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Abiotic Stress Tolerance - Science topic

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I couldn't see much paper where plant breeders use biochemical such as proline content Malondialdehyde (MDA) and dyes such as NBT or DAB( for ROS detection) for screening stress-tolerant accession on a large scale (100-200 which I suppose is possible to do). Are not these methods better than phenotyping grain yield, biomass, plant height, NDVI, LAI, etc?
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The biochemical analysis are important, but if you have plant breeding programme should be more interesting and effective to make evaluation on the field. In those conditions you can evaluate and select the best plants for abiotic stress plants, and maybe to others topics like vigorous plants, also for production and quality. Then, you can select the most promissed material for your proposed objectivesz.
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Is it that chlorophyll content and protein level are significantly affected under drought?
Do drought-tolerant genotypes produce specific secondary metabolites? If yes what are the secondary metabolites?
What should one look for (in terms of biochemical parameters) when studying drought tolerance or sensitivity in legume or cereal genotypes.
Please see the link below:
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How to find the candidate genes to validate their role through functional genomics experiments such as cloning, transgenics, over-expression, localization, and its interaction with other proteins and DNA, etc.
1)Do we need to study a lot of literature and see which genes role is not deciphered in particular traits e.g. drought stress?
2.) Do we need to perform our own transcriptome or comparative genomic studies or analyze already published studies from literature?
3. ) Do we need to perform our own marker traits association(QTLs) study or already published studies?
4.) Some people functionally characterize already known genes(say arabidopsis) to plant of their interest (legumes). But is it a significant or novel research problem to work upon?
5. all of the above.
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Hey Shubham,
it depends on what questions you would like to answer with your experiments. I'm also not sure if i fully understand your question but maybe this helps:
1) -> it is always useful to read and know the important literature.
2) -> transcriptomic data and comparative genomic studies are useful to identify relevant genes for a certain issue. When it comes to transcriptomic data a useful approach is to expose your organism/cells to a certain stress to detect up-/downregulated genes compared to non exposed cells. Therefore it is important to design your own experiments to answer your individual questions.
Finding only homologous genes/proteins, you can use several bioinformatic databases (BLAST, UniProt...) in this case you should know your target genes.
4) -> characterizing already known genes of the same organism/cells is not useful. Why would you do that when it's already reported? But you can investigate homologous genes of another organism (not reported!) to check if comparable gene sets/proteins are involved in e.g. draught/starvation etc... Finding completely unknown genes and classify them to a cellular event is not that easy as you might think :)
good luck!
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Many QTLs are being reported in rice for salinity tolerance using bi-parental populations and n number of traits. I am looking for QTLs with LOD more than 5 and variance more than 15-20 %
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Qgene 3.0. Two QTLs (qST1 and qST3) conferring salt tolerance at young seedling stage were mapped on chromosome 1 and 3
  • 10.1111/j.1439-0523.2007.01265.x you can able to see detail in this paper too
  • 10.1626/pps.14.260
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Role of proline metabolism under stress conditions.
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I believe through scientific development we can create technologies to tackle the climate related problems in agriculture. We have already achieved to some extent, for example with submergence tolerant rice varieties which can tolerant complete submergence. However, the main concern is that the development is not always positive, it also brings some drawback. In a changed scenario the results go in the opposite direction. The materials we develop with so much effort become non-performers compared to earlier ones. Is it possible to develop varieties which can tolerant all sort of vagaries? How?
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The resiliency of agriculture with the challenges posed by global climate change is a multifaceted problem that (in my opinion) should be tackled from different angles. Plant breeding is definitely important however, this should not be the only approach. I think that agroecology offers a broader spectrum of approaches that all together may serve the cause of counteracting the negative impacts of climate change on food production. Among these agrobiodiversity is a must do by farmers and, on the same token, increasing the biodiversity also below the soil. This can be achieved through various agronomic techniques like: crop rotations, green manuring cover crops cultivation and a management of crops residues that builds carbon levels in the soil. An employment of livestock species is also recommendable as animals provide a variety of ecological services (being manure the most important one). Please consider the work of agronomist: Salvatore Ceccarelli and his team on evolutionary plants breeding. Here below is the RG link to his profile. Salvatore Ceccarelli Thank You!
