or gender minorities. I don't want to end up being insensitive in my writing. Of course, a transgender woman is a woman. What I am having trouble with is that - are the terms "male" and "female" assumed to be cisgendered?
Or,
Should I mentioned that: Y number of participants were cisgendered: M males and N females. And Z participants were from gender minorities (and include trans participants in the second sentence?).
Or should I take the route of M males and N females (where trans participant is included). and Z participants were from gender minorities.
___________________
It took me some time to put forward this question because I feel like I am not able to frame it properly. So feel free to ask if you need clarifications from my side.
Thanks!
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Hello there! May I ask you about your study's theme? If it's something directly related to gender questions, It would be interesting to provide more detail about gender identity (e.g. X were cisgender, Y were trans woman, Z were non-binary, etc etc). But If it's not a Topic directly related to your theme, your second route (Man and woman including trans people) sounds correct as Well. You Also can check other qualitative studies in your field and see How they tackle this question.
Good Luck!
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Academic writing should be well designed. How can we be professional? What are the main tips though?
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Before doing that, the reviewer must be honest. Otherwise, the facts will be frauded.
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For academic writing.
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Becoming is the process one undergoes to evolve into the end product.