Science topics: AES
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One of the key problems with symmetric encryption is mammoth key generation and distribution problem. How is AES encryption algorithm key exchanged between sensor nodes in Contiki in the presence of a third party man in the middle attacker?
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A standard mechanism does not seem to be specified for Contiki. The easiest is to load a unique symmetric key at manufacturing or at personalisation, and distribute a copy securely to the user. A bit depending on the trust model, you can use the initial key as a KEK for the user to load his own key, or just keep the key as it is.
This system is used in smart metering where milions of nodes are used. If you want to do something asymmetric, keep in mind that the software will take at least 60k extra ROM, the need to set up and maintain a PKI, and possible additional licenses.
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wireless sensor networks
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Dear Chindiyababy Uthayakumar,
Take a look at the following sources below:
QKD – How Quantum Cryptography Key Distribution Works:
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Quantum key distribution:
What are the cybersecurity risks to current cryptographic techniques?
Our cybersecurity infrastructure requires two different functions: authentication and confidentiality. Authentication allows distant users to trust their counterpart and validate the content of their exchanges.
It is mostly implemented by public-key signature schemes. Confidentiality is required for any exchange of private information. It is often performed in a two-step process. First the users have to exchange a common secret key.
This relies on another public-key protocol, the key exchange mechanism. The secret key is then used in a symmetric key encryption scheme. Both functions therefore depend on similar cryptographic techniques, known as asymmetric or public-key cryptography.
Cybersecurity is much more than the underlying cryptography. All current hacks and security failures do not come from a weak cryptography, but rather from faulty implementation, social engineering and the like. Today, we trust the cryptography, and fight to get the implementation right.
Unfortunately, this is about to change. The point of cryptographic vulnerability today is public-key cryptography, based on algorithms such as RSA or Elliptic Curve, which are used both to authenticate data and to securely exchange data encryption keys.
The very processing power of the quantum computer can solve these mathematical problems exponentially faster than classical computers and break public-key cryptography.
This means that the currently used public-key cryptosystems are not appropriate to secure data that require long-term confidentiality. An adversary could indeed record encrypted data and wait until a quantum computer is available to decrypt it, by attacking the public keys.
We need quantum-safe cryptography today.
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Quantum Key Distribution: A Networking Perspective:
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The case for Quantum Key Distribution A proven system for future-proof data protection.
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I have developed Activated Egg shell (AES) and Activated Orange Peel(AOP) through chemical activation process using H3PO4 and KOH. Thereafter applied in acid dye solution and effluent separately and in mixing (1:1) at same dose and conditions to remove dye. The efficacy of AOP was better in terms of removing dye. But the adsorbent that was applied through mixing (1:1) AES and AOP maintaining the dose constant performed exceedingly well surpassing the efficacy of AES and almost touching the efficacy of AOP in terms of removing acid dye.
What can be the possible chemistry behind that??
Humble request to share your ideas..if you have any...
Thanks in advance...
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No sir,
I have just mixed in 1: 1 ratio before application...
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Good day Dear Researchers. Please I would want to ask a question on cryptography. Am trying to use hybrid cryptography to secure a system, that is 3DES AND AES. Is it possible to merge both algorithms to have a unique algorithm. Or we encrypt the plaintext using the first algorithm (3DES) then the output is encrypted again using the next algorithm (AES). PLEASE, WHICH IS BETTER AND WHY?? AND WHICH IS POSSIBLE AND WHY??
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Dear Chibueze Nwamouh Ubochi,
Find below several professional opinions to your question:
Integrating AES, DES, and 3-DES Encryption Algorithms for Enhanced Data Security
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Why would anyone choose 3DES over AES in software?
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Combination of more than one crypto algorithm
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The AES Encryption algorithm (also known as the Rijndael algorithm) is a symmetric block cipher algorithm with a block/chunk size of 128 bits. It converts these individual blocks using keys of 128, 192, and 256 bits. Once it encrypts these blocks, it joins them together to form the ciphertext.
It is based on a substitution-permutation network, also known as an SP network. It consists of a series of linked operations, including replacing inputs with specific outputs (substitutions) and others involving bit shuffling (permutations).
In this tutorial, you will go through some of the standout features that AES offers as a globally standardized encryption algorithm.
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Kindly visit the article, and share your honest thoughts in any communication style, even if you are not an expert. Feel free to submit your thoughts here, or under the comments section of the article.
Looking forward to hear your thoughts. Let the fun debates begin!
Best,
M. R.
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hi,
In cryptography, a key derivation function (KDF) is a cryptographic algorithm that derives one or more secret keys from a secret value such as a main key, a password, or a passphrase using a pseudorandom function (which typically uses a cryptographic hash function or block cipher).Ġasaq; a provably secure key derivation method that, when given access to a true random number generator (TRNG), allows communicating parties, that have a pre-shared secret password p, to agree on a secret key k that is indistinguishable from truly random numbers with a guaranteed entropy.The derivation key index is used to locate the derivation key (i.e. the master DES key) for the issuer BIN, as derived by the online switch in case of EMV cards. .
for more info:
best wishes..
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Hello everyone,
I want to study the change in oxygen vacancies in gallium oxide using AES. I looked for papers, but couldn't find any. If you have any references please let me know.
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Aman Baunthiyal oxygen vacancies are mainly studied by theoretical methods, as you can see in the article below. To obtain some experimental insights about it I recommend you perform X-Ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS) analysis.
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While implementing DES and AES using python I wane to measure memory consumption,CPU utilization.
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I was able to create a compound chaotic system which is given satisfying results so far when used to generate substitution boxes. However, I want to improve the values of NL, SAC, BIC, DP and LP. I need recommendations on how to improve these values. What I am thinking is to use values generated by the proposed chaotic system as an input for elliptic curve. Problem is that I am not much familiar with ECC. Please help in this regard. Thank you!
P.S. I want to achieve results much better than AES S-box in all criteria.
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Hi
It is always better to mention the full forms such as Avalanche Effect, Bit Independence etc of the matrices instead of BIC, SAC etc so that it will be easier for people to understand and respond.
Please follow the link given below for SAC
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Can u please provide Matlab code for RSA and AES Encryption and Decryption of an Image
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Please help me out in this project color image encryption using RSA cryptosystem with a chaotic map in Hartley domain implement it using MATLAB
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Common attacks such as meet in the middle attacks seem to rely on encryption of chosen blocks. What if the adversary can also decrypt arbitrary outputs adaptively?