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The duration and intensity of drought is increasing worldwide largely due to climate change.
Development and genetic improvement of drought tolerance crop become very important for the future due the effect of climate change.
What the best method for screening and evaluation drought stress on crop plants especially "rice"?
Thank you for the answer
Best Regards.
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There are so many ways to go on this direction of rice improvement you can consider early stress or later stage stresses considering Physiological, morphological as well as biochemical Indicators for Stress Tolerance, most importantly you can consider G X E as a special way of evaluation.
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I need an updated (published in the last 5 years) book clearly and extensively explaining the concepts underlying developmental processes (embryogenesis, flower, root, shoot and leaf development) in plants and how plant endogenous signals and environmental signals are perceived and integrated into the initiation, proceeding and control of developmental processes.
Thanks in advance
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Mr. Hicham Mechqoq, thanks for your answer, it has been really useful.
Dr. Maged G. Bin-Saad, the most recent publication with the title you wrote dates back to 1987, I was looking for recent ones.
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Tobacco plants were subjected to 3 different nutritional treatments (A, B, C) for 3 weeks, and also were treated under two irrigation regimes during 2 weeks (Well-watered plants or Control plants, and Water deficit treated plants or drought plants). During drought plants treated with the treatments called "C" showed: (i) better water parameters, (ii) higher growth than control, (iii) higher water use efficiency and water saving, (iv) better recovery from extreme drought, etc.
Updated information:
  1. Model organism: Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.)
  2. Pot size: 7.5 L pots (pot size 20 cm × 17 cm × 25 cm)
  3. Substrate: a mix of perlite:vermiculite (4:6)
  4. Treatments: Seeds were sown and two weeks later (15 days after sowing, DAS), seedlings were transplanted to 7.5 L pots. Then, plants were subjected to three different nutritional treatments. After 30 days (45 DAS), in addition to the three nutritional treatments, plants were also subjected to two irrigation treatments: optimal irrigation (control; CTR), in which pots containing tobacco plants were irrigated up to 100 % field capacity (3.5 mL g-1 substrate) throughout the experiment, and moderate sustained water deficit (WD), with pots irrigated every two days up to 60 % of field capacity (2.1 mL g-1 substrate) for 20 days (64-65 DAS).
Fresh biomass was collected in each treatment, and the following organic compounds were determined: MDA, H2O2, PROLINE, and PHENOLICS. Also, the PEROXISOME CATALASE activity was determined.
-Malonyl Dialdehyde (MDA) content, hydrogen peroxide content, and catalase activity are cellular oxidative stress biomarkers.
-Proline is a very important amino acid that which accumulation is correlated to plant stress tolerance
- Phenolics (phenolic compounds and flavonoids) are the largest group of phytochemicals that account for most of the antioxidant activity in plants.
In the attached figure there are the results of the ANOVA statistic in CTR or DROUGHT plants, and also is showing the logarithm with the base of 2 of the ratio between drought and control values to understand the decrease or increase in drought plants, in contrast, to control plants for each parameter.
What I see in this result is that there is no clear pattern related to a water deficit regarding the great results obtained in water parameters, plant biomass, water consumption/efficiency, photosynthetic activity, recovery from water stress deficit, etc.
To sum up there's complete nonsense in results in contrast to "C" treatment:
-No changes in MDA (reduction in the other nutritional treatments???????)
-Increase in CAT y H2O2???????
-a decrease in PROLINE????
-An increase in PHENOLIC compounds is logical due to the increase in H2O2, but it has no sense in plants that are more tolerant to drought.
