Science topic

Abdominal Obesity - Science topic

A condition of having excess fat in the abdomen. Abdominal obesity is typically defined as waist circumferences of 40 inches or more in men and 35 inches or more in women. Abdominal obesity raises the risk of developing disorders, such as diabetes, hypertension and METABOLIC SYNDROME X.
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I need to know how these compounds can affect obesity, especially in humans, and how they work
greetings to you all
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Hi 
I am working on Systems Biology study of a disease, Metabolic Syndrome. I need omics data including Genomics, Metablomics, Microbiomics and Proteiomics to study the molecular level interaction of the disease. I need following help:
1. Can anyone help any data repository?
2. As the disease is a cluster of some risk factors like Hypertension, obesity, hyperglycemia, insulin resistance, dislipidemia. Should I search dataset for each risk factor separately? 
3. Dataset should be in raw form or should I go for different data models?
Thanks
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For connecting -omics datasets in the light of diseases, Reactome would be useful :http://www.reactome.org/
If you are looking for the RAW -omics data sets then this is useful here,
Omix Discovery Index: http://www.omicsdi.org/#/
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Is there any association between the parameters?
Are the statistical findings backing them?
What are the associated risk factors?
What has been done so far about the topic and what has not been done which can be done?
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Effects of blocking of angiotensin system on the prevalence of metabolic syndrome in type 2 diabetic patients
This research has been done to evaluate prevalence of metabolic syndrome in hypertensive type 2 diabetic patients treated with antihypertensive drugs that inhibit renin angiotensin system. I don't know if it could be of benefit for you.
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abdominal obesity is risk factor for certain diseases
what is causes and how can be avoided and reduced? 
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Dear Amar,
Here are 6 evidence-based ways to lose belly fat.
1. Don’t Eat Sugar… and Avoid Sugar-Sweetened Beverages Like The Plague
Added sugar is extremely unhealthy.
Studies show that it has uniquely harmful effects on metabolic health.
Sugar is half glucose, half fructose… and fructose can only be metabolized by the liver in any significant amount.
When you eat a lot of refined sugar, the liver gets flooded with fructose, and is forced to turn it all into fat.
Numerous studies have shown that excess sugar, mostly due to the large amounts offructose, can lead to increased accumulation of fat in the belly.
Some believe that this is the primary mechanism behind sugar’s harmful effects on health… it increases belly fat and liver fat, which leads to insulin resistance and a host of metabolic problems.
Liquid sugar is even worse in this regard. Liquid calories don’t get “registered” by the brain in the same way as solid calories, so when you drink sugar-sweetened beverages, you end up eating more total calories.
Studies show that sugar-sweetened beverages are linked to a 60% increased risk of obesity in children… per each daily serving.
Make a decision to minimize the amount of sugar in your diet, and considercompletely eliminating sugary drinks.
This includes sugar-sweetened beverages, fruit juices, various sports drinks, as well as coffees and teas with sugar added to them.
Keep in mind that none of this applies to whole fruit, which are extremely healthy and have plenty of fiber that mitigates the negative effects of fructose.
The amount of fructose you get from fruit is negligible compared to what you get from a diet high in refined sugar.
Btw… if you want to cut back on refined sugar, then you must start reading labels. Even foods marketed as health foods can contain huge amounts of sugar.
Bottom Line: Excess sugar consumption may be the primary driver of belly fat accumulation, especially sugary beverages like soft drinks and fruit juices.
2. Eating More Protein May be The Best Long-Term Strategy to Reduce Belly Fat
Protein is the most important macronutrient when it comes to losing weight.
It has been shown to reduce cravings by 60%, boost metabolism by 80-100 calories per day and help you eat up to 441 fewer calories per day.
If weight loss is your goal, then adding protein to your diet is perhaps the single most effective change you can do.
Not only will it help you lose… it can also help you avoid re-gaining weight if you ever decide to abandon your weight loss efforts.
There is also some evidence that protein is particularly effective against belly fat.
One study showed that the amount and quality of protein consumed was inversely related to fat in the belly. That is, people who ate more and better protein had much less belly fat.
Another study in Denmark showed that protein, especially animal protein, was linked to significantly reduced risk of belly fat gain over a period of 5 years.
This study also showed that refined carbs and vegetable oils were linked to increased amounts of belly fat, but fruits and vegetables linked to reduced amounts.
Many of the studies showing protein to be effective had protein at 25-30% of calories. That’s what you should aim for.
So… make an effort to increase your intake of unprocessed eggs, fish, seafood,meats, poultry and dairy products. These are the best protein sources in the diet.