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Intresting questions
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Kindly provide related reference for justification of difference in elemental composition between ICP AES/ AAS and SEM-EDX
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Dear Rakesh Kumar , as stated before by William Letter and Vladimir Dusevich these are different methods and have different element sensitivity.
Perhaps the differences you observed are caused by that reason, but probably it could have something to do with the way these two methods are applied to samples.
ICP AES give you information about the whole sample, since this is prepared as a solution that is sprayed into the plasma plume for analysis.
SEM EDX however, provides information from a solid sample, and that information is quite local, both in the depth direction and the analyzed area because the electron beam is focused in a tiny area of your sample and the electrons only penetrates till certain depth (depending on the electron beam energy and the sort of materials forming your sample).
Imagine that your sample is heterogeneous, for the sake of simplicity let it be formed by just 2 components (A,B) in realtion 1:1, distributed in grains of say 1 mm3 they are both soluble and can therefore a representative aliquot of your sample can be sent to the ICP-AES, which retrieves the real composition of your sample (A1B1) (remember the sampling is key). Now, you analyze another sample fraction by SEM EDX, if the beam is focused on a grain of component A, then you get the composition of this component (A), but may be some of B too, because some electrons were able to reach some grain of B, so you can get something like A0.8 B0.2, that clearly is different from the real one A1B1.
You could also hit a grain of B with reverse results. Even if you take enough EDX data from different regions on the surface of your sample, they could not be representative, imagine A and B are forming layers, they still are in 1:1 proportion, but an EDX analysis of the surface would give you mainly the information about the external layer, or just it if the layer thickness is enough to avoid the electron beam reach the second layer.
Hope this helps. Good luck with your work.
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Dear Researchers, I am looking for AES Image encryption and Decryption source code functions. I have came across couple of source code files in Mathworks, but not fine with that. If any sources, let me know. Thanks in advance.
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It is intresting to study and work with quantum computing. Wish to know available tools and packages for the same. This field has vital role in Quantum Cryptography also.
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Interesante pregunta
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Actually, I want to know the process of the implementation of cryptanalysis on AES and Blowfish using the FPGA board, can you suggest to me what resources are available for this implementation
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First of all you have to select an appropriate FPGA or may be embedded SoC boeard such a Zybo Borad. Then creat a project and constraints for AES and blowfish. You can write you c program that manages cryptanalysis and this part will run on processor and cryptocores of FPGA. Then create a SoC. You have to learn some lectures how to create SoC.
Note: This guide is absed on Xilinx FPGAs.
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I'm looking for a vehicular mobility dataset. My research is about VANETs, and I'mlooking for vehicular mobility dataset.
I already found:
In the data set, is need have the position (coordinate X and Y) and the time of vehicle, how in the data set above.
.I need more. Can someone help me?
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My problem is :
I made a software that hides data on video files. I used the lsb technique. I can hide and unhide randomly and sequentially. I supported this with encryption techniques (RSA and AES). But I have problems with steganalysis, I cannot find a solution. I need to analyze the videos
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What will be the RTL design? How can it be implemented inoder to secure voice communication using AES128 bit encryption on FPGA.
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If you want to implement AES on FPGA, then you have to write its code in a VHDL language. That is you need to implement the AES algorithm VHDL hardware description language. If you have this description you use the simulation tools to get the RTL logic description. The whole software tool serving all the design steps from VHL to an executable file on FPGS is available from the vendors of the FPFAs such as the XILINIX ISE software tools.
For much more details please follow the data in the link:https://www.xilinx.com/products/design-tools/ise-design-suite.html
Best wishes
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May I determine the Si/Al ratio if I quantify these elements using ICP AES data from the precursor material and if I start the synthesis and control the cristalographic profile using DRX?
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Please look at the following below links which may help you in your analysis:
Thanks
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What measures can be taken to compare symmetrical encryption on IoT platforms? For example DES, AES, BlowFish, IDEA
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Several performance metrics you should measure :
 Memory Usage
 Throughput
 Power Consumption
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I'm working on image encryption using AES algorithm in MATLAB (128 bits, works by processing blocks of 16 bytes, pure implementation), I'm having some difficulties like making a loup that takes every 4*4 matrix from the general matrix (n*m)
ex: I have an image size=17666, so (17666/16)= 1104*16 + 2, so 1105 ciphertexts corresponding to my 1104 first block encrypted as they are, followed by the last (2 bytes), so how to complete the last by filling in with zeros to obtain a block of 16 bytes.
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Padding technique can be used. Where you can add an extra (14) dummy pixel value in the image.
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Hello fellow researchers;
I want to generate the AES cipher Sboxes, and I couldn't figure out how to do it; I know that we take 4X4 bytes state matrix, where each byte can be expressed as a polynomial ; and then we calculate the multiplicative inverse of that byte mod x^8+x^4+x^3+x+1; then we multiply it by the matrix A and XOR it with a constant c.
A = [1 0 0 0 1 1 1 1] and c = [0
[1 1 0 0 0 1 1 1] 1
[1 1 1 0 0 0 1 1] 1
[1 1 1 1 0 0 0 1] 0
[1 1 1 1 1 0 0 0] 0
[0 1 1 1 1 1 0 0] 0
[0 0 1 1 1 1 1 0] 1
[0 0 0 1 1 1 1 1] 1]
And as I understand the multiplicative inverse of 1 is 1 and for 0 is not defined; so what would a byte turn into? for example x = 00011001, what is b such that x . b mod x^8+x^4+x^3+x+1 =1 ?
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hello
you can see me in the next september, and i can give you a book where a good explanation has been done about what do you looking for.
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Hi, I would like to know the chemical composition of a thin film on a Si wafer.
I think MEIS and AES analysis are usually taken to know chemical composition.
As I know, MEIS is one of the most accountable ways to confirm chemical composition with depth profiling.
AES results are not corrected, so these need to be revised.(e.g. according to MEIS results)
Then, is it okay not to analyze AES? Please could anyone explain what the differences are between those two? Thank you.
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in addition to what Martin Arndt already reported, keep in mind that you are unable to detect elements that are lighter than you projectile ion, i.e. by using Ne-ions you won't be able e.g. to detect oxygen, carbon or nitrogen, and the situation gets even worse for Ar as the probe ion. Using noble gas ions you'll only get information about the outermost layer of your sample, and thus, you may need some sputter removal (e.g. for removal of contaminations) prior to any MEIS analysis. For a sputter depth profiling, you need to take preferential sputtering etc. into account.