I hope that someone might help me resolve this nonsense
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Hello J.D. Franco-Navarro
Your question can’t be answered as @Fahad Shafiq has correctly pointed out at the end of the comments because there is almost complete lack of information about the methods. The study seems to have been done with rather small plants, and in such a way that there would be a strong interaction between nutrition and water supply, making interpretation very difficult. Let us assume you grew the plants in soil, applied a liquid fertilizer and allowing some plants in each nutrient treatment to dry by stopping watering, while the control was given ample water. That is a standard molecular biology/biochemistry approach to such studies.
Which was the treatment supplying the most nutrients - A I suspect, with C supplying least. So plants in A would grow better than in C, and have more, larger leaves. When you started the drought treatment plants in A would dry the soil much faster than those in C – simply a matter of greater surface area in A. So plants in A would become severely drought stressed before those in C, which would appear to grow and be much more `drought resistant’. They would also have very different contents of metabolites. The lesson from this – if my supposition is true - is that it IS ESSENTIAL TO COMPARE PLANTS AT THE SAME RELATIVE WATER CONTENT. If this is not done then the study is invalid. I suggest my paper explains the problem and ways of doing such studies correctly – it focuses on GM plants but the problem is absolutely the same for all studies involving water supply.
Lawlor DW. Genetic engineering to improve plant performance under drought: physiological evaluation of achievements, limitations, and possibilities. J Exp Bot. 2013 Jan;64(1):83-108. doi: 10.1093/jxb/ers326. Epub 2012 Nov 16.
By ignoring the complexities involved with water supply in solid matrices and the effects of different rates of water loss, studies of the metabolism, genetic modifications etc are invalid. Hope this rather strong critic does not apply to your study. Please provide the necessary information about methods.
Best wishes
David
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I would like to get more information about naturally occuring osmoprotectants or compatible solutes (eg: glycine betaine, trehalose, sorbitol, fructan) in helping plants to cope with abiotic stress. Has anyone carried out related research or has good information to share?
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I tried glycine betaine is a good osmoprotectant. I tried it as foliar and soil application and it works.
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Scientists are still not getting very much successful in designing stress tolerant crops even after applying conventional ,omics and transgenics approaches to stress tolerance . .What are the main reasons behind it .
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Shubham,
That is quite a complex question. While much work is being done on that topic, it is very challenging to make progress. One reason would be the Genotype X Environment interaction that is such a challenge for plant breeders. There may not always be consistency among cultivars that perform well in stress vs. non-stess environments.
Even with tools like omics, transgenics, etcs., it is still necessary to consider how a given cultivar will interact with the environment. Since many of the most productive regions are low stress due to fertile soil and inputs (i.e. fertilizer, irrigation, etc.), the best performing cultivars will be focused on these areas.
With more awareness on climate change and the limitation of resources like water and fertilizer, more breeding efforts are focusing on stressful environments.
Below are a few links to show some of the work that is ongoing on this important topic.
Best wishes for your research!
Chris
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I'm going to begin with determining the sublethal stress levels as low and high. The low, middle, and high levels of cold and osmotic stress, and short, medium, long time would be 3 independent variables with 3 levels.
Then I would like to use BBD to choose optimum stress adaptation conditions for the lactic acid bacteria. Does this sound applicable&reasonable?
Thanks.
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Hi
Yes. You can use Box-behnken design for treatments 
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Hi guys,
I wonder whether you guys have included SA (salicylic acid) in your study or not? If yes, what are the methods of its application? will you apply it as a solution through roots or will you just spray it on the leaves? and what are you planning about the concentration of SA?
My apology in advance if SA isn't a part of the project.
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Try DMSO or the other option is you can add equal amount of ethanol that you used for dissolving the SA into your control treatment. If you spray water as a control, then you can calculate the amount of ethanol in your SA working solution so that you'll be able to see the effect of Ethanol on the level of expression of your gene. In any case you need to add equal amount of any solvent you used for the control treatments. 
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we are working on improving salinity tolerance in plants  using various strategies. one of the biochemical  indicators of salinity tolerance in plants is the synthesis of the amino acid proline.