If you struggle with getting enough protein in your diet, then a quality protein supplement (like whey protein) is a healthy and convenient way to boost your total intake.
If you’re a vegetarian, check out this article on how to increase your protein intake.
Bonus tip: Consider cooking your foods in coconut oil… some studies have shownthat 30 mL (about 2 tablespoons) of coconut oil per day reduces belly fat slightly.
Bottom Line: Eating enough protein is a very effective way to lose weight. Some studies suggest that protein is particularly effective against belly fat accumulation.
3. Cut Carbs From Your Diet
Carb restriction is a very effective way to lose fat.
This is supported by numerous studies… when people cut carbs, their appetite goes down and they lose weight.
 Over 20 randomized controlled trials have now shown that low-carb diets lead to 2-3 times more weight loss than low-fat diets.
This is true even when the low-carb groups are allowed to eat as much as they want, while the low-fat groups are calorie restricted and hungry.
Low-carb diets also lead to quick reductions in water weight, which gives people near instant results… a major difference on the scale is often seen within a few days.
There are also studies comparing low-carb and low-fat diets, showing that low-carb diets specifically target the fat in the belly, and around the organs and liver.
What this means is that a particularly high proportion of the fat lost on a low-carb dietis the dangerous and disease promoting abdominal fat.
Just avoiding the refined carbs (white breads, pastas, etc) should be sufficient, especially if you keep your protein high.
However… if you need to lose weight fast, then consider dropping your carbs down to 50 grams per day. This will put your body into ketosis, killing your appetite and making your body start burning primarily fats for fuel.
Of course, low-carb diets have many other health benefits besides just weight loss. They can have life-saving effects in type 2 diabetics, for example.
Bottom Line: Studies have shown that low-carb diets are particularly effective at getting rid of the fat in the belly area, around the organs and in the liver.
4. Eat Foods Rich in Fiber… Especially Viscous Fiber
Dietary fiber is mostly indigestible plant matter.
It is often claimed that eating plenty of fiber can help with weight loss.
This is true… but it’s important to keep in mind that not all fiber is created equal.
It seems to be mostly the viscous fibers that can have an effect on your weight.
These are fibers that bind water and form a thick gel that “sits” in the gut.
This gel can dramatically slow the movement of food through your stomach and small bowel, and slow down the digestion and absorption of nutrients. The end result is a prolonged feeling of fullness and reduced appetite.
One review study found that an additional 14 grams of fiber per day were linked to a 10% decrease in calorie intake and weight loss of 2 kg (4.5 lbs) over 4 months.
In one 5-year study, eating 10 grams of soluble fiber per day was linked to a 3.7% reduction in the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity, but it had no effect on the amount of fat under the skin.
What this implies, is that soluble fiber may be particularly effective at reducing the harmful belly fat.
The best way to get more fiber is to eat a lot of plant foods like vegetables and fruit. Legumes are also a good source, as well as some cereals like oats.
Then you could also try taking a fiber supplement like glucomannan. This is one of the most viscous dietary fibers in existence, and has been shown to cause weight loss in many studies.
Bottom Line: There is some evidence that soluble dietary fiber may lead to reduced amounts of belly fat, which should cause major improvements in metabolic health.
5. Aerobic Exercise is Very Effective at Reducing Belly Fat
Exercise is important for various reasons.
It is among the best things you can do if you want to live a long, healthy life and avoid disease.
Getting into all of the amazing health benefits of exercise is beyond the scope of this article, but exercise does appears to be effective at reducing belly fat.
However… keep in mind that I’m not talking about abdominal exercises here. Spot reduction (losing fat in one spot) is not possible, and doing endless amounts of crunches will not make you lose fat from the belly.
In one study, 6 weeks of training just the abdominal muscles had no measurable effect on waist circumference or the amount of fat in the abdominal cavity.
That being said, other types of exercise can be very effective.
Aerobic exercise (like walking, running, swimming, etc) has been shown to cause major reductions in belly fat in numerous studies.
Another study found that exercise completely prevented people from re-gaining abdominal fat after weight loss, implying that exercise is particularly important during weight maintenance.
Exercise also leads to reduced inflammation, blood sugar levels and all the other metabolic abnormalities that are associated with central obesity.
Bottom Line: Exercise can be very effective if you are trying to lose belly fat. Exercise also has a number of other health benefits.
6. Track Your Foods and Figure Out Exactly What and How Much You Are Eating
What you eat is important. Pretty much everyone knows this.
However… surprisingly, most people actuallydon’t have a clue what they are really eating.