So I feel a combination of both techniques, eventually in combination with SIMS may be required depending on the sample you are interested in! Good luck, Dirk
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WHAT IS A MDS MATRIX (MDS in AES finalists) and how can we achieve diffusion through it?
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The term MDS originates from coding theory, codes for which the Singleton bound is met are called MDS (maximal distance separable) codes. A matrix is MDS if all its square sub-matrices are nonsingular. Though its characterization is also given by branch number (see https://tosc.iacr.org/index.php/ToSC/article/view/8364/7713). MDS matrices are matrices with a property that even a small change in input costs a maximum change in its output results. Through this property, we can achieve maximum diffusion. For more details, see the above-refered paper.
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We all know that cipher(algorithm) design is publicly known and only key is hidden. So if everyone knows substitution, permutation details what is the point to add these layers in any symmetric key encryptions algorithm ?
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A line of substitutions followed by a permutation has good “mixing” properties: Substitutions add to local confusion and permutation “glues” them together and spreads (diffuses) the local confusion to the more distant subblocks.
Modern ciphers tend to use linear or affine mappings instead of permutations, which allow them to achieve better diffusion in fewer iterations. Such networks are called substitution–linear (SLN) or substitution–affine networks (SAN). The block encryption standard Rijndael/AES is an SLN cipher.
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I am looking for a theoretical or conceptual model of participation in mutual fund or microcredit group. Although there are several empirical research about drivers and determinants linked to participation in group scheme (AES, agricultural etc), I can't find a theoretical model. Any suggestion?
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Dera Rippo,
We have something close to what you are interested in, but it is written in Bulgarian. We have a theoretical framework and we are providing micro-crediting and consultancy support to small farmers for more then 20 years. Hopefully, this year we will have it in English. Meanwhile you can visit our web landsourceofincome.org
Under the publications and materials you can find videos (with English subtitles) describing our approach.
Keep in touch
Best
Ivan Penov
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I know transaction costs are tricky to measure. I would like to know what's the best method to measure public transaction costs (TCs) related to agri-environmental schemes... I've read in some articles that it's possible to use the percentage of working time spent on a particular AES-related activity as a proxy... but then I struggle with the type of questions that can be asked to elicit such information... because when it comes to public TCs I assume it's not only the government who is involved but also all the other actors that intervene in the design of the scheme...
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In 2013, there was a Special Issue in Ecological Economics on Transaction Costs and Environmental Policy.
I'm not sure I they provide good hints or instructions for preparing a survey. A colleague of mine was struggling with that issue as well. Other literature we were looking at was:
Buckley, P.J. and Chapman, M., 1997. The perception and measurement of transaction costs. Cambridge journal of economics, 21, 127–145.
Challen, R. (2001) ‘Non-government approaches to the provision of non-commodity agricultural outputs: a transaction-cost perspective’, OECD Workshop on Multifunctionality, 2–3 July, p.18, Paris.
Dupraz, P. and Ducos, G., 2007. Agri-environmental contract adoption under fixed and variable compliance costs. PhD workshop. Rennes: European Association of Agricultural Economists.
Hobbs, J., 2004. Markets in metamorphosis: the rise and fall of policy institutions. In: G. Van Huylenbroeck, W. Verbeke, and L. Lauwers, eds. Role of institutions in rural policies and agricultural markets. Amsterdam: Elsevier, 199–212.
Krutilla, K., & Krause, R. (2011). Transaction costs and environmental policy: An assessment framework and literature review. International Review of Environmental and Resource Economics, 4(3–4), 261-354.
McCann, L. (2013). Transaction costs and environmental policy design. Ecological Economics, 88, 253-262.
Mettepenningen, Evy, Verspecht, Ann and Van Huylenbroeck, Guido (2009) 'Measuring private transaction costs of European agri-environmental schemes', Journal of Environmental Planning and Management, 52:5,649 — 667
Ridier, A., Képhaliacos, C. and Carpy-Goulard, F. (2011) ‘Private transaction costs and environmental cross compliance in a crop region of Southwestern France’, Int. J. Agricultural Resources, Governance and Ecology, Vol. 9, Nos. 1/2, pp.68–79.
Rørstad, P. K., Vatn, A., & Kvakkestad, V. (2007). Why do transaction costs of agricultural policies vary?. Agricultural economics, 36(1), 1-11.
Wang, N., 2003. Measuring transaction costs: an incomplete survey. Ronald Coase Institute, no. 2.
Cheers,
Chris
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I mean an AES and Blowfish cryptography algorithm that can be used to encode and decode an image dataset
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Check this: AES and Blowfish image cryptography algorithms? Attached
with regards
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Please send me a personal message, if you have expertise in using surface characterization techniques such as "XPS/AES/SIMs "for corrosion related research. There is an opportunity for a collaborative work in this area.
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Hi. We have realized several studies of electrical contact corrosion in autos by using TOF-SIMS and related techniques (AFM, Raman, ...).
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When i compute the time complexity of cipher text policy attribute based encryption CP-ABE . I found it O(1) by tracing each step in code which mostly are assignments operations. Is it possible that the time complexity of CP-ABE be O(1) or i have a problem. the code that i used is the following, where ITERS=1.