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Proline detoxifies the excess reactive oxygen species, improves osmotic adjustment, lends protection to biological membranes, and stabilizes enzymes/proteins. Thus, as expected, proline content in plant leaves increased substantially with the increase in salinity stress. The increase in proline content due to salt stress, as observed in numerous crop plants, is correlative to plant tolerance to salinity. However, we have examined in few plants that foliar application salicylic acid markedly reduced this enhanced proline production. The reduced proline level in salicylic acid treated plants, is indicative of the stress-mitigating role of salicylic acid that might boost plant growth under stress. Reports are also available on up-regulation of proline-biosynthesis enzymes (such as pyrroline-5-carboxylate reductase and γ-glutamyl kinase) and down-regulation of proline oxidase activity resulted in the increased proline level, which helped maintain cell turgor under salinity stress.
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working on salinity stress and using bacteria but i want to compare the bacteria effect on salt stress and if someone know any chemical that reduce the severe effect of salt and enhance growth in saline soil. 
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I suggest humic acid as a source of food (and lowering soil Ph) for your bacteria in the soil for better result.
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Both Halophytes and glycophytes posses almost same genes that are mainly responsible for salt tolerance and halophyte can easily survive their. Infact the glycophytes contain the all the potential genes necessary for salinity tolerance in their genome and I can't understand why they are not survive.Can anyone clarify me, I'm very confused.
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I agree with Svetoslav Anev.
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Dear Friends,
                      It is well reported that under salinity stress Na ion make harmful effect in crops while potassium ion (K+) maintains the homeostasis under salt stress.
Both these atoms are positive ions and falls under s-block element within same class 1A as per periodic table.
If the chemical features are same for both ions then how sodium make harmful effect while potassium helps for survival of plant under salinity stress.
What is the actual reason for the distinct effect of these two ions?????
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Na+ is ineffective o main metabolism but K+ is an essential part of pyruvate kinase and other Penzymic routes. Besides of that, Na+ can mimic k+ ion transporters and it is not excreted. K+ saline soils are rae but K+ deficiency is common. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC139373/  http://www.plantphysiol.org/content/early/2009/04/03/pp.108.133629.full.pdf
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Hi,
I am a researcher working in plant abiotic stress tolerance. Recently, I carried out transcriptome profiling of a drought tolerant plant under salt (150mM) and drought stress (15 % PEG). I observed a large number of ribosomal proteins, translation initiation and elongation factors being downregulated (nearly 390/2500 odd annotated genes) under both stress, specifically in root tissue. Just about 5 genes in this category were DEGs in leaf tissue. It seems to me that there is a massive reduction in translation process in roots in response to stress, but I am not sure what conclusions to be drawn from this, especially with very few being downregulated in leaves
Any help is appreciated
Thanks in advance
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1- Down-regulated genes under both stress conditions might involved in common pathways for regulating stress conditions. So, you can discuss on common pathways involved in both stresses.
2- As i studied in several articles and also i have seen in our experiences, under almost same stress conditions many genes showed similar expression patterns. Specific expression pattern are usually less than the commons. So, You'd better to focus on specific expression pattern although they are less.
3- mRNAs could be regulated by small RNAs such as miRNAs. Induction of several small RNAs have been reported before. So, probably, these genes are affected by induced miRNAs and ... under both stress conditions that could decrease these genes expression. In your discussion you can discuss up-stream miRNAs of the studied genes.
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Dear all,
we are going to use the PAM-2500 to measure chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in grapevine. The measurements will be conducted outside, therefore we want to keep it simple, but of course efficient in data aquisition. Therefore dark adaptation is no option for us, bu the instrument has many different functions to circumvent this problem.
I have the following questions:
1. the field screen with the Y(II) measurment provides no light acclimation step with standard actinic light, just a light puls. do you think a standardized acclimations to actinic light is necessary?
2. Fo´is measured under field sceen after the light sat puls and a short period of FR. Is this similar to the FR+Y option?