People think they’re eating “high protein,” “low-carb” or whatever… but tend to drastically over- or underestimate.
I think that for anyone who truly wants to optimize their diet, tracking things for a while is absolutely essential.
It doesn’t mean you need to weigh and measure everything for the rest of your life, but doing it every now and then for a few days in a row can help you realize where you need to make changes.
If you want to boost your protein intake to 25-30% of calories, as recommended above, just eating more protein rich foods won’t cut it. You need to actually measure and fine tune in order to reach that goal.
Hoping this will be helpful,
Rafik
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I want to determine the relative amount of omental fat to abdominal fat accurately in human subjects and correlate these with a blood biomarkers. Would MRI or Tomography be better for this measure?
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It may not be necessary to use expensive, high-tech methods to estimate intra-abdominal (visceral) adipose tissue for the purpose of correlating with blood biomarkers.  Consider using a portable caliper to measure the supine sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD; also call "abdominal height").  I suggest that you put "sagittal abdominal diameter into PubMed.  You'll find over 100 articles that use the method in this way. 
   Recent experience in a representative USA population of adults is described here:
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What are the best ways to develop the Waist Circumference cut point for sub-Saharan Africans? I understand that the current clinical definition of obesity for sub-Saharan Africa according to the IDF is by using the European Waist Circumference cut point.
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Hi Sean,
Thanks heaps for your detailed response and suggestion.
Cheers,
Victor
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38 year old man, Hotelier by profession (desk job) whose BMI is 87. He has no comorbid factors. He has had the same BMI for over 8 years and wants to reduce his weight, in particular in the hanging abdominal apron.
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Thanks Amena,interesting problem is with a BMI of 87,it will take very long to bring down the BMI.In Indian scenario young people want a quick fix,which is a major problem.Gastric baloon is not tolerated by most and ICMR in India has not yet accepted Intestinal liner yet.
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It's an individualised system of calorie intake.
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Hi folks,
I personally invite you to comment on this thread. Thanks.
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I have come across conflicting reports in regards to using PBS in adipose tissue processing for flow cytometry. Please share your experiences with using PBS for transporting and processing of human adipose tissue samples.
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Thanks Michael. Could you please suggest an online resource for SOP for processing human adipose tissue for FACS.
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Immunology, Inflammation, Obesity, Insulin resistance
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Michael's answer is perfect..!! M1 to M2 polarization is almost similar to neutrophil polarization from N1 to N2 by IFNs (I think Michael mentioned IFN-gamma as INF-Y) and TNF. In addition TGF-beta also involved in polarization of immune cells.
See this for more info
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Which measurement site is best associated with cardiovascular risk?
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J Nephrol. 2012 Oct 24:0. doi: 10.5301/jn.5000235. [Epub ahead of print]
Anthropometric measures can better predict high blood pressure in adolescents.
Papalia T, Greco R, Lofaro D, Mollica A, Roberti R, Bonofiglio R.
Source
Department of Nephrology, Dialysis and Transplantation, Annunziata Hospital, Cosenza - Italy.
Abstract
Background: Among children, obesity and overweight may be predictors of cardiovascular (CV) risk. The purpose of this study was to examine whether body mass index (BMI), waist circumference (WC) and waist to height ratio (WHtR) were related to blood pressure (BP) among healthy southern Italian students enrolled in 3 different secondary schools. Methods: Weight, height, BP and WC were measured; BMI and WHtR were calculated for 872 Italian students. Based on percentiles of BMI, the subjects were classified as underweight, normal weight, overweight or obese. Systolic BP or diastolic BP >95th percentile were considered as high BP values (according to the 2004 guidelines of the US National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute). Central obesity was defined as WC >75th percentile or WHtR =0.5. Results: Of the students, 8.7% were obese, 29% with WC >75th percentile and 29.5% with WHtR >0.5, while 4.6% showed high BP. Logistic regression showed a strong correlation between BMI and high BP (odds ratio [OR] = 1.030, p<0.0001), between WC and high BP (OR = 1.029, p<0.0001). Also WHtR (OR = 3.403, p<0.0001) was shown to be a predictor of high BP. In the male group, all of the variables considered showed a good capability to predict high BP, while in the females, only BMI (OR = 1.019, p<0.05) and WHtR (OR = 2.685, p<0.05) were associated with high BP. Conclusions: In this study, we found a different correlation between BMI, WC and BP in the 2 subgroups: males and females. Only WHtR showed a significant ability to predict high BP in both groups. WHtR might represent an easily measurable anthropometric index and a better predictor of CV risk in adolescents