public static List encrypt(String policy, int secLevel, String type, byte[] data, int ITERS){ double results[] = new double[ITERS]; DETABECipher cipher = new DETABECipher(); long startTime, endTime; List list = null; for (int i = 0; i < ITERS; i++){ startTime = System.nanoTime(); list = cipher.encrypt(data, secLevel,type, policy); endTime = System.nanoTime(); results[i] = (double)(endTime - startTime)/1000000000.0; } return list; } public List encrypt(byte abyte0[], int i, String s, String s1) { AccessTree accesstree = new AccessTree(s1); if(!accesstree.isValid()) { System.exit(0); } PublicKey publickey = new PublicKey(i, s); if(publickey == null) { System.exit(0); } AESCipher.genSymmetricKey(i); timing[0] = AESCipher.timing[0]; if(AESCipher.key == null) { System.exit(0); } byte abyte1[] = AESCipher.encrypt(abyte0); ABECiphertext abeciphertext = ABECipher.encrypt(publickey, AESCipher.key, accesstree); timing[1] = AESCipher.timing[1]; timing[2] = ABECipher.timing[3] + ABECipher.timing[4] + ABECipher.timing[5]; long l = System.nanoTime(); LinkedList linkedlist = new LinkedList(); linkedlist.add(abyte1); linkedlist.add(AESCipher.iv); linkedlist.add(abeciphertext.toBytes()); linkedlist.add(new Integer(i)); linkedlist.add(s); long l1 = System.nanoTime(); timing[3] = (double)(l1 - l) / 1000000000D; return linkedlist; } public static byte[] encrypt(byte[] paramArrayOfByte) { if (key == null) { return null; } byte[] arrayOfByte = null; try { long l1 = System.nanoTime(); cipher.init(1, skey); arrayOfByte = cipher.doFinal(paramArrayOfByte); long l2 = System.nanoTime(); timing[1] = ((l2 - l1) / 1.0E9D); iv = cipher.getIV(); } catch (Exception localException) { System.out.println("AES MODULE: EXCEPTION"); localException.printStackTrace(); System.out.println("---------------------------"); } return arrayOfByte; } public static ABECiphertext encrypt(PublicKey paramPublicKey, byte[] paramArrayOfByte, AccessTree paramAccessTree) { Pairing localPairing = paramPublicKey.e; Element localElement1 = localPairing.getGT().newElement(); long l1 = System.nanoTime(); localElement1.setFromBytes(paramArrayOfByte); long l2 = System.nanoTime(); timing[3] = ((l2 - l1) / 1.0E9D); l1 = System.nanoTime(); Element localElement2 = localPairing.getZr().newElement().setToRandom(); Element localElement3 = localPairing.getGT().newElement(); localElement3 = paramPublicKey.g_hat_alpha.duplicate(); localElement3.powZn(localElement2); localElement3.mul(localElement1); Element localElement4 = localPairing.getG1().newElement(); localElement4 = paramPublicKey.h.duplicate(); localElement4.powZn(localElement2); l2 = System.nanoTime(); timing[4] = ((l2 - l1) / 1.0E9D); ABECiphertext localABECiphertext = new ABECiphertext(localElement4, localElement3, paramAccessTree); ShamirDistributionThreaded localShamirDistributionThreaded = new ShamirDistributionThreaded(); localShamirDistributionThreaded.execute(paramAccessTree, localElement2, localABECiphertext, paramPublicKey); timing[5] = ShamirDistributionThreaded.timing; return localABECiphertext; } } public ABECiphertext(Element element, Element element1, AccessTree accesstree) { c = element; cp = element1; cipherStructure = new HashMap(); tree = accesstree; } public void execute(AccessTree accesstree, Element element, ABECiphertext abeciphertext, PublicKey publickey) { pairing = publickey.e; ct = abeciphertext; PK = publickey; countDownLatch = new CountDownLatch(accesstree.numAtributes); timing = 0.0D; double d = System.nanoTime(); Thread thread = new Thread(new Distribute(abeciphertext, accesstree.root, element)); thread.start(); try { countDownLatch.await(); long l = System.nanoTime(); timing = ((double)l - d) / 1000000000D; synchronized(mutex) { } } catch(Exception exception) { exception.printStackTrace(); } }
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That's a hardware issue and nothing else. Best, T.T.
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symmetric algorithm use different key size, is it depends on application? or ,
if we want to have highest security we use keys with greater length?
is it possible we extend key size in famous algorithm such as AES?
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Dear Dr Roman fiala
very thanks for your good recommendation.
also, I have an idea for generating new cryptography algorithms same as RSA.
But, its very difficult than from RSA and Elgamal Algorithm.
could you help me for patent my idea.
or we define it as a common project for Commercialization.
very thanks
Mohammad Zeynali
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I thought AAS or AES would be best, and we would have to determine the main composition other than Zr which are Sn, Fe, Cr, (Fe+ Cr), O. Accuracy is crucial , is a standard necessary?
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Yasmine Bingei the best analysis method will be EDX which gives you the elemental fractions in your alloy (EDX requires a solid sample). Otherwise you can digest your alloy using acid digestion for example then analyze it by ICP-MS or ICP-AES or ICP-OES or AAS (if you use atomic absorption try to analyse your sample by the graphite unit ie thermal analysis as it is more precise)
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we know that in AES algorithm, number of Rounds is constant for example 9 round.
if the number of rounds is variable or dynamic, is it could increase strength of security and non-reversibility?
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If it becomes dynamic, you will have two keys for the algorithm, one is the encryption key and the other is the number of rounds, yes the algorithm will be more secure and more complex to implement. However, in AES, the bruet force attack is not the problem. One of the problems that we encounter with symmetric encryption is key distribution, if now we have two keys, the complexity will be doubled. The number of rounds enhances the avalanche effect which enhances the security of the algorithm.
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We did a lab and the purpose of the experiment was to determine potassium in tape water and mineral water. First we run an emission spectroscopy, then we started with second experiment with syrup and copper. Now I want to know why the potassium experiment was an emission , but copper was absorption? Could we do the opposite?
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Potassium can be measured using flame-AAS, but AES is preferred as it's simpler and potassium ionization will need to be suppressed to reduce interference.
With many elements, flame-AES is inadequate for providing sufficient ionization from ground state, so a lamp is employed to provide a radiation source and ionize the analytes. Other AES techniques operate at much higher temperatures (e.g. ICP-OES and MP-AES)
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1. It would be better if the paper describes in detail about the modeling and simulation of all-electric ship(AES) loads (normal load as well as pulsed load).
2. What other software are usually used for AES system modeling and dynamics computation?( I am using MATLAB and Simulation)
3. It would be better if the paper is highly focused on power electronics system modeling and control used in the AES MVDC architecture.
5. Breaker-less and Superconducting DC systems would also do.
4. To be more specific, i want to integrate the PV system in the generation system (that demands for energy storage), so can anyone suggest me the similar type of project ongoing.
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First of all i would like to thank you for answering and providing the valuable link about my research.
As per my knowledge, according to IEEE recommendation 1kV to 35 kV falls under Medium-voltage DC power system. For my particular case i am considering 5 kV dc link MVDC bus. Considering PV system, i want to use this PV system for hot energy storage purpose(for air conditioning system). I guess, combining several PV strings in series we can get the desired dc link voltage .
Furthermore, i will be very glad for your valuable suggestion and your experience based recommendation as i am just in the starting phase of this project.
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I am doing research in Mobile Cloud computing security. Under that, I am in need of explanation about how to integrate or how to use Diffie hellman and AES algorithm in a combined manner to improve security....