3. do you use default light intensities? we are working with grapevine
many thanks
Michaela
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http://www.walz.com/products/chl_p700/pam-2500/downloads.html, YII will vary with light intensity and a step curve can be made with portions of the leaf shaded by a net or a filter 5 min before taking reads. Clips with a frame holder can be made from spare. Further questions are on manual, care in recording temperature water status and chl density, with the best
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Dear all, Does anybody use Flourpen fp100 (fv/fm) for cold stress treatment in plants or any papers? Thank you.
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Great,
Thank you very much,
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What is the difference between water potential (MPa) and relative water content (%) in plants? Also, how stomatal conductance (mmol/m2s) and canopy temperature (C) are co-related?
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Potential is a term for pressure of tha water. In order to absorb water from the environment the pressure inside a plant should be lower inside than outside.  The water pressure varies with the amount of water that is inside a plant. This amount is called volume and the relative gap from saturated volume is called relative water content; the driver for pressure decrease is transpiration maily by stomata. The ratio of transpirationto air water pressure deficit is stomatal conductance. Once all these terms are understood it is raised a basic question since the 1940s, as who controls what? Details in http://go.microsoft.com/fwlink/?LinkId=121315 and GD Farquhar and Thomas Sharkey excellent ARPP https://www.researchgate.net/publication/232128515_Stomatal_conductance_and_photosynthesis_Annu_Rev_Plant_Physiol_Plant_Mol_Biol
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Hi all
I measure 60 barley genotpes for chlorophyll content using spad CCM200 under three conditions control, drought and heat. I found most of genotypes  the chlorophyll content under drought and heat is higher than control at flowering time . Do yo have an interpretation for this?
in each treatment
replications  = 2
Year =2
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Guess its simply differences in dry matter content!
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We are working with a number of genes that may confer abiotic stress resistance in Arabidopsis and are interested in any relatively straightforward procotols that we could use to screen Arabidopsis seedlings for tolerance to salt, temperature or osmotic stress.
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Germination assays in 150mM NaCl (for salt stress) and 300mM Mannitol (for osmotic stress) are commonly used.
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in my study i found that hoeing treatment affects on cotton root length so i want to know the appropriate explanation for this strange matter.
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Deep tillage pulverizes the soil, making it soft and porous. Moreover root penetration is limited if there is a hard pan in the soil and hoeing can improve. This condition helps the roots to go deeper in the soil. Usually this is done while soil is being prepared for sowing of crop. In standing crop it may care must be taken as it may damage the root system and have bad effects. In your experiment did you hoe the field in standing crop?
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Neeraj tripathi
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Polyethylene glycol molecules with a molecular weight
larger than 6,000 (PEG 6000) are inert, non-ionic and cell impermeable.
They are small enough to influence the osmotic
pressure, but large enough unabsorbed by plants. Therefore, they are frequently used
to simulate osmotic stress.
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We would like to identify the possible responsive genes for our target traits (abiotic stress tolerance). For this, we are planning to perform the RNA-Seq experiment. Can you please let me know which program/software (Free Version) will be better to figure out the closest/high responsive genes for our target trait in eukaryotic RNA-Seq data?
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You can start with looking for genes which are differentially expressed in normal sample and stress induced sample.  
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Can paclobutrazol (GA-biosynthesis inhibitor), as foliage spray may enhance total biomass in potato grown under heat stress and long days ?
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I thank  very much to Alex Ignatov for additional probability Number 2). Under heat stress situation water requirement increases and to meet that demand investment in root biomass will help attain improved plant vigour involving transpirational cooling.
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Salt stress is similar to water stress but there are the toxicity of some ions  like Na+. My question is how to differ between salt stress and water stress ? I know that water stress is a part of salt stress, but certainly there are biochemical differences . Is the process which make the plant wither is the same? Thanks.
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As you know, water stress, as salt stress, causes osmotic imbalances in the plant tissues. However, in the case of salt stress, the presence of excess salts (normally Na+ and Cl-) causes direct nutritional effects and toxic effects.
In the first case, the ion unbalance of nutrients is due to the fact that the excess of Na + and Cl- provokes a decrease in the uptake of other ions (K+, NO3-, H2PO4-, etc.) or alters the internal distribution of one or more of these.