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This is a straightforward textbook case. Use authenticated Diffie-Hellman to establish a shared 128-bit AES session key which is subsequently used to encrypt the data between the parties using an authenticated encryption mode, such as Galois Counter Mode.
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How do I prepare (before digestion) human tissue samples for ICP AES Analysis?
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What is best solvent to dissolve metal ions (Cu, Sr, Fe,Mg ) co-doped HAp to get homogeneous solution for ICP (AES) analysis. ?
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thank you for all, I have tried concentrated Hcl but result was not so good then add minor amount of water into it and found complete dissolution of metal ion co-doped HAp then diluted solution was used for ICP-OES analysis.
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My phase I work combine AES and DSA algorithm together as pairing based (or) association based cryptography. Is it correct or not ?
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I don't think pairing-based cryptography is what you think it is, but let's leave that for another thread.
It sounds like you want to securely stored a number of DSA private keys in a file by encrypting the file (with AES).
There are two points worth noting with this scheme - you should be using RSA private keys, not DSA keys, as DSA keys are obsolete. Second, private key file formats already encrypt the private key, so I'm not sure what you are adding by encrypting a group of them in a file. I guess it makes them harder to access, but they are also harder to use.
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Give your suggestions
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Check the following related paper:
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generate for (i = 0; i < `Nb; i = i + 1) begin: gen_loop_dec always @(state_in) begin: dec_colMix reg[(`Nb * 8) -1:0] r[3:0]; r[0] = state_in[(`Nb * 8) - 1:0]; r[1] = state_in[(`Nb * 16) - 1:(`Nb * 8)]; r[2] = state_in[(`Nb * 24) - 1:(`Nb * 16)]; r[3] = state_in[(`Nb * 32) - 1:(`Nb * 24)]; dec_row0[((i + 1) * 8) - 1:(i * 8)] = gf_times_0E(r[0][((i + 1) * 8) - 1:(i * 8)]) ^ gf_times_0B(r[1][((i + 1) * 8) - 1:(i * 8)]) ^ gf_times_0D(r[2][((i + 1) * 8) - 1:(i * 8)]) ^ gf_times_09(r[3][((i + 1) * 8) - 1:(i * 8)]); this generate loop is not synthesizable so can anybody tell me how to make synthesizale this particular line? loop is rolling 0 to 15.
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If not, is there any reason, based on prior research, to think it is significantly different from the original version ?
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Hello,
Although you may be aware of these studies, here are a few studies that have employed the French version, many do not assess the psychometric properties directly, but you can extrapolate from them (e.g., what is it correlated with, etc.):
Bernard, J. Y., De Agostini, M., Forhan, A., Alfaiate, T., Bonet, M., Champion, V., ... & EDEN Mother-Child Cohort Study Group. (2013). Breastfeeding duration and cognitive development at 2 and 3 years of age in the EDEN mother–child Cohort. The Journal of pediatrics, 163(1), 36-42.
Bernard, J. (2013). Déterminants nutritionnels précoces du neurodéveloppement des enfants de l'étude EDEN: rôle des acides gras polyinsaturés (Doctoral dissertation, Université Paris Sud-Paris XI).
Halbwachs, M., Muller, J. B., de La Rochebrochard, E., Gascoin, G., Branger, B., Rouger, V., ... & Flamant, C. (2013). Usefulness of parent-completed ASQ for neurodevelopmental screening of preterm children at five years of age. PloS one, 8(8), e71925.
Troude, P., Squires, J., L'Hélias, L. F., Bouyer, J., & de La Rochebrochard, E. (2011). Ages and Stages Questionnaires: feasibility of postal surveys for child follow-up. Early human development, 87(10), 671-676.
You may wish also to contact the company, they frequently have this kind of information:
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I observed in AES depth profile of some binary metal alloys(AB , B as solute), segregation of solute occurs . Is it only surface energy plays the role in driving the segregation ? i e lower surface energy component will segregate to surface.I also read atomic ordering , i e AA,BB,AB bonding inside the bulk and surface also has an influence on segregation. The system tries to attain the lowest free energy segregation occurs.I have seen some sub surface or near surface segregation of solute in some alloys also , how is it happening.Is it because when the segregant reaches the surface the component with more negative free energy for forming oxide(If it is the solvent metal) excludes or push the segregant back beneath the oxide layer and segregation enriched in that subsurface layer ? If any body can explain the predominant mechanisms associated with this and why diffusion and segregation are different process it will be so helpful
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Dr. Rawle knows more about this problem than I do,  I only add that a  copper - zinc system will behave differently than  a clean surface copper- nickel system. In bulk, both are long range "random solid solutions". But  the Ni - Cu system will have a tendency to segregate into Ni rich and Cu rich regions, with the surface layers mostly Cu.
whereas in  Cu - Zn system with a clean Cu (111) surface, when the surface is annealed the Zn atoms are randomly substituted into the Cu.  See
From an old X-ray diffraction point of view one can detect some short range order even in bulk random solid solutions in which no long range order is present, from  diffuse scattering.  (X-ray Diffraction, by B.E. Warren, 1990). By such studies one may differentiate cases for which there is a preference in bulk for unlike nearest neighbors versus cases in which there is a preference in bulk for like nearest neighbors, and there tends therefore to be clustering. A more modern and direct technique for determining  nearest neighbor environment is EXAFS, but there you need synchrotron access. 
The suggestions of Dr. Rawle are more practical than anything along the lines I discuss here. But I add some other aspects for you to mull over.
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require an explanation supported with the steps for evaluate the RSA and AES algorithms in cloud computing , by using google engine or any cloud engine . the procedure to encrypt  the data by algorithms (text file) and uploading / downloading to/from the google engine and then methods to evaluate the performance of algorithms in different metrics .
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The following paper might help u in this regard sir
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Me and one of my friends are working on AES algorithm. We have understood how multiplicative inverse table is generated. Rijndael AES algorithm shows us how S-Box is generated through the affine transformation process. In the original algorithm they have multiply each byte of the state with an constant matrix and then add the result with another constant byte which is 0x63 to get the substitute value. We have understood how the constant matrix is generated as there is a formula to generate it but couldn't find out why 0x63 constant value is chosen. We have already gone through many resources but could not find any appropriate solution. Can any one help us in this regarding issue?
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Dear Arnab,
According to "The Design of AES" the design criteria was 1) non-linearity, specifically "the maximum input-output correlation amplitude must be as small as possible" and "the maximum difference propagation probability must be as small as possible". This is to prevent linear and differential cryptanalysis. And 2) algebraic complexity. This was to prevent algebraic attacks.
They achieve 1) by choosing an s-box that was studied in Differentially uniform mappings for cryptography. This particular s-box however is algebraically simple. Thus, the AES designers added an affine transformation which would be easy to describe yet algebraically complex.
One additional restriction they placed was that there were no fixed points and no opposite fixed points.
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My friend and colleague from Turin, Maurizio Ferraris, launched a kind of new theory, he called "Nuovo Realismo", or Neo-realism, in the path of Searle, but against his notion of collective intentionality in social ontology. Anyhow I haven't been able to grasp the bulk of the matter. Can someone of you explain me the Pitch of Ferraris Theory of Social Ontology ? Thanks
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By Ferraris himself, you will find a very short and very clear overview of his social ontology (which is based, contrary to Searle, on the concept of documentality and not intentionality) in « Was ist der Neue Realismus ?  » in Markus Gabriel, Der Neue Realismus, Suhrkamp, 2014, pp. 70-75.
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We have an Auger Electron Spectroscopy (AES) system (Perkin Elmer) and facing some issues related to electronics. Is anyone has the instruction manual for the AES. Please let me know.
Thanks and regards
-praveen 
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Hi  Praveen,
enclosed Manual for CMA PHI 15-155, but without electronics schematics.
Regards,
Oleg
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I  had  design  multi-element  structure  for  MIMO  antenna  system  with  desire resonating frequency  of  3.5 GHz.  But  if  the  same  structure is  simulated  with  adaptive  mesh  option  the  resonating  frequency shift to 3.6.
And   when  I  use  same  structure  in  HFSS  the  resonating  frequency  is  3.7.
I  wonder  why  this  shift of  resonating frequency  is  occurring... 
 
Or   Their   should  be  some  proper  manual  or  notes  about accuracy  of  CST  microwave  result.
And  When   I  fabricated  my  antenna  the  resonating frequency  was  3.8...
Your  suggestion  in this  regard  will  be  highly  appreciated.
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Basically, because mesh shapes in HFSS (FEM;  tetrahedron) and in CST MWS (FDTD; cubic voxel) are different, it cannot be totally identical between the results.
Although it depends on the antenna structure, generally in HFSS, radiation boundary size and analysis solution type and frequency can affect the result. Also, the solution frequency should depend on the solution type. Additionally, I think port set-up also can influence the result.
I recommend discrete sweep for a high accuracy. In this case, you can use any solution frequency.
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To investigate students' perception. 
I use 20 closed-ended questions (multiple choice and 5-likert scale) and the 5 qualitative question like open-ended questions in a survey.  
As I know survey could help me to gain data (even the perception, feelings) from the large number of students so that I can classify them according to the level of anxiety to conduct the in-depth interview further.  So, Is the survey as I've described called qualitative survey even it comprise theclosed-ended questions? and Does it mean that I am completely doing the qualitative research? 
 Hope to see your response!
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As you say at the beginning, what you have done is a survey that included open-ended items. with regard to mixed methods, the key issue is how you integrate the results from your two types of methods. For example, you might do an analysis of your quantitative data, and then use the qualitative data to interpret those quantitative results. This can of research design can be represented as QUANT --> qual, where the core set of quantitative results determines your use of the qualitative data.
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I'm looking for a measure of dogmatism conceived as a cognitive process.
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Hi Leonardo,
I notice that you have an interest in the psychology of religion.
How do those faith based beliefs that stand at the centre of an understanding of the world, those beliefs about which everything else hangs, relate to beliefs that are held dogmatically ? The definition offered by Google of dogmatism is  'the tendency to lay down principles as undeniably true, without consideration of evidence or the opinions of others'.  What one might argue, however, is that without some kind of common set of assumptions upon which evidence and opinion is constructed one is not in a position to consider evidence and opinions of those who stand outside those shared assumptions.  I suppose that this is not to say that those assumptions are necessarily true although if they are challenged one might find oneself puzzled as to whether any truth is possible.  They might constitute my criteria for the possibility of truth.
Would it be dogmatic to say that the world was formed approximately 4.5 billion years ago ?  How might I argue this 'fact' with a Christian fundamentalist who believed that is was formed about 4000 years ago?  I cannot imagined myself being shaken from that belief so does that make me dogmatic ?
Regards, Mike
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Arena simulation: how to release all entities (not resources) after certain time and start over again as a new day? (5 day simulation)
Current state: Entities are in the queue and the process is carried over the next day when resources become available. How do I clear all entities and resources in the system each day? 
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If you need to clear all process, resources and every statistic, you might restart as a new replication and run as many replications as you want.
If you want to release all entities from every queue but you don't want to refresh statistics, you could use the pick up and dropoff blocks using trigger entities every time you need to do that. Pick up and Dropoff blocks are in the advanced process panel.
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There is a claim by a company that it has superior results. Is that a valid claim as I cant find a publication for that.
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Dear Giannis, there are no published studies that have compared all the three companies. However, based on understanding technology and physiology the benefit will be approximately similar. 
There are some published studies comparing various technologies available out-there.
Vijay  
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I am confused with lectures on XPS and AES by Richard Haasch and in general, I have a feeling that these two spectroscopic methods are basically same, a simular principle of technique. Something like Mössbauer spectroscopy
 and Nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy.
Am I wrong? Is there any fundametal change between these two spectroscopies? 
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The fundamental principles of the two techniques are the same. One is a single photo-emission step (XPS), the other is a two-step emission process (AES). Indeed, we can see AES peaks in XPS but not XPS peaks in AES.
A host of reasons exist for why we use an electron gun rather than an x-ray source for laboratory-level AES. We should also remember some practical differences between conventional AES (with an electron gun) and conventional XPS (with an x-ray source).
* AES requires conductive substrates whereas XPS does not
* AES is more surface sensitive and has a higher spatial resolution
* AES is more sensitive to chemical state shifts of the parent element, but the interpretation of the spectra to resolve that information is more difficult in AES than in XPS. This is why the term electron spectroscopy for chemical analysis (ESCA) traditionally only means XPS and not also AES
* Damage to the sample (chemical reaction changes) is induced by an electron beam in AES and by x-rays in XPS
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Hello everyone. Is there anyone who knows how to measure the throughput of the AES algorithm in tools??
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In addition to the point mentioned by Dreher, a typical way of measuring throughput is to send data from the input (source) to the output (destination). Using the timer, check the start time and then the finish time to compute the difference between them. Then,  throughput =  Data(in bytes) / (end time - start time). The more runs you execute, the higher the precision of the measurement.