In the second case the toxic effect is caused by the specific toxicity of the ions Na + and Cl-.
Then, a method for distinguishing the water stress from the salt stress in the plant, it is firstly to determine the content of Na + or Cl-, or the nutrient deficiency "antagonists", such as K + and Ca2 + (better if you can make these determinations in the sap flow!). In a word, you have to focuses on the toxic effects of Na + and Cl-, which distinguish the salt stress from drought.
 I think that the more efficient method to distinguish the 2 stresses is this: monitoring the presence of ion (Na+, Cl-) toxic effects. I hope that my explanation do not be too obvious and above all, useful.
Best regards.
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Methyl Jasmonate is an endogenous and volatile compound. What would be the effect of exogenous applied methyl jasmonate on its volatile and endogenous effect?
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Thank you
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Is there any related literature focusing on comparing drought resistance between Diversispora and Glomus genus?
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Dear All colleagues 
I'm researcher from Egypt. I'm interesting with , fruit trees physiology, fertilization , enhancing abiotic stress tolerance,. Recently, I'm collaborate with my colleagues to conduct out several experiments on bio-energetic crops (Jatropha and Jojoba) : micropropagation, cultivation these trees under high density to increase the productivity, and studying effect of some horticultural practices on yielding and oil parameters of bioenergetic crops....Is there someone from CZech to apply with me for Egypt-CZech cooperation program?
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Hello
We are ready to collaborate. We have developed biostimulator enhancing the abiotic and biotic stress tolerance along with increase in yield, fruit setting.
If interested please write to sg.dalvi@vsiagur.org.in, sgdalvi@gmail.com
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If abiotic stress is given for 1 week to any crop plants then wat alterations occur in level of soluble proteins?
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It will differ between species - type of stress - whether plant is resistant - tolerant or susceptible to the particular stress condition.
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Please give the suggestions and advise based on your experiance
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IRRISTAT MAY BE good for you.
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The work upon the anatomy and ultrastructure  of higher plant in connection to stress is scarce and I need  to collect a number of papers in this field.
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Dear Sir,
You can see in this book: Plant Responses to Drought Stress, From Morphological
to Molecular Features : Part I Morphological and Anatomical Responses
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Under heat stress, in cotton crop, ethylene will produce and elevated co2 with AVG(aminoethoxyvinylglycine help as ethylene inhibitor. Thanks
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Hi Muhammad Sarwar; Attached link may be useful to you dear. Pull out and go through them. regards
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I am teaching phytohormones to MSc students. For the practical part of the course we conducted some experiments related to the effect of ABA on germination, stomatal closure and leaf senescence. I would like to see whether ABA can be quantified from the extract of salt or drought-stressed leaves using a bioassay protocol. The extract can be the rude extract of the leaf or leaf extract in a buffer. I would be grateful if somebody provide me such protocols.
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Hi Jongyun
Thanks for the paper, that's interesting because I also found some interesting results for ABA level in the leaf and stomatal conductance also the relationships between them using different closing stimuli such as ABA, desiccation, low RH and darkness. It seems ABA somehow is involved in rhytmic response of stomata. However, here I am looking for a protocol for bioassay measurement of ABA.
Cheers
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Quite often it is said that if we write studies to understand the drought tolerance of coconut or some other crop it is not correct. Please clarify this.
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The term "drougt" indicates a deficiency of water in an environmental or global sense, i. e. when in a given region of the Earth a lack of water for a prolonged period of time (the region receives less water than its natural supply) occurs. The term "water deficit stress" implies that the lack of water is such as to cause damage to that particular organism, for that particular metabolic function or specific for that particular place, etc. in a word in a more specific and less global sense. This is my opinion and experience of use of drought and water deficit stress; I hope to be helpful.
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I need to find the newest researches in the global for waterlogging stress in different plants?
If it is possible please tell me or suggest the results after 2013 years and specially in Sesame cultivars.