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around 5000 liters per day 20 % acetonitrile is generated as waste in a process, how to treat it . please guide
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Dear Chaitali,
If you study the nature of this product for Bio-degradation: Possibly hazardous short term degradation products are not likely. However, long term degradation products may arise.( ref http://www.sciencelab.com/msds.php?msdsId=9927335).
This seems to be reject water from the washing of Acrylic Fiber if that is the case you can concentrated it by using RO the concentrated product can be used for recycling at the point of generation or some down stream application.
if possible please share the process from where it is generated.
regards
dinkar
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I'm looking for any literature that may explain lack of engagement with feedback as being partly explain by the teenage rebellion
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Hello. i'm currently doing a final project about exploration for waste rubber sole. I'm looking further for chemical experiment method. Is there any chemical that could work as solvent for EVA (ethylene vinyl acetate), TPR (thermoplastic rubber), and TPU (thermoplastic polyurethane) ? and if there is , whether the chemical is easy to get on the market and easy to apply ? thankyou so much for your help and i do need the answer as soon as possible :)
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Nabila,
Can you provide more information on the thermoplastic poly(urethane) TPU or TPUs and the thermoplastic rubber or rubbers that in the waste stream you are interested in?  You can find lots of information on solvents for ethylene vinyl acetate by searching on the internet.
I am also interested in if you are looking for one solvenmt for all the polymers or a different solvent for each.
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The surfactant should work as good as SDS but possess a smaller MW.
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Try with Sodium Octyl Sulfate (a SIGMA-Aldrich product); even if I never used it, this surfactant should satisfy your requirements....
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Every gas sensor has an optimum temperature to work at. Some sensors work at room temperature others at elevated temperatures that reach for example 400 degree centigrade. My question: is there any principles to estimate working temperature of a gas sensor such as the kind of gas or the kind of sensing material?
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The sensing component of many gas sensors (e.g. MOx - Metal Oxide) is not too specific - e.g. more like "sensing anything combustible". To realize sensors selective to a small(er) number of agents, on the one hand the basic MOx is doped to modulate the response.
On the other hand, selectivity may be a function of operating temperature: lower temperatures may not be sufficient for a reaction with the gas desired, higher temperatures may lead to a reaction with unwanted agents.
So the answer is basically NO. Everything has its influence: gas, sensing material, gases not to detect (if possible) and so on.
Using an existing sensor is rather simple: follow the data sheet.
Developing a new sensor is quite time consuming: research on sensing materials (including at least the type(s) of doping), build the sensor and run a lot of tests varying gas concentrations (gas to detect as well as gases to be ignored - if possible), vary temperature, vary pressure and so on. AFAIK there is a lot of research on such topics - current as well as in the past.
Nobody will prevent you from evaluating theses, patents etc. to see what useful information can be gathered. Just try to avoid copying things that are copyright protected.
Best regards
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As per  USP 38 column temperature mentioned as Column temperature: Beginning of column, 50°; end of column, 35° for Lumenfantrine by HPLC This created lots of confusion could anyone clarify on this whether this is column oven temperature programming in method or kept different temperature on both end of column which is not feasible.
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Dear Mr. Bruce Levison,
Thanks for your suggestion, i had contacted USP and they responded (response given below)
This method is instrument specific. The sponsor validated the method using those oven conditions-different temperature at each end of the column. For your information, the sponsor used a Agilent 1200 Fast HPLC which is capable of establishing the temperature difference cited in the monograph. The USP lab also used an Agilent system when conducting this method.
Using different conditions may be considered an alternative method and would need to be validated as per USP General Notices (section 6.30):
"6.30. Alternative and Harmonized Methods and Procedures
Alternative methods and/or procedures may be used if they provide advantages in terms of accuracy, sensitivity, precision, selectivity, or adaptability to automation or computerized data reduction, or in other special circumstances. Such alternative procedures and methods shall be validated as described in the general chapter Validation of Compendial Procedures <1225> and must be shown to give equivalent or better results. Only those results obtained by the methods and procedures given in the compendium are conclusive.
Alternative procedures should be submitted to USP for evaluation as a potential replacement or addition to the standard (see section 4.10, Monographs).
Certain general chapters contain a statement that the text in question is harmonized with the corresponding text of the European Pharmacopoeia and/or the Japanese Pharmacopoeia and that these texts are interchangeable. Therefore, if a substance or preparation is found to comply with a requirement using an interchangeable method or procedure from one of these pharmacopeias, it should comply with the requirements of the USP. When a difference appears, or in the event of dispute, only the result obtained by the method and/or procedure given in the USP is conclusive.”
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As the topic implies, when we perform CRISPR-Cas9 genome editing, PAM sequence located after the gene/DNA sequence of interest is essential.  However, not all DNA sequences/genes have PAM sequence located downstream.
So how do we overcome this obstacle?
Thanks in advance for all the answers.
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Are you sure of checking for the PAM sequence? Any GG on any strand (+ or -) could be used as a PAM sequence. So is highly probable to find a GG.
If you didn't get any GG sequence, you can use other PAM sequence (upstream or downtream) adjacent to your gene and make the Cas9 cut there. But you will need a donor DNA with homology so it can recombine.
Play with the lenght of the homologies to make editions.
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The inventors of the AES Rijndael state that there are no 'linear' mathematical relations between plaintext and the corresponding ciphertext when passed through Rijndael. How can you prove this statement? What is the process to prove or disprove the presence of a mathematical relation between a pair of plaintext and ciphertext of any cryptographic algorithm?
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"Why is it so? How to prove it?"
If encryption were linear, by taking two plaintexts A and B as well as their ciphertexts E(A) and E(B), you would get E(A + B) = E(A) + E(B). Of course, the meaning of "+" can vary. Are we talking GF(2)-linearity (XOR), addition modulo 2^128, truncated addition of words, ...?
This cannot be true with AES (or any other secure blockcipher), because otherwise you would get the key trivially with just 1 plaintext-ciphertext pair, encrypting 0 would always give 0, etc.
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hello,
i would like to ask about lightweight cryptography (algorithm/ protocol) related to software not hardware and name it please ..
i see that there is no specific algorithm called lightweight its not specific like symmetric e.g. 3DES ,AES..etc or asymmetric cryptography e.g. RSA,Diffie hellman..etc  
any reference will help me.
thank u.. 