Best Regards
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A Special Issue of Plant Cell and Environment "Flooding and Anaerobiosis" (volume 37, issue 10) has been published in October 2014. You can find there the latest achievements in this field.  The link is
Sincerely,
Konstantin.
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Must we use stress conditions after planting, and on the first day, or should we use stress conditions after 4 days of planting?
Please explain more about your answer.
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Dear Dr Yousef Alaei,
I would like to thank you for your question. Their are different kinds of drought tolerance mechanism. 
you could determine the germination stage (germination percent with different % of PEG), or at seedling stage. You can germinate the seeds till have good seedling and then start do the treatment (stress) after one-two weeks and after that determine the seedling traits at control and different stress conditions
with best regards
Khaled
Mechanism of drought tolerance
Drought tolerance in wild plant species is often defined as survival, but in crop species it is defined in terms of productivity (Passioura, 1983). Rosielle and Hamblin (1981) defined drought tolerance as the difference in yield between stress and non-stress environments, while productivity is the average yield in stress and non-stress. A different definition regards drought tolerance as minimization of reduction in yield caused by stress compared to yield under non-stress environments (Fischer and Maurer, 1978; Langer et al., 1979; Blum, 1983a; Blum, 1988). Also, it is defined as the relative yield of a genotype compared to other genotypes subjected to the same drought stress (Hall, 1993). Drought tolerance comprises drought escape, dehydration avoidance and dehydration tolerance mechanisms (Blum, 1988).
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While abiotic stress which relates to natural factors like soil, climate etc. is difficult to change and manage, it is the types of policies adopted which can make the difference between success and failure. I would like to know what support the social scientists can offer and how. I also would like to know about the various tools and techniques which social scientists can use to help reduce the abiotic stress in aid of the crop/ animal scientists.
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Dear Sir, As you mentioned and know that abiotic stress means crop is facing various stresses from land, water, climate etc. In ICAR research is going on on theses aspects in different institutions. In my opinion social scientists may conduct or under take FLDs (Field Level Demonstrations) on these developed technologies and assess them for abiotic stress condition and recommend back to scientists to changes if any required those particular site specific. Thus they can play a big role in dissemination of technologies and the real impact of these technologies could be harvested. Thanks
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Hi all,
We know that proline is related to stress and there are many possible roles to proline on plants. However, I am wondering if high levels of proline in plants with no significant stress could naturally occurr. Perennial plants experience stressful conditions many times during their lives, many times in repeated cycles, then would it be possible produce proline prior another stress time to avoid damage? What do you think?
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Proline synthesis naturally occurs in perennials in response to stress occurrence. The common type of stress inducing proline synthesis is that of low moisture stress i.e. drought. During conditions of no-stress, it is not likely that proline synthesis will normally occur. It therefore implies that the higher the proline synthesis, the higher is the plant's resistance to stress.
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I want to transfer multiple genes for abiotic stress tolerance to rice. Which vector should I used? Which cloning method will be suitable for multi-gene cloning?
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Hi Surender,
For multigene transformation, there are two ways you can try:
1. Construct your gene-of-interest (GOIs) separately on different binary vectors. For example, you have 3 GOIs, you can construct 1 GOI on one vector, and the other 2 on two other vectors. Make sure you have enough selectable marker genes (such as nptII for kanamycin resistance) to use. After construction, 3 binary vectors can co-transformed (by electroporation) together into a single Agrobacterium and use for transformation. Alternatively, the 3 binary vectors can also be separately transformed into Agrobacterium. Mixture of these Agrobacterium cultures can be used for transformation [as the description in the paper provided by At above].
2. Construct your gene-of-interest (GOIs) on a single binary vector. A specialty vector(s) designed for rapid assembling of large cassette(s) will be useful to simplify the task. I attach one paper for your reference. It is a 'Modular Plasmid Assembly Kit' intended for multigene expression in plants. The Gateway cloning technology (described in the Introduction section of the paper) may also be helpful for your project.
Good luck,
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An ABA-insensitive arabidopsis mutant (screened by myself) is that which can produce green cotyledons on MS supplemented with 3, 5 and 10 uM ABA.