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Check out the ISO standard for lightweight cryptography: ISO/IEC 29192. Inside, you will find several parts specifying blockciphers, hash functions, asymmetric authentication, etc. It is most likely that what you are after is in there. Also note that some mechanisms are efficient both in software and hardware.
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Can the extreme cold interfere with the intracellular metal content analyzed?
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You can store your samples at -80ºC, and then processed as you wish. Actually, if you are not going to process your samples in the same day that you are collecting them, storing at -80ºC is the most recommendable to do and do not interfere with the metal, RNA, DNA or protein total content from plant (or other kind) organism.
Regards
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As like compactifications of generalized (or classical) space can we define Lindelofization of generalized (or classical) topological spaces?
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Why don't you try the same idea as for the Alexandrov compactification? There one considers a locally compact space, one adds an extra point, and one defines the new neighborhoods of the extra point as the complements of the compact subsets of the space (together with the extra point). It is an easy exercize to show that the new space is compact.
So you must define local Lindelöf spaces, where any point belongs to an open set possesing a Lindelöf closure. We add an extra point and we define its neighborhoods as complements of all closed Lindelöf subsets. At the first sight it looks to work, but maybe one has to add more conditions (both to premises and conclusion) in order to make the statement interesting and/or useful.
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The AES algorithm uses the irreducible polynomial x^8+x^4+x^3+x+1 for multiplying with MDS and inverse MDS matrix for encryption and decryption, respectively. 
Can we change this polynomial with another one? 
Should we redesign the MDS matrix if polynomial is changed?
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Yes you can. The poly must be irreducible. Any irreducible poly can be used. After changing it you have to change MDS matrix.
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S-Boxes in AES and DES effect diffusion in these block cipher systems. I am trying to understand which aspects of these S-boxes attribute to the symmetry of the cipher system.  (i.e. If encryption is in one direction, the decryption is in the reverse direction with the same key.)
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Peter Breuer and Günter Fahrnberger are right. You mix up two terms. Symmetric-key usually means that sender and receiver use the same key for encryption and decryption.
You seem to mean why a symmetric-key cipher is a permutation. This is because each of its operation is maps each input uniquely to one distinct output.
The major purpose of S-boxes is only to some extent the diffusion: more importantly, they are non-linear. Without S-boxes, the DES or the AES could be written as a linear equational system. This would map every plaintext difference between a pair of plaintext P and P' with dP = P xor P' uniquely to a certain ciphertext difference dC = C xor C'. Then, we could take a second pair P'' and P''' with the same difference and predict the difference between their corresponding ciphertexts C'' xor C'''. This would yield a tremendously bad cipher.
The components that are relevant for diffusion are the bit permutation at the end of the DES' round function, and the ShiftRows and MixColumns in the AES.
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I am doing analysis of image encryption schemes for a project and want to analyse the cryptographic security of different image encryption schemes. It would be helpful for me if I can get Matlab codes for some of the popular schemes, right now I am having an implementation of AES based image cipher.
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Dear Mousa F.
I have checked the codes at MATLAB File exchange, I can find only two suitable algorithms and one of them was already with me (AES). However, I have checked your papers and they are pretty interesting and I plan to implement them. It would be of great help for me if you can provide the codes or object file to me so I can perform the encryption according to test cases.
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Why are differential spectra preferred in AES analysis?
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Dear Abbas, the information that the differentiated mode is preferred in comparison to the integrated (i.e. usually directly measured spectra) is a bit outdated. Nowadays, the  sensitivity of state-of-the-art AES spectrometers is good enough to allow the direct measurement, and people are able to evaluate the peaks as in XPS, i.e. by peak fitting etc. Regards, Dirk
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Composition maps may be obtained by EDS, AES and XPS techniques. Please indicate the right technique(s) for each of the following types of samples: thin film of oxides, polycrystalline metals, and nanometer-thick coatings of metal on a polymer.
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Is this a question to a materials exam by chance? It is broad enough to be one. Please provide the basis for the RESEARCH direction to your question!
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I need some information about how I can do an AES algorithm in opnet simulation program. Can anyone help me?
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thank you
but this link for simulation AES in MATLAB
 i wash the best for you>..
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I have done encryption of audio file using AES algorithm....the code works but it only takes first the 16 values of an audio file mean at every iteration. It will take 16 values, that means at the end I get a large number of cipher texts. For example, audio file size (8172) so , (8172/16) = 510. In the end, I get almost 510 ciphertexts. I'm confused about how to embed these ciphertexts. I have no idea what to do...it is not reading the whole file. Please help me sort out the issue...these are the changes which I have done in the demo file of AES algo.
[plaintext1,fs]= wavread('A1.wav','native');
plaintext1 = plaintext(1:16);
plaintext_hex = dec2hex( plaintext1);
plaintext = hex2dec (plaintext_hex);
p1 = [];
for i = 1;
plain = size(plaintext1/16);
i = i+1;
end
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Hi! I'm not sure I understand very well what your problem is, but I think having a look to chaining modes (aka mode of operation) would help.
AES (in its 128 bits version) actually works by processing blocks of 16 bytes. Therefore, if your (not necessarily audio) file is 8172 bytes long, as 8172 = 510*16+12, you will get 511 ciphertexts corresponding to your 510 first block encrypted as they are, followed by the last 12 bytes padded with 4 bytes (to obtain a block of 16 bytes) encrypted.
For security purposes, you may want to add a mode of operation to chain your different ciphertexts: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Block_cipher_mode_of_operation
Hope it'll help. Bests
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AES on my audio file is giving me the error...... plaintext should be vector of 16 elements not a  cell array. I have removed that error then I have compiled it again, now it is giving me the errors below......please help me in removing these error.
The errors are
??? Error using ==> bitxor
Inputs must be unsigned integers of the same class or
scalar doubles.
Error in ==> add_round_key at 14
state_out = bitxor (state_in, round_key);
Error in ==> cipher at 97
state = add_round_key (state, round_key);
Error in ==> aes_demo at 41
ciphertext = cipher (plaintext1, w, s_box, poly_mat, 1);
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The first error is due to the type of data that you are passing to the routine. If you are passing PCM values, this are signed small ints.
The code is asking for unsigned integers. I think that once you solve this problem through a proper conversion to unsigned values the other errors may disappear.
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I tried to analyse Na level in dry fish (salted), using AES. But my all samples received max level reading, some one suggest to reduce sample weight or dilute sample and follow the secondary line.
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I suggest  to use calibration with internal standard .