4-week old soil grown arabidopsis plants were brought under abiotic stress (salt and drought) for 2 weeks. Less accumulation of MDA and H2O2 was observed in mutants as compared to wild type. What would be the possible reason and mechanism for less accumulation of MDA and H2O2 under stresses?
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Another great challenge is how to apply the knowledge obtained
to improve the environmental stress tolerance of crops,
a potentially significant benefit of this research. Classical genetics
suggests that plant abiotic stress tolerance is controlled by
multiple loci, each contributing a minor effect (minor genes);
therefore, the manipulation of a master regulatory gene
through biotechnology is considered to be more efficient than
conventional breeding strategies in which it is difficult to break
negative linkage for many loci at one time. Nevertheless, large
gaps remain between basic research and the production of
stress-tolerant crops. First, the standard assays, including screening
criteria and methods, are different between Arabidopsis and
crop species. Proper assessments of environmental stress tolerance
for crops need to be established according to the actual
requirements of agricultural production.
DELLA proteins are also able to promote the expression of
genes encoding reactive oxygen species (ROS)-detoxifying enzymes
to reduce ROS levels in cells after biotic or abiotic attack,
thereby delaying cell death and enhancing tolerance (Achard
et al. 2008b).
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How is macro fungus able to grow in environmental stress conditions?
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Dear Balraj, really it is the matter of experiment to test what factors are responsible for their growth in the stressed condition. Usually, species have their own adaptability to grow in their environment. For example, Desert Truffles grow in the desert ecosystem. They are adjusted with the eco-environment of desert. It can not be predicted all on a sudden the mechanism of growth of the fungus. It should be experimented scientifically to investigate the know-how of the truffle growth. Rather you can design an experiment regarding the factor with the desired fungus.
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I am willing to isolate bZIP28 transcription factor gene from arabidopsis, but having problem in extracting the gene.
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Dear Kaushal
you mean that for cDNA synthesis i should use higher concentration of RNA about 8.5ug and while doing cDNA synthesis I am adding oligodt in reaction mixture.
and sorry but I don't get your last point about Maximum RTase reaction, could you please elaborate that.
Thanks Regards,
Pratima
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In most papers it is reported that maximum absorbance of glycine betaine as 365nm, but even after several repetitions I am getting its maximum absorbance at some other wavelength (i.e 200-220nm).
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Type of solvent can affect the wavelength at which maximum absorbance. Solvent polarity is an important item particularly for materials containing lone pair of electrons. The increase in polarity of solvent leads to lowering the energy of the unexcited state causing widening the difference between excited state and unexcited state (more energy). So, blue shift (shorter wavelength) occurs. This may occur with glycine that contain amino group (carry lone pair of electrons)
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I am working on Arabidopsis having a new transform gene (expected to work in salt tolerance).
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I would also include the root in your investigation. Moreover, you could start with a germination test of different genotypes under increasing salinity.
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I am working on frost tolerance in faba beans. I have two treatments (after and before frost). I measured the shoot fresh matter and dry matter in these two cases. The correlation between shoot fresh matter before and after frost was positive. Also, the correlation between shoot dry matter before and after frost was positive.
Do you have scientific interpretations supported from other literature?
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Ahmed, high positive correlation between shoot fresh/dry matter before and after frost is expected from the plant growth. If you correlation is significant (r>0.7-0.75) It shows just the fact that the frost has not damaged your plants, or part of damaged plants was low.
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Frost resistance
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thank you so much for your answer. So, chilling can be considered as hardening since hardening is used to express about temperature above 0
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Is it possible that an F2 population shows genotype like strong parents for stress but their phenotype matches with weak parent for stress tolerance? what could be the possible reasons?
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I observed the similar king of thing in case of background selection, the plant showing distinctly high recovery % over rest of the plants as per the genotype showing no or very less phenotypic similarity to the recurrent parrent. intead plant with average recovery is showing more similarity. so as Farhad said it all depends on how dense and well distributed or genotyping is.